OE?A?INUeEA OA?IAOeAAOE*IA AEAAeAI?ss

E?ani?eiaa Oaoyia Ieaenaiae??aia

OAeE: 615.322:582.651.224.

OA?IAEIAIINOE*IA AEA*AIIss IIAEE A?EI?? ?IC?IAEA IA ?? INIIA?
OA?IAEIEIA?*IEO CANIA?A

15.00.02 oa?iaoeaaoe/ia o?i?y oa oa?iaeiaiic?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oa?iaeiaiic?? Oe?a?inueei? oa?iaoeaaoe/ii?
aeaaeai??, I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

EIAAEUeIA AIEIAeEIE? IEEIEAEIAE*,

Oe?a?inueea oa?iaoeaaoe/ia aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oa?iaeiaiic??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo iaoe , i?ioani?

NA?A?I AIAOIE?E AAA?EEIAE*,

Oe?a?inueea oa?iaoeaaoe/ia aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith iaaee/ii? aioai?ee;

eaiaeeaeao oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

*OAAIEI IEAENAIAe? AEAAeEI?IAE*,

Oe?a?inueeee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a.

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? o?i?? ? oieneeieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Eaai?aoi??y iiooeo ?ineeiieo i?aia?ao?a ?
a?ioaoiieia?e ,

Aea?aeaaiiai iaoeiaiai oeaio?o e?ea?nueeeo cania?a (i.Oae?a)

Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ii? i?iieneiaino?

IAI Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_29___”09_1999 ?ieo i 10aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.605.01 i?e Oe?a?inuee?e
oa?iaoeaaoe/i?e aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: 310002, i.Oa?e?a,
aoe.Iooe?inueea, 53.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? aeaaeai?? (310168, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_27_”_081999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee A?eoeaiei ?.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue oa?iaoe?? ? ?ic?iaea
iiaeo e?ea?nueeeo cania?a. O?oicaniae c e?ea?nueei? ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie
oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaaee/i?e i?aeoeoe? aeey i?io?eaeoeee ?
e?eoaaiiy caoai?thaaiue na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoaie, cie?aia
a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae. Iiooe ?ineei c aeinoaoiueith ne?iaeiiith aacith,
ye? iiaeooue aooe aeiaeaoeiaei aeaea?aeii aei io?oeeiaeueieo aeae?a,
?aoe?iiaeueia ? eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy ne?iaeie, a oaeiae noai?aiiy ia
?o iniia? iiaeo cania?a aeooaeueia caaaeaiiy no/anii? oa?iaoe??.
Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiaothoue ?ineeie, ye? iathoue aaaaoia?eiaee
aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy a ia?iaei?e iaaeeoeei?.

Aei oaeeo ?ineei a?aeiineoueny iiaea a?ea, iaaiie yei? aeei?enoiaothoue
o ia?iaei?e oa iaoeia?e iaaeeoeei? ye a?iioaiceaiee, i?ioeiooeeiiee,
aa?iioieia?/iee ? e?iainieiiee can?a.

I?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoenue aeooaeueiith i?iaeaia iiooeo iiaeo cania?a
a?iioaiceaii? ae??, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoe/io
?iaioo no/anieo iaoiae?a noaiaea?oecaoe?? ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie ?
o?oicania?a, iniaeeai cai??a c e?ea?nueei? ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie.

Iaaeinoaoi? o?i?/ia oa oa?iaeieia?/ia aea/aiiy iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?, a
oaeiae aeinooii?noue ne?iaeie, noaee i?aenoaaith aeey iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Oe?OA c
i?iaeaie IIC Oe?a?ie (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0198O007008).

Iaoa oa caaea/e aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei i?iaanoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? oei?e Oe?a?ie, aea/eoe iiaeeea?noue
eiiieaeniiai canoinoaaiiy ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie, noai?eoe ia ?? iniia? iia?
e?ea?nuee? caniae, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee aiae?co ne?iaeie ?
o?oicania?a. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ae??ooaaeenue ianooii? caaaeaiiy :

? aeae?eeoe oa ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe a?ieia?/ii aeoeai? ?a/iaeie (AA?) c
iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?

? aecia/eoe e?euee?niee ai?no AA? a iaaiiao iiaee a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aea?aaa-oacy?ia;

? anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue i?e?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?
a?ae aea?aa oacy?a;

? anoaiiaeoe iniiai? aiaoiii-ae?aaiinoe/i? iciaee iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?;

? ?ic?iaeoe a?iioaiceaiee ca?? oa iaoiaee eiai ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oa
aiae?co;

? ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeee iaea?aeaiiy ? aiae?co aeno?aeo?a a?iioaiceaiiai
cai?o oa aea/eoe ?o oa?iaeieia?/i? aeanoeaino?;

? ?ic?iaeoe i?iaeoe aiae?oe/ii? ii?iaoeaii? aeieoiaioaoe?? ia ne?iaeio
iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? oa a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?iaaaeaii nenoaiaoe/ia
o?oio?i?/ia, oa?iaeieia?/ia aea/aiiy iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? oei?e Oe?a?ie.
Aecia/aia i?enooi?noue aoaeaaiae?a, ai?iieeneio, noa?i?ae?a, oaiieueieo
niieoe: ieneei?e/ieo eeneio, ieneeoia?ei?a, oeaaiii?ae?a, aeoa?eueieo
?a/iaei, e?iio?eueieo ?a/iaei (oei?io?e?a, aee?ieo eeneio). C iaaii?a
iiaee a?ei? aeae?eai? oa ?aeaioeo?eiaai? 16 niieoe na?aae yeeo: 2
iio?aei? eoia?ei?a aia?oa, 2 o?eoa?iaii?aee, 4 oeaaiii?aee, 2
ieneaaiciei? oa 5 oaiieea?aiiiaeo eeneio, 1 noa?i?ae. Aecia/aii
iayai?noue 22 i?e?iaeaiaio?a.

Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii aea/aiiy ai?noo a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei iaaii?a
iiaee a?ei? a caeaaeiino? a?ae no?ieo caaio?ae? ? i?noey c?inoaiiy
?ineeie. Anoaiiaeai? iniiai? aiaoiii-ae?aaiinoe/i? iciaee iiaee a?ei?.

Ii?aoeueiaai? iioeiaeuei? oiiae iaea?aeaiiy aeno?aeo?a ? ie?aieo
o?aeoe?e a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei. Anoaiiaeaii, ui noo? aeno?aeoe
iiaee a?ei? oa a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o i?iyaeythoue a?iioaceaio oa na/ia?io
ae?th. ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a aiae?co eiiieaeno oaiieueieo niieoe
a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o, aecia/ai? ii?oieia?/i? oa aiaoii?/i? iciaee cai?o
aeey ?ic?iaee AIAe. ?ic?iaeaii neeaae a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o ? iiaeaii
cayao ia iaoaio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaea?aeai? o?oio?i?/i? oa
oa?iaeieia?/i? aeai? aeacothoue ia iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy. iaaii?a
iiaee a?ei? ? a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o a e?eoaaii? a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae.
?ic?iaeai? i?iaeoe Oei/aniai? oa?iaeiiaeii? noaoo? ia iaaiie iiaee a?ei?
oa a?iioaiceaiee ca??. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y iaea?aeaiiy oa?iaeieia?/ieo
cania?a c iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? c iaoith noai?aiiy e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a
a?iioaiceaii? ae??. Oaoiieia?y a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o ii?aoeueiaaia a
oiiaao CAI “Eaeo?aae”.

