3

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?EINIO?? ?i. A.N.NEIAI?IAeE

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 21.01.09;

211.5(091).

EIIAe?AOEE IEUeAA AANEE?AIA

OAIIIAI ?AE?A?? O O?EINIO?? ?NOI???

I.N.A?OOAANUeEIAI

niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.11 — ?ae?a??ciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO AeENA?OAOe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? o?einio?? ?ae?a?? A?aeae?eaiiy
?ae?a??ciaanoaa

?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Eieiaeiee

Aiaoie?e Ieoaeeiae/ ?inoeooo o?einio??

?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie, canooiiee

aee?aeoi?a-ea??aiee A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa)

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? *a?i?e
Aiaoie?e Ieoaeeiae/ (Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?einio??),

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe Naaai Ieaenaiae?

Iaca?iae/ (?inoeooo o?einio?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI
Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo i?iaeai
no/anieo ?ae?a?eieo i?ioean?a A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Naaanoiiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao,

aeaia?oaiaio o?einionueeeo ? nioe?aeueieo iaoe

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «18» o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiae ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ae 26.161.03 a ?inoeooo? o?einio??

?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?einio??

?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «18» ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Iaaeoiea A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy ?ae?a??ciaa/i? niaaeueie
aeaeaoiiai oe?a?inueeiai ?noi?eea, ?noi??inioa, nioe?ieiaa,
e?oa?aoo?iciaaoey, aoiieiaa, a?iiaaenueeiai ? iie?oe/iiai ae?y/a Ieoaeea
Na?a?eiae/a A?ooaanueeiai (1866-1934) noaiiaeoue iniaeeao
aeooaeuei?noue. Ianaiia?aae, aa?oi caoaaaeeoe, ui caa?iaiiy aei
?ae?a??ciaa/eo oai??e oa ?aeae aeaeaoieo a/aieo ? ieneeoae?a ?
neeaaeiaith inai?iiy an??? noni?euenoaiciaa/i? aeoiee oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, ye i?aenoaae eiai naiiaooiino? ? aea?aeaaiino?. Oiio aac
inyaiaiiy a?o/eciyii? ?ae?a??ciaa/i? niaaeueie aaaeei oyaeoe i?ioean
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai noaiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie.

A oiiaao ia?aaoaaiiy Oe?a?ie o neeaae? N?N? ?nioaaea io?oe?eia onoaiiaea
uiaei ioe?iee oai?/ino? oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo, nioe?aeueieo ieneeoae?a
aei?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo. Iayaiei aoa iiae?e ?o ia ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?no?a
? ao?aeoacieo iaoe?iiae?no?a, aoa?no?a ? eea?eeae?a e o.i. ?iaia aeayeeo
i?aaenoaaiee?a nioe?aeueii? aeoiee acaaae? caiia/oaaeeny, ?oiy
oai?/?noue — niioai?thaaeany.

I.A?ooaanueeee aeaeaaaany io?oe?eiith i?iiaaaiaeith ca ao?aeoaciiai
iaoe?iiae?noa, yeee noiya ia ?aeaae?noe/ieo iiceoe?yo, ca
eiio??aaiethoe?iia?a, yeee i?aeo?eioaaa ae?yeuei?noue Oe?a?inueei?
Aaoieaoaeueii? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae. Ca?nii, ui i?i ia’?eoeaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai oai?/ino?, a oiio /ene? e ?ae?a??ciaa/i? niaaeueie,
ia iiaei aooe e iiae.

Inue /iio caa?iaiiy aei ?ae?a??ciaa/i? eiioeaioe?? I.N.A?ooaanueeiai
aeiiiiiaea ooaa?aeeoe ?noi?e/io i?aaaeo. Aea ooo ni?aaa ia eeoa a oiio,
aae caiiaieoe ua iaeei “aaeooi” a ?noi??? aoiai?oa?ii? aeoiee Oe?a?ie.
Eaeaoueny i?i a?eueoa — a?aeiiaeaiiy, caa?aaeaiiy ? i?iaeiaaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? ?ae?a??ciaa/i? o?aaeeoe??. ?iaioa a oeueiio iai?yi? eeoa
?icii/aeany. A oiio aea/aiiy niaaeueie I.A?ooaanueeiai, ii?yae c
inai?iiyi oai?/eo caeiaooe?a I.Iioaai?, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, A.Eeieinueeiai
oa ?i., ? oiiaith a?aeoai?aiiy ?noi??? ?ae?a??ciaa/i? aeoiee a Oe?a?i?,
/eiiieeii noaiiaeaiiy naiina?aeiiino? oe?a?inueeiai ?ae?a??ciaanoaa ye
iaoee.

No/ania oai?aoecoaaiiy a aaeoc? ?ae?a??ciaanoaa iaiiaeeeaa aac caa?iaiiy
aei ?noi??? ?ae?a??ciaanoaa. Aaeaea aoaeue-yea oai?aoe/ia i?iaeaia
iinoa?, ii noo?, ye i?iaeaia ?noi?e/ia. Iniaeeai oea a?ae/ooii a oiiaao
e?ece iaeieo ? iiooeo ?ioeo noni?euenoaiciaa/eo ia?aaeeai, eiee
aeine?aeieee ciooai? “eiiaoeny” a ?noi??? yeiainue iiiyooy, eiioeaioe??
oiui. Aeoia?oueny, ui iei? oaeee /an ianoaa ? aeey oe?a?inueeiai
?ae?a??ciaanoaa. Aaaeeeaeie, cie?aia, ? ieoaiiy i?i nooi?noue ?
niaoeeo?eo ?ae?a??, ?? ?ieue a nioe?aeueieo ? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
i?ioeanao acaaae? ? iniaeeai a Oe?a?i?. Oe? i?iaeaie ?icaeyaeaa ?
I.A?ooaanueeee, a oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai ?ae?a??ciaa/i? eii-oeaioe?? ?
iaaiith i??ith a?aeiia?aeaeth ia no/ani? aeeeeee aoiai?oa?ii? iaoee.

Aea/aiiy niaaeueie I.A?ooaanueeiai — iaeia c ia?aaeoiia aeeth/aiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ?ae?a??ciaanoaa o ?a?iiaenueeee ? na?oiaee iaoeiaee
i?ino??. A?o/eciyiee ?noi?ee — a/aiee na?oiai? aaee/eie. Nai? iiaeyaee
a?i ae?iaeya ? a?aenoithaaa o aeeneon?yo c a?aiaeaie no/anii? eiio
iaoee. Eiai ?ae?a??ciaa/ee aei?iaie — oea ? iaaeaaiiy ?a?iiaenueeiai,
na?oiaiai ?ae?a??ciaanoaa. Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy niaaeueie aeaeaoiiai
a/aiiai iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye ni?iao a?aeoai?aiiy ca’yce?a oe?a?inueei?
iaoee c ?a?iiaenueeith oa na?oiaith, ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co “i?noey”
iaoeo ?ae?a??ciaa/eo nooae?e o iaoeiaeo caeiaooeao. Naia oea ? ?
iaei??th c iaiao?aeieo oiia ?ioaa?aoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ?ae?a??ciaanoaa c
no/aniith nioe?iaoiai?oa?iith iaoeith, a?aeiaeaeaiiy iei naiai “iaee//y”
a ieth?ae?noe/iiio iaoeiaiio na?o?.

A?aeoae caa?iaiiy aei ?ae?a??ciaa/eo ?aeae I.A?ooaanueeiai ia aeaieia
iiae? ? ia ionoa oe?eaa?noue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy niaaeueie a/aiiai coiiaeaia
iaiao?aei?noth inai?iiy ? ?icaith aeooiaiiai ? iaoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo
Oe?a?ie.

Ca’ycie aeena?oaoe?? c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Caaaeueiee iai?yi aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’caiee c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe a?oie c ?noi??inio?? ?ae?a?? A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa
?inoeoooo o?einio?? IAIO, eiai iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith “Oaiiiai ?ae?a??:
?noi??inionueeee eiioaeno”, aaeocaaith oaiith
“Aio?iiieia?/ii-eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee iiiaeaiiy ci?noo na?aaeiuei? ?
aeui? aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe”, yea aeeiio?oueny ?inoeoooii nioe?aeueieo
iaoe Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? any oai?/a niaaeueia
I.A?ooaanueeiai, a i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?ae?a??ciaa/a
eiioeaioe?y a/aiiai ye neeaaeiaa eiai o?einio?? ?noi???.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaio iinoaaea ca iaoo cae?enieoe
o?einionueeee aiae?c eiioeaioe?? ?ae?a?? I.A?ooaanueeiai ?
aca?iiiia’ycaio c iath oai??th ia?iaeiiai o?enoeyinoaa ye ?ae?a??
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei
ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

aecia/eoe nooi?noue, niaoeeo?eo ? no?oeoo?o ?ae?a?? oaeeie, yeeie
aiie iinoathoue a ?noi??inio?? I.A?ooaanueeiai;

— c’ynoaaoe iiaeyaee I.A?ooaanueeiai ia ooieoe?iiaeueio i?e?iaeo
?ae?a??;

— cae?enieoe aiae?c eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a I.A?ooaanueeiai aei
?ae?a?? ye yaeua eoeueoo?e;

— aeine?aeeoe iiaeyaee a/aiiai ia nioe?aeuei? iniiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa
?icaeoeo ?ae?a??;

i?iaiae?coaaoe ae??oaiiy I.A?ooaanueeei i?iaeaie nai???aeiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy;

cae?enieoe aiae?c iiaeyae?a aeine?aeieea ia ia?iaeia o?enoeyinoai ye
?ae?a?th oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Aeaea?aea ? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe??.
Aeaea?aeiciaa/ith aacith oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?aaeon?i aaaaoioiii?
“?noi?y Oe?a?ie-?one” oa “?noi??y oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e”
I.A?ooaanueeiai, ye? ? iaeiiai?oei aeeeaaeii eiai iaoeiaeo iiaeyae?a.
Nthaee ae ne?ae a?aeianoe oae? eiai a?aeii? aeaeaiiy, ye
“Eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ia Oe?a?i? a XVI-XVII a?oe?”, “C ?noi???
?ae?a?eii? aeoiee ia Oe?a?i?”, iiioey?i? aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.
Naia a i?aoeyo c oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? oi?ioaaeanue ? iaaoea naiai
iiaiiai ae?aco eiioeaioe?y o?einio?? ?noi??? a/aiiai. Ca?aene eia?/ii
aeieeaa?, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ae?a??ciaa/eo iiaeyae?a a/aiiai iiaeiia
a?oiooaaoeny ianaiia?aae ia eiai aiae?c? ?noi??? oe?a?inoaa.

