IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?inoeooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea

I?oaaea E?AIA?

OAeE 820.Oae. – 07

O?einionueea eiioeaioe?y i?e?iaee o Oaeni??a

(“Nii e?oiuei? ii/?”, “Ao?y”)

10.01.04 – e?oa?aoo?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a

1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?i ?oioinueei? oa eeane/ii? oieieiai? (naeoeiy
oai?i? oa inoi?i? naioiai? eioa?aoo?e) *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, Iiiinoa?noai inaioe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee – aeieoi? oieieiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AIEEIA AIAOIEIE ?IIAIIAE*,

*a?iiaaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao

ii. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a,

caaiaeoaa/ naeoei? oai?i? oa inoi?i?

naioiai? eioa?aoo?e

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oieieiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

OAOIAA EI?A IEAENAIAe?IAIA,

Ee?anueeee oiiaa?neoao

ii. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e

eaiaeeaeao
oieieiai/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

OAEAAIIIA AI?EN AI?ENIAE*,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oiiaa?neoao

ii. I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa – Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee eiiaainoe/iee oiiaa?neoao,
eaoaae?a oai??? oa ?noi??? na?oiai? eioa?aoo?e, Iiiinoa?noai inaioe
Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny “26” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii
niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.178.02 i?e Iinoeoooi eioa?aoo?e

ii. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, i. Ee?a–1, aoe. I.A?ooaanueeiai,
4).

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o aiaeiioaoei Iinoeoooo eioa?aoo?e

ii. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “17” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
AAEI?*A?O I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aoaeue–ye? i??eoaaiiy i?i neacaia Oaeni??ii
caaaeaee ?ici?uothoueny i?ae ia?an?/iei oa ianiiae?aaiei. Aac
ia?aa?eueoaiiy iiaeia neacaoe, ui Oaeni?? caaaeaee no/aniee. I?eiaeii? a
?a?ii?, aeeth/ath/e, aacia?a/ii, neia’yinuee? eoeueoo?e, eiai oai?/?noue
o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao aea/a?oueny ye i?ia?aiiee iaoa??ae. Ca?aene noa?
c?icoi?eei cia/aiiy oi/ieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e eiai oai??a, iniaeeai ui
noino?oueny eiinoeoothaaiiy oa no/anieo oeoia/aiue aieiaii?
oaenii??anueei? i?iaeaiaoeee, aea iaeia c i?ia?aeieo iiceoe?e iaea ae
aooe cae??ieaia ca oaiith i?e?iaee, oi/a iniiaiith oaiith Oaeni??a ?,
cae/aeii, ethaeeia, a ia i?e?iaea.

Ia i?ioeaaao oaiaoe/i?e neooaoe??, i?eoaiaii?e e?oa?aoo?? aeaaaeoeyoiai
noie?ooy (aea i?e?iaea ciaoiaeeoue nia? i?noea eeoa ia ia?eoa???
no/aniiai na?oini?eeiyooy: ye aano?aeoia iiiyooy, ye ia’?eo,
?aaeoeiaaiee iaaeiei aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, aai ye “iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua”, yea aaea ao?aoeei o?niee ca’ycie c ethaeeiith), i?e
aiae?c? ae?ai Oaeni??a aiaaea? o a?/?, ui naia i?e?iae? ye noa?? aoooy
ooo i?eae?ey?oueny aaeeea oaaaa: ciiao e ciiao c’yaey?oueny eeth/iaa
neiai nature, ui iana o nia? aaeeea ci?noiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy. *anoi
i?e?iaea aenooia? aeeaei oiiii ae?aiaoe/ieo iiae?e, /anii – aeoeaiith
neeith, caeaoiith ao?o/aoeny a o?ae iiae?e. Aea, ia?aaeon?i, aiia noa?
i?eioeeiiaith oaiith, yea niiioea? aa?i?a aaeeeeo oaeni???anueeeo
o?aaaae?e aei aeeaieeo o?einionueeeo ?icaeoi?a ? a?aee?eaa? ?i i???ioe?e
o ieneaii? oa ae?yo, ia?aoai?thth/enue, oaeei /eiii, ia “oe?ii?nio
eaoaai??th”, “Wertbegriff” (ca aecia/aiiyi A.Oie??a). Ioaea, o aeaiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? i?e?iaea ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ooaeiaei? ao?eaiiy
o?einionueei? ?aoeaen?? aaoi?a. Oaea oi/ea ci?o iio?aao? niaoeeo?/ieo
?aiie, a oiio aei?a/ii oieeaoe iiooe?a oiai, ui iana a nia? i?e?iaea
“per definitonem” /e ui cia/eoue i?e?iaea a aiioo ?aianaino acaaae?.

sseui oyaeoe nia? o?niee ca’ycie, yeee ?nioaaa ca /an?a A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
i?ae ni?eeiyooyi i?e?iaee ? ethaenueeei ?icoi?iiyi nai?? aeanii?
nooiino?, oi noaia c?icoi?eei, /iio oaia i?e?iaee ? iaei??th c
iaeoe?eaa?oeo a ae?aiaoo?a?? Oaeni??a: aeoiaey/e c ia?, a?i noai?th?
iniiae aeey ineoieia?/iiai ioi?ieaiiy nai?o ia?niiaae?a, noaaeoue iaai?
i?iaeaie oa ?icaeaa? oa?aeoa?e. Oaeei /eiii, aeaia i?iaeaiaoeea noa?
iiaiaioii–oeaio?aeueiith aeey an??? oaeni???anueei? oai?/ino?. Ioaea,
aeooaeuei?noue ?aoa?iaaii? ?iaioe aaco?oueny ia niaoeeo?oe? oaiaoe/iiai
ii?aeiaiiy “Oaeni??” ? “i?e?iaea”.

Aeey aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy i???ioaoe?th ia i?e?iaeo iiaeia eaaei
iiynieoe. I?ney oiai, ye na?aaeiueia?/iee na?oiaeyae cacia? e?aoo,
i?e?iaea iaaoaa? ia?aaaaeii aecenoaioe?aeueiiai naino. Oea icia/a?, ui
ciai?oi?e na?o noa? aeo?aeiei ioieoii aeey iiaiai ieneaiiy ? aaaeeeaei
ooiaeaiaioii aeey iiyniaiiy aoooy. sse na?ae/eoue ?icaeoie oieinionueei?
aeoiee a aiioo A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ooo caeeaaeai? cia/i? noia?a/iino?.
Ieoaiiy i?i oa, iane?eueee ethaeeia, iai?eeeaae, naia ? /anoeith
i?e?iaee, niiioeaei aei iino?eieo aeeneon?e i?ae aeine?aeieeaie ia??ai?
c o?einioaie, iie?oeeaie oa, aacia?a/ii, naieie ieooeyie ai?iaeiaae
onueiai /ano, aaea ii/eiath/e a?ae e?ioey Na?aaeiueia?//y. Ioaea,
aeooaeuei?noue oaie i?e?iaee a ia?aiiio ?aeo?n? iia’ycaia naia c oeeie
/eneaiieie oa i?eioeeiiaeie ?ica?aeiinoyie. Ia?aoo?, aa?oi cacia/eoe,
ui, ye ia aeeaii, oaio i?e?iaee o Oaeni??a eiinoeoothaaee oa
aeine?aeaeoaaee eeoa aeae?eueea aaoi?ia (na?aae ieo aoa ? E.–A.Aaoa) ?
ui caeaa?eueoiai ?oi? iiaeyaee noaee iaaooeii ?noi???, a aenoioo? ieie
oace nueiaiaei? oaeiae iio?aaothoue ia?aa??ee.

Aeey ?icaeoi?a aeena?oaioa i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy ia? oie oaeo, ui
oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo ? aeoeaieie oa ?ooeeaeie naini?ii–?icoiiaeie
(gedankliche) eiino?oeoe?yie, a i?ioeeaaei?noue ?ac ? iacaaaeaee
caoaa?aeaeaiei ? noaa?eueiei, ine?eueee nai? iiaeyaee ia i?e?iaeo
iino?eii ci?iththoueny. Oiio aeo?aeiei ioieoii aeey i??eoaaiue noa?
ieoaiiy i?i i?ciaaaeueii–oai?aoe/i? canaaee, ui ia ieo nie?athoueny
aeneiae i?i i?e?iaeo a ae?aiao Oaeni??a. A?ae iiooe?a a?aeiia?aeieo
aacia?a/ieo oa?i?i?a aai aoaeue–yeeo ni?ia noi?ioethaaoe eiioeaioe?th
i?e?iaee, a oiio /ene? – i?e?iaee a aiioo ?aianaino, nueiaiaei?,
ia?aoo?, ne?ae a?aeiiaeyoeny, ai oea ia a?aeiia?aea? naino naii?
i?e?iaee ye oaei?, a ca?aene, cie?aia, e oaenii??anueei? “i?e?iaee”. C
oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia iiceoea?nonueee
iieniaith, a naia ?ioa?i?aooth/ith. Aiia aea? iiaeeea?noue eeaneo?eoaaoe
ea?oeie i?e?iaee, i?ioa ia iaiaaeoaaoe ooo/ii iiaeyaeo ia ?? caaaeuei?
aca?iica’ycee.

Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaaiei no/aniei aianeii o eiiieaenia aea/aiiy
i?iaeaiaoeee i?e?iaee o Oaeni??a: e?oa?aoo?iciaa/a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oa
o?einionueea oaiaoeea aeeaathoueny ooo iaeia a iaeio ? a?aee?eaathoue
oe?oee iaoeiaee eoo ci?o ia i?iaeaio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie i?aaiicaoei?, aea
aiia aeeiiaia. Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
oaiaoe/iiai aiae?co ?aeaeiiai i?ae??oioy oa o?einionueeeo o?aaeeoe?e
oai?/ino? Oaeni??a. Aiia eaaeeoue o ?one? e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny iaoeiaoeyie naeoe?? oai??? oa ?noi???
na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e ia eaoaae?? ?oioinueei? oa eeane/ii? o?eieia??
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
0197V014403), caoaa?aeaeaia ia can?aeaii? A/aii? ?aaee oi?aa?neoaoo a?ae
26 ethoiai 1998 ?. (i?ioieie ?2).

Iaoa i caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy:

1) iioa?i?aoaoeiy ea?oei i?e?iaee, ui eaaeaoue a iniia? aeaio
??cii??aeii eiioeaiooaeueieo ae?ai Oaeni??a;

2) o?enaoeiy iaeooiaeaiaioaeuei?oeo ?aeaeieo no?oeoo? ? ci?noo oeeo
ae?ai, ui ni?e/eiaii oa i?aeii?yaeeiaaii naia aaoi?nuee?e o?einionuee?e
eiioeaioe??;

3) i?inoaaeaiiy oiai, ye Oaeni?? o nai?e ?aii?e oai?/ino? ia?aaaaeii
caa?oaany aei ?nioth/eo oyaeaiue iiioey?ii? oiae? o?einio?? oa iaoee ?
i?e noai?aiii ia?ac?a i?e?iaee aeei?enoiaoaaa naia ?o;

4) iaeyae ia aaci oaei? iioa?i?aoaoe?? ?nioth/eo iaoeiaeo iiaeyae?a
uiaei oaeni???anueei? eiioeaioe?? i?e?iaee a c?noaaeaiii ?? c
caaaeueieie o?einionueeeie canaaeaie ?aianaino;

5) aeiaaaeaiiy oiai, ui o ae?ai? “Ao?y” aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei iiaeo
iiaeyae?a ia a?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?e?iaeith ? ethaenueeei na?oii, ye? /anoi
aeia?aaeaeathoue iiaeyaee iaa?oue aeaeaoieo eiai no/aniee?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. Oaiaoeea aeena?oaoeieii?
?iaioe a?aee?eaa? niaoeeo?/iee i?aeo?ae aei oai??a Oaeni??a ? eiai
aaeeeeo oai, o oeaio?? yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny i?iaeaiaoeea ethaeeie ye
oaei?. A?aeiia?aeii aei o?aaeeoe?e naiai /ano oaeni???anueeee oaao? aoa
oaao?ii na?oiaeyaeo c i?aoaic??th ia ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy. Oey aeoiea
noa? aeo?aeiei ioieoii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oaenii??anueei? ?aea?
i?e?iaee. Ia??aeiei eaiaiai ?icaeoi?a aeena?oaioa ? ia o?eueee ieoaiiy
i?i eiie?aoi? i?e?iaei? yaeua, aea e i?i oa, yeee aeniiaie iiaeia
c?iaeoe i?e c?noaaeaii? iiiyoue “i?e?iaea” ? “ethaeeia” a?aeiinii
oaeni???anueeiai ?icoi?iiy ethaeeie oa ?? nooiino?.

?iaioa a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo aeine?aeaeaiue oai?/ino? Oaeni??a
nai?th aeine?aeieoeueeith iiceoe??th, yea iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia
eiioeaioe?y i?e?iaee iiaeiia aecia/aoe ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th ae?aie, a c
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ae?aie iiaeiia iinoaaaoe eiioeaioe?y i?e?iaee.
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iiaeiia ia aeooeiaoaaoe eiioeaioe?th, a ciaia’ycaia
ciaeoe o ae?ai? oa, ui a i?e cia?aaeaia e ?iie?oeeoii i?enooi?.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee aea? ae?aie Oaeni??a: “Nii e?oiuei? ii/?“
(1595) oa “Ao?y” (1611), ye? aecia/athoueny naia ooiaeaiaioaeueiith
oaiaoeeith i?e?iaee. Ii–ia?oa, ae?y o oeeo ae?aiao a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeaea
aeeeth/ii na?aae i?e?iaee, ii–ae?oaa, Oaeni?? naia ooo iaaea? i?e?iae?
iaiiaoi?iiai aeeaiai ae?aaeaiiy. Oeyoii ia?nii?o?eaoe?? neee i?e?iaee
iaaoaathoue eiie?aoieo ia?ac?a, ui aea? aeine?aeieeo ciiao ?ice?eoe
?oith nooue ? c?icoi?oe iniiai? i?eioeeie.

I?iiiio?oueny oaeiae iiaa, oi/i?oa canaaea aeey ?icoi?iiy
oaeni???anueei? eiioeaioe?? i?e?iaee o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?” oa a “Ao??”,
a oaeiae aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? eiai ae?aiaoo?a?/ii? niaaeueie
a oe?eiio. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? ia a oiio, uia aeaoaeuei?oa aeeeanoe
iinooeaoe ?nioth/eo aeine?aeaeaiue aai a?aeii? aeai? ia oaio “i?e?iaea o
Oaeni??a”. Oea – caoe?iea oaia. Iiceoe?y aaoi?a aeena?oaoei? ni?yiiaaia
c naiiai ii/aoeo ia ?ioa – ia aiae?c “ii?iaoeaiino? i?e?iaee” o
ae?aiaoo?a?? eeaneea. Eaoaai?e/i?noue aeineoue noaiaea?oiiai aeniiaeo
i?i oa, i?ae o Oaeni??a, iniaeeai a eiiaae?yo oa ?iiaioe/ieo ae?aiao,
i?e?iae? i?eieno?oueny ii?iaoeaiee oa?aeoa?, ui aiia ni?eeia?oueny ye
ianoi?aeueiee “i?ioeeaaeiee na?o”, c yeiai iiaeia aeaanoe iaai? aoe/i?
e?eoa???, a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? caia?a/o?oueny.

Aacoiiaii, Oaeni?? o nai?o ae?aiao /anoi nie?a?oueny, aeei?enoiaoth/e
oa?i?i ?iie Oaaa?o (1967), ia “i?e?iaeo ye ii?io”. Oiio oaenii?iciaaoei,
ye? iaiaaaeeny aeeeanoe aeooiaii–?noi?e/iee ieai ae?ai, ia aac i?aenoaa
aiai?eee i?i aeieo?eio i?e?iaee o Oaeni??a /e eiai i?e?iaeio
ia?niaeoeao. Aea anoaiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o i?e?iaee ? ?aaeoa
caaaeueiei aeneiaethaaiiyi ? iio?aao? iiaeeo?eaoe?? oa oi/i?oiai
aiae?co.

Aeena?oaoe?y ?iaeoue aianie aei i?eioeeiiaiai aiae?co an?o oeeo
iiaeyae?a – oae, ye oea aiaeaeoi a eiioeaioei? i?e?iaee o
oaeni???anueeeo ae?aiao. Aeaoaeueiiai ?icaeyaeo oaeni???anueei?
eiioeaioe?? i?e?iaee aei oeueiai /ano ia ?nioaaei, oiio aeinyaioo?
?acoeueoaoe i?aoaiaeothoue ia iiaecio.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oaei iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei?:

1. Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c aeyaey? aea? eiioeaioe?? i?e?iaee, ye? iiaeia
eeaneo?eoaaoe c o?einionueei–?noi?e/ii? oi/ee ci?o.

2. Iaeaea? eiioeaioe?? i?e?iaee iathoue i?ioeeaaei? ?aeaei? iniiae.

3. Eiioeaioe?y, /anoeiai aeeeaaeaia aaea a ia?o?e aaeee?e eiiaae??
Oaeni??a “Nii e?oiuei? ii/?”, ae?acii ae?aiaoeco? ii?iaoeaiee oa?aeoa?
i?e?iaee a aiioo ?aianaino, oiio aaea iaa?oue ooo i?i “i?e?iaeo ye
ii?io” iiaeia aiai?eoe eeoa oiiaii.

4. Aiae?c “Ao??” iieaco?, ui Oaeni?? a?aeoiaeeoue a?ae aoaeue–yei?
i?e?iaeii? ii?ie o nai?e inoaii?e ae?ai?. “Ao?y” ? a?aeiiaith Oaeni??a
a?ae ia?aioe?iee i?e?iaee acaaae?.

5. Iaeaea? ae?aie ia?eothoue eeth/ia? ioieoe ?icaeoeo oaeni???anueeiai
?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee. “Nii e?oiuei? ii/?” ? aeo?aeiith iniiaith, a “Ao?y”
– e?ioeaaith iaoith. O oeueiio ?icaeoeo ii?yae c iaaiei iineaaeaiiyi
i?e?iaeiiai eiiiiiaioo i?iyaey?oueny iaeii/ania c?inoaiiy i?ioeeaaeiiai
eiiiiiaioo, niaoeeo?/ii? ethaenueei? noa?e.