Iaoa??aee ?iaioe aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? oa i?aeoe/i?e
?iaio? Oe?a?inueei? oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? aeaaeai?? oa Caii??cnueeiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o ?ic?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno:

? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ii aeei?enoaiith cai??a
e?ea?nueei? ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie aeey e?eoaaiiy a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae, a
oaeiae aeaieo, ii ?iciianthaeaeaiith, o?i?/iiio neeaaeo oa aeei?enoaiith
?ineei ?iaeo iiaea;

? aeae?eaii oa ?aeaioeo?eiaaii a?ieia?/ii aeoeai? ?a/iaeie c iaaii?a
iiaee a?ei? ;

? anoaiiaeaii e?euee?niee ai?no AA? a iaaiiao iiaee a?ei? a caeaaeiino?
a?ae aea?aa oacy?a;

? aea/aia aiaoii?/ia aoaeiaa iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?;

? ?ic?iaeaii niiniae iaea?aeaiiy noia?ieo aeno?aeo?a ? ie?aieo o?aeoe?e
ae?th/eo ?a/iaei oa aea/aii ?o oa?iaeieia?/i? aeanoeaino?;

? ?ic?iaeaii a?iioaiceaiee ca??, iaoiae aiae?co e?euee?niiai ai?noo
oaiieueieo niieoe oaaecia/ai? ii?oieiai-aiaoii?/i? iciiee oioiaeiino?,
/eneia? iieacieee yeino? cai?o.

? cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a iaea?aeaiiy e?ea?nueeiai caniao ? i?aeaioiaeaii
ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/io aeieoiaioaoe?th ia ne?iaeio ? o?oican?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeo?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? i?enay/ai?e
tha?eath ss?ineaanueeiai oa?iaoeaaoe/iiai ?inoeoooo (ss?ineaaeue, 1993),
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeo?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? iaoee oa i?aeoeee” (Caii??aeaey, 1995),
iaoeiai-i?aeo?/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii?e 75-??//th Oe?a?inueei?
oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? aeaaeai?? (Oa?e?a, 1996).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii ?5 i?aoeue, a oiio
/ene? 3 noaoo? o aeo?iaeao, 2 iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa 10 oac
aeiiia?aeae.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia
130 noi??ieao ? neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iy’oe
?icae?e?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a.

?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia oaaeeoeyie oa ?enoieaie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae i?noeoue 156 aeaea?aea, o oiio /ene? 20 ?iicaiieo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

1. Iiia?aaei? aecia/aiiy, aeae?eaiiy oa o?i?/ia aea/aiiy a?ieia?/ii
aeoeaieo ?a/iaei iiaee a?ei?.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie o?oio?i?/iiai aiae?co a iaaiiao iiaee a?ei?, ui
cono??/a?oueny a Oe?a?i? ia aea?aaao oacyyo (ae?ae oe?a?inueeee, ?ia?i?y
inaaaeiaeaoe?y, oiiiey /i?ia, yaeoiy aeiiaoiy, eeai oaoa?nueeee)
anoaiiaeaia iayai?noue ieneei?e/ieo eeneio, a?eueieo ai?iieeneio( 8),
eaeoei?a, a?eueieo oa ca’ycaieo oeoe??a (5), aeoaeeueieo ?a/iaei
eiiaeainiaaii? a?oie,o?eoa?iaiiaeo niieoe, eoia?ei?a, oeaaiii?ae?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aea?aaa oacy?i.

Iaoiaeaie ??aeeii? aeno?aeoe??, iaia?iai?,oiieioa?iai? oa eieiieiai?
aeno?aeoe?? aeae?eaii ? anoaiiaeaia aoaeiaa 16 ?a/iaei: 2 iio?aei?
eoia?eio (aia?oa ca a?aeiiinoyie aeinooiii? iai e?oa?aoo?e) 2 iio?aei?
o?eoa?iaii?ae?a, 5iio?aei? ieneei?e/ieo, 2 iio?aeieo aaicieii? eeneioe,
4 oeaaiii?aea,1?a/iaeia noa?i?aeii? i?e?iaee, i?aeoaa?aeaeaia o?i?/ia
no?oeoo?a aeae?eaieo ?a/iaei.

Aeaye? o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? aeae?eaieo ?a/iaei iaaaaeai? o
oaaeeoe? 1.

No?oeoo?o aeae?eaieo ?a/iaei anoaiiaeaii ia i?aenoaa? o?i?/ieo,
o?ce/ieo, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iaoiae?a aiae?co.

Eoia?eie. Aeae?eai? ?a/iaeie 2.1 ? 2.2 ia i?aenoaa? ye?nieo ?aaeoe?e,
oethi?anoeaioe?? ia o?iiaoia?aiao aei ? i?ney ia?iaee ?aaeoeaaie aoee
aecia/ai? aea? ?a/iaeie a?aeianai? aei iio?aeieo eoia?eio.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Aeaye? o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? ?a/iaei aeae?eaieo c iiaee a?ei?

? ii?a/iaeieCaaaeueia oi?ioea O, oii., C I.i[ ]
D20CenoaiaRf12345678Ieneeoia?eie12.1Oiaae?oa?ii (7- ieneeoia?ei)N 9I
6I3232-234152,2-AE0,2422.2. Neiiieaoei (6-iaoiene-7-ieneeoia?ei)N10I
8I4202-205192,16-AE0,61Noa?eie32.3.- n?oinoa?eiN29I50I133-135398,71
+37,5 (oei?ioi?i)A

A0,95

0,54O?eoa?iaii?aee4 2.4.Ieaaiieiaa eeneioaN30I48I3300-303460,8+79,0
(oei?ioi?i)A

A0,90

0,4452.5.O?nieiaaeeneioaN30I48I3280-283460,8+62,5 (oei?ioi?i) A

A0,89

0,45Ieneei?e/i? eeneioe62.6. Eaaiaa

eeneioa ( 3.4-ae?a?ae?ieneei-?e/ia eeneioa)N9I8I4195-197199,4

-A

Ae0,81

0,5072.7.n- eoia?iaa eeneioa (4-ieneei?e/ia)N9I6I3

I2I212-213180,5

-AAe0,90 0,6082.8. Oa?oeiaa eeneioa (3-iaoiene -4-ieneei?e/ia
)N10I10I4168-170194,5

-A

Ae0,88

0,5592.9.Oei?iaaiiaa eeneioa (5-0-eioa?e- D-o?iia
eeneioa)N16I18I9202-204353,20-32,8 (iaoaiie)A

A0,62

0,70102.10 Iaioei?iaaiiaa eeneioa (3-I eioa?e-D-o?iia
eeneioa)N16I18I9aii?o.354,31+2,6 (iaoaiie)A

A0,62

0,70Ieneaaiciei? eeneioe112.11. Aaeiaa eeneioa
(3.4,5-o?ea?ae?ieneaaicieia eeneioa)N7I6I5253170,2A

A0,65

0,44122.12.Aeaaiaa eeneioa (aeeeaeoii aaenaieneaeeoaii-ai?
eeneioe)N14I6I5360

?icee.302,2A

A0,33

0.82

I?iaeiaaeaiiy oaaeeoe? 1.