Cae/aeii, oea ia aeeeth/a? aeoeoia/aiiy oeo ?ae?a??ciaa/eo i?iaeai, ye?
i?aei?iaeenue a/aiei o i?aoeyo c anana?oiuei? ?noi???, ie?aieo
?aoeaic?yo, noaooyo oiui.

Aeaia ?noi?eei-?ae?a??ciaa/a aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia iaaieo
iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaaeao, ye? aenooiathoue i???ioe?aie i?e aiae?c? oa
ocaaaeueiaii? ?ae?a??ciaa/eo iiaeyae?a I.A?ooaanueeiai. Oea oae?
i?eioeeie: ia’?eoeaiino? (aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c ia?aeiiaiiy i?i
iai?eionoei?noue aianaiiy o aeine?aeaeaiiy noa’?oeaieo iiiaio?a.
Aeniiaee iiaeii? a?oiooaaoenue ia ?aaeueieo noaeaeaiiyo a/aiiai ? aooe
eia?/ii iaa?oioiaaieie); ?noi?ecio (i?iaeaie ?ae?a?? o o?einio?? ?noi???
I.A?ooaanueeiai aeine?aeaeoaaeenue c o?aooaaiiyi ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
aeoie?a iiceoe?? a/aiiai, oeo iaoeiaeo oaiaeaioe?e, ye? aieeioee ia
ooi/iaiiy eiai eiioeaioe?? ? c o?aooaaiiyi oaiaeaioe?? ?? iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo); nenoaiiino? (aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aei aeyaeaiiy ni?eueieo
?en o iiaeyaeao I.A?ooaanueeiai c aiaeia?/ieie iiaeyaeaie aai iiaeyaeaie
a?eueo caaaeueiiai ??aiy); iicaeiioan?eiino? (i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
oai?/ino? I.A?ooaanueeiai iiaeyaee aoaeue-yei? eiioan?? aai ??
i?aaenoaaiee?a aeena?oaio ia ?icaeyaeaa ye canaaeie/?).

Aeine?aeaeoth/e i?iaeaio ?ae?a?? a eiioeaioe?? o?einio?? ?noi???
I.A?ooaanueeiai, aeena?oaio oaeiae iie?aany ia ?iaioe oeo oe?a?inueeeo
a/aieo, o yeeo ?ic?iaeythoueny canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
?noi?eei-?ae?a??ciaa/i?, ?noi?eei-o?einionueei?,
?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/ii?, noni?eueii? aeoiee Oe?a?ie (Ai?nueeee A.N.,
Caoa?a ?.N., ?na?ae/ ss.Ae., Eaooaa I.A., Eieiaeiee A.I., Eiaiaee A.I.,
I?/ee A.I., Ianeaanueeee ?.A.,Oeiea?oe A.?., ss?ioeueeee I.E. oa ?i.).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieyaa? o c’ynoaaii? oiai, ui o
niaaeuei? I.A?ooaanueeiai ?ae?a?y ? niaoeeo?/iei niiniaii inyaiaiiy
nioe?aeueiei noa’?eoii aeeoo?nieneicia/oueo i?iaeai, a nioe?aeueiee ?
eoeueoo?iee i?ioeane ? iniiaith nai???aeiino? ?ae?a?? iaaii? ni?eueiioe.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui ia oeueiio oai?aoe/iiio iieiaeaii? a?oioo?oueny
eiioeaioe?y a/aiiai i?i niaoeeo?eo ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai
aoiino ? i?i ia?iaeia o?enoeyinoai ye ?ae?a?th oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Cae?eniaiee o?einionueeee aiae?c niaaeueie a/aiiai aeaa ciiao aia?oa
iaa?oiooaaoe ?yae iieiaeaiue, ye? a?aecia/athoueny iaoeiaith iiaeciith:

o eiioeaioe?? I.A?ooaanueeiai ?ae?a?y iinoa? niiniaii ona?aeiieaiiy ?
ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueiei noa’?eoii i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c iia?aie/ieie
oiiaaie ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy: a?aeiioaiiy ethaeeie aei aeeooy (niene ?
ioe?iea naiai aeeooy, ii?aeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aeeooy, a??o ?
niieooa); ioe?iea ethaeeiith nia?o? (nooi?noue nia?o?, ?aeay iinia?oii?
a?aeieaoe), noaaeaiiy iniae, nioe?aeueii? ni?eueiioe aei ?ioeo ethaeae ?
ni?eueiio (i?iiia?aeue ?ae?a?eii? aeiyoeiaino? — oiea?aioi?noue,
ieeina?aey — iaieeina?aei?noue, ethaia, aoiai-i?noue); ?icoi?iiy
ethaeeiith ethaeeie ? na?oo (aneaoeci, nie?aea?i?noue). ?ae?a?y — oea ?
niin?a i?aaenoaaeaiiy, ?ai?acaioaoe?? ethaenoaa a ethaeei?, inyaiaiiy
iath nai?? ?iaeiai? nooiino?. Niaoeeo?/i?noue ?ae?a?? ye
iie?ooieoe?iiaeueiiai yaeua aaa/a?oueny a/aiei o oaeiio aeeoo?- ?
na?oini?eeiyoo?, yea a?oioo?oueny ia a??? a iaaei?e?iaeia, oiae? eiee
aeyaii ?? nooiino? ? oae? na?oiaeyaeii-ii?aeuei? yeino?, ye ethaia,
aoiaii?noue, nie?aea?i?noue. O no?oeoo?iiio ieai? aeaiaioaie ?ae?a?eiiai
eiiieaeno ? na?oiaeyae ? eoeueo;

na?oiaeyae ? aecia/aeueiei /eiieeii ?ae?a?eiiai eiiieaeno. Ca
I.A?ooaanueeei, ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue ?ae?a?? aeyaey?oueny ianaiia?aae o
?? caeaoiino? aooe niiniaii oaeiai naiiaecia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai noa’?eoa
a na?o?, yea iaaea? eiai aoooth aeuee niene, aeuo oe?ii?noue, aeua
aei?aaaeaiiy, a oaeiae caaacia/o? ??aiiaaao ? ae??a?noue a oiiaao
no?aaeaeaiiiai ?nioaaiiy. sse niin?a inyaiaiiy ethaeeiith nai?? ?iaeiai?
nooiino? ?ae?a?y ? iaeaaaeeea?oei /eiieeii nie?aea?iino? ethaeae;

o niaaeuei? a/aiiai ?ae?a?y iinoa? ye i?iaeoeo iaioaeueiino?, eoeueoo?e
ie?aiiai aoiino /e nioe?oio ? aiaeii/an ye ?o iin?e. O aecia/aiiio
nioe?aeueiiio i?inoi?? ? /an? ?ae?a?y iinoa? ? ye iniiaa eoeueoo?e ? a
oaeee niin?a aeeiio? naith eoeueoo?ioai?/o ooieoe?th. sse aeaiaio
eoeueoo?e, ?ae?a?y caaaeaee iinoa? oi?iith ?? ao?eaiiy. Ca?aene aeciaiiy
I.A?ooaanueeei o?aineyoeaii? ooieoe?? ?ae?a??, oiaoi ?? caeaoiino? aooe
/eiieeii eoeueoo?ii? o?aineyoe??, yea o i?aoeyo a/aiiai
aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?e aea/aii? i?ioean?a ooaa?aeaeaiiy na?oiaeo ?ae?a?e,
iioe?aiiy ?o iniiaieo iai?yie?a. sseui aeiaiaoe ye iaea?eueo yne?aa?
iieacieee a?aei?iiinoae ??cieo ?ae?a?e i?e ?o iaeii/aniiio
ooieoe?iioaaii? caeaoi? ni?e/eiyoe aeac?ioaa?aoe?th iaaii? ni?eueiioe
(aoiino, nioe?oio), oi aca?iii?iieeiaiiy eoeueoo?iiai ci?noo oeeo
?ae?a?e ni?ey? ?ioaa?aoe??;

o a/aii? I.A?ooaanueeiai i?i nioe?aeuei? iniiae ?ae?a?? iiaeia
aeae?eeoe aeaa iniiai? i?aeoiaee, ye? aca?iiiia’ycai? i?ae niaith.
Ii-ia?oa, oea oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua ??cieo aa?noa ?
eean?a noni?eueiino? coiiaeth? iniaeeaino? ?oiuei? ?ae?a?eii?
na?aeiiino?. Ii-ae?oaa, oea iieiaeaiiy i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue
nioe?aeueiiai ci?noo ?ae?a?? i?ia?aeiei oaiaeaioe?yi noni?eueii?
aaiethoe?? — ?ioaa?aoe?? e aeeoa?aioe?aoe??. A?aeiia?aeii, ?ae?a?y iiaea
aeeiioaaoe iiey?i? nioe?aeuei? ooieoe??: aei?aaaeaiiy, inay/aiiy
?nioth/iai nioe?aeueiiai noaio aai ae eiai caia?a/aiiy, c iaeiiai aieo,
a c ae?oaiai — aooe /eiieeii noaiiaeaiiy, ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? cieeiaiiy
o??? /e ?ioi? i?ia?aeii? oaiaeaioe?? noni?eueii? aaiethoe??;

a iniia? nai???aeiino? ?ae?a?? oe?a?inueeiai aoiino eaaeaoue
nioe?aeueiee ? eoeueoo?iee i?ioeane, ye? c /ano iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?ioaaiiy a?aeaoaathoueny ia iaoe?iiaeuei?e oa?eoi??? oe?a?inueei?
noni?eueiino?. ?ae?a??th, yea noaea i?aenoaaith na?oiaeyaeo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo o iia?oi?e /an, ?, ca?aeii c iiaeyaeaie
I.A?ooaanueeiai, oe?a?inueea o?enoeyinoai, oi?ioaaiiy yeiai aeiaaea? ia
ia?aoiaeia? /ane XIV-XVII no. ? iinoa? ye ?ioaa?aoe?y nii??aeiaieo
aeaiaio?a iaa?/ii-iaoo?ae?noe/ii?, o?enoeyinueei? ? iao?enoeyinueei?
?ae?a?e;

