Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie

“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”

AeAI*AIEI Eany Aeieo??aia

OAeE — 548.4: 620.186.1: 669.017.3

Oaciooai?aiiy a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao ia iniia? cae?ca i?e iane/aii?
acioii oa aoaeaoeai

05.16.01 — iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?ceee iaoae?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Neaei?aiei Na?a?e ?aaiiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie

“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”,

eaoaae?a o?ceee iaoae?a,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?aai/aiei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/,

?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A. Eo?aethiiaa IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e oaciaeo ??aiiaaa,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?iae?a/oe Ie?ineaa Aaneeueiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie

“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”,

eaoaae?a iaoaeiciaanoaa ? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee,

i?ioani?.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa ?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I. Iaoiia,

a?aeae?e o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoa??ae?a,

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 20 “ aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 1500 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.002.12 Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo“ ca aae?anith
252056, Ee?a- 56, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 37, IOOO “EI?“, 9 ei?ion, aoae.203.

C aeena?oaoe?eiith ?iaioith iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
a?ae?ioaoe? IOOO “EI?“ ca aae?anith 252056, i. Ee?a-56, i?iniaeo
Ia?aiiae, 37.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 19 “ 08 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee E 26.002.12 A.?. Oaaei?ia

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Aeey ci?oeiaiiy eiino?oeoe?eieo oa
?ino?oiai-oaeueieo noaeae oe?iei canoiniao?oueny o?i?ei-oa?i?/ia
ia?iaea, cie?aia, acioo-aaiiy. Acioiaai? oa?e iathoue aenie?
aioeei?ic?ei? oa i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino?. I?i-oa, ?nioth/? oaoiieia??
aciooaaiiy ia caaaeaee a?aeiia?aeathoue no/aniei iio?aaai, ye?
iaoiiaeai? ?icaeoeii iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy oa ?ioeo
aaeocae i?iieneiaino?. Iaaeie?eii ?nioth/eo oaoiieia?e iiaeia aaaaeaoe
o?eaae?noue ia-?iaee, iaaenieo ye?noue io?eiaiiai iiaa?oiaaiai
aeeooc?eiiai oa?o, iaaeinoaoith a?aeoai?thaai?noue i?ioean?a.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaoiiaeaia oei, ui aaaaoi
oai?a-oe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue oaciooai?aiiy i?e aciooaaii?
iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?ii-aaieo nieaa?a cae?ca ia cyniaai? a iiai?e i??? oa
iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?ia-ee. Iaea?eueo aaaeeea? c oeeo ieoaiue
aena?oeththoueny a aeaiiio ?icae?e? caaaeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?iaioe.

Oae, cacaeaeaa?aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui oieiaeia aeaoi?ioaaiiy
(aei o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee) nieaa?a cae?ca ca iaaieo oiia iiaea
nooo?ai i?enei?th-aaoe i?ioeane aciooaaiiy. Aoei iieacaii oaeiae, ui
iiia?aaeiy ieanoe/ia aeaoi?-iaoe?y (IIAe) ni?aaey? iii?oiee aieea ia
e?iaoeeo ?inoo, oaciaee ? o?i?/iee neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino?
iiaa?oiaaeo aeeooc?eieo oa??a. Iaee?auee eiiieaen aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae acioiaaieo oa??a aoei io?eiaii ia na-?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaeo
noaeyo, ye? i?noyoue o iaaaeeeeo e?eueeinoyo (aei 2%) i?o?eaei- oa
ea?a?aeiooai?thth/? eaaoth/? aeaiaioe: o?ii, iie?aaeai, oeoai, aieueo?ai
oa ?io?, — i?ney aeiciaaii? (10-20%) iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoi?iaoe??.

Iiaeia i/?eoaaoe, ui iayai?noue iaaii? e?eueeino? aoaeaoeth a
iane/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu? i?e aciooaaii? aoaea nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia
oi?ioaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeeooc?eieo oa??a a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao cae?ca
oa aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe aenieoaoaoe?eii aeanoeainoi iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a.

Oiio iaoeiaee oa i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
IIAe ia i?ioeane oaciooai?aiiy i?e noi?niiio iane/aii? acioii oa
aoaeaoeai nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca, neaaieaaiaaieo i?o?eaei- oa
ea?a?aeiooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie, cie?aia, o?iiii, oeoaiii. I?aeoe/iee
aniaeo iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe iioeiaeueiee neeaae acio-
oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iai aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iane/aiiy
aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaa?a cae?ca.

Iaoeia? caaaeaiiy, ye? i?e oeueiio iathoue ae??ooaaoeny, — anoaiiaeaiiy
caei-iii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy oac, ui ooai?ththoueny a aeaoi?iiaaieo
nieaaao cae?ca i?e noi?niiio iane/aii? acioii ? aoaeaoeai. Iai?eeeaae,
aeeneon?eiei a e?oa?aoo-?? caeeoa?oueny ieoaiiy uiaei oeio oa ia?aiao??a
e?enoae?/ieo a?aoie oac, ui oi?iothoueny. Aaaaeaiiy a ai?a/io aoiinoa?o
aoaeaoeueai?uoth/eo aac?a i?aeaeuo? ?iia??i?noue ooai?aiiy -oeaiaioeoo
ii?yae c acioai?uoth/eie oacaie a nieaaao cae?ca. Aea nenoaiaoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a oeueiio iai?yieo ae?ae iaiaaeai?.

Oaeiae aeooaeueiei ? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao IIAe ia oa?aeoa?
eiioeaio?aoe?e-iiai ?iciiae?eo acioo ? aoaeaoeth a aeeooc?eiiio oa?? ca
aeiiiiiaith no/anieo iaoi-ae?a aiae?co. Aeai? oaeiai ?iaeo i?aeoe/ii
a?aenooi?.

A aeaiee /an ia ?nio? ?aeeii? oi/ee ci?o ia oa, a /iio i?e/eia
ca?eueoaiiai ianiia?aianaiiy aeii?oie i?iieeiaiiy a aeaoi?iiaaieo
nieaaao ii??aiyii c ?ae?enoae?ciaaieie. ?acoeueoaoe iiia?aaei?o
aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy aoii?a
i?iieeiaiiy a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao iiaea aooe iao-iiaeaia ??cieie
i?e/eiaie: ?ooeea?noth aeeneieaoe?e, ye? i?ae aieeaii oaiia?a-oo?e ?
iai?oaeaiue caeaoi? ia?aiineoe aoiinoa?e aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ca
aeeneiea-oe?eii-aeeiai?/iei iaoai?ciii, i?aeaeuaiith ?ooeea?noth
aeii?oie i?iieeiaiiy a iie? a?aae??ioo iai?oaeaiue; e??i oiai, o?aaa
a?aoiaoaaoe aianie aei noia?iiai ianiia?aianaiiy ca ?aooiie
ca?iia?aie/ii? aeeooc??. Aianie ia?ae?/aieo iaoai?ci?a ia cyniaaiee.
Oiio aea/aiiy i?e/ei ca?eueoaiiai ianiia?aianaiiy i?aaenoaaey? iaoeiaee
oa i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an.

A ?yaeo nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue aea/aiiy – na?aae
aaaa-oueio ?ioeo nenoai nieaa?a nenoai Fe-Cr, Fe-Cr-Ti. A?aeiii, ui
eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii i?aeaeuo? aia?a?th cayceo aoii?a i?iieeiaiiy c
aeeneieaoe?yie, ui, ye iiaeia i/?eoaaoe, aoaea caaacia/oaaoe ca?eueoaiiy
aoiinoa? aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ia aeeneieaoe?yo, caiia?aaoe a?ae?eao
aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a a?ae aoiinoa? i?ae /an ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e oa ni?eyoe
noaa?e?caoe?? eiiieaen?a “aeeneieaoe?y — aoii i?iieeiaiiy” i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao iane/aiiy ?, oaeei /eiii, ca?eueooaaoe ianiia?aianaiiy
acioo ? aoaeaoeth ?ooeeaeie aeeneieaoe?yie a i?ioean? o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee.

Eaaoaaiiy cae?ca oeoaiii – neeueiei i?o?eaei- ? ea?a?aeiooai?thth/ei
aea-iaioii – i?aeaeuo? ?ic/eii?noue aeaiaio?a i?iieeiaiiy, cie?aia,
acioo oa aoaea-oeth, a -oac?, ui caaacia/o? iane/aiiy oe??? oace acioii
? aoaeaoeai aei a?eueo aeni-eeo eiioeaio?aoe?e o ii??aiyii? c? nieaaaie,
ui ia i?noyoue oeoaio, oa ca?eueoo? ?? oaa?ae?noue. Oeoai iiaea
?ic/eithaaoeny a ci?oeithth/eo i?o?eaeieo, ea?a?aeieo oa ea?aii?o?eaeieo
oacao cae?ca; ?icoe?aiiy iaeano? aiiiaaiiino? oeeo oac caaaeyee
iayaiino? oeoaio, ooai?aiiy ea?a?ae?a, i?o?eae?a oa ea?aii?o?eae?a
oeoaio aoaea iao-iiaethaaoe i?aeaeuaiiy oaa?aeino?, i?oeiino? oa
ciinino?eeino? aeeooc?eieo oa??a. sseui aaea?oueny aeiaeoe ?aaeeie IIAe
oa o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee, ca yeeo noai-?ththoueny oiiae aeey
oi?ioaaiiy ia?ae?/aieo ci?oeithth/eo oac aenieiai nooiaiy aeenia?niino?,
oea aeicaiey? aeinyaoe i?aeaeuaiiy cacia/aieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae iiaa?oiaaeo aeeooc?eieo oa??a. E??i oiai, iiaeia i/?eoaaoe,
ui aoaeoe aieeao IIAe ? neeaaeo aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua ia oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeeooc?eieo oa??a (aeeaeio ? i?e?ioaa?ae?noue) i?iyaeyoueny a?eueo
?aeue?oii naia aeey nieaa?a, eaaiaaieo oeoaiii.