6. Aiae?c iaio ae?ai ?ice?eaa? oaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueio a?aei?ii?noue a
ioe?ioe? i?e?iaee, ui ia iiaea aooe e iiae i?i ?aeeia ?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee
a Oaeni??a /e i?i “i?e?iaeo ye ii?io” a eiai oai?/ino?. Uia aecia/eoe
noaaeaiiy Oaeni??a aei i?e?iaee, eiaeio ae?aio aa?oi aeine?aeeoe ie?aii
uiaei cia?aaeoaaii? niaoeeo?/ii? ea?oeie na?oo. Eeoa i?ney oeueiai
iiaeia caa?iooeny aei oai?/ino? acaaae?. sse aeaeii ia i?eeeaae? “Ao??”,
??cea inoaoi/ia a?aeiiaa a?ae i?e?iaee aea? ciiao anoaiiaeoe i?eioeeiia?
noaaeaiiy aei eiioeaioe?? i?e?iaee o ?aii?o oai?ao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? o oi?ioethaaii?
/?oei? aace ?ioa?i?aoaoe??, ui a?aee?eaa? ia?aeiieeaee i?aeo?ae aei
aeaio iaeaeeaoeo c iiaeyaeo niiaaiaeiioaiiy i?e?iaee oa ethaeeie ae?ai
Oaeni??a, a oaeiae aei aeooiaiiai na?oo ieooey.

sse aeieeaa? c iiia?aaeiueiai, aeena?oaoeieia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aianeii
aei iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo e?oa?aoo?iciaa/iai aiae?co i?iaeaie i?e?iaee o
Oaeni??a. Ca nai?th oaiaoeeith aiii nii??aeiaia c o?aaeeoe?yie
?ioa?i?aoaoe??, ye? iaiaaathoueny inyaiooe aeooiai? (aoiai?oa?i?)
canaaee ae?ai. O oeueiio aniaeo? aeena?oaoe?y a?aee?eaa? ia?niaeoeae
i?eioeeiiaiai oa?aeoa?o. ?? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy iiaeooue aianoe iaaio
ei?aeoe?th o aoc?anuee? eo?ne c a?aeiia?aeii? oaiaoeee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia nai?ia?ao oa eieiea?oiao c aiae?noeee (oi?aa?neoao i.
O?aeao?a, O?I) oa ia can?aeaiiyo, iaoeiai–i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ?
nai?ia?ao aeeeaaea/?a *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? o aenooiao ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo c
aa?iai?noeee i?e *AeO (1997, 1998). Ca oaiith ?iaioe cae?eniaii o?e
iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?? o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa a?ae?ia?ao??, yea ioiieth? 192 iiceoe??. Ianya
aeena?oaoe?? 182 noi??iee: 165 noi??iie oaenoo oa 17 noi??iie
a?ae?ia?ao??.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O “Anooi?” aeeeaaeaii oai?aoe/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneaii iaoo
oa cia/aiiy ?iaioe ?, oaeei /eiii, caeeaaeaii ooiaeaiaio aeey
oi?ioethaaiiy ie?aieo oac. Cie?aia, ooo iiaea?oueny ?icai?iooa
oa?aeoa?enoeea ci?ie oyaeaiue i?i na?o, ui aoea i?eoaiaiia
oaeni???anuee?e aeia?, eiee aaea ia ?ae?a?ei? aeiaie, a aeinooiiee
?icoi?iith oa aeaeeiee ciai?oi?e na?o a on?o eiai i?iyaao, na?o
i?e?iaeieo oaiiiai?a noa? aeo?aeiei ioieoii aeey iiaiai ieneaiiy,
iaeaaaeeea?oei ooiaeaiaioii aeey iiyniaiiy aoooy. Naia oeth ?aianainio
neooaoe?th Eann??a? ni?aaaaeeeai ? iaiieaaeeai eiinoeoothaaa ye
aeo?aeiee ioieo o iinooiiaiio, i?ioa iiooaeiiio c?inoaii?
?ioaeaeooaeueii? aaae ethaenueei? noa’?eoeaiino?, eiee i?aee?anethaaa,
ui a oeth aeiao “? iiiyooy “i?e?iaea”, ? aanue i?aaeiaoiee na?o
iaaoaathoue iiaiai cia/aiiy. “I?aaeiao” ? oaia? /eiinue ?ioei, i?ae
i?inoith i?ioeeaaei?noth ? iaeii/anii eiio?i?iaeoii aei “ss”, a?i ? oei,
ia ui ni?yiiaai? an? i?iaeoeoeai?, an? oai?/? neee “ss” ? a /iio eeoa
aiie ciaoiaeyoue nai? aeania aei?iaoaaiiy. A iaiao?aeiino? ?nioaaiiy
i?aaeiaoa “ss” i?cia? naaa naiiai, i?cia? neeo oa iai?yi nai??
niiioaiiino?”. Aeey ?icoi?iiy ooaeiaeiuei? eiioeaioe?? Oaeni??a oea
caoaaaeaiiy aeyaey?oueny iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaith iiceoe??th.

?icae?e 1 “Aei ?noi??? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie” i?noeoue caaaeueiee
iaeyae i?aoeue, ye? noinothoueny oaiaoeee aeena?oaoe??. Ooo
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?/ino? Oaeni??a ? o?einionuee?
i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? oai? “i?e?iaea”, iniaeeai ?iaioe i?i o?einionueeo
aeoieo aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

C iaeyaeo ia oe?ioo oaiaoeee, iia’ycai? c aeena?oaoe?eiith ?iaioith
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oiothoueny oaiaoe/ii oa ioiieththoue aeae?eueea noa?:

– I?e?iaea ye caaaeueia oaia o Oaeni??a

Oeoia/aiiyi oaiaoe/ieo aniaeo?a oaeni???anueeeo ae?ai o eiioaeno?
iiaeyae?a ia na?o oa ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie aiioe ?eecaaaoe i?enay/ai?
ia?aaeon?i iiiia?ao?? O.Niaina?a (1942), A.O?ey?aea (1943) oa E.Aeaia?
(1948), a oaeiae ?iaioe A.Iieoiia (1936) ? A.Ia?eana (1950). Aiie
aiae?cothoue ae?aie c oi/ee ci?o oiai/anieo o?einionueeeo iiaeyae?a ia
i?e?iaeo, i?e?iaeo ye ii?io, oa a?aeiineie ethaeeie ? i?e?iaee. O i?aoe?
A.O?ey?aea “Ea?oeia na?oo ?eecaaaoeinueei? aeiae” aeaoaeueii
?ice?eaathoueny o?ce/i? oa ineoieia?/i? iniiae ?eecaaaoeinueeiai
?icoi?iiy na?oo. ?iaioa Iieoiia aa?oa iniaeeai? oaaae oiio, ui a i?e
oaca i?i i?e?iaeo ye ii?io noi?ioeueiaaia i?ia?aiii. I.O?ae (1957, 1965)
oa Oe.Aa?aa? (1959) ?icaeioee oae caaio i?o?/ii–e?eoe/io oi/eo ci?o ia
oaeni???anuee? oai?e, ?icoi?th/e i?e?iaeo ye iaaiiai ?iaeo aioena?o, o
yeiio iniae ia?aaeeaathoue /an ?aaaia?aoe??. Naia ae no?oeoo?a ae?ai
ii??aithaaeany c ?eecaaaoeinueeeie o?aaeeoe?yie. Neaioe/io oi/eo ci?o
i?aaenoaaeya E.Eioo (1964), yeee oeoia/ea oaeni???anuee? ae?aie, a ?acii
c oei ? ?oi?e na?o i?e?iaee ye ae?aaeaiiy oaioe/iiai oa a?ooaeueiiai
einiino c ?oei?aiith aieiaiith oaiaeaioe??th–ia?oiiniiaith: “Aeey
Oaeni??a i?e?iaea ? iano?eueee ae aacaeocaeith, ye caeii /e cae/a?. Aiia
aeoco? c ii/ooo?a, ii?yaeeo oa ethaenueeeo iai???a”.

– I?e?iaea o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?”