nooi?ni? aeyae ?ae?a?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aaa/athoueny
I.A?ooaanueeei a oiio, ui aiia ? iaeiei c ??ciiaeae?a o?enoeyinoaa,
oi?iith a?aeia?aaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo ?ioa?an?a ia?iaeieo ian ? aeyaii
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ci?noo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e;

ia?iaeia o?enoeyinoai, ca?aeii c iiaeyaeaie I.A?ooaanueeiai,
eii-noeoothaaei iiaee oei aeooiaiino?, yea caaeaea oae? eii?aeeiaoe
aoooy, eiee iaeeie/ia ethaenueea i??y?oueny ianooaaaie anaethaenueeiai.
A oiio aeooiai?noue — ia o?ainoeaiaeaioia, aiia ia ? /eiinue
i?eaianaiei. Iath “aeeaooue” ethaenuee? a?aeiineie. Iaaei?e?iaeia ae ?
Aeuei noaa?aeaeaiiyi oe??? ?noeie, Aeuei canoa?aaeaiiyi i?ioe ??
iaaeio?eiaiiy, Aeuei noaeii ca ?? ii?ooaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy
oaiiiaio ?ae?a?? o oai?/ino? I.A?ooaanueeiai aeanoue ciiao aaanoe a
iaoeiaee ia?a iaeio c i?ea?iaeueieo oai??e a oe?a?inueeiio ? na?oiaiio
?ae?a??ciaanoa?, ? i?aeooiaoiooe aeine?aeiee?a aei ia?ainieneaiiy
onoaeaieo iiaeyae?a e iinoaiiaee iiaeo i?iaeai. Aei oiai ae, iiaeyaee
a/aiiai ia noaiiaeaiiy ? nooi?noue ia?iaeiiai o?enoeyinoaa ?
aeooaeueieie aeey aeooiaii? neooaoe?? iaoiai /ano, eiee aeoea?coaaeenue
aeaaaoe i?i o?enoeyinoai a Oe?a?i?, iniaeeai iaia?aaeiaei? nayoeoaaiiy
2000-e?oiueiai tha?eath ?nona O?enoa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? a oiio, ui ?? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? c iaoith iiiaeaiiy aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe o na?aaei?e ? aeu?e
oeie?. Eaeaoueny i?i caeo/aiiy iaoa??ae?a aeey aeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiao?a
?ae?a??ciaa/iai oeeeeo, i?aai?caoe?? niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a c
?ae?a??ciaanoaa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe cae?enithaaeanue o aenooiao ? iaaiai?aiiyo ia iaoeiaeo
? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “Oe?a?inueea i?aaineaa’y:
iniaeeaino?, ?noi??y, no/ani?noue (Ee?a, 1992 ?.), “Aoiai?caoe?y
iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie: caeiaooee, i?iaeaie, iiooee” (Eooeuee,
1993 ?.), “Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee ? Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia” (Euea?a, 1994 ?.),
“O?enoeyinoai ? eoeueoo?a” (Oa?iii?eue 1998 ?.), “O?enoeyinoai ?
aeooiai?noue” (Ee?a, 1998 ?.), iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee, o aeeeaaeaoeuee?e ?iaio?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? ? iine?aeiai?noue aeeeaaeo iaoa??aeo coiiaeai?
eia?eith i?iaeaie, iinoaaeaiith iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy. O
ia?oiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny iaoeia? ?ica?aeee c oaie aeena?oaoe??. O
ae?oaiio ?icae?e? c’yniaothoueny iiaeyaee I.A?ooaanueeiai ia nooi?noue,
niaoeeo?eo oa no?oeoo?o ?ae?a??, a ?icae?e o?ao?e i?enay/aiee
aeine?aeaeaiith i?aeoiae?a a/aiiai aei aea/aiiy nai???aeiino?
?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai aoiino a?ae aei?noi?e/ieo /an?a aei
caiaiaaeo Ee?ai-Aaeeoeueei? oi?iaoe??. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e?
aiae?co?oueny eiioeaioe?y ia?iaeiiai o?enoeyinoaa I.A?ooaanueeiai.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? ___ noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ianya aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ____ ioieoe neeaaea?
____ noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O Anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie,
aecia/ai? ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa, caaaeaiiy, aeaea?aea ?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaai? ?? iaoeiaa
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue, aeeeaaeaii ci?no
iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th
?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?ae?a??ciaa/? ?aea? I.A?ooaanueeiai ye ia’?eo
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy” aiae?co?oueny oai?/ee aei?iaie c oaie
aeena?oaoe??. Aaoi? caa?oa? oaaao ia oa, ui c a?aeiieo i?e/ei ia’?eoeaia
aea/aiiy ?ae?a??ciaa/i? niaaeueie I.A?ooaanueeiai a iao?e e?a?i? noaei
iiaeeeaei eeoa i?ney caeiaoooy Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino?. C ??cieo i?e/ei
aea/aiiy ?ae?a??ciaa/i? niaaeueie a/aiiai ? ca ei?aeiiii ia iaaoei
oe?ieiai ?iciaoo.

Inoi?iiue noiyoue o?aa ui aeaye? ioae?eaoe??. Ia?aaeian?i oea ?ica?aeea
A.?uaea (1925 ?.), o ye?e oac? aeaeaoiiai ?noi?eea i?i aieea
i?ioanoaioecio ia oe?a?inueea aeeooy i?ioenoaaey?oueny oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui
a Oe?a?i? ia aoei aeiaeiiai ne?aeo iioe?aiiy ?aoi?iaoe??. O noaoo?
E.Ooaie “Nioe?ieia?/ia oai??y A.Aeth?eaaeia ? oeiea I.A?ooaanueeiai”,
yea aoea aeae?oeoaaia 1932 ?ieo, aiae?co?oueny nioe?ieia?/iee aniaeo
aa/aiiy I.A?ooaanueeei ? eiai iine?aeiaieeaie ?ae?a?eiiai oaiiiaio.
Iaei??th c ia?oeo ioae?eaoe?e, o ye?e ii?oooaaeinue ieoaiiy inieneaiiy
a/aiei ?ae?a?eieo yaeu, iiaeia aaaaeaoe niiaaaee A.Eoc?aa (1935 ?.), ye?
i?ieeaathoue na?oei ia i?e/eie caoe?eaaeaiino? aeine?aeieeii o 20-o
?ieao iaoiai noie?ooy i?ioanoaionueeeie oa/?yie, a a?aeoae aeathoue
ciiao a?aoiaioiaaii noaeeoe i?i iiaeyaee I.A?ooaanueeiai ia nooue
?ae?a??.

Na?aae no/anieo iaoeiaeo ?ica?aeie, o yeeo oith /e ?ioith i??ith
ii?ooothoueny ieoaiiy inyaiaiiy I.A?ooaanueeei ?ae?a?eieo yaeu, iiaeia
aeie?aieoe e?eueea a?oi. Iaeio c ieo noaiiaeyoue o? ioae?eaoe??, o yeeo
aea?oueny ioe?iea i?aeoiaeo I.A?ooaanueeiai aei oeo /e ?ioeo ?ae?a?eieo
oa/?e, yaeu ? i?ioean?a, ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo ?noi?e/ieo in?a.

Oae, ?.Aeanianueeee e?eoe/ii ioe?ith? aeciaiiy I.A?ooaanueeei iiceoeaii?
?ie? i?ioanoaioecio a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae, yeui oea oaa?aeaeaiiy
?icaeyaeaoe a eiioaeno? i?aoe? ?.Aeanianueeiai, oi ? i?aenoaae
aenioaaoe, ui ?? aaoi? aiae?co? iiaeyaee I.A?ooaanueeiai ia ?ieue
i?ioanoaioecio a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??? ia aa?o/e aei oaaae eiai
eiioeaioe?th oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa, yea oith /e ?ioith i??ith
aieaoaia o a?eueo oe?oo i?iaeaio ?ae?a?? o o?einio?? ?noi??? aeaeaoiiai
a/aiiai. Oeth caoaaao iiaeia a?aeianoe ? aei oaa?aeaeaiiy
?.Aeanianueeiai i?i iayai?noue noia?a/iinoae o iiceoe?? I.A?ooaanueeiai
uiaei ioe?iee iei I.Iiaeee ? iiaeeyinueei? oea?eae a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

A.AEoeianueeee o nai?e iiiia?ao?? i?i I.Iiaeeo oaeiae aeaco? ia
noia?a/iino? a iiceoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ?noi?eea a ioe?ioe?
oea?eiaii-?ae?a?eii? ? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino? I.Iiaeee.
C?icoi?ei, ui oa?aeoa? oaeeo i?aoeue ia ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c iiaeyae?a
I.A?ooaanueeiai ia nooi?noue ? niaoeeo?eo ?ae?a??.

Ciaiee aeine?aeiee o?einionueei? ? noni?eueii? aeoiee Oe?a?ie A.I?/ee
ii?ooo? ieoaiiy i?i i?e/eie iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy I.A?ooaanueeiai aei
?ae?a?eii-eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?yeueiino? I.Iiaeee. Ia
caia?a/oth/e oaeiai i?aeoiaeo aeine?aeieoe?, aa?oi iaaieineoe, ui
ioe?iea I.A?ooaanueeei ?ae?a?eii-eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
I.Iiaeee a?oioo?oueny ia aeaniiio ?icoi?ii? noo? ?ae?a??, niaoeeo?ee
oe?a?inueei? ?ae?a?eii? aeooiaiino?. Iaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai ia
aoiaeeei a caaaeaiiy aaoi?a aiae?ciaaii? iiiia?ao??.