Iiaeia oaeiae i/?eoaaoe, ui noi?nia eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii ? oeoaiii
aeicaieeoue aeinyaoe eiia?iiaaiiai aoaeoo: ia o?eueee i?aeaeueoe
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? aeeooc?eieo oa??a caaaeyee aieeao oeoaio,
aea e ca?eueoeoe ianiia?a-ianaiiy acioo oa aoaeaoeth ?ooeeaeie
aeeneieaoe?yie aiane?aeie ni?eyoeeaiai aieeao o?iio. Oe? aoaeoe ca
iaoeie ioe?ieaie iiaeooue i?iyaeoeny a ?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e o?iio oa
eiioeaio?aoe?e oeoaio a nieaaao cae?ca ii?yaeea 0,5-2,0%.

Oaeei /eiii, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiee aea?? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo nieaa?a
Fe-Cr, Fe-Cr-Ti, e?euee?niiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy acio- oa
aoaeaoeueai?uoth/eo aac?a o iane-/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu?, oiia ia?iaee (a
oiio /ene? IIAe ? ?aaeei?a o?i?ei-oa?i?/-ii? ia?iaee) iiaea aeicaieeoe
io?eiaoe eiiieaen iiaeo iie?ioaieo aeanoe-ainoae: aeniei? oaa?aeino?,
i?oeiino?, ciinino?eeino? aeeooc?eieo oa??a. A oeueiio iieyaa? i?aeoe/ia
aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? ?iaioe.

Ioaea, oaio aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeooeueiith ye c iaoeiai?,
oae ? c i?aeoe/ii? oi/ie ci?o.

Caycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iaoeia?
?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aoee aeei?enoai? i?e
aeeiiaii? ianooiieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o:

1) Aea?aeaaiiai eiio?aeoo ? 6.9-98 “?ic?iaea ?ioaineaii? oaoiieia??
ci?oeiaiiy iiaa?oi? noaeaaeo ae?ia?a” (1996-1998 ?.?.);

2) aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie ? 2194 “?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy iiaa?oi? ?ino?oiaioaeueieo noaeae oa neioaoe/ieo nieaa?a”,
aeeth/aii? aei oaiaoe/ieo iea-i?a IAeAeE? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oao-i?/iee ?inoeooo” ia 1998 ? 1999
?iee oa aei eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio “Aeeooc?eia oi?-ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e,
oaciaee neeaae oa o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ia?niaeoeaieo iaoaeaaeo
iaoa??ae?a, iie?eoue ? oiieeo oa??a” I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ia
1997-1999 ?iee.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
anoaiia-eaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oaciooai?aiiy a i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao
iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaa?a Fe-Cr ? Fe-Cr-Ti (Fe-0,5%Cr;
Fe-1,0%Cr; Fe-1,5%Cr; Fe-1,3%Cr-0,6%O?; Fe-2,2%Cr-2,2%O?)* i?e iane/aii?
acioii ? aoaeaoeai oa aea/aiiy aeanoeainoae aeeooc?eieo oa??a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe a ?iaio? ae??ooaaeeny ianooii? caaea/?:

1) aeine?aeeoe aieea eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii o e?eueeino? 0,5-1,5% ia
e?iaoeeo oi?ioaaiiy, oaciaee neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino?
aeeooc?eieo oa??a a iiia-?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao Fe-Cr i?e
iane/aii? a acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/i-io aaciaiio na?aaeiaeu?;

2) aea/eoe aieea neeaaeo acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iai aaciaiai
iane/oth/iai na-?aaeiaeua ia oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a a iiia?aaeiuei
aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao Fe-Cr-Ti oa aecia/eoe neeaae iane/oth/iai
na?aaeiaeua, ui caaacia/o? iioeiaeue-iee eiiieaen aeanoeainoae
iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a;

3) anoaiiaeoe aieea IIAe ia oaciaee neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino?
aeeooc?e-ieo oa??a, e?iaoeeo oi?ioaaiiy oa eiioeaio?aoe?eiee ?iciiae?e
acioo ? aoaeaoeth ca aeeaeiith aeeooc?eiiai oa?o i?e iane/aii? nieaa?a
Fe-Cr-Ti a acio- oa aoaeaoeue-ai?uoth/iio aaciaiio na?aaeiaeu?
iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo.

* Eiioeaio?aoe?y o?iio ? oeoaio a nieaaao cae?ca iaaea?oueny a ianiaeo
%.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii aieea IIAe a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?
nooiai?a aeaoi?iaoe?? (aei 70 %) ia oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a,
e?iaoeeo ?o ?inoo, oaciaee neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? i?e
iane/aii? nieaa?a Fe-Cr oa Fe-Cr-Ti acioii ? aoaeaoeai. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
aeiciaaia (20-30%) IIAe caaacia/o? ?ioaineo?eaoe?th i?ioean?a iane/aiiy
nieaa?a cae?ca acioii oa aoaeaoeai a na?aaei-aeu? iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo,
ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai (a 1,5 ?aco) ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie
aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa i?aeaeuaiiy eiai i?e?ioaa?aeino? (ia 10-20%).

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii aieea neeaaeo acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iai aaciaiai
iane/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua* ia oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a a
aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao Fe-Cr-Ti. Iieacaii, ui neeaae aaciaiai
na?aaeiaeua, i?e yeiio a aeine?ae-aeoaaieo ia?eoao ooai?ththoueny
aeeooc?ei? oa?e c iioeiaeueiei eiiieaenii aean-oeainoae oa aeinyaa?oueny
iaeneiaeueiee aieea IIAe ia i?ioeane iane/aiiy nieaa?a cae?ca,
noaiiaeoue 902% (ia?iieo) ai?aeo ? 102% (ia?iieo) i?iiai-aooaio.

Aia?oa niinoa??aaeiny ooai?aiiy -oace c i?oi?iia?/iith e?enoae?/iith
a?aoeith, ?cino?oeoo?iith aei e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee oeaiaioeoo, a
aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao Fe-Cr-Ti a i?ioean? aciooaaiiy a acio- oa
aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iio aaciaiio na?aaeiaeu? i?e a?aeiinii iaaenie?e
oaiia?aoo?? O = 8535 E.

Iieacaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa oa?o ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac a
aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao i?e iane/aii? a acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iio
aaciaiio na?aaeiaeu? a?aeaoaa?oueny o aea? noaae?? (ia a?aei?io a?ae
?ae?enoae?ciaaieo); oaeaee?noue ?inoo oeeo oa??a ia ia?o?e noaae??
iane/aiiy (o?eaae?noth aei 2 aiaeei) cia/ii aeua (a 1,5-2,5 ?aco a
caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy IIAe nieaa?a), i?ae ia ae?oa?e.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeuei? oyaeaiiy i?i iiaeeea? i?e/eie i?enei?aiiy
oi?-ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a oa ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy aeii?oeiaeo
aoii?a i?iieeiaiiy a nieaaao cae?ca i?ney aeiciaaii? (20-30%) IIAe,
ca?aeii c yeeie a aeeooc?eiiio ianiia?aianaii? i?eeiathoue o/anoue
?ooeea? aeeneieaoe??, ui caeaoi? ia?aiineoe aoiinoa?e aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a
ca aeeneieaoe?eii-aeeiai?/iei iaoai?c-iii oa ca?eueooaaoe caaaeueiee
ianiia?aiin acioo ? aoaeaoeth a aeaoi?iiaaiiio iaoa??ae?. Eaaoaaiiy
cae?ca o?iiii i?aeaeuo? aia?a?th cayceo aoii?a i?iieeiai-iy c
aeeneieaoe?yie, ui oaeiae iaoiiaeth? ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy acioo ?
aoaeaoeth ca aeeneieaoe?eii-aeeiai?/iei iaoai?ciii.

Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii aieea IIAe ia eiioeaio?aoe?eiee ?iciiae?e acioo ?
aoaea-oeth ca aeeaeiith aeeooc?eiiai oa?o a nieaa? Fe-Cr-Ti i?e
iane/aii? o na?aaeiaeu? c ai?aeo oa i?iiai-aooaio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
aeiciaaia (20-30%) IIAe i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
acioo oa aoaeaoeth a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? (ia aeeaei? aei 10 iei a 1,3-1,4
?aco), aoaeoeaii? aeeaeie i?iieeiaiiy oa caaaeueii? e?eueeino? acioo ?
aoaeaoeth a aeeooc?eiiio oa?? (a 1,5-1,6 ?aco).

* Neeaae acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iai na?aaeiaeua a aeai?e ?iaio?
caaeaaaany ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi e?eueeinoae ai?aeo oa i?iiai-aooaio a
iane/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu?.

Caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi cai?iiiiiaaii iia? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Aieea iiia?aaeiuei? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia oaciaee neeaae,
no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? aeeooc?eieo oa??a nieaa?a Fe-Cr-Ti nooo?ai
caeaaeeoue a?ae neeaaeo acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iai aaciaiai
iane/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua; i?e iayaiino? 102% (ia?iieo) i?iiai-aooaio a
iane/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu? a noi?o? c ai?aeii ia? i?noea iaeneiaeueiee
aieea iiia?aaeiuei? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia aeanoeain-o? aeeooc?eieo
oa??a (aeeaeio ? i?e?ioaa?ae?noue).

2. Iiia?aaeiy ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y nooo?ai aieeaa? ia e?iaoeeo
oi?io-aaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a i?e aciooaaii? a acio- oa
aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iio aaciaiio na?aaeiaeu?, ia ?o oaciaee neeaae,
no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino?; ?niothoue aocuee? ?ioa?-aaee iiia?aaeiuei?
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? (20-30%) nieaa?a Fe-Cr oa Fe-Cr-Ti, i?e
iane/aii? yeeo acioii oa aoaeaoeai oi?iothoueny aeeooc?ei? oa?e c
iioeiaeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (iaeneiaeueiith aeeaeiith oa aenieith
i?e?ioaa?ae?noth).

3. Aeiciaaia iiia?aaeiy ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y (20-30%) i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ooai?aiiy a i?ioean? aciooaaiiy nieaa?a Fe-Cr-Ti ea?aii?o?eaeii? -oace c
e?enoa-e?/iith a?aoeith, ?cino?oeoo?iith aei e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee
oeaiaioeoo, i?e iayaiino? 10% (ia?iieo) ? a?eueoa i?iiai-aooaio a
iane/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu? a noi?o? c ai?aeii.

4. Eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii a e?eueeino? 0,5-1,5% (ca ianith) iaoiiaeth?
ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy aeaiaio?a i?iieeiaiiy (acioo oa aoaeaoeth) a
iiia-?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao i?e aciooaai? a acio- oa
aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iio aaci-aiio na?aaeiaeu? oa i?enei?aiiy oi?ioaaiiy
aeeooc?eieo oa??a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeaii? ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe
aeei-?enoai? a i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?? i?ioean?a o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca. Cai?iiiiiaai? ?aaeeie ia?iaee nieaa?a
ia iniia? cae?ca oaeiae iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ci?oeiaiiy
eiino?oeoe?eieo oa ?ino?oiaioaeueieo noaeae, ui i?noyoue o iaaaeeeeo
e?eueeinoyo o?ii, aieueo?ai, iie?aaeai, oeoai (38O2ITHA, 40O, OAA, ?6I5,
4O5A2ON oa ?io?). Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a iiaeooue
aooe ?ic?iaeai? ?aaeeie ci?oeiaiiy iaoaei??caeueiiai oa ooaiiiaiai
?ino?oiaioo.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
?iaeaia?ii-o?ce/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O ioae?eaoe?yo, ui aeeiiai? o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, aeena?oaioia? iaeaaeeoue ianooiia: i?iaaaeaiiy
iiia?aaeiuei? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee
c?ace?a; aeeiiaiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?ieo, i?e?iaeth?i-iao?e/ieo,
?aioaaiino?oeoo?ieo, iaai?oiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeooc?eieo oa-??a;
aiae?c e?iaoeee ?inoo aeeooc?eieo oa??a; ia?iaea aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo; ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue; oi?ioethaaiiy
aeniiae?a; iaienaiiy noaoae.

Aaoi?ii iniaenoi aecia/aii iioeiaeueiee neeaae acio- oa
aoaeaoeueai?uoth-/iai aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iane/aiiy acioii oa
aoaeaoeai aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca; aea/aii aieea IIAe oa
eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii ia oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a, e?iaoeeo ?o
?inoo, oaciaee neeaae, no?oeoo?o ? aeanoeaino? i?e iane/aii? a acio- oa
aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iio aaciaiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aaoi?ii anoaiiaeaii ?ioa?aae
IIAe (20-30%), i?e iane/aii? a yeiio acioii oa aoaeaoeai nieaa?a cae?ca
aeeooc?ei? i?ioeane i?enei?ththoueny.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“E?enoae?caoe?y ? aeanoeaino? niea-a?a. Iia?oi? oaoiieia??” (i. Ee?a,
Oe?a?ia, 7-11 aeiaoiy 1997 ?.), Ae?oa?e I?aeia?iae-i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Eiino?oeoe?ei? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoa??aee’97” (i. Euea?a, Oe?a?-ia,
14-16 aeiaoiy 1997 ?.), iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iia?oi?
oaoiieia?? io?e-iaiiy oa ia?iaee nieaa?a a iaoaeo?a?? oa
iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?” (i. Ee?a, Oe?a?ia, 20-21 o?aaiy 1998 ?.),
Iaii??aeueiiio neiiic?oi? aeaaeai?ea A.I.A?eaei?aa ”Iaoaeeu e nieaau:
oaciaua i?aa?auaiey, no?oeoo?a, naienoaa” (i. Ee?a, Oe?a?ia, 21-25
aa?aniy 1998 ?.) oa iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e o?ceee iaoae?a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o iyoe
iaoeiaeo ?iaioao, o oiio /ene? /ioe?ueio noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, iyoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeeaaeaia ia 187 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 43 ?enoiea, 2 oaaeeoe?, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 138 iaeiaioaaiue.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Anooi ?ice?eaa? nooi?noue oa no/aniee noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie. A iueiio
iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, a yeiio noenei ?
e?eoe/ii aena?oeththoueny ?iaioe iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeiee?a ca oaiith
aeena?oaoe??. Cae?i/o?oueny ?icae?e iinoaiiaeith caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?iaaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaii iaoa??aee oa iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

A yeino? iaoa??aeo aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoei ia?aii nieaae cae?ca c
o?iiii ? oeoaiii: a?ia?i? nieaae Fe-Cr (Fe-0,5%Cr; Fe-1,0%Cr;
Fe-1,5%Cr); iio??ei? nieaae Fe-Cr-O? (Fe-2,2%Cr-2,2%O?;
Fe-1,3%Cr-0,6%O?). Ai?no eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a (o?iio ? oeoaio) ia
ia?aaeuoaaa ?o ?ic/eiiino? a oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei? iiaea?eii? nenoaie Fe-Cr
oa iio??eii? nenoaie Fe-Cr-O?. Aea?? oaeiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo nieaa?a
aoa coiiaeaiee iinoaaeaieie a ?iaio? caaea/aie.

IIAe c?ace?a cae?enithaaee oeyoii i?ieaoee a ia?aeaeueieo aaeeao c?
nooia-iyie iaoeniaiiy a?ae 5 aei 70% c aeene?aoi?noth 5 ? 10%. Iane/aiiy
nieaa?a acioii ? aoaeaoeai i?iaiaeeee i?e oaiia?aoo?? 8535 E (5805N),
oiaoi a iaeano? ?nio-aaiiy -oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio acioo i aoaeaoeth a IOeE
a?aooe? cae?ca, ui caaacia/o? aei-nyaiaiiy iaee?auiai eiiieaeno
i?oei?nieo aeanoeainoae aeeooc?eieo oa??a. O?e-aae?noue iane/aiiy
noaiiaeea 0,5; 1; 2; 4 ? 6 aiaeei aeey aea/aiiy e?iaoeee oi?io-aaiiy
aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa oa?o ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao
cae?ca. Ia?iaeo cae?enithaaee a noi?o? ai?aeo oa i?iiai-aooaio i?e
??cieo ni?a-a?aeiioaiiyo ?o e?eueeinoae a iane/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu? a?ae
100% ai?aeo aei 100% i?iiai-aooaio c aeene?aoi?noth 10% (ia?iieo) c
iaoith aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo iane/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai aieeao IIAe ia oa?aeoa?enoeee (aeeaeio ?
i?e?ioaa?ae?noue) aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa io?eiaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a c
iaee?auei eiiieaenii aeanoeainoae.

Ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo a ?iaio? caaea/ aeiaaaei aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeno
aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo eeane/ieo oa no/anieo o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeeooc?ei? oa?e aoei aeine?aeaeaii c aeei?enoaiiyi
eiiieaenii? iaoiaeeee, yea aeeth/aea i?e?ino?oeoo?iee,
i?e?iaeth?iiao?e/iee, ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee, aeeoa?aioe?eiee
oa?iiiaai?oiee (a neeueieo iieyo), aeaeo?iiii-ciiaeiaee (ACA) iaoiaee
aiae?co, aiae?c e?iaoeee ?inoo aeeooc?eieo oa??a, a oaeiae iioa?iaee
aiae?c aeeooc?eieo oa??a iaoiaeii Iaea-aeaeo?iiii? niaeo?ineii?? (IAN).

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe aeine?aeaeaii aieea neeaaeo acio- oa
aoaeaoeueai?uo-th/iai aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua c ai?aeo (NH3) oa
i?iiai-aooaio (I-A) ia oi?ioaai-iy aeeooc?eieo oa??a a aeaoi?iiaaiiio
nieaa? Fe-2,2%Cr-2,2%Ti i?e iane/aii? acioii ? aoaeaoeai, ia ?o oaciaee
neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino?.