Aeania oaia i?e?iaee o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?” ei?enoo?oueny, ye ia aeeaii,
iacia/iith oaaaith. Iayai? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiathoueny aiae?cii ?ioeo
eaeoiioea?a, ye? oae /e ?iaeoa ana ae noinothoueny i?iaeaiaoeee
i?e?iaee. Oeaio?aeueio oaio oai?/ino? Oaeni??a – eioaiiy –
aena?oeththoue, iai?eeeaae, A.Aiaeaea?ae (1951), A.Oaioea? (1951),
A.Aiiia?ae (1956), ?.Aeaio (1964). Aea oe? aaoi?e eiioeaio?othoue naith
oaaao ia oaeni???anueeiio ni?eeiyoo? e ia?iae?? eioaiiy oa ia eiai
???aoe?iiaeueiiio aeaiaio?, oiae? ye o ?aoa?iaaiie ?iaio? aenoaa?oueny
oaca, ui oaia i’?ne Oaeni??a – eioaiiy ye i?o?/ia eini?/ia neea.
Cia/aiiy oa ni?yioaaiiy oaioac?? ye i?ciaaaeueii? neee oa ienoaoeoaa ye
?? ii?iaeaeaiiy aiae?cothoueny o i?aoeyo I.C?aaey (1953) ? N.Oaiaea?a
(1968). Ia ?aei?noue oa ?iceaae ye i?ioenoaaethaai? e aeeiai?/i?
aeaiaioe ae?aie aeacothoue A.Aiaeaea?ae (1951), I.Ieuecii (1957),
?.Oe?iaa?aei (1963). *eneaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy eiioeaio?othoueny o nai?io
ni?eeiyoo? ia?aaeon?i ia ??ai? ae?e, aeae?eai? aeaiaioe iani?aaae? ia
aecia/athoueny i?e?iaeieie i?eioeeiaie, a?aeiia?aeii i?iaeaiaoeea
aiae?co?oueny ia o ca’yceo c iiaeyaeaie ia i?e?iaeo, a ye naiino?eia
oaiaoe/ia noa?a, iaiaaeoth/enue aeineoue aano?aeoieie ?aieaie.
Iaoii?noue aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaiaeeoue oaco, ui Oaeni??
noai?ea aeeoocia iiiyooy ?aaeueiino? ye iaeaaaeeea?oo /anoeio
na?oini?eeiyooy, ye ooiaeaiaioaeueiee iaoiae naiai ?icoi?iiy na?oo
i?e?iaee. I?eioeeiiaeie i?iaeaiaie ?aoeaioe??, ooieoe?yie ?ethc?? oa nio
o ae?ai? caeiaeeny, iai?eeeaae, N.Aiiai (1969), Oe.Eaeii (1971),
E.Eaeueaea?aoae (1971). Aiie iniaeeai iaaieiooaaee ia oaeni???anuee?e
eiioeaioe?? aeaicia/iino? ?aaeueiino?. I?aoey Aiiaia oe?eaaa aeniiaeii,
ui Oaeni?? ae?aiaoeco? ?aeath aiioe ?aianaino i?i oa, ui aeeooy,
?aoe?iiaeueia ae?eni?noue ? eeoa niii, “?ethc??th aeui? ae?eniino? ii
oie a?e aii??e/iiai ni?eeiyooy”.

– I?e?iaea a “Ao??”

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aenoaa? oaco, ui “Ao?y” ? oiniaeaiiyi
aecenoaioe?aeueii? neooaoe?? ethaeeie, oae ae iiaeoe, ae?aiaoecaoe??th
?? na?aaeeiii? iiceoe?? o i?e?iaeiiio eaioethaeeo aoooy. A?eueo?noue aea
aeine?aeaeaiue “Ao??” ? ooo iaiaaeo?oueny aoae/ith ia?niaeoeaith. Ia?ac
Eae?aaia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny O.Niaina?ii (1942), O.Ea?iiaea (1954),
E.O?e?inii (1964), ?.Aaioea (1972), A.?ieeaoii (1973) ye oaiia oa
ia?icaeiooa /anoeia ethaenueei? i?e?iaee, a oie /an ye iniaa A??aey
?ioa?i?aoo?oueny, iaaiaee, ye ethaenueeee aeooiaiee aeaiaio. Iaa?th
I?inia?i ye ienoaoeoai, a ?acii c oei ye ia?aeaeue aei ae?yeueiino?
naiiai Oaeni??a aeine?aeaeoaaee N.N?neii (1958), ?.Aaai (1972), N.Aiiai
(1973), E.Aa?aa? (1977). Aaeeeo oaaao i?eaa?oa? oaeiae ii?aeueiee
eiiiiiaio ae?aie o ?iaioao O.Aeaa?aeniia (1963), Ae.Aeaeaeina (1967),
A.Eo?caia (1968), I.A?aioa (1976, 1983), E.Ei?o?eaea (1985), ye?
aeine?aeaeoaaee, ia?o ca ana, neee, ui ni?e/eieee ciiio aioo??oiuei?
nooiinoi aa?i?a. Inoaii?e c iacaaieo ?icaeyaea? i?ioean i?ciaiiy o
I?inia?i ye a??ea iiaa?iaiiy aei ?aae?noe/ieo iiaeyae?a ia na?o
i?e?iaee. Ioaea, oe?ioa aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e “Ao??”
ioiieth? ye iiceoeai? ?ae?a?eii–o?einionuee?, oae ? oaa?aci–?aae?noe/i?
oa iaa?oue ianei?noe/i? i?aeoiaee.

Ia?aoo?, ?iiaioe/i?, ???aaeuei? oa /a??ai? aeaiaioe “Ao??” aiae?coaaee
A.Oaeueia??i (1967), I.?aeo (1977), A.Neiaa? (1978).

– I?e?iaea ye oaia aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy

I?ae??oioy o?einionueeiai ni?yioaaiiy oaie “i?e?iaea” oa oaeni???anueea
oyaeaiiy i?i nooue ethaeeie iiaeia iiynieoe ia iniia? iaeaaaeeea?oeo
aeaiaio?a oiai/aniiai ieneaiiy, oiai/anii? o?einionueei? aeoiee. Na?aae
/eneaiieo aeine?aeieeia eeaneeaie aaaaeathoueny E.Ao?eaa?ae (1860),
A.Eann??a? (1927, 1953), I.E??noaeea? (1974, 1986), ye? aeeeaee ieoaiiy
i?i naiiona?aeiieaiiy ethaeeie a aiioo A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, i?i
i?ciaaaeueii–oai?aoe/iee ooiaeaiaio, oiaoi ?aeaeii iiaa i?ecia/aiiy
na?oo i?e?iaee oa ethaeeie a aiioo ?aianaino oa i?i aeooiaii–eoeueoo?iee
?icaeoie aoiai?cio.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeaoaeueii aiaeicothoueny e ?io?
i?aoe?, ye? noinothoueny ?noi?e/iiai oa o?einionueeiai ?icoi?iiy
i?e?iaee.

Caoaaaeeii, ui, aacia?a/ii, ?nio? oaeiae no?aeiineia’yinueea o?aaeeoe?y
ni?eeiyooy Oaeni??a, aea ieoaiiy oaeni???anueei? “i?e?iaee“ iin?aeathoue
iaaaeyea i?noea. Ni?aaaaeeea?noue oace ?aoa?iaaii? aeena?oaoe?? i?i
iane??ci?noue oa ?iaiaioiee oa?aeoa? aaoi?nueei? ?aoeaen?? i?i i?e?iaeo
aeo/ii i?aeneeth?oueny aeneiaii Ae.Caoiinueeiai noiniaii oaeni???anueeeo
eiiaae?e “iioei?noe/iiai” ia??iaeo, na?aae yeeo aeine?aeiee caaaeo? e
“Nii e?oiuei? ii/?”: “E aeey aaoi?a, e aeey aa?i?a i?ae iaia i?/iai
iaiiaeeeaiai, i?/iai iaaeinooiiiai. Aiie ae?thoue o caiae? c? nai?th
i?e?iaeith, c i?e?iaeith acaaae?, c I?e?iaeith c aaeeei? e?oa?e, yea,
yeui ia aeaaiaeaoia, oi iaiaaii i?ae?ania”. An? aeine?aeieee
?aaeyinueei? aeiae, ooi a oie /e ?ioee niin?a oi?eaany icia/aii?
oaiaoeee a oai?ao aai?aeueiiai ae?aiaoo?aa (I.Ai?eno (1964), I.Ae?en??a
(1965), TH.Eaaii (1974), I.Ii?icia (1954), E.I?inueeee (1971), ?.?aoee?e
(1974), I.Ni??iia (1957), I. i Ae.O?iiae (1964) oiui), ?iaeee oea o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei cae/ii? aeey naaa o?eieia?/ii? o?aaeeoe?? –
?icaeyaeath/e eiai oai?/?noue a?aeiinii aoiai?noe/ii? o?aaeeoe??. Ci?ia
ooieoe?? “i?e?iaee“ a ii??aiyii? “Nio e?oiuei? ii/?” c “Ao?ath“
(uii?aaaea, c ?ioeie, i?ae o ?aoa?iaaiie ?iaio?, aeoeaioaie) aoea
a?aei?/aia I.Ni??iiaei. Uiaei iaea?aeii?oiai c ?aaeyinueeeo eiiaioa??a
aei “Ao??“, yeee iaeaaeaa I.Ai?enoo, oi a?i o?aeooaaa i?e?iaeo a aeon?
aecia/aii? aeua ?a?iiaenueei? o?aaeeoe??.

?icae?e 2 “Oaiaoeea i?e?iaee a aiioo ?aianaino” iiaea? caaaeueiee iaeyae
iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeooiaii–?noi?e/ieo canaae i?iaeaiaoeee i?e?iaee a aiioo
i?ciueiai ?aianaino. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eaeiey?oueny niiaaiaeiioaiith
caaaeueiiai oa i?e?iaeie/iai aeaiaioia, a oaeiae e?oa?aoo?iei
o?aaeeoe?yi, ye? noaee oai?aoe/iei oa i?aeoe/iei iiae??oioyi i?ae /an
ciaethaaiiy ea?oei i?e?iaee o oaeni???anueeeo ae?aiao. Iiaeaii oe?ieo
oa?aeoa?enoeeo cia?aaeaiiy i?e?iaee o oai?/ino? Oaeni??a acaaae?.