A no/ani?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? iayai? ni?iae ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iiaeyaee
I.A?ooaanueeiai ia i?noea ? ?ieue ?ae?a?? a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. A oaceniiio
ii?yaeeo oea a?aecia/athoue ?.A?a/ei, I.A?ei?a, I.Aecthaa. Iaeiae o oeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo ie ia ciaoiaeeii aiae?co aeania eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae
a/aiiai aei icia/aii? i?iaeaie, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy eiai iiaeyae?a,
cie?aia, ia nooi?noue ? niaoeeo?eo ?ae?a??.

Oae? a?aeii? a/ai? ye I.I??oeae ? ?.Ianeaanueeee aeneiaeee nai?
i??eoaaiiy uiaei aa/aiiy I.A?ooaanueeei ?ie? ie?aieo ?ae?a?eieo oa/?e a
?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae noaeaeaiiy ia oeth oaio I.I??oeaea ia iia’cai? c
?ae?a??ciaa/eie oyaeaiiyie oe?a?inueeiai ?noi?eea. ?.Ianeaanueeee aeaco?
ia aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a I.A?ooaanueeiai uiaei ioe?iee ?aoi?iaoe?eieo
aieea?a ia oe?a?inueea aeeooy, i?ioa ia aaea?oueny a aeaoaeueiee aiae?c
noaiiaeaiiy oaeeo iiaeyae?a I.A?ooaanueeiai.

Inoi?iiue aeuaiacaaieo ioae?eaoe?e noiyoue ?ica?aeee A.Eieiaeiiai, a
oaeiae ?.Ae?e/a ? A.Oeueyiianueeiai. A.Eieiaeiee noaa?aeaeo?, ui ca?aeii
c ?ae?a??ciaa/ith eiioeaioe??th a/aiiai ?ae?a?y ? iaeiei c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo /eiiee?a ?noi??? ethaenoaa. Iaeiae oea oaa?aeaeaiiy
ciaiiai aeine?aeieea ia iaaoei ?icai?iooiai aeaeyaeo, a a?aeiia?aeii a?i
ia aiae?co? i?iaeaie no?oeoo?e, ooieoe?iiaeueiino? ?ae?a?? oiui o
niaaeuei? I.A?ooaanueeiai. ?.A??e/ oa A.Oeueyiianueeee i?eeoee aei
aeniiaeo, ui iniiaia oaaaa a/aiiai eiioeaio?oaaeanue ia c’ynoaaii?
?ae?a?? ye noni?eueiiai e aeooiaiiai oaiiiaio, yeee aeeiio? ia?aaeon?i
eoeueoo?ii-ii?aeueio ooieoe?th. Cacia/eii, ui ?oiy ?iaioa aeeiiaia o
aenieii?ioan?eiiio noee? ?noi?ee?a, a oiio ia oi?ea?oueny ieoaiue
o?einionueeiai aiae?co ?ae?a??ciaa/eo ?aeae I.A?ooaanueeiai.

I?iaaaeaiee ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c oaie aeena?oaoe?? aea?
i?aenoaae aenioaaoe, ui aaoi?e aiae?ciaaieo ioae?eaoe?e oi?eathoueny
eeoa ie?aieo aniaeo?a ?ae?a??ciaa/i? eiioeaioe?? I.A?ooaanueeiai,
i?e/iio a ieiuei? nai?o aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue. Iaeiae ?ica?aeee, a
yeeo ae aiae?coaaeanue oai??y ?ae?a?? I.A?ooaanueeiai a eiioaeno? eiai
o?einio?? ?noi???, a?aenooi?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “I.A?ooaanueeee: i?iaeaie nooiino? oa
ooieoe?iiaeueiin-o? ?ae?a??” i?enay/aiee ia?aaeon?i c’ynoaaiith ieoaiiy
i?i nooi?noue, niaoeeo?eo ? no?oeoo?o ?ae?a?? o oai?/ino? a/aiiai.
Aa?o/e aei oaaae iaoiaeeeo aiae?co ieneeoaeai o??? /e ?ioi? ?ae?a??,
noeoii?noue aeneiaethaaiue i?i ia?, aeena?oaio i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo,
ui o eiai oai?/ino? ?ae?a?y iinoa? ye nenoaia na?oiaeyaeo ? eoeueoo.
Niaoeeo?/io iciaeo ?ae?a?? aeine?aeiee aaa/aa o a??? a iaaei?e?iaeia.
Iaeiae, oea ia ci?ia? ieoaiiy i?i ?icoi?iiy iei nooi?nieo iciae ?ae?a??.
O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui o eiioeaioe??
I.A?ooaanueeiai iniiaieie i?iaeaiaie ?ae?a?? ?: a?aeiioaiiy ethaeeie aei
aeeooy, ioe?iea ethaeeiith nia?o?, noaaeaiiy ethaeeie, nioe?aeueii?
ni?eueiioe aei ?ioeo ethaeae ? ni?eueiio, ?icoi?iiy ethaeeiith ethaeeie
? na?oo. Oe? i?iaeaie ?noi?ee /anoi iaceaaa ii?aeueieie, oi/ ?o iiaeia
aoei a iacaaoe ? aecenoaioe?aeueieie, ine?eueee aiie oi?eathoueny
iia?aie/ieo oiia ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy.

Na?oiaeyae ? aecia/aeueiei /eiieeii ?ae?a?eiiai eiiieaeno, o yeiio
aeie?aieth?oueny aeania na?oiaeyaeii-ii?aeueiee ?
a??iniia?aeii-aeiaiaoe/iee aniaeoe. sse aeieeaa? c i?aoeue a/aiiai, c
ia?oei aniaeoii ?aeaioeo?eothoueny nooi?ni? iciaee ?ae?a??, a c ae?oaei
— ?? niaoeeo?/i? ?ene. C icia/aiei i?aeoiaeii ei?aeththoue iiaeyaee
a/aiiai i?i aeooiaio (?aeaeio) ? i?aeoe/io (ia?yaeiao, eoeueoiao oiui)
noi?iie ?ae?a??, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith ci?noiaiith
ni?yiiaai?noth. Aeooiaiee aniaeo, a iniia? yeiai eaaeaoue
na?oiaeyaeii-ii?aeuei? /eiieee, iinoa? ye ae?yeuei?noue iniae ii
aoiai?noe/iiio ae??oaiith nieneiaeeoo?aeo i?iaeai. A iniia? i?aeoe/iiai
aai eoeueoiaiai /e ia?yaeiaiai aeyao ?ae?a?? eaaeaoue, ia?aaeian?i,
a??iniia?aeii-aeiaiaoe/i? /eiieee. Oaea ae?yeuei?noue iniae /e
ni?eueiioe ni?yiiaaia ia i?ineaaeaiiy iaaei?e?iaeiiai, eiai
oieeinoeaeaiiy, no?eioaaiiy a?ae oaeeo a/eie?a, ye? iiaeooue ia?aceoe
iaaei?e?iaeia oiui.

O ?icae?e? aiae?co?oueny oaeiae iieiaeaiiy I.A?ooaanueeiai i?i oa, ui
?ae?a?y ? niiniaii i?aaenoaaeaiiy, ?ai?acaioaoe?? ethaenoaa a ethaeei?,
inyaiaiiy iath nai?? ?iaeiai? nooiino?.

?ae?a?th I.A?ooaanueeee ?icaeyaea? ye iaaeoi neeaaeia aeooiaia
ooai?aiiy, cie?aia, ? ye eoeueoo?iee oaiiiai. Aiae?c i?aoeue
I.A?ooaanueeiai na?ae/eoue, ui ?ae?a?y aenooia? oi?iith aeyao
ia?iaeiino? (iaioaeueiino?) ? eoeueoo?e iaaiiai aoiino /e nioe?oio. A
?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iiio ieai? ia ?ae?a?y ? iniiaith eoeueoo?e, a iaioaeuei?
ianoaiiae i?aaenoaaiee?a iaaii? eoeueoo?e iinoathoue /eiieeaie, ye?
aecia/athoue niaoeeo?/i?noue o??? /e ?ioi? ?ae?a??. A oiio iaeaeeaeii?o?
a?aei?iiino? i?ae ?ae?a?yie eaaeaoue ia a aeiaiaoao, a a ?oiueiio
eoeueoo?iiio ci?no?. Aeine?aeaeothoueny oaeiae oyaeaiiy I.A?ooaanueeiai
i?i aca?iiae?th yce/ieoeueeeo ? na?oiaeo ?ae?a?e ? a oeueiio eiioaeno?
i?i oai?aiiy iiaeo eoeueoo?ii-?ae?a?eieo oi?i.

O ?aoa?iaaiiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee
I.A?ooaanueeiai uiaei aieeao nioe?aeueieo oiia ia noaiiaeaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ae?a?eiiai na?oiaeyaeo. Aaoi? aeie?aieth? aeaa iniiai?
aniaeoe. Ia?oee ia?aaeaa/a? aeine?aeaeaiiy oiai, ye nioe?aeueia
noaiiaeua iaaii? ni?eueiioe, ?? nioe?aeuei? oiiaeiaaiiy, iano?i? ?
onoaiiaee, oa?aeoa? aca?iei c ?ioeie ni?eueiioaie ? aecia/aeueieie
/eiieeaie ?ae?a?eii? na?aeiiino?. Ae?oaee aniaeo eiioeaioe??
I.A?ooaanueeiai iia’ycaiee c eiai oaa?aeaeaiiyi i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue
nioe?aeueiiai ci?noo ?ae?a?? i?ia?aeiei oaiaeaioe?yi nioe?aeueii?
aaiethoe??.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaia oi/ea ci?o, ui o eiioeaioe?? I.A?ooaanueeiai
?ae?a?y ? yaeuai iie?ooieoe?iiaeueiei. Ia?aaeian?i ?ae?a?y aenooia?
oaeei niiniaii naiiaecia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai noa’?eoa a na?o?, yea iaaea?
eiai aoooth aeuee niene, aeuo oe?ii?noue ? aeua aei?aaaeaiiy.
Aca?iica’ycaiith c iath ? ooieoe?y caaacia/aiiy ae??aino?, ??aiiaaae
nioe?aeueiiai noa’?eoa a oiiaao eiai no?aaeaeaiiiai aeeooy. ?ae?a?y
iinoa? ? iaeaaaeeea?oei /eiieeii nie?aea?iino? ethaeae. ?ae?a?? aeanoea?
oaeiae ooieoe?? eoeueoo?ioai?aiiy, o?aineyoe?? eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae,
aeac?ioaa?aoe?? ni?eueiioe, /eaie yei? niia?aeothoue ??ci? ?ae?a??, a
oaeiae ?ioaa?aoe?? oeyoii aca?iii?iieeiaiiy eoeueoo?iiai ci?noo oeeo
?ae?a?e. Ca I.A?ooaanueeei, nioe?aeuei? ooieoe?? ?ae?a?? ?aae?cothoueny
uiiaeia?oa a ?? caeaoiino? aei?aaaeiaoaaoe, inay/oaaoe aai ae, iaaiaee,
caia?a/oaaoe nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua oiai /e ?ioiai nioe?aeueiiai
noa’?eoa, aooe /eiieeii noaiiaeaiiy, ooieoe?iioaaiiy e caiaiaaeo
i?ia?aeieo oaiaeaioe?e nioe?aeueii? aaiethoe??.