12345678Oeaaiii?aee132.13.Eaa?oeaoei
(3,5,7,3,4-iaioaa?ae?iene-oeaaii)N15I10I7309-311302,22-A

A0,71

0,44142.14 Ethoaie?i (5,7,
3,4-oao?aa?ae?iene-oeaaii)N15I10I6232-241286,22AA0,67
0,41152.15.Eaa?oeao?ei
(eaa?oeaoei-3-I—L-?aiiii??aiiceae)N21I20I12174-176465,4-18,4 (iaoaiie)A

A0,63

0,39162.16.?cieaa?oeao?ei(
eaa?oeaoei-3-I—D-aetheii??aiiceae)N21I20I12238-241-465,4-69,0

(iaoaiie)A

A0,53

0,36

I?ei?oea. A-i-aooaiie-ioeoiaa eeneioa-aiaea (4:1:2);
A-i-aooaiie-i??eaeei-aiaea (6:4:3); A-i-aooaiie-io?aoeia eeneioa-aiaea
(4:1:5); A-i-aooaiie-ai?ae (8:2); Ae-15% ioeoiaa eeneioa; A-2% ioeoiaa
eeneioa; AE-oei?ioi?i-oi?iai?ae (9:1).

?a/iaeie 2.1 ? 2.2 iathoue oa?aeoa?i? iaeneioie iiaeeiaiiy a OO —
niaeo?? a iaeano? 218-256 ii ? 298-344 ii, ui coiiaeai? ii?aeiaiiyi
i??iiiaiai ? aaicieueiiai e?eueoey. I?e aeiaeaaaii? aoeeaoo iao??th
aeyaeythoueny aaoio?iiia c?ooaiiy nioa niaeo?o, oa?aeoa?ia aeey
oaiieueieo a?ae?iena?oi.

A ?*-niaeo?ao niinoa??aathoueny nioae iiaeeiaiiy, a?iiaoe/ieo iiaea?eieo
ca’yce?a (1610-1575 ni-1), aaeaioieo eieeaaiue ea?aii?eueii? a?oie,
-ie?iia (1730 — 1690 ni-1), a?ae?ieneeueieo a?oi (3260-3350 ni).
?*-niaeo? ?a/iaeie 2.2 (ie??i nioa iiaeeiaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo aeey no?oeoo?e
eoia?eio) ia? iaeneioie i?e 2985 ? 2843 ni-1, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
iaoienea?oi?.

Aeano?oeoe?y ?a/iaei 2.1 ? 2.2 ?iaeenoiaiaei?iaeiith eeneioith a
na?aaeiaeu? ioeoiaiai aia?ae?eaeo ? ??aeeiai oaiieo i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ooai?aiiy eoia?eio. Aeae?eaiee eoia?ei c O ie. 65-67N ia aeaaaa a
ii??aiyii? c a??ia?aeiei c?aceii aeai?an?? oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy.
Aeoiaey/e c o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae aeaieo iieaeoey?ii? iane,
aeaiaioiiai neeaaeo, OO- oa ?*-niaeo??a, a oaeiae aeanoeainoae
i?iaeoeo?a aoeaoeethaaiiy, iaoeethaaiiy oa aeaciaoeethaaiiy ?a/iaeia 2.1
?aeaioeo?eiaaia ye 7-ieneeoia?ei (oiaae?oa?ii), ?a/iaeia 2.2 — ye
6-iaoiene-7-ieneeoia?ei (neiiieaoei).

O?i?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy aeae?eaieo iio?aeieo eoia?eio i?aaenoaaeai? ia
noai? (?en. .1).

Iio?aei? aaici—i??iia aeae?eai? iaie c iiaee a?ei? aia?oa.

O?eoa?iaii?aee. Ia iniia? o?iiaoia?ao?/iiai aiae?co ?a/iaeie 2.4 oa 2.5
aoee a?aeianai? aei o?eoa?iaii?ae?a.

?aeaioeo?eaoe?th ?a/iaei 2.4 oa 2.5 i?iaiaeeee /a?ac iaea?aeaiiy ?o
iio?aeieo. Oaeei /eiii i?e ?o aoeaoeethaaii? aoee iaea?aeai? aoeaoaoe,
ye? ia aeaaaee aeai?an?? oaiia?aoo?e oiieaiiy c aoeaoaoaie ?c
a??ia?aeieo c?ace?a o?nieiai? oa ieaaiieiai? eeneio. ?*-niaeo?e
aeine?aeaeo?ieo niieoe iathoue ?yae oa?aeoa?ieo nioa. Nioae iiaeeiaiiy
3300, 2750, 2200 ni-1 i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iayai?noue a?ae?ieneeueieo
a?oi, 1700 ni-1 a?aeiia?aea? aaeaioiei eieeaaiiyi N=I, 1600-1620 ni-1
oa?aeoa?i? aeey N=N ca’yceo. ??cieoey nioa iiaeeiaiiy ,ye? oa?aeoa?i?
aeey eieeaaiue -NI oa iaoeeueieo a?oi, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeiiouaiiy , ui
niieoee ? ?ciia?aie ? a?ae??ciythoueny ??ciei ?icoaooaaiiyi iaoeeueieo
a?oi o e?eueoe? A. ?a/iaeie 2.4 ?aeaioeo?eiaaia ye o?nieiaa oa 2.5 ye
ieaaiieiaa eeneioa.

Iio?aei? aaicieii? eeneioe.I?i iaeaaei?noue ?a/iaei 2.11 ? 2.12 aei
ieneaaicieieo eeneio na?ae/aoue aeai? ?*-niaeo??a I?enooi?noue
ea?aieneeueii? a?oie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny nioaaie iiaeeiaiiy a iaeano?
3050-2670 ni-1 (-II-a?oia ? NIII) oa 1720-1712 ni-1 (N=I a -NIII),
i?enooi?noue oai?eueieo a?oi a iaeano? 3465-3300 ni-1, a?iiaoe/iiai
yae?a a iaeano? 1632-1455 ni-1.

I?enooi?noue ea?aieneeueii? a?oie o iieaeoeao ?a/iaei 2.11 oa 2.12
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?o OO-niaeo?aie, iiyaith a?inio?iiiiai cnoao
aeiaaioaeeueiaiai iaeneioio i?e aeiaeaaaii? aei aeo?aeieo ?ic/ei?a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?a/iaei aoeaoaoo iao??th. Oaeei /eiii, ca
o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie, i?iaeoeoaie iaoeethaaiiy, aeaieie
OO-niaeo??a ?a/iaeia 2.11 ?aeaioeo?eiaaia c aaeiaith eeneioith.
Aoeeeueia iio?aeia ?a/iaeie 2.12 ia aeaaaei aeai?an?? oaiia?aoo?e
oiieaiiy c a??ia?aeiei c?aceii oao?aaoeaoaoo aeaaiai? eeneioe (O.oiie.
3350 N).

Ia i?aenoaa? aeuaaeeeaaeaiiai ie ?aeaioeo?eoaaee ?a/iaeio 2.12 ye
aeaaiao eeneioo.

Oaiieea?aiiia? eeneioe.I?e o?iiaoia?aooaai? ?a/iaeie 2.6-2.10 iathoue a
OO-na?oe? aeaeeoia caaa?aeaiiy ??cii? ?ioaineaiino?, ui iiaeeaeth?oueny
(?a/iaeia 2.6-2.8), aai ci?ith?oueny, a caeaii-aeaeeoio (?a/iaeie
2.9-2.10) i?ae ae??th ia??a ai?aeo, ui oa?aeoa?ia aeey iio?aeieo
ei?e/ii? eeneioe.