Aieea IIAe ia aeeaeio oa i?e?ioaa?ae?noue aeeooc?eiiai oa?o caeaaeeoue
a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeinoae ai?aeo ? i?iiai-aooaio a iane/oth/iio
na?aaeiaeu?. Iaeneiaeueiee aieea IIAe ia oe? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeooc?eiiai
oa?o aeinyaa?oueny i?e iane/aii? a noi?o? c 902% ai?aeo ? 102%
i?iiai-aooaio: c i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy IIAe aei 30% aeeaeia aeeooc?eiiai
oa?o ca?eueoo?oueny a?ae 160 aei 240 iei (a 1,5 ?aco), i?e?ioaa?ae?noue
i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a – a?ae 15,5 aei 17.00,7 AIa (?en. 1).

C i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo i?iiai-aooaio a ia-ne/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu? iiiaae
10% niinoa??aa?oue-ny ciaioaiiy ye aeeaeie oa i?e?ioaa?aeino?
aee-ooc?eiiai oa?o ?ae?enoae?ciaaieo c?ace?a, oae ? aieeao IIAe ia oe?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeooc?eiiai oa?o (?en. 2).

Aaciaa noi?o neeaaeo: 902% ai?aeo ? 102% i?iiai-aooaio, — ?
iioeiaeueiith aeey iane/aiiy aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaa?a F-Cr-Ti acioii oa
aoaeaoeai i?e O=8535 E, ine?eueee i?e iane/aii? a oaeiio na?aaeiaeu?
caaacia/o?oueny oi?ioaaiiy aee-ooc?eieo oa??a c aenieith
i?e?ioaa?ae?noth (17,00,7 AIa) oa aeinyaa?oueny iaeneiaeueiee aieea IIAe
ia ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee.

I?e?ino?oeoo?e aee-ooc?eieo oa??a yaeythoue ni-aith noeoii?noue oa?o
ea?-aii?o?eaeieo oac ia iiaa?o-i? c?ace?a oa ciie oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
acioo ? aoaeaoeth a eaaiaai?e o?iiii ? oeoaiii oac?.

?acoeueoaoe ACA oa IAN i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui aeeooc?y aeaiaio?a
i?iiee-iaiiy (aieiaiei /eiii, acioo) iaeneiaeueii i?enei-?th?oueny c?
ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? aei 30% i?e iane/aii? a acio- oa
aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iio na?aaeiaeu? iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo (902% ai?aeo ?
102% i?iiai-aooaio). A?aeiia?aeii aei eiioeaio?aoe?eieo ?iciiae?e?a
acioo ? aoaeaoeth ca aeeaeiith aeeooc?eiiai oa?o (?en. 3), io?eiaieie ca
aeaieie ACA, c i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? aei 30% noia?ia
eiioeaio?aoe?y acioo ? aoaeaoeth a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? ia aeeaei? aei 10
iei ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,3-1,4 ?aco, aoaeoeaia aeeaeia i?iieeiaiiy oa
caaaeueia e?euee?noue acioo ? aoaeaoeth a oa?? ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,5-1,6
?aco.

Ca aeaieie ?aioaaiino?oeoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue neeaae acio- oa
aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iai aaciaiai na?a-aeiaeua nooo?ai aieeaa? ia oaciaee
neeaae aeeoo-c?eiiai oa?o aeaoi?iiaaieo c?ace?a. A caeaaeiino? a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeinoae ai?aeo ? i?iiai-aooaio a iane/oth/iio
na?aaeiaeu? aeeooc?eia ciia neeaaea?oueny c: 1) iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o oace c
aaenaaiiaeueiith a?aoeith aai iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o oace c i?oi?iia?/iith
a?aoeith, ?cino?oeoo?iith aei e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee oeaiai-oeoo; 2) oa?o
oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio acioo ? aoaeaoeth a eaaiaai?e o?iiii ? oeoaiii oac?.
Ooai?aiiy oace a i?ioean? aciooaaiiy i?e O=8535 E a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e
iayaiino? a iane/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu? 10% ? a?eueoa i?iiai-aooaio a
noi?o? c ai?-aeii. C i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy IIAe aei 30% e?euee?noue oace
a oa?? ca?eueoo?oueny. E??i oiai, c?inoa? oiaueia oa?o oace ia iiaa?oi?
c?ace?a. Aenia?eiaioaeueii ca?a?no?iaai? e?i?? oace cnoioo? a?aeiinii
oai?aoe/ieo o a?e iaioeo eoo?a aeeo?aeoe??, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
ea?aii?o?eaeiee oa?aeoa? oace oa ?ic/eiaiiy a i?e eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a
(o?iio, oeoaio).

Aeai? aeeoa?aioe?eiiai oa?iiiaai?oiiai aiae?co i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
iayai?noue a aee-ooc?eiiio oa?? oace, a oaeiae aeyaeythoue i?enooi?noue
oace ca ?o oi/eaie Eth??. I?e oeueiio oaiia?aoo?e iaai?oieo ia?aoai?aiue
oeeo oac cnoaathoueny a a?e a?eueoeo oaiia?aoo? (503 E aeey oace ? 803 E
aeey oace). sse a?aeiii, cnoa oi/ee Eth?? oace iaoiiaeaiee ci?iith ??
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, ui iaaia iiaycaii ?c cai?iith /anoeie aoii?a
aoaeaoeth a oeaiaioeo? aoiiaie acioo oa /anoeiaei ?ic/eiaiiyi aoaeaoeth
a oac?, a oaeiae c eaaoaaiiyi oeeo oac o?iiii ? oeoaiii. Oea neoaeeoue
aeiaeaoeiaei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ea?aii?o?eaeii? i?e?iaee oeeo oac. Ca
aaee/eiaie iaai?oieo aoaeo?a a oi/eao Eth?? ioe?iaia e?euee?noue acioo ?
aoaeaoeth a ea?aii?o?eaeieo oa?iiaai?oieo oacao nieaao, yea neeaaea?:
0,15% (ca ianith) – a oac? oa 0,55% — a oac?.

Ia ?en. 4 a, a iieacaii aieea IIAe ia ia??iae e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee oace.
Ca aaee/eiith ia??iaeo e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee N-C-oace iiaeia ioe?ieoe
ai?no acioo ? aoaeaoeth a i?e. Ciaioaiiy cia/aiiy ia??iaeo a?aoee
N-C-oace c? ca?eueoaiiyi noo-iaiy IIAe aei 40% iaaia iiaycaii c
?ic/eiaiiyi /anoeie aoii?a acioo ? aoaeaoeth ia aeeneieaoe?yo, ye?, ye
a?aeiii, ? “ianoeaie” aeey aoii?a i?iieeiaiiy.

C?noaaeyth/e io?eiai? aeai? a?aeiinii ia??iaeo a?aoee c ?acoeueoaoaie
aei??th-aaiiy i?e?ioaa?aeino? aeeooc?eieo oa??a, iiaeia a?aecia/eoe, ui
aeniea i?e?ioaa?-ae?noue iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a ia caaaeaee iaoiiaeaia
aaeeeei ai?noii acioo ? aoaeaoeth, ?ic/eiaieo a NCoac?, i?i ui iiaeia
noaeeoe ca aaee/eiith ia??iaeo ?? a?aoee. Oiio iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui
i?aeaeuaiiy oaa?aeino? aeeooc?eiiai oa?o aeaoi?-iiaaieo c?ace?a
coiiaeaia ?ioeie iaoai?ciaie ci?oe-iaiiy, oaeeie ye aeae?eaiiy
ae??aiiaeenia?nieo ea?ai-i?o?eae?a ia aeeneieaoe?yo. Ci?ia ia??iaeo
a?aoee NC oace ca aeeaeiith aeeoo-c?eiiai oa?o i?ney ??cieo nooiai?a
aeaoi?iaoe?? ei?a-eth? c a?aeiia?aeieie ?ic-iiae?eaie i?e?ioaa?aeino?
(aeea. ?en. 4, a).

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii aieea IIAe a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? nooiai?a aeaoi?iaoe?? aei 70% ia e?iaoeeo oi?ioaaiiy, oaciaee
neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? aeeooc?eieo oa??a i?e iane/aii? acioii
? aoaeaoeai nieaao Fe-1,3%Cr-0,6%Ti a na?aaeiaeu? iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo
(902% ai?aeo ? 102% i?iiai-aooaio).

I?e an?o ?aaeeiao ia?iaee, canoiniaaieo iaie, iaeneiaeueia ca?eueoaiiy
aeeaeie aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa oa?o ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac, i?e?ioaa?aeino?
i?eii-aa?oiaaeo oa??a, aeeaeie oa?o c i?aeaeuaiith i?e?ioaa?ae?noth
aeinyaa?oueny i?ney aeiciaaii? (20-30%) IIAe. Caeaaeiino? aeeaeie
aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa oa?o ea?ai-i?o?eaeieo oac a?ae nooiaiy IIAe c?ace?a
i?e iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao iane/aiiy iathoue aeno?aiaeueiee oa?aeoa?: ia
?aii?o noaae?yo iane/aiiy (aei 2 aiaeei) iaeneioie aeeaeie oeeo oa??a
niinoa??aathoueny i?ney 20-25% IIAe, c? ca?eueoaiiyi o?eaaei-no?
iane/aiiy aei 4-6 aiaeei i?ney 10-15% IIAe (?en. 5). Iaea?eueo?
cia/aiiy i?e?ioaa?aeino? aeeooc?eieo oa??a aeinyaathoueny i?ney 20-30%
IIAe.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui IIAe ia o?eueee i?enei?th? i?ioean iane/aiiy, aea e
ci?-ith? e?iaoeeo ?inoo aeeooc?eiiai oa?o (?en. 6). A?aeiii, ui
caeaaei?noue aeeaeie oa?o a?ae o?eaaeino? iane/aiiy i?e iino?ei?e
oaiia?aoo?? ia? ia?aaie?/iee oa?aeoa?:

yn = k, (1)

aea y ? y — a?aeiia?aeii caaaeueia aeeaeia aeeooc?e-iiai oa?o oa aeeaeia
iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o ea?ai-i?o?eaeieo oac, i;

n – iieaciee noaiaiy;

k – eiinoaioa, aei yei? aoiaeeoue eiao?oe??io aeeoo-c??, yeui aaaaeaoe,
ui a?i iino?eiee o /an?, i2/n;

— o?eaae?noue iane/aiiy, n.