Ia ii/aoeo ?icae?eo iiyniththoueny i?ciaaaeueii–oai?aoe/i? iniiae iiaiai
ieneaiiy aiioe ?aianaino. Eiai aieiaiith iniaeea?noth noaa
aio?iiioeaio?eci, yeee i?iyaeyany o an?o noa?ao aeeooy ? aiane?aeie
yeiai aoiai?ci ci?a ?icaeiooe naith a?aeiio eiioeaioe?th ethaeeie, ui
aacoaaeany, a ia?oo /a?ao, ia ethaenuee?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? oa
naiaiae?.

O ?iaio? i?iaeaiiino?iaaii, ye c aio?iiioeaio?e/ii? ia?niaeoeae aeieea?
iiaa oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo. sseui a /ane na?aaeiueia?//y aiia iaea eeoa
neiaie?/ia cia/aiiy, a iiaeo oiiaao i?e?iaea noa? ia’?eoii caoiieaiiy,
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeina?aeo. Iica oi/ieie i?e?iaeiciaa/eie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie iiioey?iee i?aeo?ae aei i?e?iaee ia?aaaaeii
niaeoeyoeaiee. A?aeiia?aeii aei aioe/ii? o?einio?? i?e?iaea
ni?eeia?oueny ye aaoiiiiia oa iaeooioai?aia aiaeanoaaiia aa?oiaia neea,
a eaioethaeeo aoooy yei? ethaeeia caeia? oeaio?aeueia i?noea. Oyaeaiiy
i?i iaaeiiaooith i?e?iaeo coiiaeththoue ia?aaaaeio ioe?ieo i?e?iaee ye
iaeaaaeeea?oiai aeo?aeiiai ioieoo ethaenueeiai naii?icoi?iiy.

Aeoiaey/e c oaeeo oyaeaiue i?i i?e?iaeo, a ?icae?e? iiaeaii iaeyae
i?iaeaiaoeee i?e?iaee o oai?/ino? Oaeni??a acaaae?. Noiniaii ?icoiiaiai
no?oeoo?oaaiiy oaiaoeee i?e?iaee o Oaeni??a c?icoi?eei ??oioii ?
aeciaiee eeane/iei iiae?e ia aea? ?? noa?e – “i?e?iaea ethaeeie” oa
ethaeeia a “noni?euenoa?” /e aoaeue–yeiio i?e?iaeiiio ioi/aii?.
Anoaiiaeth?oueny, ui oyaeaiiy aaoi?a i?i i?e?iaeo iathoue a?eueo oe?ieee
niaeo? aa??aoe?e. I?e?iaea aenooia? aai ye oii, aeaei?aoe?y, aai ye
neea, ui a?eaa?oueny o o?ae iiae?e, aai ye oaia o?einionueeiai
a?aenooio. ?c aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieeaa?: oaia i?e?iaee – iaeia c
oi?iiooai?thth/eo na?aae oaeni???anueeeo oai, ? iiaeaia aiia o
??ciiiai?oieo aeai?iaeo aa??aoe?yo. A?ae ii/aoeo aei e?ioey ?aeeii?
ea?oeie i?e?iaee o niaaeuei? Oaeni??a i?eioeeiiai ia ?nio?.

?icae?e 3 – “Eiioeaio i?e?iaee o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?”. Aeoiaey/e c
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ciaaaeueii–oai?aoe/iiai ooiaeaiaioo cia?aaeoaaiiai a
oai?? na?oo, iine?aeiaii ?ic?iaey?oueny ieoaiiy ni?eeiyooy i?e?iaee o
ae?ai?, i?e/iio aiae?c cae?enith?oueny a?ae ieae/iai, o?ce/ii
a?ae/ooiiai ??aiy aei aeooiaieo aaee/ei, i?eoaiaiieo na?oia? i?e?iaee.

I?ney ei?ioeiai iaeyaeo ci?noo eiiaae?? caeeaaeathoueny ?aeaei? iniiae
aeey aeaoaeueii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. Aiie iieyaathoue o ia?o?e eiioeaioe??
ae?aie ye ethaiaii? eiiaae??. Aena?oeth?oueny ieoaiiy oiai/anii?
o?einio?? eioaiiy, ca yeith eioaiiy ?icoi??oueny ye oi?aa?naeueiee
i?eioeei, ye /anoeia aiaeanoaaiiiai ii?yaeeo “ordo amoris”. C oeueiai
aeieeaa? i?ae??oioy ae?aie, ia iniia? yeiai i?noe/ia neea “eioaiiy”
cia?aaeaia ca aeiiiiiaith ia?nii?o?eaoe?? i?e?iaee.

sse ia?aaeoiiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeaii aiae?c i?ciaaaeueii–oai?aoe/ieo
canaae, ia yeeo Oaeni?? aaco? na?e na?o oyaeaiue o eiiaae?? “Nii
e?oiuei? ii/?”. Anoaiiaeaii, ui c naiiai ii/aoeo oe? canaaee
niaeoeyoeai?, niiaiai? oaioac?yie oa iaaei??iith oyaith ? noia?a/aoue
“ratio”. Iiynith?oueny, ui oai?/a oyaa a?ae?a?aaaea oeaio?aeueio ?ieue
oaeiae ? a /ane ?eecaaaoe, eiee aoee aeinoaoiuei ae?aaeai? ye iaaaoeaia
noi?iia oaioac?? – a?ae?ea a?ae ?aaeueiino?, oae ? ?? iiceoeaia noi?iia
– iiaeeea?noue cace?iooe aei aeui? noa?e ?noeie. Ioaea, oaioac?y oa oyaa
noathoue o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ?ioaeaeooaeueiith iniiaith aeey ?icoi?iiy
na?oo.

Aena?oeththoueny oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo, ?? aoaeiao, ye? eaaeaoue a
iniia? ae?aie. A?aeiia?aeii aei niaeoeyoeaii? ea?oeie na?oo aiie
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ia i?e?iaeiciaa/eie ciaiiyie, a aeniiaeaie ca
aiaeia??th. I?eioeeiiaa aiaeia?y anoaiiaeth?oueny i?e oeueiio i?ae
ethaenueeei na?oii oa nenoaiith einiino. I?e/iio, inoaiiie io?eio? an?
iciaee ioieaia?anueeiai einiino: iiae?e ia ???a?o?/io nenoaio i?inoi?o ?
nee c aeooiaieie ia/aeaie, ieaiaoaie e anioe?eiaaieie c ieie aiaaie ia
/ie? ???a?o?? oa i?ii?aeieie ?noioaie – aeueoaie ia caie?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeniiaee ca aiaeia??th ?iaeyoueny ? noiniaii
aioo??oiueiai noaio i?e?iaee. Aioe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i na?oiaee aeoo, i?i
“anima mundi” oaiaoeciaaii o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?”. Eini?/i? neee – ia
aano?aeoi? “iioaioe??”, a iaeooioai?ai? ?noioe. *?oei i?aaenoaaeaia ?
a?aeiia oyaeaiiy Aiiaaeieea, ca yeei “ethaia” oa “iaiaaenoue” ea?othoue
i?e?iaeith ye aeooiai? aa?oiai? neee, ui ni?e/eiththoue aeeiai?eo o
Anana?o?. Oaeei /eiii, ana aioo??oiuei nii??aeiaia ? aca?iiiia’ycaia.

?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy, ye o niaeoeyoeai?e ea?oei? na?oo c ??
i?aaiaiiyi aei iiyniaiue ?icaeaa?oueny nenoaia ia?acia–ia?niiaaeia, ca
aeiiiiiaith yei? i?e?iaea iaeooioai?th?oueny oa iaoa??ae?co?oueny.
A?aeiia?aeii aei ia?iaeieo a??oaaiue aiioe ?eecaaaoe iac?icoi?e? yaeua
i?eienothoueny o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?” ae?yi aeueo?a. Aiie ?ai?acaioothoue
iniiai? i?eioeeie i?e?iaee – “ii?yaeie” oa “ethaia ? ?iaeth/?noue”. Nai?
aeueoe aenooiathoue ye ia?nii?o?eaoe?y nee i?e?iaee oa aeooiai?
oaiiiaie.

Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui c aeoiee i?i aii?yaeeiaaiee, aeeiai?/iee einiin, yeee
i?aaia aei aa?iii??, oa i?i oi?aa?naeueiee /aniaee ii?yaeie aeieeaa?
ia?aeiiaiiy i?i aoe/iee ii?yaeie. A?i ea?o? i?e?iaeith, ? oaea
caeiiii??i?noue ? iaeii/anii ii?aeueiei ii?yaeeii c? nea?oaaiiyi ia
iaeaeuo oe?eue – ia aeia?i. Eiai i?aaeea noinothoueny aeeooy a oe?eiio,
niiniao aeeooy, yea i?e?iaea aa?a i?ae naith ioi?iio.

Ia caaa?oaiiy oe??? /anoeie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaiiino?o?oueny, ui oyaeaiiy
i?i aoe/iee ii?yaeie a?aoo?–?aoo aeeeaa?oueny o oa?iie/ee oa?aeoa?
i?e?iaee oa o nayo?noue, yea i?eieno?oueny ?e ia o?ainoeaiaeaioiiio
??ai?. Oiio na?o i?e?iaee o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?” iiae?eaiee iaaeai?, a?i
– o aeaio noa?ao ?nioaaiiy: na?onuee?e oa aiaeanoaaii?e, yea iaaeinooiia
ethaenueeiio ?icoi?iith. Ca i?e?iaeith ae aeciathoueny aeanoeaino?
aiaeanoaaiii?, anaioiieth/i? oa ii?iaoeaii? neee.