I?eiaeaaei?noue oeeo niieo/aiue aei ieneei?e/ieo eeneio i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
aeaieie niaeo?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue a OO-iaeano?.

Eoaeia ieaaeaiiy ?a/iaei 2.9-2.10 i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy
i?ioieaoaoiai? eeneioe. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue a no?oeoo??
iieaeoee 3.4-aeeienea?oie?iaee. E?euee?niee eoaeiee a?ae?ie?c ?a/iaei ?
2.10 caaa?oo?oueny ooai?aiiyi D-o?iii? ? eioaeii? eeneio a
aea?iieaeoey?ieo e?eueeinoyo, ui aeaco? ia i?eiaeaaei?noue ?a/iaei, ui
aea/athoueny aei ao???a eioaeii? ? D-o?iii? eeneio. I?noea ii?aeiaiiy
eioaeii? eeneioe ? D-o?iii? aecia/aee ii ?acoeueoaoai aiae?co i?iaeoeo?a
eaeoii?caoe?? ?a/iaei, ui aea/athoueny ? D-o?iii? eeneioe.

Aeai? o?iiaoia?aoe/ii? iiaaae?iee, oaiia?aoo?e oiieaiiy, eoaeiiai
nieaaeaiiy ? a?ae?ie?co, ?acoeueoao?a OO-niaeo?ineii?? o a ii??aiyii? c
iieacieeaie a??ia?aeieo c?ace?a ieneei?e/ieo eeneio aeicaieeee
?aeaioeo?eoaaoe ?a/iaeio 2.6 ye 3.4-aeea?ae?ieneei?e/io (eioaeio), 2.7.
n- eoia?iao eeneioo (4-ieneei?e/io), 2.8 oa?oeiao (3-iaoiene
4-ieneei?e/io eeneioo) ?a/iaeio 2.9 ye C-I-eioa?e-D-o?iio
(oei?iaaiiao), ?a/iaeio 2.10 ye 5-0-eioa?e-D-o?iio (iaioei?iaaiiao)
eeneioe.

Oeaaiii?aee.Aeae?eai? niieoee 2.13-2.16 a?aeianai? aei iio?aeieo
oeaaiii?ae?a ca ?acoeueoaoaie ye?nieo ?aaeoe?e iaia?iai? o?iiioia?ao??
oa aeaiieo niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie OO-niaeo?aeueii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?a/iaeie 2.13-2.16 a?aeianai? aei iio?aeieo oeaaiiie?a,
i?i ui na?ae/eoue ??cieoey i?ae iaeneioiaie iiaeeiaiiy I oa II nioae
90-100 ii ? a?eueo ?ioaineaiee iaeneioi ae?oai? nioae.

Ae?eiceaeia i?e?iaea ?a/iaei 2.15-2.16 i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
?*-niaeo?ia?a?o?th. ?acoeueoaoe iaaaaeaii? o oaaeeoe? 2.3.5.2. ?a/iaeie
2.15-2.16 iathoue /anoioe 1080-1090, 1055-1060, 1025-1030 ni-1 , ui
oa?aeoa?eco? aaeaioi? eieeaaiiy i??aiiciiai e?eueoey. Aeey iaoeeueieo
a?oi oeoe?iaeo caeeoe?a oa?aeoa?i? /anoioe a iaeano? 965-975 ni-1
ciaeaeai? aeey ?a/iaei 2.15, ui aeicaiey? aeciaoe ?o iaeaaei?noue aei
?aiiiceaeo

Aecia/aiiy eiio?ao?aoe?? ae?eiceaeiiai ca’yceo i?iaiaeeee ii??aiyiiyi
iieaeoey?iiai iaa?oo aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ae?eiceaeo oa oai?ei??aiiceaeo

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?a/iaeia 2.13 aecia/aia ye
eaa?oeaoei (3, 5, 7, 3 4-iaioaien?oeaaii), 2.14 ethoaie?i (5,7, 3
4-oao?aien?oeaaii), 2.15 eaa?oeeo?ei (eaa?oeeoei-3-I—L
-?aiiii??aiiceae), 2.16 ?cieaa?oeeo?ei
(eaa?oeeoei-3-I—D-aetheii??aiiceae).

2.Aecia/aiiy e?euee?niiai ai?noo aeayeeo a?oi a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo
?a/iaei a iaaiiao iiaee a?ei?.

Aia?oa aecia/aii e?euee?niee ai?no a?eeiai-iie?naoa?eaeieo eiiieaen?a,
oei?io?eo , a?eueieo ai?iieeneio, noie ieeneaieo iie?oaiie?a oa
oaiieea?aiiiaeo eeneio aeey iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? oei?e Oe?a?ie ,yea
caaioiaeaia ainaie oa iaaani? c i’yoe aea?aa-oacy?a : aeaoe??
inaaaei?ia?i?? , oiiie? /i?ii?, yaeoi? aeiiaoiuei?, ynaio cae/aeiiai oa
aeiaeo.Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?no oeeo niieoe caeaaeeoue a?ae aea?aa ia yeeo
ia?aceoo? iiaea a?ea ?acoeueoaoe iaaaaeai? o oaaeeoe? 2

E?euee?niee ai?no a?eeiai-iie?naoa?eaeieo eiiieaen?a aecia/aee
a?aa?iao?e/iei iaoiaeii, oei?io?eo -oioiaeaeo?ieiei?iiao?e/iei.
Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iee iaoiaeii aecia/aee ai?no ai?iieeneio oa
ieneei?e/ieo eeneio.Noio ieenethaaieo iie?oaiie?a aecia/aee
ia?iaiaaiaoiiao?e/ii. O iacia/i?e i??? ia ai?no niieoe aieeaa? /an
caaio?ae?. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui caaio?aey ne?iaeie eaea o oieiaeio
ii?o ?ieo ? a?io?i?/i? i?ioeane o ?ineei? iaeaea i?eieiythoueny.

Oaaeeoey 2.

E?euee?niee ai?no a?oi AA? o iaaiiao iiaee a?ei?.

No?iee caaio?ae?Aea?aaa-oacy?E?euee?niee ai?no %Eenoiiaae 98Aa?acaiue
99AI NEoei-?io?eai?ii-eenei-oeieen-ethaai? iie?oaiieeiene-ei?e/-i?
een-eioeAI NEoei-?io?eai?ii-eenei-oeieen-ethaai? iie?oaiieeiene-ei?e/-i?
eeneioeAeaoe?y inaaaei?ia?i?y3,80,544,43,20,783,60,514,53,10,77Oiiiey
/i?ia3,40,95,13,330,793,20,924,93,340,80ssaeoiy

aeiiaoiy2,40,813,92,90,872,60.83,82,80,88ssnai

cae/aeiee1,780,754.11,170,471,820.744,11,150,45Ae?ae
oe?a?inueeee2,490.444.41,200,692.520.424.31.190.68

O ca’yceo c iiaeeea?noth aeei?enoaiiy iiae??aiaii? ne?iaeie , ye
e?ea?nueeiai caniao aia?oa aea/aii aee?iieeneioiee neeaae iaaii?a iiaee
a?ei?,ui ia?aceoo? ia oiiie? /i?i?e.