A eiaa?eoi?/ieo eii?aeeiaoao oey caeaaei?noue e?i?eia:
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. (2)

Aiae?c e?iaoeee ?inoo oa??a (aeea. ?en. 6) iieacaa, ui oi?ioaaiiy
aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa oa?o ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac a aeaoi?iiaaieo niea-aao,
ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ae?enoae?ciaaieo, a?aeaoaa?oueny a aea? noaae??,
i?e/iio oaeae-e?noue ?inoo oeeo oa??a ia ia?o?e noaae?? (?? o?eaae?noue
aei 2 aiaeei) a 1,5-2,5 ?aco (a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy IIAe) aeua,
i?ae ia ae?oa?e. I?e ia?aoiae? a?ae ia?oi? aei ae?oai? noaae?? iane/aiiy
iii?oii ci?ith?oueny oa?aeoa? aieeao IIAe ia e?iaoeeo ?o ?inoo.
Iaeneiaeueiee ?ino oeeo oa??a a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao ia ia?o?e noaae??
iane/aiiy niinoa??aa?oueny i?ney 20-25% IIAe, a ia ae?oa?e – i?ney
10-15% IIAe. Aeaoi?iaoe?y aei 30-40% aaaea aei i?enei?aiiy oi?ioaaiiy
aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa oa?o ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac, iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy
nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? aei 70% — aei oiia?eueiaiiy ?o ?inoo.

Iayai?noue aoaeaoeth a iane/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu? i?e aciooaaii?
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie e?iaoeee ?inoo aeeooc?eieo oa??a a iiia?aaeiuei
aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao Fe-Cr-Ti, ia a?aei?io a?ae aciooaaiiy a
na?aaeiaeu? c ai?aeo, i?e yeiio ia?oa noaae?y i?ioeano oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iaioith oaeaee?noth ?inoo aeeooc?eiiai oa?o, oaeaee?noue ae?oai? noaae??
cia/ii ia?aaeuo? oaeaee?noue ia?oi?.

IIAe nooo?ai aieeaa? ia oaciaee neeaae aeeooc?eiiai oa?o nieaao
Fe-1,3%Cr-0,6%Ti, a?aeiinia e?euee?noue oace oa oace a aeeooc?eiiio oa??
ci?ith?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy IIAe. Ooai?aiiy oace i?e
iane/aii? a na?aaeiaeu? c 902% ai?aeo ? 102% i?iiai-aooaio
a?ae-aoaa?oueny a c?aceao, aeaoi?iiaaieo c? noo-iaiyie 25-30%. I?e
?aaeeiao ia?iaee iaoa??aeo ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaioeo, i?ae 25-30%, IIAe oa
a?eueoeo, i?ae 25-30%, IIAe niinoa??aa?oueny ia?aaaaeia oi?io-aaiiy a
aeeooc?eiiio oa?? -oace, i?e iayaiino? iaaaeeei? e?eueeino? -oace.
Cia/aiiy ia??iae?a aaenaaiiaeueii? a?aoee -oace (a = 0,2725 ii; n =
0,4383 ii) oa i?oi?iia?/ii? a?aoee -oace (a = 0,4533 ii; b = 0,5083 ii;
n = 0,6744 ii), anoa-iiaeai? ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie,
ei?aeththoue c? cia/aiiyie ia??iae?a a?ao-ee cacia/aieo oac a iaeano?
aiiiaaiiino?.

A iyoiio ?icae?e? iieacaii aieea eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii a e?eueeino?
0,5-1,5% (ca ianith) ia i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy, e?iaoeeo ?inoo, oaciaee
neeaae, no?oeoo-?o oa aeanoeaino? aeeooc?eieo oa??a a aeaoi?iiaaieo
nieaaao Fe-Cr i?e iane/aii? acioii ? aoaeaoeai a na?aaeiaeu? c 902%
ai?aeo ? 102% i?iiai-aooaio.

A?aeiii, ui eaaoaaiiy cae?ca i?o?eaei- oa ea?a?aeiooai?thth/eie
aeaiaioaie, cie?aia, o?iiii, ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith oaa?aeino? aeeooc?eiiai
oa?o oa iiaa?oia-aiai oa?o ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac, aea, a oie aea /an,
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy ?o aeeaeie a iaaeaoi?iiaaieo c?aceao. sse
aeaeii c ?en. 7, c i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?a-oe?? o?iio a?ae 0,5 aei 1,5%
a iaaeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao cae?ca i?e?ioaa?ae?noue aeeoo-c?eiiai oa?o
ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,4 ?aco, i?ioa aeeaeia aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa oa?o
ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac ciaioo?oueny a 1,5 ?aco. A nieaaao Fe-Cr i?ney
aeiciaaii? (20-30%) IIAe c i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo o?iio a?ae 0,5 aei 1,5%
i?e?ioaa?ae?noue oaeiae ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,4 ?aco, aeeaeia aeeooc?eiiai
oa?o ? oa?o ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac a ii??aiyii? c aeeaeiith aeeooc?eiiai
oa?o ? oa?o ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac a nieaaao c 0,5%Cr ia ci?ith?oueny.
Iaeneiaeueiee aieea IIAe ia aeeaeio ? i?e?ioaa?ae?noue aeeooc?eiiai oa?o
niinoa??aa?oueny aeey nieaao Fe-1,5%Cr. C i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy
aeaoi?iaoe?? nieaao Fe-1,5%Cr aei 25% i?ney 6 ai-aeei iane/aiiy aeeaeia
aee-ooc?eiiai oa?o ca?eueoo?oue-ny a 1,5 ?aco, aeeaeia oa?o
ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac — a 1,6 ?aco, i?e?ioaa?ae?noue i?eii-aa?oiaaeo oa??a
— a 1,2 ?a-co.

Aeeooc?ei? oa?e c iioe-iaeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeea-ie (iaeneiaeueiith
aeeae-iith oa aenieith i?e?ioaa?-ae?noth) oi?iothoueny a nieaa?
Fe-1,5%Cr i?ney aeiciaaii? (20-30%) aeaoi?iaoe??.

I?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo o?iio aei 1,5% a nieaaao cae?ca i?ney aeiciaaii? IIAe
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? ?inoo aeeooc?eiiai oa?o ? oa?o
ea?aii?o-?eaeieo oac ia ia?o?e ? ae?oa?e noaae?yo i?e iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao
iane/aiiy (?en. 8). Iaea?eueoee aieea IIAe ia oaeaee?noue ?inoo oeeo
oa??a ia? i?noea aeey nieaao Fe-1,5%Cr. Iaeneiaeueia oaeaee?noue ?inoo
oa??a niinoa??aa?oueny i?ney aeiciaaii? (20-30%) IIAe. Eaaoaaiiy nieaa?a
cae?ca o?iiii (0,5-1,5%) i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?e-nei?aiiy oi?ioaaiiy
aeeooc?eieo oa??a a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao: ?ic?aoiaai? ia i?aenoaa?
?acoeueoao?a aeaii? ?iaioe iieac/eee noaiaiy n = 1,5 (aeey Fe-1,5%Cr,
IIAe=25%) oa n = 1,8 (aeey Fe-0,5%Cr, IIAe=25%), — nooo?ai
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ca-aaeueiia?aeiiiai aeiaaeeo eaaae?aoe/ii?
ia?aaie?/ii? caeaaeiino? n = 2,0-2,1 (aeey ia-aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaa?a
Fe-Cr).

Aeeooc?eiee oa? neeaaea-?oueny c iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o -oace oa oa?o
oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio acioo oa aoaeaoeth a eaaiaai?e o?iiii -oac?.
?iia??i?noue ooai?aiiy oace c e?enoae?/-iith a?aoeith, ?cino?oeoo?iith
aei a?aoee oeaiaioeoo, i?aeaeuo-?oueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo o?iio aei
1,5% a nieaaao Fe-Cr i?ney aeiciaaii? IIAe. A nieaa? Fe-1,5%Cr i?ney
20-30% IIAe i?e iane/aii? acioii ? aoaea-oeai ia? i?noea oi?ioaaiiy
iaaaeeei? e?eueeino? oace ii?yae c -oacith.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo cai?iiiiiaai? iiaeaeuei?
oyaeaiiy i?i iiaeeea? i?e/eie i?enei?aiiy oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a
oa ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a i?iieeiaiiy a nieaaao
i?ney aeiciaaii? IIAe. Ca?aeii c oeeie oyaeaiiyie i?enei?aiiy
aeeooc?eieo i?ioean?a oa ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy aoiiia aeaiaio?a
i?iieeiaiiy a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao Fe-Cr, Fe-Cr-Ti iaoiiaeaia
iayai?noth a iaoa??ae? ?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoe?e, ye? caeaoi? ia?ai?uoaaoeny
i?ae aieeaii oaiia?aoo?e ? iai?oaeaiue oa ia?aiineoe aoiinoa?e
aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a (acioo ? aoaeaoeth) ca aeeneieaoe?eii-aeeiai?/iei
iaoai?ciii. Aaee/eia nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? aieeaa? ia e?euee?noue
?ooeeaeo aeenei-eaoe?e o iaoa??ae?. Ca iaaieo oiia IIAe (20-30%) oa
?aaeei?a o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee i?e aeeooc?eiiio iane/aii? e?euee?noue
?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoe?e a iaoa??ae? iiaea ca?eueooaaoeny, ui aoaea
i?ecaiaeeoe aei ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy acioo ? aoaeaoeth ca
aeeneieaoe?eii-aeeiai?/iei iaoai?ciii.