Ioaea, o oe?e /anoei? c?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y ea?oei i?e?iaee oa aeaia
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y caaaeueii? oaeni???anueei? eiioeaioe??. Eiinoaoo?ii oae?
?acoeueoaoe:

1) sseui neeanoe an? aeaiaioe cia?aaeaiiy i?e?iaee o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?”
oa aeaanoe c ieo aieiai? oace, oi iinoa? ea?oeia i?e?iaee, yeo
iaceaathoue eeane/iith i?e?iaeie/i–i?noe/iith ea?oeiith na?oo. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae i?e?iaeii–?noi?e/ii? /e i?e?iaeii–iaoai?noe/ii? ea?oeie
na?oo, ?? i?ciaaaeueii–oai?aoe/iith aacith ? i?o?/ia inieneaiiy. Eiai
aeoai?e a iniiai nai?e ? ni??eooaeueieie, aeae? – neiaie?/ieie ?
iaia’?eoeaieie;

2) Ui noino?oueny i?noey ethaeeie a i?e?iae?, oi aeei?enoiao?oueny
eeane/ia oi/ea ci?o aioe/ii? einiieia?? oa o?einio??. Oea iiioey?i?
oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui i?ecia/aiiy ethaeeie aecia/a?oueny i?e?iaeith,
oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo ye i?i anaia?aiaaath/o neeo, yeith ia?aeiyoa
?icoi?iiy ethaeeie ? a?ae yei? aiii caeaaeia. O oae?e noai? ? ethaeeia –
i?e?iaea, /anoeia i?e?iaee, oe?eeiaeoi i?e?iaeia ?noioa, yea aeeaa a
?aieao caeii?a i?e?iaee;

3) Aoei a iai?aaeeueiei ?iaeoe iini?oi? aeniiaee ca aiaeia??th i?ae
cia?aaeaieie ooo iiaeyaeaie ia i?e?iaeo oa oaeni???anueeei ni?eeiyooyi.
Naia ae?aia caiaaeoi /?oei e?eoeeo? oae? iiaeyaee. Ca aeiiiiiaith
??ii?/iiai aeenoaioe?thaaiiy oaeni???anueea e?eoeea iaoe?eth?oueny,
aeania, ia a?aenooi?noue ia’?eoeaiiai, /?oei aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
aecia/aiiy ?aaeueiino?. Ca?aene iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui Oaeni?? o
nai?e ae?ai? oi?iaeueii i?aeoiieth? iiaeyaee ia i?e?iaeo ?eecaaaoecio,
aea a i?eioeei? i?ciaaaeueii–oai?aoe/iee ooiaeaiaio aiioe noaaeoueny iei
i?ae noii?a;

4) Ae?aiaoeciaaia i?noe/ia ea?oeia i?e?iaee o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?”
caaeoiaia ye iiaeyae iacaae, ye oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo, ye? eieenue
?nioaaee, ?aeaei? iniiae yeeo caeeaaeai? a aioe/iee ia??iae ? oyaiooueny
/a?ac na?aaeiueia?//y aae aei ?aianaino. Iianyeaeaiia ?aaeuei?noue
e?ioey XVI noie?ooy c eiai iie?oe/ieie, noni?eueieie oa ainiiaea?nueeeie
ci?iaie a?aecia/aia aaea ?ioei, ia oaeei i?noe/iei niiniaii ieneaiiy;

5) Ine?eueee /a?ac e?eoeeo i?ciaaaeueii–oai?aoe/ieo iniia na?oiaeyaeo
caaaeuei? oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo noaaeyoueny i?ae noii?a, oi ae?aia aaea
naia ii nia? i?aee?aneth? a?aeiini?noue oace i?i “i?e?iaeo ye ii?io”, a
oaeiae oyaeaiue i?i i?e?iaeo ye ia?oi/a?aiaee, aeo?aeiee ??aaiue
ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy. Aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui oaea ni?eeiyooy noi?oue a
oeaio?? ae?aie, oiio ui i?ioeeaaei? aeoiee o oai?? ua ia ?icaeioo?.

O ?icae?e? 4 “Eiioeaioe?y i?e?iaee o “Ao??” aeine?aeaeaiiy i?inoaa?oueny
a?ae i?aaeiaoiiai aei o?einionueeiai ??aiy o ni?eeiyoo? na?oo i?e?iaee.
A?aeiia?aeii aei aeaai?e/ii? eiioeaioe?? ae?aie naia o?einionueeee
??aaiue iana aieiaia ci?noiaia iaaaioaaeaiiy oai?o.

I?ney ei?ioeiai iaeyaeo ci?noo ae?aie iiaeaii ?? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th. I?e
oeueiio aenoaa?oueny oaca, ui Oaeni?? iaienaa “Ao?th” naia c iaoith
eiinoeoothaaoe oaio i?e?iaee. I?eioeeiiai noai?th?oueny eiinoaeyoe?y
ia?acia–ia?niiaaeia, nii??aeiaieo c? noeeai ii?ae?oa, na?aae yeeo
ethaeeia iiaeiia ooaa?aeeoe naaa a ai?iouea? c i?ioeeaaeieie neeaie.

Ciiao noaaeoueny ieoaiiy i?i i?ciaaaeueii–oai?aoe/iee ooiaeaiaio
iiaeyae?a ia i?e?iaeo. Iiaeia anoaiiaeoe, ui oe? iiaeyaee a “Ao??”
a?ae??ciythoueny c e?eueeio iiceoe?e a?ae oaeeo iiaeyae?a o “Ni?
e?oiuei? ii/?”. I?eioeeiiaee eoo ci?o ia i?e?iaeo a inoaii?e ae?ai?
Oaeni??a – oaa?acee oa ia’?eoeaiee, ca aeiyoeii aieiaii? ae?eiai? iniae,
yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaa?/ii–niaeoeyoeaiei na?oiaeyaeii. Neea oyae oa
oaioac?y aeaee i?noea niinoa?aaeaiith.

Aaaeeeaei ? oie oaeo, ui oyaeaiiy i?i aeanoeaino? i?e?iaeieo oaiiiai?a
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo iiaeyae?a aiioe ?aianaino ca an?ia
ioieoaie. Ooo oaea a?aenooi? oae? aeaiaioe, ye eini?/ia ???a?o?y /e
na?oiaee aeoo. Ii?aeuei? oa aoe/i? eiiiiiaioe oaeiae cieeathoue.

Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c iaio ae?aiaoe/ieo ia?niiaaeia – A??aey oa Eae?aaia –
aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui Oaeni?? noai?ea aea? eiie?aoi?
ia?nii?o?eaoe?? i?e?iaee. Ia i?ioeaaao aeueoai o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?”,
aiie ?ai?acaioothoue ia ie?ai? oaiiiaie, a oe?e?ni? aea? noa?e i?e?iaee.
Ii–ia?oa – ia/ooo?ao i?e?iaeo, aeooiaio noi?iio i?e?iaee, aeaiii?/i? e
ni??eooaeuei? neee oa i?eoaiaii? ?i caeiie. Ii–ae?oaa – /ooo?ao
i?e?iaeo, iaoa??aeueio ? iaeooioai?aio, oo, aei yei? iiaeia
aeioi?eiooeny.

Ia i?ioeaaao ae?ai? “Nii e?oiuei? ii/?”, o ye?e oaeni???anueea
cia?aaeaiiy i?e?iaee c naiiai ii/aoeo ni?yiiaaia ia iiyniaiiy ciai?oi?o
i?e?iaeieo oaiiiai?a, o “Ao??” oaiaoecothoueny ?iaiaioi? i?e?iae?
i?eioeeie ae?? ? i?ioenoaaeythoueny niaoeeo?/iei ethaenueeei
aeanoeainoyi.

Aeaoaeueii iiyniththoueny – a?aeiia?aeii aei ni?eeiyooy Oaeni??a –
aieiai? a?aei?iiino? i?ae i?e?iaeieie oa ethaenueeeie ?noioaie. I?e?iaea
? i?eioeeiiai ? aac aeiyoe?a ia?aaeoiiaith noaoe/iiai ?nioaaiiy aac
aeaniiai ?icaeoeo. Ethaeeia ae a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae i?e?iaeii?
noaoe/iino? nai?th aeeniiceoe??th aei naiaiaee aie?. Ine?eueee ethaeei?
a?aeo? i/aaeaeiiai ?icoi?iiy aeanii? nooiino?, aiia ia? iiaeeea?noue
aeey ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. Aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaaii, ye Oaeni??
cia?aaeo? aioo??oi? ethaenuee? ii?ie oa nia?noue ye iai?yiie aeey
?aae?caoe?? oaeiai ?icaeoeo.

Oe?iei iiynith?oueny oaeni???anueea eiioeaioe?y aieiaieo aa?i?a. C
iaeyaeo ia cacia/aii aioo??oi? ni?yioaaiiy, oey eiioeaioe?y ? ao?eaiiyi
ethaenueeeo yeinoae oa /aniio ? noi?oue o?aaeeoe?eii a oeaio??
ii?iaoeaii? iiaaae?iee. A ia?oo /a?ao eaeaoueny i?i ieeina?aey oa ethaia
aei aeeaeiueiai. Oea noa? c?icoi?eei c oi/ee ci?o o?einio?? eioaiiy a
aiioo ?aianaino. I??aiaea aenooia? iin??i iaeaaaeeea?oeo /aniio –
ieeina?aey oa ni?a/oooy.