Anoaiiaeaii , i?enooi?noue 10 aee?ieo eeneio. Ai?no iaiane/aieo aee?ieo
eeneio neeaaea? 54,25 % c ia?aaaaeiith e?euee?noth iea?iiai? 20,06 % ?
e?iieaiiai? eeneioe 23,39 % , a iane/aieo 45,75 % c ia?aaaaeiith
e?euee?noth iaeuei?oeiiai? eeneioe 37,03 %.

Iaoiaeii aoiiii-ai?n?eiiai niaeo?ioioiiao?oaaiiy anoaiiaeaii,ui ia
iaeiie/aiiy 22 i?e?iaeaiaio?a aieeaa? aea?aai c yeiai caaioiaeaia
ne?iaeia iiaee a?ei? . Ai?no i?e?iaeaiaio?a o nooiio aeno?aeo? iiaee
a?ei? cia/ii iaioee i?ae o ne?iaei?, aea ai?no i?eaeth, iie?aaeaio,
cae?ca, o?iio a iueiio ca?eueoeany ? neeaaea?: i?eaeth a?ae 1,4 ia/ea
aei 3,8 ia/ea; iie?aaeaio a?ae 0,1 ia/ea aei 0,3 ia/ea; cae?ca a?ae 320
ia/ea aei 360 ia/ea, o?iio a?ae 0,6 ia/ea aei 0,9 ia/ea.

3. Ii?oieiai-aiaoii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?
anoaiiaeai? ieae/a iaaaaeaii? aiaoii?/i? ae?aaiinoe/i? iciaee.

Aeey eenoe?a, iaethnoie, ioea?oeie, noaaea oa?aeoa?ia aeia?i ?icaeiooa
eooeeoea aeiaoiai eieuei?o, iioeea iaae ee?oeiaie, ?ieiee nini/eiaeaeia;
aaeeea e?euee?noue ae?oc?a, iniaeeai o ciiao i?ia?aeii? oeaieie; ae?oce,
ye? neeaaeathoueny c e?enoae?a, ui ?icoaoiaai? ii eieo, a a oeaio??
iathoue oaiio ieyio.

Aeey noaaea oa eenoea oa?aeoa?ia iiaeiaaeaii-aeoaiaeaeia i???ioaoe?y
ee?oei iacio?eo oa ei?e noaaea; ae?eyiee eoa’yieo aieieii iaae oeiaiith
oa i?ae eneeaiith i?ia?aeieo io/e?a; ee?oeie c e?enoae?/iei i?neii.

Eenoee iathoue ae?aoeeoiee oei i?iaeeoiaiai aia?aoo c aaeeeeie
caieeath/eie ee?oeiaie, c eooeeoey?ieie aenooiaie

Aeey ea?oee oa?aeoa?i? /eneaii? 2-, 3-ee?oeii? oiieino?ii? aieinee ?c
niaoeeo?/iith oa?i?iaeueiith ee?oeiith.

5. ?ic?iaea oa aiae?c a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o.

C iaoith ?icoe?aiiy a?naiaeo a?iioaiceaieo cania?a ?ineeiiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii ca??, yeee ia? a?iioaiceaio, naaeaoeaio,
na/ia?iio, niaciie?oe/io oa noaeeiii?icoe?thth/o ae?th. Aei neeaaeo
cai?o aoiaeeoue 5 aeae?a e?ea?nueei? ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie(Cormus Visci
albi, Flores Craetegi, Herba Leonuri, Herba Eqiseti arvense, Herba
Achilleae millefolii o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 1:6:3:3:3)

?aoe?iiaeueio ?aoeaioo?o cai?o aoei ?ic?iaeaii a oiae? iiia?aaei?o
ne?ei?iaiaeo aenia?eiaio?a.

Ocaaaeueiai? a?aeiiino? i?i o?i?/iee neeaae oa oa?iaeieia?/io
aeoeai?noue eiiiiiaio?a cai?o c oi/ee ci?o aeei?enoaiiy a e?eoaaii?
a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae. I?iaiae?ciaaii noai caian?a e?ea?nueei? ?ineeiii?
ne?iaeie, ui aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo cai?o.

Aecia/ai? oaoiieia?/i? aniaeoe i?eaiooaaiiy oa aiae?co cai?o. Aecia/ai?
/eneia? iieacieee: aieia?noue, cieuei?noue, iiae??aiaii?noue. ?ic?iaeai?
iieacieee ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? cai?o ca ciai?oi?ie iciaeaie oa aiaoii?/ieie
i?eciaeaie.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ye?nieo ?aaeoe?e aecia/ai? a?oie AA? aeey aiaeiiai
aeoyao cai?o: a?euei? oeoe?e oa ca’ycai? oeoe?e,
ai?iieeneioe,iie?naoa?eaee, noa?i?aei? niieoee, naiii?ie, eoia?eie,
i?ino? oaiiee, ien?ei?e/i? eeneioe, oeaaiii?aee, aeoa?euei? ?a/iaeie.
Oaeei /eiii o cai?? i?aaenoaaeai? ??ci? a?oie AA?, aea ca a?aeoai?aiiyi
ye?nieo ?aaeoe?e ie coieieeeny ia oeo, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ai?no
oaeeo oaiieueieo niieoe, ye ien?ei?e/i? eeneioe, oeaaiii?aee oa
aeoaeeuei? ?a/iaeie. Aiie aianai? aei i?iaeoo OON.

C iaoith ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? cai?o iaea?aeai? aiaeiee oa nie?oiaee aeoya
(50% aoaiie) cai?o. I?iaaee aecia/aiiy a ii??aiiyi? c 50 % aoaiieii.
Noia?iee niaeo? a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o ia? i?ee iiaeeiaiiy i?e 270, 285,
327 ii oa iea/a 295-312 ii , ui ni?aiaaea? c iaeneiaie iiaeeiaiiy
oei?iaaiiai? eeneioe oa i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie
o?iiaoia?ao?/iiai aiae?co oaiieueieo niieoe a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o ? iiaea
aooe aeei?enoaii ye ye?nia ?aaeoe?y aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? cai?o.

Ca ye?nieie ?aaeoe?yie, ?acoeueoaoaie o?iiaoia?ao?/iiai oa
niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iiai aiae?co a?oiith ae?th/eo ?a/iaei, yea ia?
ia?aaaao, ? eiiieaen oaiieueieo niieoe. C iaoith ?ic?iaee iaoiaeo
e?euee?nii? noaiaea?oecaoe?? noie oeeo ?a/iaei iaie aoei aecia/aii ai?no
noie oaiieueieo niieoe o cai??.

Noio iie?oaiieueieo niieoe aecia/aee ia?iaiaaiaoiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii o
aeoyaeoe? cai?o 50%-ei aoaiieii (O1=5,24% 0,3).

Aecia/aiiy e?euee?niiai ai?noo noie oeaaiii?ae?a oa oaiieea?aiiiaeo
eeneio i?iaiaeeee i?ney inaaeaeaiiy aeoaeeueieo ?a/iaei 5%-ei ?ic/eiii
aeaeaoeio ? a?aenoithaaiiy i?e t 3-4N i?ioyaii 24 aiaeei
ia?iaiaaiaoiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ( O2=3,33% 0,5).