I?enei?aiiy oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a c? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo o?iio a
nieaaao Fe-Cr i?ney aeiciaaii? (20-30%) IIAe oaeiae iiaea aooe iiaycaii
c? ca?eue-oaiiyi ianiia?aianaiiy aoii?a i?iieeiaiiy ?ooeeaeie
aeeneieaoe?yie. A?aeiii, ui eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii i?aeaeuo? aia?a?th
cayceo aoii?a i?iieeiaiiy c aeeneieaoe?yie. Oea aoaea caaacia/oaaoe
ca?eueoaiiy aoiinoa? aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ia aeeneieaoe?yo, caiia?aaoe
a?ae?eao aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a a?ae aoiinoa? i?ae /an ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e oa
ni?eyoe noaa?e?caoe?? eiiieaen?a “aeeneieaoe?y — aoii i?iieeiaiiy” i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao iane/aiiy ?, oaeei /eiii, ca?eueooaaoe ianiia?aianaiiy
acioo ? aoaeaoeth ?ooeeaeie aeeneieaoe?yie a i?ioean? o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee.

Aeniiaee

1. A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii i?ioeane oaciooai?aiiy a i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao
iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaa?a Fe-0,5%Cr; Fe-1,0%Cr; Fe-1,5%Cr;
Fe-1,3%Cr-0,6%Ti; Fe-2,2%Cr-2,2%Ti i?e iane/aii? acioii ? aoaeaoeai,
e?iaoeeo oi?ioaai-iy, no?oeoo?o, eiioeaio?aoe?ei? ?iciiae?ee acioo ?
aoaeaoeth, aeanoeaino? io?eiaieo ca oaeith oaoiieia??th aeeooc?eieo
oa??a.

2. Aieea IIAe ia oaciaee neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? aeeooc?eieo
oa??a nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae neeaaeo acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iai
aaciaiai iane/o-th/iai na?aaeiaeua. I?e iayaiino? a iane/oth/iio
na?aaeiaeu? 102% (ia?iieo) i?iiai-aooaio a noi?o? c ai?aeii aieea IIAe
iaeneiaeueiee.

3. Aea/aii aieea neeaaeo acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iai aaciaiai
iane/oth/i-ai na?aaeiaeua ia oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a a iiia?aaeiuei
aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao Fe-Cr-Ti, ia ?o oaciaee neeaae, no?oeoo?o ?
aeanoeaino?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaciaa na?aaeiaeua neeaaeo: 902% ai?aeo ?
102% i?iiai-aooaio, — ? iioeiaeue-iei aeey iane/aiiy aeaoi?iiaaieo
nieaa?a Fe-Cr-Ti acioii oa aoaeaoeai i?e O=8535 E. I?e oaeiio
ni?aa?aeiioaii? e?eueeinoae ai?aeo ? i?iiai-aooaio a iane/oth/iio
na?aaeiaeu? caaacia/o?oueny iioeiaeueiee eiiieaen aeanoeainoae
iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a oa aeinyaa?oueny iaeneiaeueiee aieea IIAe ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee (aeeaeio ? i?e?ioaa?ae?noue) aeeooc?eieo oa??a. C
i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy IIAe aei 30% aeeaeia aeeooc?eiiai oa?o
ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,5 ?aco, i?e?ioaa?ae?noue i?eii-aa?oiaaeo oa??a
aeinyaa? 17,00,7 AIa.

4. Neeaae acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iai aaciaiai iane/oth/iai
na?aaeiaeua aieeaa? ia oaciaee neeaae aeeooc?eiiai oa?o a aeaoi?iiaaieo
nieaaao Fe-Cr-Ti. A caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeinoae ai?aeo
? i?iiai-aooaio aeeooc?eia ciia neeaaea?oueny c: 1) iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o
-oace c aaenaaiiaeueiith a?aoeith aai iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o -oace c
i?oi?iia?/iith a?aoeith, ?cino?oeoo?iith aei e?enoa-e?/ii? a?aoee
oeaiaioeoo (Fe3C); 2) oa?o oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio acioo oa aoaeaoeth a
eaaiaai?e o?iiii ? oeoaiii -oac?. Ooai?aiiy -oace a i?ioean? aciooaaiiy
i?e O=8535 E ia? i?noea a nieaa? Fe-2,2%Cr-2,2%Ti i?e iayaiino? a
iane/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu? 10% ? a?eueoa i?iiai-aooaio a noi?o? c ai?aeii;
c i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy IIAe aei 30% e?euee?noue -oace a aeeooc?eiiio
oa?? ca?eueoo?oueny.

5. Aea/aii aieea IIAe a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? nooiai?a aeaoi?iaoe?? (aei
70%) ia oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a a nieaaao Fe-Cr-O? i?e iane/aii? a
acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iio na?aaeiaeu? c 902% ai?aeo oa 102%
i?iiai-aooaio i?e O=8535 E.

Iieacaii, ui IIAe nooo?ai aieeaa? ia aeeaeio ? i?e?ioaa?ae?noue
aeeooc?e-iiai oa?o. Iaeneiaeueia ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie aeeooc?eiiai oa?o,
i?e?ioaa?aeino? i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a, aeeaeie oa?o c i?aeaeuaiith
i?e?ioaa?ae?noth aeinyaa?oueny i?ney aeiciaaii? (20-30%) IIAe. Aeiciaaia
(20-30%) IIAe i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?ioaine-o?eaoe?? i?ioean?a iane/aiiy
nieaa?a Fe-Cr-O? acioii ? aoaeaoeai o na?aaeiaeu? iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo.

6. IIAe aieeaa? ia eiioeaio?aoe?eiee ?iciiae?e acioo ? aoaeaoeth ca
aeeaeiith aeeooc?eiiai oa?o i?e iane/aii? a na?aaeiaeu? c 902% ai?aeo oa
102% i?iiai-aooaio. C i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy IIAe nieaao Fe-2,2%Cr-2,2%Ti
aei 30% eiioeaio-?aoe?y acioo ? aoaeaoeth a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? ia aeeaei?
aei 10 iei ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,3-1,4 ?aco, a ii??aiyii? c
eiioeaio?aoe??th acioo oa aoaeaoeth a iaaeaoi?iiaaiiio iaoa??ae?,
aoaeoeaia aeeaeia i?iieeiaiiy oa caaaeueia e?euee?noue acioo ? aoaeaoeth
a aeeooc?eiiio oa?? ca?eueoothoueny a 1,5-1,6 ?aco. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
i?enei?aiiy aeeooc?? oa ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy acioo ? aoaeaoeth a
aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao.

7. Anoaiiaeaii, ui IIAe aieeaa? ia e?iaoeeo ?inoo aeeooc?eiiai oa?o i?e
iane/aii? acioii ? aoaeaoeai a na?aaeiaeu? c 902% ai?aeo oa 102%
i?iiai-aooaio. Oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa eiai neeaaeiai? — oa?o
ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac — a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao, ia a?aei?io a?ae
?ae?enoae?ciaaieo, a?aeaoaa?oueny o aea? noaae??; oaeaee?noue ?inoo oeeo
oa??a ia ia?o?e noaae?? iane/aiiy (o?eaae?noth aei 2 aiaeei) a 1,5-2,5
(a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy IIAe c?ace?a) ?ace aeua, i?ae ia ae?oa?e.
Iaeneiaeuei? oaeaeeino? ?inoo aeeooc?eiiai oa?o oa oa?o ea?aii?o?eaeieo
oac a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao ia ia?o?e noaae?? iane/aiiy
niinoa??aathoueny i?ney 20-25% IIAe, ia ae?oa?e noaae??– i?ney 10-15%
IIAe.

Iayai?noue aoaeaoeth a iane/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu? ii?yae c acioii
i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?enei?aiiy oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a ia ia?o?e
noaae?? iane/aiiy, o ii??aiyii? c oi?ioaaiiyi aeeooc?eieo oa??a i?e
aciooaaii?.