Ia?ac Oa?ae?iaiaea oeoia/eoueny ye ao?eaiiy iii??eiaaiino? oa
no?eiaiinoi, oe? /aniioe oaeiae iaeo?ni?oa iia’ycai? c ii?iaoeaiith
iiaaae?ieith. Iieacaii: Oaeni?? oe?io? eiia?iaoe?th iaio oeeo yeinoae –
ni?a/oooy oa iii??eiaaiino? – ye iaeaeuo ethaenueeo /aniioo.

Aenoaa?oueny oaca, ui Oaeni?? iaienaa naith “Ao?th” ye iiaeaeue aoe/ii
i?aaeeueii? iiaaae?iee. I?ioenoaaeyth/e i?e?iaeo ? ethaenueeo
iiaaae?ieo, a?i ?icaeaa? oeth oaio aoe?. O oeaio?? eiai ?ici??eiaoaaiue
noi?oue i?iaeaiaoeea ethaenueei? iniaenoino?, naia ?e i?enay/aii
inoaii?e oa?? ienueiaiieea. Aea oey oaia eiioeaio?o?oueny iaaeiei
i?iaeaiaoeee i?e?iaee. Aeiaiaeeoueny ? ?ice?eaa?oueny oaeni???anueeee
iinooeao, ui ethaeeia iiaeiia ?aae?coaaoe nai? cae?aiino? a ia?oo /a?ao
caaeey aeia?a noni?euenoaa, a ia a aano?aeoi?e i?e?iaeiciaa/?e
ae?yeueiino?.

Ioaea, c?iaeaia ni?iaa i?aenoioaaoe eiioeaioe?th i?e?iaee Oaeni??a oa
c?iaeoe ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th eiai caaaeueieo iiaeyae?a uiaei oeueiai ieoaiiy.
Io?eiaii oae? aeniiaee:

1) Ia i?ioeaaao ea?oei? i?e?iaee o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?”, eeaneo?eaoe?y
inoaiiueiai oaeni???anueeiai ao?eaiiy i?e?iaee ? aeineoue neeaaeiith,
ine?eueee aiia aeyaey?oueny eeoa a aeao?i?oe?? “ex negativo”. I?i naio
i?e?iaeo iaia? aeiaeieo iiceoeaieo aeneiaethaaiue. Aacia?a/ia eeoa oaca,
ui i?e?iaea — onoaeaia nenoaia, a ye?e an? ?noioe ?ooathoueny ia iniia?
i?eoaiaiii? ?i aioo??oiuei? caeiiii??ii? aeeiai?ee. Ethaeeia ae ?
aeiyoeii c oe??? nenoaie. I?e?iaea ye oe?ea ia ? iaeooioai?aiith, aea ?
ia ? o?ainoeaiaeaioiei eiiiiiaioii. Ooo iiaeia aeacaoe ia ia?aeae? aei
oeoia/aiue i?e?iaee o?einionueeith aio?iiieia??th, yea ni?eeia? i?e?iaeo
ye ia?oiiniiao, ye ii/aoeiao noa?o aoooy, c yei? iiaea ?icaeaaoeny
niaoeeo?/iee ethaenueeee na?o, ae?oaee na?o eoeueoo?e oa ?noi???;

2) Oaeni???anueea “Ao?y” — oea a?aeiiaa a?ae oyaeaiue i?i ethaeeio ye
“i?e?iaeo”. Ca nai?th nooi?noth ethaeeia iioiaeeoue c i?e?iaee, aea
caaaeyee nai?i cae?aiinoyi aiia ia? i?ecia/aiiy ci?ithaaoe oeth noa?o oa
noai?thaaoe oi?ie ?nioaaiiy, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ?? iiaeeeainoyi;

3) “Ao?y” a?aeoiaeeoue a?ae i?eioeeiiai? e?eoeee aano?aeoiiai
i?e?iaeiciaa/iai aeine?aeaeaiiy. O oeaio?? oai?o noi?oue oie oaeo, ui
i?e?iaeiciaa/a iaoiaeeea aeei?enoiao?oueny o noia?a/eeaeo aeiaaeeao
oaeiae ? a i?aeethaenuee?e noa??, aea ao?a/a? niaoeeo?/ii ethaenuee?
eiiiiiaioe;

4) O “Ao??” Oaeni?? i?eioeeiiai ci?iea ia?niaeoeao. sseui a “Ni?
e?oiuei? ii/?” noaaeoueny ieoaiiy i?i nooi?noue i?e?iaee, oi a “Ao??” –
i?i nooi?noue ethaeeie. C oaei? ia?niaeoeae aeieeaa? iiaa ioe?iea
i?e?iaee oa ethaeeie. Ine?eueee ethaenueea nooi?noue ia a?aeiia?aea?
nooiino? i?e?iaee, oi i?i ?aeeiee caaaeueiee ii?iaoeaiee oa?aeoa?
i?e?iaee ia iiaea aooe e iiae.

O “Aeniiaeao” a?aeia?aaeai? aieiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aac?
ii??aiyiiy aeaio ae?ai, ye? ?ioa?i?aoothoueny o eiiieaen? ?oi?o
aca?iica’yce?a.

A ii??aiyii? i?ae niaith “Nii e?oiuei? ii/?” oa “Ao?y” ?ic?iaeythoue
oaio i?e?iaee iaaecae/aeii eiio?anoii. Aeania eaaeo/e, a aniaeo?
oi?ioaaiiy oaeni???anueei? o?einionueei? eiioeaioe?? i?e?iaee oea ? aeaa
c?acee i?ioeeaaeieo, aca?iiaeeeth/ieo oyaeaiiue i?i i?e?iaeo.

Oaeei /eiii, oaeni???anueea eiioeaioe?y i?e?iaee cacia? ea?aeeiaeueii?
o?ainoi?iaoei?. Aiia iieyaa? a oeiia?e aeey ?aianaino ci?i? ia?niaeoeae
ienueiaiieoeueeiai ci?o: a?ae noa’?eoeaiiai niiniao niiaeyaeaiiy aei
ia’?eoeaiiai. “Nii e?oiuei? ii/?” a?aeaeaa? niaeoeyoeaiee aeo?aeiee
ioieo, “Ao?y” – e?ioeaaee ia’?eoeaiee.

O oae?e noia?a/iino? i?iyaey?oueny ua e nueiaiaei? ia c’yniaaia
inoaoi/ii noaaeaiiy aiioe ?aianaino aei i?e?iaee. Iaeiae aeaeii, ui
i?e?iaea ni?eeia?oueny ye oeaio?aeueia aeeoo?aa noa?a. Oyaeaiiy i?i ia?
a?aecia/athoueny nooo?aeie aioaaii?ciaie.

O iaaeao eiioeaiooaeueieo ci?i a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ao?ae a?ae iaaei??iiai
iaaieioaiiy ia ?ie? i?e?iaee ye neee ?nioaaiiy aei a?aeiiae a?ae
i?e?iaee ye aaaeeeai? aeey ethaeeie aaee/eie. Ii?yae c oeei,
i?aeaeuo?oueny aaaa niaoeeo?/ii ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy oa ethaenueeeo
iiaeeeainoae.

Eeoa a “Ao??” ae?aiaoo?a i?eoiaeeoue aei oaeiai /?oeiai oa iiaiai
ioe?ithaaiiy i?e?iaee. Ua a eiai aaeeeeo o?aaaae?yo (oae naii e a ?ioeo
ca aeai?iaeie iciaeaie oai?ao) ? aaaaoi ia?aeaeae cia?aaeaiith i?e?iaee
a “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?”. Oa?aeoa?iith aeey o?aaaae?e ? a?aenooi?noue
o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai eiiiiiaioo a i?e?iae?. Oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo ye
aeo?aeiee ioieo, iaa?oue yeui aiii aeei?enoiao?oueny eeoa aeey
cia?aaeaiiy iaaaoeaii? nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee aa?i?a, oai ua i?enooi?.

?icaeoie oaeni???anueei? eiioeaioe?? ae??ciy?oueny aaaeaiiyi aeieoe
oaeiai ?icoiiiiy i?e?iaee, yea ae?enii a?aeiia?aeaei a ethaenuee?e
nooiino?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae, iai?eeeaae, Iiioaiy, Iae?aaaee? /e i?ci?oa
Aiana, Oaeni?? ia caaeiaieueiy?oueny eeoa aeciaiiyi ca ethaeeiith
iniaeeaiai i?noey, a caaa?oo? naith oai?/?noue /?oeei iaaieioaiiyi naia
ia aeu?e ?ie? ethaenueeiai eiiiiiaioo. ?, oaeei /eiii, aeanae?ae?coth/e
i?e?iaeo, ??oo/a ? na?aeiii i?aeei?th? ?? aoiai?noe/i?e aeieo?ei?, /ei
aeiei??iii ci?ith? iai?yi ooaeiaeiuei–o?einionueeeo iiooe?a ?noeie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. E?aia? I. “The Rarer Action is in Virtue”: oaenii?ianueea “Ao?y” ye
ae?aia naiiiaeaioeoieaoei? // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Aei.12 (3). Aa?iainueea o?eieia?y: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. – *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. – N.156–165 (0,6 aep.a.; i?iaoeueeith
iiaith).