Oai??y ?ae?a?? ye oaei?, o I.A?ooaanueeiai ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c
eiioeaioe??th ?ae?a?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aeine?aeiee aeoiaeeoue c
oiai, ui ??ciei ia??iaeai oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? i?eoaiaiia nai???aeia
?ae?a?ei?noue, yeo oiiaeeeaeththoue nioe?aeueiee ? eoeueoo?iee i?ioeane.
?ae?a??th oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aaaaeaa I.A?ooaanueeee, ? oe?a?inueea
o?enoeyinoai, yea noi?ioaaeiny a O?V-XVII no. Ia?aaeaoaiaie eiai
noaiiaeaiiy aoee “iaa?/iee na?oiaeyae”, iaoo?ae?noe/ia ?ae?a?y,
aeaia??’y. Aeine?aeaeaiith iiaeyae?a I.A?ooaanueeiai ia oe? oi?ie
?ae?a?eii? aeooiaiino? oe?a?inueei? noni?eueiino? ? i?enay/aiee o?ao?e
?icae?e “I?iaeaia nai???aeiino? ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai aoiino
c aei?noi?e/ieo /an?a aei na?aaeeie O?V no. o niaaeuei?
I.A?ooaanueeiai”.

Iaioaaiiy “iaa?/iiai na?oiaeyaeo”, yeiai a/aiee aeine?aeaeo? ye
neeaaeieea oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa, ioiieth? aaaaoi a?e?a, ye?
ia?aaeothoue ?V no. i.a., oiaoi oiio /ano, eiee ca?aeii c eiai
?noi?e/iith eiioeaioe??th, ii/eia?oueny i?ioean iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ethaeiino?. O? eoeueoo?i? ? nioe?aeuei?
i?ioeane, ye? oa?aeoa?i? aeey oeueiai ia??iaeo i?aneia’yinueeiai aeeooy
na?ae/eee i?i caiaiaae ?iaeiieai?iiiai eaaeo.

Aeena?oaio i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?ae?a?eiiai
na?oiaa/aiiy oe?a?inueeiai aoiino aei?noi?e/ieo /an?a, I.A?ooaanueeee
?icaeyaea? iaa?th ye aeaiaio iaoo?ae?noe/iiai ?ae?a?eiiai eiiieaeno ia
noaae?? eiai oi?ioaaiiy. Ine?eueee iaoo?ae?noe/iee na?oiaeyae ia iaaoa
ae?acieo oi?i, oi a?i aoa i?ae i?iiecaiee, i?inyeiooee iaa??th, aai
?ioeie neiaaie, “iaa?/iee niin?a aeoiaiiy” noaiiaea eiai na?oeaaeio. O
aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioo?oueny, ui ca?aeii c iiaeyaeaie a/aiiai, a iniia?
oeeee?a iaa?/ieo ae?e eaaeaa niiy/iee eaeaiaea?. A eiioaeno?
a?aeoai?aiiy eiioeaioe?? a/aiiai i?i “iaa?/iee na?oiaeyae”, ye
neeaaeieea ia?iaeii? ?ae?a??, aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaa?oiooaaa
iayai?noue o i?e iieiaeaiue i?i aaoaioe/iee oa?aeoa? ?ae?a?eii-iaa?/ieo
oi?i oe?a?inueeiai aoiino aei?noi?e/ii? aeiae c iaei??? noi?iie, a c
ae?oai? — i?i ?o o?ainoi?iaoe?th o o?enoeyinueeo ?ae?a?th ia oa?aiao
Oe?a?ie.

sseui iaioaaiiy iaa?/iiai na?oiaeyaeo aoei oa?aeoa?iei aeey
aei?noi?e/ii? aeiae, oi ia?aaaaeaiiy iaoo?ae?noe/ii? ?ae?a??, ca?aeii c
eiioeaioe??th a/aiiai, ioiieth? ia??iae c inoaiiuei? /aa?o? IV no. aei
ii/aoeo ?O no. Oeth aeiao a?i icia/o? ye /i?iiii?nueei-aeoiaenueeo.
Aieiaiee ci?no oiai/anieo eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a a/aiee aaa/a? o
aca?iiae?? aeaaiueiai oe?a?inoaa c? na?oii a?aoeueeei ? ?einueeei, a
oaeiae c ?oaea?ciii, ?aeiaonueeeie, ??ainueeeie oa ?iae?enueeeie
a??oaaiiyie, aoaeaeeciii e ?ioeie ?ae?a?eieie oa/?yie. “Nioe?aeueiith
ee?oeiith”, o ye?e ?icaeaaany ?ae?a?eiee ci?no aeeooy, aoea, ca
I.A?ooaanueeei, iao??a?oaeueia ?iaeeia, a ?? aeiiii?/io iniiao noaiiaeei
oe?ai?ianueea ainiiaea?noai. Naia aei iio?aa inoaiiueiai
i?enoiniaothoueny ia?yaeia? ae?? ? oi?ie eoeueoo. O aeena?oaoe??
c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui ia eiai aeoieo, aieiaiith ?aea?th
iaa?/ii-iaoo?ae?noe/ii? ?ae?a?? ? ?aeay aieeao ethaeeie ia o? neee, ye?
i?aaeyoue na?oii, yea iaeiiai?oa ao?eeeanue o aaee/aiiyo. Iciaeaie
iaoo?ae?noe/ii? ?ae?a?? oe?a?ioe?a, ye aaaaeaa I.A?ooaanueeee, ?
ia?icaeiai?noue ?? oi?iaeueii-aeiaiaoe/ii? noi?iie, a iaoii?noue
?icaeiai?noue ii?aeueii? noi?iie. C eiai i?aoeue oaeiae aeieeaa?, ui o
ia??iae c IV ii ?O no. oi?ioaaeenue oae? ?ene ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy
oe?a?ioe?a, ye a?aenooi?noue eiioan?eii? aeiyoeiaino?, oiea?aioi?noue
aei ?ioeo a??iniia?aeaiue, iiaoe/i?noue oiui.

O ?aoa?iaaiiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny iiaeyaee oe?a?inueeiai a/aiiai
ia o? i?e/eie, ye? coiiaeee i?eeiyooy o?enoeyinoaa “caa?oo”, ui ? aoei
iniiaiith i?e/eiith ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaia??’y, oeueiai oaiiiaio
oe?a?inueeiai ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy Ee?ai-Aaeeoeueei? aeiae. Aeena?oaio
iaa?oiooaaa oi/eo ci?o, ui iiaeyaee I.A?ooaanueeiai ia nooue ? ?noi?e/io
aeieth aeaia??’y ? i?ea?iaeueieie. Oi/ a?i ? aeio?eioaaany oeo iiaeyae?a
ia oea yaeua, ye? aoee iioe?ai? a oiai/ani?e ? no/ani?e e?oa?aoo??
(ioe?iea eiai ye ii?aeiaiiy o?enoeyinueei? aeiaiaoeee ? yce/ieoeueeeo
?aeae, ia?aianaiiy ooieoe?e iiaainueeeo aia?a ia o?enoeyinueeeo nayoao
oiui), oa ana ae ?c ci?noiaii? noi?iie a/aiee oa?aeoa?ecoaaa eiai ye
“iaoai?/ia “aeai?a??’y””. Ioaea, ooo i?i aeaia??’y ye oe?e?nio ?ae?a?eio
nenoaio ia eaeaoueny. Oa?i?iii “iaoai?/ia” aeine?aeiee i?aee?aneth? oo
ianoaaeio, ui aoee a?aenooi? /eiieee caaaeyee yeei aeaia??’y
ooieoe?iioaaei a ye i?aai?/ia aeooiaia ?aei?noue, a a?aeoae aiii aoei
iicaaaeaia ?noi?e/ii? ia?niaeoeae. O oeueiio ca’yceo aeine?aeieoeueeee
?ioa?an ci?uaiee ia ieoaiiy, a ui ae iinoaei ia i?noe? aeaia??’y, aai ae
yea caaa?oaiiy iaea aaiethoe?y aeaia??’y.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii, ui ca?aeii c eiioeaioe??th I.A?ooaanueeiai,
iioe?aiiy o?enoeyinoaa iinoa? iaeaaaeeea?oei ? iaecia/ouei iiiaioii a
eoeueoo?i?e aaiethoe?? Oe?a?ie-?one. Iaeiae o na?oe? iaoiaeieia?/ieo
canaae a/aiiai iaiiaeeeai oaa?aeeoe i?i ?oeiaoe?th o?enoeyinoaii
aeio?enoeyinueei? eoeueoo?e, i?i iiaio ia?aiiao o?enoeyinoaa iaae
yce/anoaii. O?enoeyinoai iinoa? ooiaeaiaioaeueiei /eiieeii
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, a aeaia??’y o nai?o eeane/ieo
oi?iao aenooia? ye iaaiee ia??iae a aaiethoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy. Oeae ia??iae ?ae?a?eiiai “aeaiaeaaeaey”
cai?uo?oueny, ca?aeii c eiioeaioe??th aeine?aeieea, aeoeaiei i?ioeanii
onaiino?eiaiiy ye?nii iiaiai na?oiaeyaeii-?ae?a?eiiai ooai?aiiy —
oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa. Oea ? aoea ?ae?a?y oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
yea noaea i?aenoaaith eiai na?oiaeyaeo, ye aaaaeaa aeine?aeiee, aae aei
no/anieo eiio aei?a.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Oiiae noaiiaeaiiy oa nooi?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee
ia?iaeiiai o?enoeyinoaa” naia ? aeine?aeaeothoueny oai?aoe/i? oyaeaiiy
I.A?ooaanueeiai i?i /an ? oiiae noaiiaeaiiy iiai? ?ae?a??, ?? nooi?
aeyae oa a?aei?ie.