8. IIAe nooo?ai aieeaa? ia oaciaee neeaae aeeooc?eiiai oa?o nieaao
Fe-1.3%Cr-0.6%Ti, a?aeiinia e?euee?noue oace oa -oace a aeeooc?eiiio
oa?? a caeaae-iino? a?ae nooiaiy IIAe ci?ith?oueny. A c?aceao,
aeaoi?iiaaieo c? nooiaiyie 25-30%, i?e iane/aii? a na?aaeiaeu? c 902%
ai?aeo oa 102% i?iiai-aooaio a?aeao-aa?oueny ooai?aiiy -oace. I?e
?aaeeiao ia?iaee iaoa??aeo ?c canoinoaaiiyi iai-oeo, i?ae 25-30%, IIAe
oa a?eueoeo, i?ae 25-30%, IIAe niinoa??aa?oueny ia?aaaaeia oi?ioaaiiy a
aeeooc?eiiio oa?? -oace, i?e iayaiino? iaaaeeei? e?eueeino? -oa-ce.
Cia/aiiy ia??iae?a aaeniaiiaeueii? a?aoee -oace oa i?oi?iia?/ii? a?aoee
-oace, anoaiiaeai? ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie, ei?aeththoue c?
cia/aiiyie ia??iae?a a?aoee cacia/aieo oac a iaeano? aiiiaaiiino?.

9. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii o e?eueeino? 0,5-1,5% (ca
ianith) ia e?iaoeeo oi?ioaaiiy, oaciaee neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino?
aeeoo-c?eieo oa??a a iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao Fe-Cr i?e
iane/aii? acioii oa aoaeaoeai a na?aaeiaeu? c 902% ai?aeo ? 102%
i?iiai-aooaio.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aieea IIAe ia oe? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeooc?eieo oa??a
caea-aeeoue a?ae ai?noo o?iio a nieaaao cae?ca. Iaeneiaeueiee aieea IIAe
ia aeeaeio ? i?e?ioaa?ae?noue aeeooc?eiiai oa?o niinoa??aa?oueny aeey
nieaao Fe-1,5%Cr. C i?aeae-uaiiyi ai?noo o?iio aei 1,5% a nieaaao Fe-Cr
i?ney aeiciaaii? (20-30%) IIAe i?e?ioaa?ae?noue aeeooc?eiiai oa?o
ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,4 ?aco, aeeaeia aeeooc?eiiai oa?o ? oa?o
ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac a ii??aiyii? c aeeaeiith aeeooc?eiiai oa?o ? oa?o
ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac a nieaaao c 0,5%Cr ia ci?ith?oueny.

10. Eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii o e?eueeino? 0,5-1,5% aaaea aei i?enei?aiiy
oi?-ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a oa ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy acioo oa
aoaeaoeth a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao i?e iane/aii? o na?aaeiaeu? c 902%
ai?aeo oa 102% i?iiai-aooaio. I?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo o?iio aei 1,5% a
nieaaao Fe-Cr i?ney aeiciaa-ii? (20-30%) IIAe i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eii-ai oa?o oa oa?o -oace i?e
iane/aii? acioii oa aoaeaoeai: ?ic?aoiaai? ia i?aenoa-a? ?acoeueoao?a
aeaii? ?iaioe iieac/eee noaiaiy a ??aiyii? yn = k, ui iieno? e?iaoeeo
oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eiiai oa?o, n = 1,5 (aeey Fe-1,5%Cr, IIAe=25%) oa n
= 1,8 (aeey Fe-0,5%Cr, IIAe=25%), — nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae
caaaeueiia?aeiiiai aeiaaeeo eaaae?aoe/ii? ia?aaie?/ii? caeaaeiino? y2 =
k (n = 2,0-2,1 aeey iaaeaoi?-iiaaieo nieaa?a Fe-Cr).

11. Eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii aieeaa? ia oaciaee neeaae aeeooc?eiiai oa?o
a iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao Fe-Cr i?e iane/aii? acioii ?
aoaeaoeai a na?a-aeiaeu? c 902% ai?aeo ? 102% i?iiai-aooaio i?e O=8535
E. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeeooc?eiee oa? neeaaea?oueny c iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o
-oace oa oa?o oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio acioo oa aoaeaoeth a eaaiaai?e o?iiii
-oac?. C? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo o?iio aei 1,5% a nieaaao Fe-Cr i?ney
aeiciaaii? IIAe ?iia??i?noue ooai?aiiy a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? oace c
e?enoae?/iith a?aoeith, ?cino?oeoo?iith aei a?aoee oeaiaioeoo,
i?aeaeuo?oueny: a nieaa? Fe-1,5%Cr i?ney aeiciaaii? (20-30%) IIAe
niinoa??aa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy iaaaeeei? e?eueeino? oace ii?yae c -oacith.

12. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeuei? oyaeaiiy i?i iiaeeea? i?e/eie i?enei?aiiy
oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a oa ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy aeii?oeiaeo
aoi-i?a i?iieeiaiiy a nieaaao i?ney aeiciaaii? IIAe, ca?aeii c yeeie a
aeeooc?eiiio ianiia?aianaii? i?eeiathoue o/anoue ?ooeea? aeeneieaoe??,
ui caeaoi? ia?aiineoe aoiinoa?e aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a oa ca?eueooaaoe
caaaeueiee ianiia?aiin acioo ? aoaeaoeth a aeaoi?iiaaiiio iaoa??ae?. Ca
iaaieo oiia IIAe (20-30%) oa ?aaeei?a o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee
e?euee?noue ?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoe?e a iaoa??ae? iiaea ca?eue-ooaaoeny, ui
aoaea i?ecaiaeeoe aei ca?eueoaiiy ianiia?aianaiiy acioo ? aoaeaoeth ca
aeeneieaoe?eii-aeeiai?/iei iaoai?ciii. Eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii i?aeaeuo?
aia?a?th cayceo aoii?a i?iieeiaiiy c aeeneieaoe?yie ? oaeiae iaoiiaeth?
ca?eueoai-iy ianiia?aianaiiy acioo ? aoaeaoeth ca
aeeneieaoe?eii-aeeiai?/iei iaoai?ciii.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

1. Neaei?aiei N.?., O?iy?a A.A., Aeai/aiei E.Ae., Oaeei TH.I., Aaneeue?a
I.I. Aieea neeaaeo aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua ia oi?ioaaiiy acioiaaieo oa??a
ia aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao cae?ca // Iaoaeeioeceea e iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee.
1998. – O. 20, ? 7. N.23-29.

2. Neaei?aiei N.?., Oeiy?a A.A., Aeai/aiei E.Ae., Oaeei TH.I. Oieiaeia
aeaoi?ioaaiiy ye aaaeeeaee oaeoi? i?enei?aiiy i?ioean?a iane/aiiy
nieaa?a cae?ca acioii oa aoaeaoeai // Iaoaeeioeceea e iiaaeoea
oaoiieiaee. – 1998. – O.20, ? 12. N.37-44.

3. Aeai/aiei E.Ae., Neaei?aiei N.E., Oeiyaa A.A., Oaeei TH.I. Aeeyiea
eaae?iaaiey aeaeaca o?iiii ia i?ioeannu oaciia?aciaaiey a
aeaoi?ie?iaaiiuo nieaaao i?e ianuuaiee acioii e oaea?iaeii //
Iaoaeeioeceea e iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee. – 1999. – O. 21, ? 5. – N.37-43.

4. Neaei?aiei N.E., Oeiyaa A.A., Aeai/aiei E.Ae., Oaeei TH.I. Iineieiue
iaaieoiue aiaeec aeeoooceiiiuo neiaa // Eca. AOCia. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey.
– 1996. ? 11. N.59-60.

Aiioaoe?y

Aeai/aiei E.Ae. Oaciooai?aiiy a aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaaao ia iniia? cae?ca
i?e iane/aii? acioii oa aoaeaoeai. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.16.01 – iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a.
– Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo”, Ee?a, 1999.

A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii i?ioeane oaciooai?aiiy a i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao
iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaieo nieaa?a Fe-0,5%Cr; Fe-1,0%Cr; Fe-1,5%Cr;
Fe-1,3%Cr-0,6%Ti; Fe-2,2%Cr-2,2%Ti i?e iane/aii? acioii ? aoaeaoeai,
e?iaoeeo oi?ioaai-iy, no?oeoo?o, eiioeaio?aoe?ei? ?iciiae?ee acioo ?
aoaeaoeth, aeanoeaino? io?eiaieo ca oaeith oaoiieia??th aeeooc?eieo
oa??a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aieea iiia?aaeiuei? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
(IIAe) ia oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae neeaaeo
acio- oa aoaeaoeueai?uoth/iai aaciaiai iane/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua.
Aeeoo-c?ei? oa?e c iioeiaeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (iaeneiaeueiith
aeeaeiith oa aeni-eith i?e?ioaa?ae?noth) ooai?ththoueny a nieaaao Fe-Cr,
Fe-Cr-Ti i?ney aeiciaaii? (20-30%) aeaoi?iaoe?? a noi?o? c 902% ai?aeo ?
102% i?iiai-aooaio. I?ney oaei? ia?iaee niinoa??aa?oueny ooai?aiiy
ea?aii?o?eaeii? oace c e?enoae?/iith a?ao-eith oeio oeaiaioeoo.
Eaaoaaiiy cae?ca o?iiii o e?eueeino? 0,5-1,5% i?ecaiaeeoue aei
i?enei?aiiy oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eieo oa??a a nieaaao i?ney aeiciaaii?
IIAe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeeooc?eiee oa?, aeaoi?iaoe?y, acio, aoaeaoeue, cae?ci,
o?ii, oaciooai?aiiy, e?iaoeea, i?enei?aiiy.