Ai?no aeoaeeueieo ?a/iaei aecia/aee ca ??cieoeath i?ae ai?noii noie on?o
iie?oaiieueieo niieoe, ui ieeneththoueny, oa ai?noii noie oeaaiii?ae?a
oa oaiieea?aiiiaeo eeneio ( O3=1,89% 0,6): E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy
oeaaiii?ae?a i?iaiaeeee niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii (O4=0,17% 0,4).
Ai?no noie oeaaiii?ae?a aaee a ia?a?aooieo ia eaa?oeaoei, oae ye
a?eueo?noue iio?aeieo oeaaiii?ae?a, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo ?ineei
eiiiiiaio?a cai?o ? iio?aeieie eaa?oeaoeio. Noio oaiieea?aiiiaeo eeneio
aecia/aee ca ??cieoeath i?ae noiith oeaaiii?ae?a oa oaiieea?aiiiaeo
eeneio ? ai?noii oeaaiii?ae?a, ui aecia/aii niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iei
niiniaii (O5=3,16% 0,5).

Aia?oa aea/aii iaoiaeii aaci??aeeii? o?iiaoia?ao?? aee?iieeneioiee
neeaae a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o o ca’yceo c iiaeeea?noth aeei?enoaiiy
eainoethaaiiy iiae??aiaiiai cai?o. Aecia/aia i?enooi?noue 16 aee?ieo
eeneio.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?no iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio neeaaea? 56,24 % c
ia?aaaaeiei ai?noii eeiieaai?-21,95 %, eeiieaiiai? -20,34 % oa iea?iiai?
-12,8 %, a ai?no iane/aieo neeaaea? 43,11 % c yeeo 33,20 % i?eiaaea? ia
iaeueieoeiiao eeneioo.

Aecia/aii ei?aeyoe?th i?ae iaeiie/aiiyi 22 i?e?iaeaiaio?a o nooeo
aeno?aeoao cai??a a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeno?aaaioo. Nooee aiaeiee aeno?aeo
a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o iaeiie/o? a ii??aiyii? c? nie?oiaei aeno?aeoii
a?eueoo e?euee?noue ia?aaioeth( 65 aei16 ia/ea), eiaaeueoo( 1,3 aei0,5
ia/ea), naeioeth (16 aei12 ia/ea), i?eaeth ( 4,2 aei 3,9ia/ea), cia/io
e?euee?noue no?iioe?th ( 26 aei >1ia/ea)oa aethi?i?th (180.aei 115ia/ea)
Nooee nie?oiaee aeno?aeo a ii??aiyii? c aiaeiei i?noeoue a?eueoa i?ae?
(33 aei 26ia/ea), oeeieo (33 aei 26ia/ea), oa cae?ca (160.aei 47ia/ea).

5. ?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeno?aeo?a c iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? oa
a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o.

I?enooi?noue eaeoei?a o ne?iaei? iiaee a?ei? a?aeiia?aea? ca
?ioiiiiaeoethth/o oa i?ioeiooeeiio ae?th. A?iioaiceaia ae?y iiaee a?ei?
coiiaeaia i?enooi?noth onueiai eiiieaeno ?a/iaei. Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
iayaiino? eaeoei?a o aeno?aeoao ie aeei?enoaee aeanoea?noue eaeoei?a
i?eaiaeeoe aaia?ei?ciaaio e?ia aei aaethoeiaoe?? /a?ac aeayeee /an.
Aeno?aeoe aeaioiaeyee c iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?, yea ia?aceoo? ia
aea?aaao-oacyyo: yaeoi?, a?oo?, eeaio oaoa?nueeiai, aeiaeo, aa?a?,
oiiie?, ?c na?aei? oa nooi? ne?iaeie ? ne?iaeie, i/euaii? a?ae
e?iio?eueieo ?a/iaei. Ne?iaeia aoea caaioiaeaia ainaie oa iaaani?.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?aaeoe?? aaethoeiaoe?? iaea?eueoee ai?no eaeoei?a
aecia/aii aeey aiaeiiai aeno?aeoo na?aei? ne?iaeie iaaii?a iiaee ,yea
ia?aceoo? ia aa?a? a?e?e. Nooa ne?iaeia iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? i?noeoue
iaioo e?euee?noue eaeoei?a a ii??aiyii? ?c na?aeith. Noo? aeno?aeoe c
iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? ia iathoue aeanoeaino? aei aaethoeiaoe??, oae ye
i?noyoue aeaiaoo?iaai? eaeoeie.

Aeey aea/aiiy oa?iaeieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? iaie aoei aeaioiaeaii 9 aeae?a
a?iioaiceaieo cai??a c e?ea?nueei? ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie, aeinooiii? a
Oe?a?i? ? iaea?aeai? noo? eiiieaeni? aeno?aeoe. Aei neeaaeo nai??a
iaia’yceiai aoiaeeee iaaiie iiaee a?ei? oa ea?oee aeiaeo, ?io?
eiiiiiaioe iniiaiiai i’yoe eiiiiiaioiiai cai?o /a?aoaaeeny.
Aeine?aeaeoaaee noo? aenoiaeoe i’yoe- /ioe?ueio- oa o?ueioeiiiiiaioieo
cai??a. Oa?iaeieia?/io aeoeai?noue nooeo aeno?aeo?a a?iioaiceaieo cai??a
? nooiai aeno?aeoo iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? i?iaaaeaii ia eaoaae??
oa?iaeioa?aie?? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii caa?aeoth/iai eaoaae?ith, aeieoi?a
oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a Naio?e A.A.

Noo? aeno?aeoe a?iioaiceaieo cai??a a?aeiinyoue aei iaoiene/ieo ?oiy
na?aaeiuei nia?oaeueia aeica LD50 aei??aith? 750 ia/ea. Noo? aiaei? oa
nie?oia? aeno?aeoe ?ineeiieo cai??a c iiaeith a?eith aeyaeythoue
a?iioaiceaio ae?th, ? ii nai?e aeoeaiino? ia onooiathoue i?aia?aoo
ii??aiyiiy iaiaaa?eio a?ae?ioei?eaeo.

O?eaaeo a?iioaiceaio ae?th i?iyaea nooee aiaeiee aeno?aeo
i’yoeeiiiiiaioiiai cai?o, yeee o aeic? 50ia/ea ae?ya i?ioyaii 14 oaeeei,
cieaeoth/e a?oa??aeueiee oene ia 50 ii.?o.no.

Iaeo?eaae?oee a?iioaiceaiee aoaeo ia i?ioyc? 15 oaeeei aeyaea nooee
aiaeiee aeno?aeo iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?, yeee i?e aeic? 10 iaea cieaeoaaa
a?oa??aeueiee oene ia 40 ii.?o.no. Ca?eueoaiiy aeice oeueiai aeno?aeoo
aei 30 iaea ? a?eueoa i?eaiaeeei aei i?iyaeaiiy oiene/ii? ae?? ia
na?oeaai-noaeeiio ? aeeoaeueio nenoaio i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei.

A?iioaiceaia ae?y nooiai aeno?aeoo iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? ia iia’ycaia c
ai?noii eaeoei?a o aeno?aeo?.