Ca?aeii c eiioeaioe??th I.A?ooaanueeiai, a?aecia/a?oueny a aeena?oaoe??,
“i?aeaaeeie iiaiai, ia?iaeiiai, oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa” aoee
caeeaaeai? a XIV-XVII no., oiaoi noaiiaeaiiy ia?iaeii? ?ae?a?? aeiaaea?
ia ia?aoiaeia? /ane: ii/aoie ia?oi? noaae?? eeaaeaoueny caiaiaaeii
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, a ae?oaa — iciaiaiiaaia noaiiaeaiiyi
eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae. Naia o oeae ia??iae oi?iothoueny iniiai? a?aei?ie
oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa ye iiai? ?ae?a??, iaea?eueo aaaiieie ? ??
ooieoe?? o nioe?aeueiiio, eoeueoo?iiio, iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeeoo? ia?iaeo,
a ioaea yeiaeiiai?oa ?ice?eaa?oueny ?? nooue. Aeena?oaio iaa?oioiao?
oaco, ui a?aeiia?aeii aei canaaeie/eo iieiaeaiue a/aiiai, naia o oeae
ia??iae ia?iaeia o?enoeyinoai aoei iiaia iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae aeey
?inoeoooe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy /e oi o aeaeyae? naiino?eii? oa/??
i?ioanoaionueeiai oeio (“oe?a?inueea ?aaiaaeuenueea o?enoeyinoai”), /e
oi o aeaeyae? ia?iaeii? o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae.

O aeena?oaoe?? c’yniaaii, ui oai?aoe/iei i?aea?oioyi oaa?aeaeaiue
I.A?ooaanueeiai i?i coiiaeai?noue iiai? a??e ?, ia?aaeian?i, eiai
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iieiaeaiue i?i aacen ? iaaeaoaeiao oa nioe?aeuei? oaeoe.
O? ci?ie, ye? o ?icaeyaeoaaiee ia??iae ni?e/eieeeny aei noaiiaeaiiy
ia?iaeiiai o?enoeyinoaa, I.A?ooaanueeee icia/ea ye “i?ioean in?aeaiiy ia
aeii ana? eoeueoo?ii? e nioe?aeueii? iaaeaoaeiae noa?i? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?”. Oeae aeniiaie a/aiiai ia? aeaiyea cia/aiiy. Ii-ia?oa,
a?i noaa?aeaeo?, ui o?enoeyinueea ?ae?a?y ye iaaeaoaeiaia yaeua
i?iaeiaaeeea nai? naiino?eia ?nioaaiiy ? i?ney oiai, ye aoee c?oeiiaai?
aeiiii?/i? iniiae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Niaoeeo?/i?noue i?aeoiaeo
I.A?ooaanueeiai aaa/a?oueny aeena?oaioii ? a oiio, ui ia eiai
ia?aeiiaiiy, o? ?ae?a?ei? oi?ie, ?aea?, eiioeaioe, ia?ace, ye?
oai?eeenue i?ioyaii noie?oue, ia o?eueee i?iaeiaaeeee nai? aoooy, aea e
aeyaeee naith aeoeai?noue a iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao, a naia
“ea?ioaaee oyaith, neiaii ? ia?ii iiaeo aa?noa, ui oai?eeenue ia ?o?iao
noa?i? Ee?ai-Aaeeoeueei? aea?aeaaiino?”. O oeueiio oaa?aeaeaii? ?
i?noeoueny nai???aeia ii?aeiaiiy ?aeae aaceno-iaaeaoaeiae c iieiaeaiiyi
i?i nioe?aeuei? oaeoe A.Aeth?eaaeia. Aaeaea ooo ?ae?a?y, ye
iaaeaoaeiaia yaeua, aeyaey?, c iaeiiai aieo, caeaoi?noue aei
i?iaeiaaeaiiy naiai ?nioaaiiy, aei a?aeoai?aiiy oa ia?aoai?aiiy, a c
ae?oaiai — cae?enithaaoe aeooiaiee oene ia iaai? nioe?aeuei? neee.

Ii-ae?oaa, i?ney ao?aoe oe?a?inoaii nai?? aea?aeaaiino?, eiai aeu?
aa?noae iin?aeathoue ieae/? nioe?aeuei? iiceoe??, ia?aoiaeyoue a naei ?
ii noo? noiaeyoue aei ??aiy ian. “?icii?ioo?oueny” i?ae n?euenueeith
ethaei?noth, a a?aeiia?aeii iaaeeaea?oueny aei iio?aa naea ? oea?eiaia
aa?noaa. Naia oe? nioe?aeuei? a?oie ? a?ae?a?aee i?ia?aeio ?ieue o
iioe?aii? o?enoeyinoaa na?aae ia?iaeieo ian. O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaia
oi/ea ci?o, ui ca?aeii c eiioeaioe??th I.A?ooaanueeiai, naia inoaii? ?
aenooiathoue nioe?aeueiei noa’?eoii iiai? ?ae?a?eiino?.

Ca I.A?ooaanueeei, i?aee?aneth?oueny a ?aoa?iaaiiio ?icae?e?, iiaee aoai
a ?noi??? o?enoeyinoaa ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie iia’caiee c oaeith
nioe?aeueiith ? eoeueoo?iith o?ainoi?iaoe??th, eiee iin?yie eiai
iiaeaeueoiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy noaee ia?iaei? iane. Oea ? aoei
ae??oaeueiei /eiieeii ia?aoai?aiiy eieenue io?oe?eiiai o?enoeyinoaa o
ia?iaeia.

Aiae?c niaaeueie I.A?ooaanueeiai aea? aeena?oaioo i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio yaeu? a?i aaa/aa oae? nooi?
aeyae. Aaeeaai? iei oa?i?ie “iiaa o?enoeyinoai”, “iiaa ?ae?a?y”, “iiaa
a??a” neoaoaaee aeey icia/aiiy iaeiiai c ??ciiaeae?a o?enoeyinoaa. Oey
iiaecia e?e?oueny ianaiia?aae o neie?aoe/iiio oa?aeoa?? oe??? ?ae?a??, o
ye?e ii?aeiothoueny ?aea? ia?aaeo?enoeyinueeiai na?oiaeyaeo
oe?a?inueeiai aoiino c o?enoeyinoaii ? oeie ?ae?a?eieie ?aeayie, ye?
iiaoooaaee ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie. Naia oey neie?aoe/i?noue oiaiiaeeeaeth?
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th iiai? ?ae?a?? c aoaeue-yeei o?enoeyinueeei ooai?aiiyi.
Iiiyooy “ia?iaeia o?enoeyinoai”, “ia?iaeia ?ae?a?y” aeacothoue ia oa, ui
iiaa a??a aoea oi?iith a?aeia?aaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo ?ioa?an?a ?
niiae?aaiue ia?aaeian?i ieae/eo aa?noa. Oa?i?i “oe?a?inueea
o?enoeyinoai” aeaco? ia oo i?eioeeiiao ianoaaeio, ui oeae ??ciiaeae
o?enoeyinoaa ca nai?i eoeueoo?iei ci?noii ? oe?a?inueeei, ? oi?iith
ae?aco iaoe?iiaeueiiai ci?noo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

Iiaeyaee I.A?ooaanueeiai ia a?aei?ie oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa
aeena?oaio aiae?co? c iaeyaeo ia ?icoi?iiy a/aiei nooiino?, niaoeeo?ee ?
no?oeoo?e ?ae?a?? ye oaei?. sseui, c iaeiiai aieo, acyoe aei oaaae
oaa?aeaeaiiy a/aiiai i?i iaea?eueoee aieea ia oe?a?inueeo noni?euei?noue
o?enoeyinueeeo ?aeae ii?aeueii? a?aeieaoe ? niieooe, a c ae?oaiai aieo,
ui iiiyooyie a??o, niieooa, a?aeieaoa inyaathoueny uiiaeia?oa noa?a
?iaeeiieo a?aeiinei, oi iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui ca?aeii c oai???th
I.A?ooaanueeiai, i?aaeiaoii na?oiaeyaeii-ii?aeueii? ?aoeaen?? o
ia?iaeiiio o?enoeyinoa? ? ianaiia?aae ?iaeeii? a?aeiineie.
Iaeaaaeeea?oeie neeaaeieeaie na?oiaeyaeii-ii?aeueiiai eiiiiiaioo
ia?iaeii? ?ae?a?? ? oaeiae ?aea? nie?aea?iino? oa nioe?aeueiino?,
oi?aa?naeueiino? ethaenoaa, ni?aaaaeeea?noue ? ii?aeueia
aaceiii?ii?ni?noue ye aeu? aeia?i/aniino? iniae. Na?oiaeyaeii-ii?aeuei?
ieoaiiy ia?iaeiiai o?enoeyinoaa iaaoee ia?aaaaeii caiiiai, ie?nueeiai
ii?aeueiiai ci?noo. Ocaaaeueiaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith
na?oiaeyaeii-ii?aeueiiai eiiiiiaioo oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa ?
aoiai?ci.