Aiiioaoeey

Aeai/aiei E.Ae. Oaciia?aciaaiea a aeaoi?ie?iaaiiuo nieaaao ia iniiaa
aeaeaca i?e ianuuaiee acioii e oaea?iaeii. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.01 – iaoaeeiaaaeaiea e oa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea
iaoaeeia. – Iaoeeiiaeueiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu “Eeaaneee
iieeoaoie/aneee einoeooo”, Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu i?ioeannu oaciia?aciaaiey a i?eiiaa?oiinoiuo
neiyo i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aeaoi?ie?iaaiiuo nieaaia Fe-0,5%Cr; Fe-1,0%Cr;
Fe-1,5%Cr; Fe-1,3%Cr-0,6%Ti; Fe-2,2%Cr-2,2%Ti i?e ianuuaiee acioii e
oaea?i-aeii, eeiaoeea oi?ie?iaaiey, no?oeoo?a, eiioeaio?aoeeiiiua
?ani?aaeaeaiey acioa e oaea?iaea, naienoaa iieo/aiiuo ii oaeie
oaoiieiaee aeeoooceiiiuo neiaa.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeeyiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee
(IIAe) ia oi?ie?iaaiea aeeoooceiiiuo neiaa nouanoaaiii caaeneo io
ninoaaa acio- e oaea?iaeniaea?aeauae aaciaie ianuuathuae n?aaeu. I?e
iaee/ee 102% i?iiai-aooaia a ianuuathuae n?aaea a niane n aiieaeii eiaao
ianoi iaene-iaeueiia aeeyiea IIAe ia naienoaa aeeoooceiiiuo neiaa
(aeoaeio e iee?ioaa?-aeinoue): n iiauoaieai noaiaie IIAe aei 30% aeoaeia
aeeoooceiiiiai neiy oaaee/eaaaony a 1,5 ?aca, iee?ioaa?aeinoue
i?eiiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa aeinoeaaao cia/aiee 17,00,7 AIa. Aaciaay n?aaea
nicoaaa: 902% (iauaiiuo) aiieaea e 102% (iauaiiuo) i?iiai-aooaia, —
yaeyaony iioeiaeueiie aeey ianuuaiey aeaoi?ie?iaaiiuo nieaaia Fe-Cr-Ti
acioii e oaea?iaeii.

A caaeneiinoe io niioiioaiey eiee/anoaa aiieaea e i?iiai-aooaia a
ianuuathuae n?aaea aeeoooceiiiay ciia ninoieo ec iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy
oacu n aaenaaiiaeueiie ?aoaoeie eee iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy oacu n
i?oi?iiae/aneie ?aoaoeie, ecino?oeoo?iie e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoea
oeaiaioeoa, e neiy oaa?aeiai ?anoai?a acioa e oaea?iaea a eaae?iaaiiie
o?iiii e oeoaiii oaca. Aeice?iaai-iay (20-30%) IIAe i?eaiaeeo e
ia?aciaaieth oacu a i?ioeanna acioe?iaaiey i?e O = 8535 E nieaaia
Fe-Cr-Ti i?e iaee/ee a ianuuathuae n?aaea 10% e aieueoa i?iiai-aooaia a
niane n aiieaeii.

Aeeoooceiiiua neie n iioeiaeueiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (iaeneiaeueiie
aeoaeiie e aunieie iee?ioaa?aeinoueth) ia?acothony a nieaaao Fe-Cr,
Fe-Cr-Ti iinea aeice?iaaiiie (20-30%) aeaoi?iaoeee i?e ianuuaiee a
n?aaea iioeiaeueiiai ninoaaa.

IIAe aeeyao ia eiioeaio?aoeeiiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea acioa e oaea?iaea ii
aeoaeia aeeoooceiiiiai neiy. N iiauoaieai noaiaie IIAe aei 30% noiia?iay
eiioeaio?aoeey acioa e oaea?iaea a iiaa?oiinoiii neia ia aeoaeia aei 10
iei oaaee/eaaaony a 1,3-1,4 ?aca, yooaeoeaiay aeoaeia i?iieeiiaaiey e
iauaa eiee/anoai acioa e oaea-?iaea a aeeoooceiiiii neia oaaee/eaaaony a
1,5-1,6 ?aca.

IIAe ia oieueei onei?yao i?ioeann ianuuaiey, ii e eciaiyao eeiaoeeo
?inoa neiy. Oi?ie?iaaiea aeeooceiiiiai neiy e neiy ea?aiieo?eaeiuo oac a
aeaoi?ie?iaai-iuo nieaaao, a ioee/ea io iaaeaoi?ie?iaaiiuo, i?ienoiaeeo
a aeaa noaaeee; nei?inoue ?inoa neiaa ia ia?aie noaaeee (aa
aeeeoaeueiinoue aei 2 /ania) a 1,5-2,5 ?aca (a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie
IIAe ia?acoeia) auoa, /ai ia aoi?ie. Iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue ?inoa neiaa
a aeaoi?ie?iaaiiuo nieaaao ia ia?aie noaaeee ianuuaiey iaaethaeaaony
iinea 20-25% IIAe, a ia aoi?ie – iinea 10-15% IIAe.

Eaae?iaaiea aeaeaca o?iiii a eiee/anoaa 0,5-1,5% (ii ianna) i?eaiaeeo e
onei?aieth oi?ie?iaaiey aeeoooceiiiuo neiaa e oaaee/aieth ianniia?aiina
aoiiia i?eianae aiaae?aiey (acioa e oaea?iaea) a i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
aeaoi?ie?iaai-iuo ni noaiaiyie 20-30% nieaaao Fe-Cr i?e ianuuaiee a
acio- e oaea?iaeniaea?-aeauae aaciaie n?aaea. Iaeneiaeueiia aeeyiea IIAe
ia aeoaeio e iee?ioaa?-aeinoue aeeoooceiiiiai neiy aeinoeaaaony aeey
nieaaa Fe-1,5%Cr. N iiauoaieai niaea?aeaiey o?iia aei 1,5% a nieaaao
Fe-Cr iinea aeice?iaaiiie (20-30%) IIAe iee?ioaa?aeinoue aeeoooceiiiiai
neiy oaaee/eaaaoueny a 1,4 ?aca, aeoaeia aeeoooceiiiiai neiy e neiy
ea?aiieo?eaeiuo oac ii n?aaiaieth n aeoaeiie yoeo neiaa a nieaaa n
0,5%Cr ia eciaiyaony. Iiauoaiea niaea?aeaiey o?iia aei 1,5% a nieaaao
Fe-Cr iinea aeice?iaaiiie (20-30%) IIAe i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth nei?inoe
oi?ie?iaaiey aeeoooceiiiiai neiy e neiy ea?aiieo?eaeiuo oac.
Iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue ?inoa yoeo neiaa iaaethaeaaony aeey nieaaa
Fe-1,5%Cr iinea aeice?iaaiiie IIAe.

I?aaeeiaeaiu iiaeaeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i aiciiaeiuo i?e/eiao onei?aiey
oi?ie?iaaiey aeeoooceiiiuo neiaa e oaaee/aiey ianniia?aiina i?eianiuo
aoiiia aiaae?aiey a nieaaao iinea aeice?iaaiiie IIAe, niaeanii eioi?ui a
aeeoooceiiiii ianniia?aiina i?eieiatho o/anoea iiaeaeaeiua aeeneieaoeee,
eioi?ua niiniaiu ia?aiineoue aoiinoa?u i?eianiuo aoiiia ii
aeeneieaoeeiiii-aeeiaie/aneiio iaoaiecio. Eaae?iaaiea aeaeaca o?iiii
iiauoaao aia?aeth nayce aoiiia aiaae?aiey n aeeneieaoeeyie, /oi oaeaea
iaoneiaeeaaao oaaee/aiea ianniia?aiina acioa e oaea?iaea ii
aeeneieaoeeiiii-aeeiaie/aneiio iaoaiecio.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeoooceiiiue neie, aeaoi?iaoeey, acio, oaea?iae,
aeaeaci, o?ii, oaciia?aciaaiea, eeiaoeea, onei?aiea.

Annotation

Demchenko L.D. Phase Formation in Iron Based Alloys Deformed over
Nitrogen and Carbon Saturation. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidates degree of Technical Sciences by speciality
05.16.01 – metallography and heat treatment of metals. – National
Technical University of Ukraine Kiev Polytechnical Institute, Kiev,
1999.

The phase formation processes in the surface layers of preliminary
deformed alloys Fe-0,5%Cr; Fe-1,0%Cr; Fe-1,5%Cr; Fe-1,3%Cr-0,6%Ti;
Fe-2,2%Cr-2,2%Ti during nitrogen and carbon saturation were
investigated. Also the formation kinetics, the structure, the
concentration distribution of nitrogen and carbon, the properties of
diffusion layers received under this technology were investigated. It
was established, that influence of the preliminary plastic deformation
(PPD) on diffusion layers formation considerably depended on composition
of gas saturating medium containing nitrogen and carbon. Diffusion
layers with optimal properties (maximum layers depth and high
microhardness) are formed in Fe-Cr, Fe-Cr-Ti alloys after defined
deformation (20-30%) in the mixture of 90% ammonia and 10%
propane-butane. Carbonitride phase that has cementite’s crystal lattice
is formed after such treatment. Iron alloying by 0.5-1.5% cromium
accelerates the diffusion layers formation in the alloys after defined
deformation PPD.

Key words: diffusion layer, deformation, nitrogen, carbon, iron,
cromium, phase formation, kinetics, acceleration.

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