Iaea?eueo aeoeaio ae?o?aoe/io ae?th aeyaea nooee aeno?aeo /ioe?ueio
eiiiiiaioiiai cai?o (155,2%) ? aeno?aeo i’yoeeiiiiiaioiiai cai?o
(137,9%), ye? eeoa ia 25-40% iinooiaeeny aoaeiiiiio i?aia?aoo ii??aiyiiy
-a?iioeaceaeo.

aeniiaee

1. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia o?oio?i?/ia aea/aiiy iaaii?a iiaee
a?ei?, ui cono??/a?oueny a Oe?a?i?. Anoaiiaeaia iayai?noue ??cieo a?oi
AA?: ieneei?e/ieo eeneio, a?eueieo ai?iieeneio, eaeoei?a, a?eueieo oa
ca’ycaieo oeoe??a, aeoaeeueieo ?a/iaei eiiaeainiaaii? a?oie,
o?eoa?iaiiaeo niieoe, eoia?ei?a, oeaaiii?ae?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae aea?aa
oacy?a.

2. Iaoiaeaie ??aeeii? aeno?aeoe??, iaia?iai?, oiieioa?iai? oa eieiieiai?
o?iiaoia?ao?? aeae?eai? ? anoaiiaeaia aoaeiaa 16 ?a/iaei: 2 iio?aei?
eoia?eio — oiaae?oa?ii oa neiiieaoei (aia?oa ca a?aeiiinoyie aeinooiii?
iai e?oa?aoo?e) 2 iio?aei? o?eoa?iaii?ae?a (o?nieiaa oa ieaiiieiaa
eeneioe), 5 iio?aei? ieneei?e/ieo ( eaaiaa, n-eoia?iaa, oa?oeiaa,
oei?iaaiiaa oa iaioei?iaaiiaa eeneioe), 2 iio?aeieo aaicieii? eeneioe
(aaeiaa oa aeaaiaa eeneioe), 4 oeaaiii?aea
(eaa?oeaoei,ethoaie?i,eaa?oeao?ei,?cieaa?oeao?ei), 1 ?a/iaeia
noa?i?aeii? i?e?iaee ( -n?oinoa?ei).

3. Aia?oa aecia/aii e?euee?niee ai?no a?eeiai-iie?naoa?eaeieo
eiiieaen?a, oei?io?eo, a?eueieo ai?iieeneio, noie ieeneaieo iie?oaiie?a
oa oaiieea?aiiiaeo eeneio aeey iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? oei?e Oe?a?ie, yea
caaioiaeaia ainaie oa iaaani? c i’yoe aea?aa-oacy?a : aeaoe??
inaaaei?ia?i?? , oiiie? /i?ii?, yaeoi? aeiiaoiuei?, ynaio cae/aeiiai oa
aeiaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?no oeeo niieoe caeaaeeoue a?ae aea?aa ia yeeo
ia?aceoo? iiaea a?ea .

4. Aia?oa aea/aii aee?iieeneioiee neeaae iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?? ?
caeaaei?noue i?ae iaeiie/aiiyi i?e?iaeaiaio?a o ne?iaei? oa aea?aaii
oacy?iii ia yeiio ia?aceoo? iiaea a?ea. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?no
iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio neeaaea? 54,25 % c ia?aaaaeiith e?euee?noth
iea?iiai? 20,06 % ? e?iieaiiai? eeneioe 23,39 % , a iane/aieo 45,75 % c
ia?aaaaeiith e?euee?noth iaeuei?oeiiai? eeneioe 37,03 %.

5. I?iaaaeai? aiaoii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? aeicaieeee
anoaiiaeoe ae?aaiinoe/i? iciaee. Aeey eenoe?a, iaethnoie, ioea?oeie,
noaaea i?enooi?noue aeia?a ?icaeiooi? eooeeoee aeiaoiai eieuei?o,
iioeei? iaae ee?oeiaie; aaeeeo e?euee?noue ae?oc?a,ui neeaaeathoueny c
e?enoae?a,ye? ?icoaoiaai? ii eieo, a a oeaio?? iathoue oaiio
ieyio.Oa?aeoa?io iiaeiaaeaii-aeoaiaeaeio i???ioaoe?th ee?oei iacio?eo
aeey noaaea oa eenoea .I?enooi?noue o ei?? noaaea ae?eyiie eoa’yieo
aieieii iaae oeiaiith oa i?ae eneeaiith i?ia?aeieo io/e?a oa ee?oei c
e?enoae?/iei i?neii.Ae?aoeeoiee oei i?iaeeoiaiai aia?aoo c aaeeeeie
caieeath/eie ee?oeiaie, c eooeeoey?ieie aenooiaie aeey
eenoe?a.Oa?aeoa?i? aeey ea?oee /eneaii? 2-, 3-ee?oeii? oiieino?ii?
aieinee ?c niaoeeo?/iith oa?i?iaeueiith ee?oeiith. ?acoeueoaoe aoee
aeei?enoai? aeey i?iaeoo OON “Iaaiie iiaee a?ei?”

6. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th ? neeaae a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o, aecia/ai?
iieacieee ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? cai?o ca ciai?oi?ie oa aiaoii?/ieie iciaeaie,
aecia/ai? /eneia? iieacieee aieia?noue, cieuei?noue, iiae??aiaii?noue,
e?euee?niee ai?no ieneei?e/ieo eeneio ( 3,16 %), oeaaiii?ae?a (0,17 %
)oa aeoaeeueieo ?a/iaei(1,89 %). Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoai? aeey
?ic?iaee AOAe.

7. Aia?oa aea/aii aee?iieeneioiee neeaae a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o o ca’yceo
c iiaeeea?noth aeei?enoaiiy eainoethaaiiy iiae??aiaiiai cai?o.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?no iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio neeaaea? 56,24 % c
ia?aaaaeiei ai?noii eeiieaai?-21,95 %, eeiieaiiai? -20,34 % oa iea?iiai?
-12,8 %, a ai?no iane/aieo neeaaea? 43,11 % c yeeo 33,20 % i?eiaaea? ia
iaeueieoeiiao eeneioo.

8. Aecia/aii ei?aeyoe?th i?ae iaeiie/aiiyi 22 i?e?iaeaiaio?a o nooeo
aeno?aeoao cai??a a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeno?aaaioo. Nooee aiaeiee aeno?aeo
a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o iaeiie/o? a ii??aiyii? c? nie?oiaei aeno?aeoii
a?eueoo e?euee?noue ia?aaioeth, eiaaeueoo, naeioeth, i?eaeth, cia/io
e?euee?noue no?iioe?th oa aethi?i?th. Nooee nie?oiaee aeno?aeo a
ii??aiyii? c aiaeiei i?noeoue a?eueoa i?ae?, oeeieo oa cae?ca.

9. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?aaeoe?? aaethoeiaoe?? anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue
ai?noo eaeoei?a a?ae aeaeo ne?iaeie oa niiniao iaea?aeaiiy
aeno?aeoo.Iaea?eueoee ai?no eaeoei?a aecia/aii aeey aiaeiiai aeno?aeoo
na?aei? ne?iaeie iaaii?a iiaee ,yea ia?aceoo? ia aa?a? a?e?e. Nooa
ne?iaeia iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? i?noeoue iaioo e?euee?noue eaeoei?a a
ii??aiyii? ?c na?aeith. Noo? aeno?aeoe c iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? ia iathoue
aeanoeaino? aei aaethoeiaoe??,oae ye i?noyoue aeaiaoo?iaai?
eaeoeie.A?iioaiceaia aeoeai?noue nooiai aeno?aeoo iiaee ia caeaaeeoue
a?ae ai?noo eaeoei?a.