2. E?aia? I. Iiaoe/ii aa?iaoei? ia oieinionueeo oaio: “I?e?iaea” o
oaenii?ianueeie ae?aiaoe/iie oai?/inoi // Iaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aei. 15 (4). Aa?iainueea o?eieia?y:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. – N.132–137 (0,4
aep.a.; iiiaoeueeith iiaith).

3. E?aia? I. Iaiue??enoe/ia ea?oeia i?e?iaee a “Nii eioiuei? ii/i” //
Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aei. 27 (5). Aa?iainueea
o?eieia?y: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1998. –
N.171–181 (0,7 aep.a.; iiiaoeueeith iiaith).

AIIOAOeIss

E?aia? I. O?einionueea eiioeaioe?y i?e?iaee o Oaeni??a (“Nii e?oiuei?
ii/?”, “Ao?y”). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.04 – e?oa?aoo?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i. –
Iinoeooo eioa?aoo?e ii. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith o?einionueei? eiioeaioe??
i?e?iaee o Oaeni??a. Aiae?co?oueny i?ciaaaeueii–oai?aoe/ia aaca
ni?eeiyooy i?e?iaee a ae?aiao: a?ae aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeueii? ae?eniino?
aei aeooiaii–o?einionueeiai inieneaiiy i?e?iaee. Eiioeaioeiy Oaenii?a
ia? o “Ni? e?oiuei? ii/?” ???aoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?, o “Ao??” –
ia’?eoeaiee, a iniiai yeiai i?e?iaeie/i–iaoeiaa ni?eeiyooy. Aenoaa?oueny
oaca, ui i?e?iaea ? caaaeueiei aaaeeeaei ioieoii ci?noo ae?ai. O
oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia noaaeaiiy aei ?aea? oa
cia/aiiy i?e?iaee ii??aiyii c oiai/aniith o?einio??th: a?ae iiceoeaii?
ioe?iee i?e?iaee aei a?aeiaaeoaaiiy a?ae ia? a “Ao??”. Ae?iaeaii
nenoaiaoecaoe?th iiaeyae?a Oaeni??a ia i?e?iaeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Oaeni??, i?e?iaea, oieinionueea ea?oeia i?e?iaee,
na?oiaeyae ?aianaino.

SUMMARY

Kraemer M. Shakespeares Philosophical Concepts of Nature (“A Midsummer
Night’s Dream”; “The Tempest”). – Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate Degree in Philology by Speciality 10.01.04 –
Literature of Foreign Countries. – Institute of Literature named after
T.G. Shevchenko NAS of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

The given dissertation presents the investigation and interpretation of
Shakespeare’s philosophical concepts of nature, his understanding of
nature on a level that reaches beyond nature’s outward physical
phenomena to the question for the constituents of the relationship
between the human and the natural world.

Contrary to the modern, simply mechanical view, the Renaissance often
perceives nature as man’s counterpart, as a means to provide a spiritual
background after the mediaeval world picture with its theological basis
has fallen apart. Although various concepts of nature exist with the
beginning of modern times, the main view that is generally related to
the Renaissance concentrates on the close relationship between human and
natural world, between the microcosm of mankind and the macrocosm of the
universe. A view on Shakespeare’s concept of nature therefore touches
his understanding of man. The given dissertation provides insight into
the author’s most essential philosophical thoughts and into a general
understanding of his work.

Shakespeare’s view of nature can be analyzed best in those plays where
the natural world not only serves as a background for the action on
stage, but where its inherent forces are directly personified as
dramatic figures. Therefore, the objects of examination are the first
major comedy “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” (1595) and Shakespeare’s last
work, the pastoral romance “The Tempest”(1611).

The dissertation fixes and interprets the contents of the philosophical
views of nature that can be found in the two plays. In contrary to
previous research on Shakespeare’s nature, the respective investigations
do not set up a catalogue of the natural phenomena that can be found in
the plays or only trace popular elements of the Elizabethan world
picture. Instead, the intellectual means used by the dramatic figures
for the construction of their world view serve as the basis of the
concept. This method allows insight into the spiritual dimension of
nature.

Concerning Shakespeare’s view of nature, the given dissertation
presents the following result: Contrary to the popular thesis held by
Shakespeare scholars, it is shown that not even in his comedies or late
plays Shakespeare thoroughly perceives nature as a realm of regeneration
or ethic values. Therefore, the common understanding that nature in his
work is endowed with a normative character proves weak and has to be
investigated separately for each play. Instead of speaking of a single
Shakespearean view, a close analysis shows that the author makes use of
many different concepts that sometimes exclude each other. Especially
“The Tempest” conveys an understanding that questions the previous
thoughts of his plays where nature functions as a fundamentally positive
aspect.

Within this context, the dissertation holds the following thesis:

A precise investigation of the two plays shows two concepts of nature
that

can be classified within a philosophical and historical framework; “A
Midsummer Night’s Dream” dramatizes the classical picture of a mythical
understanding of nature while “The Tempest” perceives nature according
the very modern view of philosphical anthropology with its unique and
outstanding focus on the human sphere;

Both views result from contradicting intellectual concepts:

the first is imaginative and mainly makes use of the intellectual
capacity “fantasy” the second is rational and operates on an analytical
basis;

3) On this fundament, the analysis shows that already in the colourful
classical Renaissance view of “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” Shakespeare
operates with such discrepancies that one can only partly accept the
popular dogma of given natural ethics. Its truth is transferred to the
realm of fantasy and wonder;

4)The analytic view of “The Tempest” shows that at the end of his life
Shakespeare has turned away from the idea of a close relationship
between man and nature. Instead he states the differences that separate
the human from the natural word and that urge mankind to find its own
particular identity beyond the natural world. “The Tempest” can
therefore be perceived as Shakespeare’s thesis against any irrational
conception of man. However, Shakespeare does not sympathize with a
modern positivist view. Contrary to the thesis of modern science where
the position of man in creation is also anihilated, the author
explicitly stresses the uniqueness of the human being in nature. Thus
developing his own individual point of view, Shakespeare’s statement on
nature is opposed to the popular scepticist philosophy of his time (e.g.
Montaigne, Machiavelli or Hobbes).

5) Both plays function as milestones in Shakespeare’s development of
the idea of nature, “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” being a vivid play of
the optimistic period of the beginning that anticipates popular
philosophy, and “The Tempest” being the result of deep individual
philosophical thought. In Shakespeare’s dramatic work, the idea of
nature develops towards a decline of the importance of nature itself and
thus towards the importance of the human world.

6) The exact investigation of two major plays reveals a fundamental
discrepancy in Shakespeare’s view of nature. It becomes clear that it is
scientifically incorrect to further hold the idea of one Shakespearean
concept of nature or the popular idea of nature as a principal ethical
value. To find the author’s definition of nature, one has to first find
the underlying concept of each play. Only from there it is possible to
take a glance at the overall idea of Shakespearean nature. But is is
essential to state that since with “The Tempest” Shakespeare vehemently
turns away from popular science, the analytic concept of the last play
and the author’s seriousness in dealing with the topic prove the
fundamental ideas of his earlier plays comparatively weak. This final
position must be taken into consideration when speaking of Shakespearean
nature on a general level.

With these results the given dissertation has found a new and
conclusive insight into two of the major Shakespearean plays as well as
into the author’s philosophical worldview as a whole.

Key words: Shakespeare, nature, philosophical view of nature,
Renaissance world view.

AIIIOAOeEss

E?aia? I. Oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey i?e?iaeu o Oaenie?a (“Nii a eaoithth
ii/ue”, “Ao?y”). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.04 – eeoa?aoo?a ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. –
Einoeooo eeoa?aoo?u ei. O.A.Oaa/aiei IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth oeeinioneie eiioeaioeee i?e?iaeu
o Oaenie?a. Aiaeece?oaony iiciaaaoaeueii–oai?aoe/aneay iniiaa aini?eyoey
i?e?iaeu a ae?aiao: io enneaaeiaaiey ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aei
aeooiaii–oeeinioneiai iniuneaiey i?e?iaeu. Eiioeaioeey Oaenie?a a “Nia a
eaoithth ii/ue” iineo e??aoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?, a “Ao?a” – iauaeoeaiue,
niaea?aeauee a iniiaa i?e?iaeii–iao/iia aini?eyoea. Auaeaeaaaony oacen,
/oi i?e?iaea yaeyaony iauei aaaeiui ioieoii niaea?aeaiey ae?ai. A
oai?/anoaa ienaoaey i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea ioiioaiey e eaeaa e cia/aieth
i?e?iaeu a n?aaiaiee n oeeinioeae oiai a?aiaie: io iiceoeaiie ioeaiee
i?e?iaeu e ioiaaeaaaieth io oaeiaie a “Ao?a”. I?iecaaaeaia
nenoaiaoecaoeey acaeyaeia Oaenie?a ia i?e?iaeo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Oaenie?, i?e?iaea, oeeinioneay ea?oeia i?e?iaeu,
ie?iaicc?aiea ?aiannaina.

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