Iaenooo?a?oeie ?enaie a??iniia?aeii-aeiaiaoe/iiai aniaeoo ia?iaeiiai
o?enoeyinoaa, ye oea aeieeaa? c i?aoeue I.A?ooaanueeiai, ? a?aenooi?noue
eiioan?eii? i?oiaeienaeueiino?, aeiyoeiaino?. Ia aeoieo a/aiiai,
noaa?aeaeo?oueny o aeena?oaoe??, oey oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaiai o?enoeyinoaa
iaeeaea na?e a?aeaeoie ia an? iieiaeaiiy eiai a??iniia?aeiiai eiiieaeno.
Ia?aaeian?i oea noino?oueny a??e a aiaa. Aiae?coth/e ia?iaeio
oai?/?noue, I.A?ooaanueeee iaiaeii?aciai iaaieioo? ia ii?aeiaii? o i?e
oyaeaiue i?i ia?aaeo?enoeyinueeiai ? o?enoeyinueeiai Aia?a. sse c
oeueiai aeaeii, a/aiee aeciaaaa iieiaeaiiy, ui a nai?e nai?e iniia?
a??iniia?aei? iieiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa iinyoue neie?aoe/iee
oa?aeoa?. I.A?ooaanueeee aeaco? ? ia oa, ui a??a a Aiaa ii?aeio?oueny o
ia?iaei?e ?ae?a?? c a??ith o caeaoi?noue ethaeeie aieeaaoe ia o? neee,
ye? ea?othoue iaaeieeoi?i na?oii. Ioaea, a/aiee aaaea iiao i?i
ii?aeiaiiy a??e a Aiaa, ui ia?aaeaa/a? eiai oieeinoeaeaiiy ? iaa?/ieo
a??oaaiue. Eiee aeine?aeiee aaaea iiao i?i aeiaiaoe iia’ycai? c a??ith a
aiaa, oi a?i iaaieioo?, ui ia oeth noa?o a??ia/aiiy cae?enieee aieea
??ci? aeoae?noe/i? ?ae?a?ei? aeieo?eie ? ia?aaeian?i aieaa?nueea
aiaiiieuenoai.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui a?aeiia?aeii
aei eiioeaioe?? a/aiiai, a??iniia?aeii-aeiaiaoe/ia nenoaia iiaiai
o?enoeyinoaa ia?aaoaaea ia aoai? naiai noaiiaeaiiy. ? oi/a a ?? iniia?
eaaeeoue caaaeueiio?enoeyinueeee neiaie a??e, aeiaiaoeea iiai? ?ae?a??
ia oioiaeia aeiaeiiio c iai?yi?a o?enoeyinoaa. Nai?i aeine?aeaeaiiyi
a/aiee noaa?aeaeo? ui eoia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy a?aei?iiiai ?icoi?iiy noo?
? ci?noo a??iniia?aeieo ?noei, ?o ?ie? o aeeoo? a??oth/iai.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe a?ooaanuee?anueea aa/aiiy i?aeoe/ii?, eoeueoiai? /e
ia?yaeiai? noi?iie, aeena?oaio i?eeoia aei oaeeo aeniiae?a. Ii-ia?oa,
ca?aeii c eiioeaioe??th a/aiiai, ??ciiiai?oi? eoeueoia? ae?? aieaoai? a
iianyeeaiio ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae, a ioaea ci???ioiaai? ye ia
caaeiaieaiiy ?ae?a?eieo, oae ? ?aae?caoe?th ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo,
?iaeeii?o, a?iiaaenueeeo, ainiiaea?nueeeo iio?aa. Oaea i?aeoeea ??cei
eiio?anooaaea c i?oiaeienaeueii-oea?eiaiith ae?yeuei?noth. Ii-ae?oaa,
eoeueoiaa ae?yeuei?noue o ia?iaeiiio o?enoeyinoa? noaiiaeoue ?aei?noue
aeaio aeae?a — iaa?/iiai ? oieeinoeaethth/iai eoeueo?a. Ii-o?ao?, o
?icoi?ii? I.A?ooaanueeiai ?ae?a?eiee eoeueo iia’ycaiee c iaaieie
oyaeaiiyie ia o?eueee aeeeth/ii ?ae?a?eiiai, a e oe?ii?niiai oa?aeoa?o.
A?aeoae noa’?eo eoeueoiai? ae?yeueiino? ia o?eueee “aoiaeeoue”,
“anooia?” o na?o iaaieo oe?iiinoae ? niene?a, a e ia’?eoeaii noaa?aeaeo?
eiai ? ooaa?aeaeo?oueny a iueiio. C aeine?aeaeaiue a/aiiai, iaa?oioiao?
aaoi?, aeieeaa?, ui oe?a?inueei-o?enoeyinuee? ia?yaeia? ae?enoaa ni?eyee
ooaa?aeaeaiith iniae o na?o? oe?iiinoae aeaniiai aoiino. Ii-/aoaa?oa,
eoeueoiaa /e ia?yaeiaa noi?iia aoea oe?a?inueei-o?enoeyinueeith ia
o?eueee ?c ci?noiaiiai, aea e c oi?iaeueiiai aieo, ine?eueee “caeiaoea”
i?noea a ??/iiio naeyinueeiio eaeaiaea??.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iaaieioo?oueny, ui ca?aeii c iiaeyaeaie I.A?ooaanueeiai, ?ae?a?y ?
na?oi-aeyaeiith oi?iith ona?aeiieaiiy nioe?aeueiei noa’?eoii iia?aie/ieo
oiia naiai aoooy, a?aeiioaiiy aei na?oo e ?ioeo ethaeae (ni?eueiio), a
iniia? yeiai eaaeeoue a??a a ?nioaaiiy iaaei?e?iaeieo nee. ?ae?a?y — oea
niin?a ae??oaiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c a?aeiioaiiyi aei naiai ss, nai??
e ?ioeo ni?eueiio, na?oo caaaeii.

A?aecia/aii, ui o niaaeuei? a/aiiai ?ae?a?y iinoa? ye i?iaeoeo
iaioaeueiino?, eoeueoo?e ie?aiiai aoiino /e nioe?oio ? aiaeii/an ? ??
iin??i. I?ioeane aca?iiae?? ?ae?a?? iaaiiai aoiino ?c na?oiaith
?ae?a??th i?ecaiaeyoue aei oai?aiiy iiaeo eoeueoo?ii-?ae?a?eieo oi?i.
??ai? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ia?iaeo, iaei??th c iniia yeiai ? iiaa
?ae?a?y, aeaoa?i?iiaai? ianoaaeiaie, ye? oiiaeeeaeththoue aai
iaoiiaeeeaeththoue inai?iiy ? ?icaeoie iiceoeaieo ?en iiai? eoeueoo?e.

O iaoiaeieia?/iiio i?eioeei? a/aiiai uiaei nioe?aeueieo iniia
noaiiaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ae?a?? aeena?oaio aeie?aieth? aeaa
aca?iiiia’ycai? aniaeoe: aeine?aeaeaiiy oiai, ye nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua
iaaii? ni?eueiioe, c iaeiiai aieo, a c ae?oaiai — iaioaaiiy i?ia?aeii?
oaiaeaioe?? noni?eueii? aaiethoe?? ? aecia/aeueieie /eiieeaie ?ae?a?eii?
na?aeiiino?.

Oai??y ?ae?a??, ye oaei?, o I.A?ooaanueeiai ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c
eiioeaioe??th ?ae?a?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, yeei, o eiai niaaeuei?
iinoa? iiaa, oe?a?inueea, ia?iaeia o?enoeyinoai. Aiii oi?io?oueny o
ia?aoiaeia? /ane (XIV-XVII no.) oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? aiane?aeie ceeooy ?
aca?iii?iieeiaiiy nii??aeiaieo aeaiaio?a iaa?/ii-iaoo?ae?noe/ii?
?ae?a??, o?enoeyinoaa ? iao?enoeyinueeeo ?ae?a?e. Nooi? aeyae oaei?
?ae?a?? I.A?ooaanueeee aaa/aa a oiio, ui aiia ? iaeiei c ??ciiaeae?a
o?enoeyinoaa, oi?iith a?aeia?aaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo ?ioa?an?a ia?iaeieo
ian ? aeyaii iaoe?iiaeueiiai ci?noo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.
Iaaieioo?oueny, ui oe?a?inueea o?enoeyinoai eiinoeoothaaei iiaee oei
aeooiaiino?.

O aeniiaeao aecia/athoueny oaeiae ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai
aea/aiiy ?ae?a??ciaa/i? eiioeaioe?? I.A?ooaanueeiai, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue aeooaeueiei oai?aoe/iei ? i?eeeaaeiei caaaeaiiyi
a?o/eciyiiai ?ae?a??ciaanoaa.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeathoueny a ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1. Eiiae?aoee I.A. ?ae?a?y ye i?iaeaia aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy. (Aiae?c
iaeiiai i?aeoiaeo I.A?ooaanueeiai) //Aoiai?caoe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe
Oe?a?ie: caeiaooee, i?iaeaie, iiooee.-Eooeuee, 1993.- N.150-155.

2. Eiiae?aoee I.A. Nooi?noue, niaoeeo?ea ? no?oeoo?a ?ae?a?? o
oai?/ino? I.A?ooaanueeiai //Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. Na??y “O?einionuee?
iaoee”.-1997.-? 9.- N.93-99.

3. Eiiae?aoee E., Eiiae?aoee I. Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee: i?iaeaie noo?,
ooieoe?iiaeueiino? oa aeoie?a ?ae?a??.-Eooeuee, 1988.- 68 n.
(Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue o?einionueeee aiae?c iiaeyae?a I.A?ooaanueeiai
ia nooue, niaoeeo?eo ? no?oeoo?o ?ae?a??, ?icoi?iiy ?? ye oaiiiaio
eoeueoo?e ? noni?eueii-ooieoe?iioth/iai yaeua).

4. Eiiae?aoee I.A. A?ooaanueeee i?i ?ieue i?ioanoaioecio a ?noi???
Oe?a?ie //Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. Na??y “O?einio?y. Nioe?ieia?y.
Eoeueoo?ieia?y”.-1966.-? 2.-N.50-52.

5. Eiiae?aoee I.A. Eiioeaioe?y oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa
I.A?ooaanueeiai //O?enoeyinoai ? eoeueoo?a.-Ee?a-Oa?iii?eue,
1998.-N.82-85.

6. Eiiae?aoee I.A. Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa ia ?on? a ioe?ioe?
I.A?ooaanueeiai //Oace OOOVIII iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Eooeueeiai iaae?inoeoooo ?i.Ean?
Oe?a?iee.-Eooeuee, 1992.-*.1.-N.51.

7. I?i aeaye? iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oai??? ia?iaeiiai o?enoeyinoaa
I.A?ooaanueeiai //Iaoa??aee OL iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ean? Oe?a?iee.-Eooeuee, 1994.-*.3.-N.143.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eiiae?aoee I.A. Oaiiiai ?ae?a?? o o?einio?? ?noi??? I.N.A?ooaanueeiai.
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 09.00.11 — ?ae?a??ciaanoai. ?inoeooo o?einio??
?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa). Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? o?einionueeei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oaiiiaio ?ae?a?? o
o?einio?? ?noi??? I.N.A?ooaanueeiai. I?iaiae?ciaai? iiaeyaee a/aiiai ia
nooi?noue, niaoeeo?eo ? no?oeoo?o ?ae?a??, ?? nioe?aeuei? iniiae ?
noni?eueia ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Iaa?oioiaaii, ui oai??y ?ae?a?? ye oaei?, o
I.A?ooaanueeiai ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c eiioeaioe??th ?ae?a??
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ca?aeii c eiai iaoiaeieia?/ieie
iieiaeaiiyie, ??ciei ia??iaeai oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? i?eoaiaiia
nai???aeia ?ae?a?ei?noue. Aiae?co?oueny aa/aiiy a/aiei niaoeeo?ee
?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai aoiino o aei?noi?e/i? /ane,
/i?iiii?nueei-aeoiaenueeo aeiao, Ee?ai-Aaeeoeueeee ia??iae, ia?aoiaeia?
/ane. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca?aeii c eiioeaioe??th ?noi?eea, ?ae?a??th
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ? iiaa o?enoeyinoai. Aeine?aeaeothoueny
eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee I.A?ooaanueeiai uiaei /ano, oiia noaiiaeaiiy,
nooi?o aeya?a oa a?aei?i oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ae?a?y, nioe?aeueiee ? eoeueoo?iee i?ioeane,
na?oiaeyae, eoeueo, eoeueoo?a, iaa?/iee na?oiaeyae, iaoo?ae?noe/ia
?ae?a?y, ia?iaeia o?enoeyinoai, iiaa o?enoeyinoai, oe?a?inueea
o?enoeyinoai.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eiiae?aoee I.A. Oaiiiai ?aeeaee a oeeinioee enoi?ee I.N.A?ooaaneiai.
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.11 — ?aeeaeaaaaeaiea. Einoeooo oeeinioee eiaie
A.N.Neiai?iaeu IAI Oe?aeiu (Ioaeaeaiea ?aeeaeaaaaeaiey). Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony oeeinioneei enneaaeiaaieai oaiiiaia ?aeeaee a
oeeinioee enoi?ee I.N.A?ooaaneiai. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu acaeyaeu o/aiiai ia
nouiinoue, niaoeeoeeo e no?oeoo?o ?aeeaee, aa nioeeaeueiua iniiau e
iauanoaaiiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea.

A eiioeaioeee I.A?ooaaneiai ?aeeaey yaeyaony niiniaii iniciaiey e
?aoaiey nioeeaeueiui noauaeoii i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n a?aie/iuie oneiaeyie
/aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey: ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e aeecie (niune e
ioeaiea naiae aeecie, ii?aeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeeciue, a?ao e
eneoieaiea), ioeaiea /aeiaaeii nia?oe (nouiinoue nia?oe, eaeay
iinia?oiiai aicaeayiey), ioiioaiea ee/iinoe, nioeeaeueiie iauiinoe e
ae?oaei ethaeyi e iauiinoyi (i?iiiaaaeue ?aeeaeiciie eneeth/eoaeueiinoe
— oiea?aioiinoue, ieeina?aeea – iaieeina?aeiinoue, ethaiaue,
aoiaiiinoue); iiieiaiea /aeiaaeii /aeiaaea e ie?a (aneaoeci,
nieeaea?iinoue). ?aeeaey – yoi e niinia ?ai?acaioaoeee /aeiaa/anoaa a
/aeiaaea, iniciaiea ei naiae ?iaeiaie nouiinoe. Niaoeeoeea ?aeeaee
aeaeeony o/aiui a oaeii aeecia- e ie?iaini?eyoee, eioi?ia iniiauaaaony
ia aa?a a naa?ouanoanoaaiiia, oiaaea eae auyaeaieai a? nouiinoe
yaeythony oaeea ie?iaicc?ai/anei-ii?aeueiua ea/anoaa, eae ethaiaue,
aoiaiiinoue, nieeaea?iinoue. A no?oeoo?iii ieaia yeaiaioaie ?aeeaeiciiai
eiiieaena yaeythony ie?iaicc?aiea e eoeueo.

A o/aiee I.A?ooaaneiai i nioeeaeueiuo iniiaao ?aeeaee iiaeii auaeaeeoue
aeaa aeaaiuo iiaeoiaea, eioi?ua acaeiinaycaiu iaaeaeo niaie. Yoi
ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea ?aciuo neiaa e eeannia
iauanoaaiiinoe iaoneaaeeaaao iniaaiiinoe eo ?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey e
iieiaeaiea i niioaaonoaee nioeeaeueiiai niaea?aeaiey ?aeeaee aeaaiui
oaiaeaioeeyi iauanoaaiiie yaiethoeee – eioaa?aoeee e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee.

A aeenna?oaoeee iainiiaaia oi/ea c?aiey, /oi a eiioeaioeee I.A?ooaaneiai
?aeeaey – yaeaiea iieeooieoeeiiaeueiia. I?aaeaea anaai ?aeeaey aunooiaao
oaeei niiniaii naiiii?aaeaeaiey nioeeaeueiiai noauaeoa a ie?a, eioi?ue
i?eaeaao aai auoeth aunoee niune, aunooth oeaiiinoue e aunoaa
ii?aaaeaiea. Acaeiinaycaiiie n iae yaeyaony e ooieoeey iaania/aiey
aeaenoaaiiinoe nioeeaeueiiai noauaeoa a oneiaeyo aai no?aaeaeue/aneiai
auoey. ?aeeaey aunooiaao aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii nieeaea?iinoe ethaeae.
?aeeaee i?enoue oaeaea ooieoeee eoeueoo?ioai?/anoaa, o?aineyoeee
eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae, aeaceioaa?aoeee iauiinoe, i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?ie
eniiaaaeotho ?aciua ?aeeaee, a oaeaea a? eioaa?aoeee ioo?i
acaeiii?iieeiiaaiey eoeueoo?iiai niaea?aeaiey yoeo ?aeeaee. Niaeanii
I.A?ooaaneiio, nioeeaeueiua ooieoeee ?aeeaee ?aaeecothony i?aaeaea anaai
a a? aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaaeuaaoue eee ia ii?aaaeuaaoue nioeeaeueiia
iieiaeaiea oiai eee eiiai nioeeaeueiiai noauaeoa, auoue oaeoi?ii
noaiiaeaiey, ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e oiaaeea iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee
nioeeaeueiie yaiethoeee.

Iainiiaaii, /oi oai?ey ?aeeaee eae oaeiaie, o I.A?ooaaneiai ia?ac?uaii
naycaia n eiioeaioeeae ?aeeaee oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. Aeieacaii, /oi
niaeanii aai iaoiaeieiae/aneei iieiaeaieyi, ?aciui ia?eiaeai oe?aeineie
enoi?ee i?enoua naiaia?aciay ?aeeaeiciinoue. Aiaeece?oaony aeaeaiea
o/aiui niaoeeoeee ?aeeaeiciie aeece oe?aeineiai yoiina a aeienoi?e/aneea
a?aiaia, /a?iiii?nei-aeoiaeneoth yiioo, Eeaai-Aaeeoeeee ia?eiae,
ia?aoiaeiua a?aiaia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi niaeanii eiioeaioeee enoi?eea,
?aeeaeae oe?aeineiai ia?iaea yaeyaony iiaia o?enoeainoai. Enneaaeothony
eiioeaiooaeueiua iniiaaiey I.A?ooaaneiai, eanathueany a?aiaie, oneiaee
noaiiaeaiey, nouiinoiuo i?iyaeaiee e ioee/ee oe?aeineiai o?enoeainoaa.
Aeieacaii, /oi niaea?aeaoaeueiua i?eioeeiu enneaaeoaiiai yaeaiey o/aiue
oniao?eaae a oii, /oi iii auei iaeiie ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae o?enoeainoaa,
oi?iie io?aaeaiey nioeeaeueiuo eioa?ania ia?iaeiuo iann e i?iyaeaieai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai niaea?aeaiey oe?aeineie eoeueoo?u. Niaeanii eiioeaioeee
enneaaeiaaoaey, ia?iaeiia o?enoeainoai eiinoeooe?iaaei iiaue oei
aeooiaiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aeeaey, nioeeaeueiue e eoeueoo?iue i?ioeannu,
ie?iaicc?aiea, eoeueo, eoeueoo?a, iaae/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea,
iaoo?aeenoe/aneay ?aeeaey, ia?iaeiia o?enoeainoai, iiaia o?enoeainoai,
oe?aeineia o?enoeainoai.

SUMMARY

Kondratyk O.V. The Phenomenon of Religion in M.S.Hrushevkiy’s Philosophy
of History. Manuscript.

The thesis for the candidate of the Philosophy sciences degree on
religions studies — the code of specialisation is 09.00.11. The G.S.
Scovoroda Philosophy Institute of the Ukrainian National Academy of
Sciences (Departmont of Religious Studies). Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis presents the philosophical investigation of religious
phenomenon in M.S.Hrushevskiy’s philosophy of history. The scientist’s
views on the religion essence, specificity and structure, its social
basis and public functioning are analysed. It is grounded that according
to M.Hrushevskiy’s the theory of religion as such is inseperably
connected with the Ukrainian people religion conception. It is proved
that according to his methodological statements different periods of
Ukrainian history are characterized by peculiar religiousness. The
Scientist’s vision of specific Ukrainian people religious life in
prehistoric times, in the Blacksea-Danube, the Kyiv-Halytskiy and
transition periods is analysed. It is established that according to the
historian’s conception the new christianity was the religion of the
Ukrainian people. M. Hrushevskiy’s conceptional grounds concerning the
time, conditions, essences and distinction of the Ukrainian christianity
are investigated.

Key words: religion, social and cultural processes, outlook, cult,
culture, magic outlook, naturalistic religion, folk christianity, new
christianity, Ukrainian christianity.

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