10. Aecia/aia oiene/i?noue nooeo aeno?aeo?a a?iioaiceaieo cai??a. Noo?
aeno?aeoe a?iioaiceaieo cai??a a?aeiinyoue aei iaoiene/ieo. ?oiy
na?aaeiuei nia?oaeueia aeica LD50 aei??aith? 750 ia/ea.Niaoeeo?/ia
a?iioaiceaia ae?y nooeo aiaeieo oa nie?oiaeo aeno?aeo?a ?ineeiieo cai??a
c iiaeith a?eith ii nai?e aeoeaiino? ia iinooia?oueny i?aia?aoo
ii??aiyiiy iaiaaa?eio a?ae?ioei?eaeo.Iaea?aeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?
i?i a?iioaiceaio oa ae?o?aoe/io aeoeai?noue nooeo aeno?aeo?a cai??a c
iiaeith a?eith na?ae/aoue, ui aiie i?iyaeythoue eiia?iiaaio ae?th ?
iiaeooue aoaeoeaii cieaeoaaoe a?oa??aeueiee oene ca ?aooiie ??cieo
iaoai?ci?a ae?? ia na?oeaai-noaeeiio nenoaio.

11. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii aeaa i?iaeoe OON: “
Iaaiie iiaee a?ei?”, “3a?? a?iioaiceaiee”. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ai?iaaaeaeai? o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean Oe?a?inueei? oa?iaoeaaoe/ii?
aeaaeai?? oa Caii??cueeiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Nienie iioae?eiaaiieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

1. Caeaaei?noue aaethoeioth/i? caeaoiino? eaeoei?a iiaee a?ei? a?ae
oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy aeno?aeoo / A.I.Eiaaeueia, A.A.Ia?oeiia.,
O.I.E?anieeiaa // A?noiee oa?iaoee?. 1996. ?3 — 4. N. 23-25.

2. Ia?niaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey a iaeanoe eco/aiey eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaiee e
nicaeaiey ioa/anoaaiiuo oeoii?aia?aoia / Eiaaeaa A.I., Eenee/aiei A.N.,
AEo?aaaeue E.A., Oia?aaaa E.Y., Caaieioiue A.A., Nooiaeiaa Y.A.,
E?anieeiaa O.A., Ei?ieue A.A. // I?iaeci?. 1998. ?22. N. 39-40.

3. Aiaeec ninoaaa aeiioaiceaiuo nai?ia /Eiaaeaa A.I, E?anieeiaa O.A.//
I?iaeci?. 1998. ?13. 35 n.

4. Aea/aiiy oa?iaeieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? nooeo aeno?aeo?a a?iioaiceaieo
cai??a / A.A.Naio?a, A.I.Eiaaeueia, A.A.Oa?ai, O.I.E?anieeiaa //
Eaea?noaa /aeiaaeo: Ca. iao/. o?. VIII iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiio. ii
nicaeaieth e ai?iaaoeee iiauo eae. n?aaenoa. Aeeueithn. 1998. N.
150-155.

5. E?anieeiaa O.I. Aea/aiiy i?e?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?
// O?c?ieia?/ii aeoeai? ?a/iaeie. 1999. ?1(27). N.105-107.

6. Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy noie eaeoei?a iiaee a?ei?/
A.I.*a?ieo, A.I. Eiaaeueia, A.A. Ia?oeiia, O.I. E?ani?eiaa,
I.?.O?e?iiiiaa//; Oe?.OA.-Oa?e?a, 1996.-8n. Aeai. a AIOA Oe?a?ie
9.01.97. ? 33-Oe97

7. E aii?ino i o?anaea?iaeueiuo aeeaeeinoyo aeey eieaeueiie oa?aiee
ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee/ E.E. Aeeeee, A.I. Eiaaeaa, A.A.
Ia?ouiia, O.A. E?anieeiaa, I.E. Oeeeiiiiaa // Oe?. OA.-
Oa?ueeia.-1996.-7n.Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 9.01.97.? 32-Oe97

8. E?anieeiaa O.A., Eiaaeaa A.I. Oeoioeie/aneia eco/aiea e oaoiieiaey
i?iecaiaenoaa i?aia?aoia ec iiaaaia iiaee aaeie//Iaoa?. I?ae?aa?ii.
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio.”Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? iaoee oa
i?aeoeee”23-24 eenoiiaaea.-Caii??aeaey .-1995.-N.13-14

9. Aaeaoeeee TH.I, E?anieeiaa O.A.Eco/aiea caiania nu?uey aiy?uoieea,
i?iec?inoathuaai ia Oe?aeia // Na. iao/. o?oaeia, iina. 10-io auioneo
i?iaeci?ia”Nia?aiaiiua ecuneaiey a iaeanoe
oa?iaoeee”.-ss?ineaaeue.-1996.-N.118

10. Aaeaoeeee TH.I, E?anieeiaa O.A. E eco/aieth eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaiee
Neiaiaeaiueiu // Na. iao/. o?oaeia, iina. 10-io auioneo
i?iaeci?ia”Nia?aiaiiua ecuneaiey a iaeanoe
oa?iaoeee”.-ss?ineaaeue.-1996.-N.119.

11. E?anieeiaa O.A., Aaeaoeeee TH.I. Iiaea e nai?u ia aa iniiaa . // Na.
iao/. o?oaeia, iina. 10-io auioneo i?iaeci?ia”Nia?aiaiiua ecuneaiey a
iaeanoe oa?iaoeee”.-ss?ineaaeue.-1996.-N.124.

12. E?ani?eiaa O.I., Eiaaeueia A.I. Ia?niaeoeae ?ic?iaee a?iioaiceaieo
cai??a //Iaoa??aee iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio. “Aeinyaiaiiy no/anii? oa?iaoe?? a
iaaee/io i?aeoeeo” .-Oa?uee?a.-1996.-N. 218.

13. E?ani?eiaa O.I., Eiaaeueia A.I. Iiia?aaei? o?oio?i?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? // Iaoa??aee iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio.
“Aeinyaiaiiy no/anii? oa?iaoe?? a iaaee/io i?aeoeeo”
.-Oa?uee?a.-1996.-N. 217.

E?ani?eiaa O.I.”Oa?iaeiaiinoe/ia aea/aiiy iiaee a?ei? ? ?ic?iaea ia ??
iniia? oa?iaeieia?/ieo cania?a”.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 15.00.02-oa?iaoeaaoe/ia o?i?y ?
oa?iaeiaiic?y.-Oe?a?inueea oa?iaoeaaoe/ia aeaaeai?y, Oa?e?a, 1999.

I?iaaaeaii o?oio?i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?. Aeae?eaii ?
anoaiiaeaia aoaeiaa 16 ?a/iaei: 2 eoia?eia (oiaae?oa?ii, neiiieaoei), 2
o?eoa?iaii?aea (ieaaiieiaa, o?nieiaa eeneioe), 5 ieneei?e/ieo (eaaiaa,
n-eoia?iaa, oa?oeiaa, oei?iaaiiaa, iaioei?iaaiiaa), 2 aaicieieo eeneioe
(aaeiaa, aeaaiaa), 4 oeaaiii?aea (eaa?oeaoei, ethoaie?i, eaa?oeao?ei,
?cieaa?oeao?ei), 1 ?a/iaeia noa?i?aeii? i?e?iaee (-n?oinoa?ei).
Aecia/aii e?euee?niee ai?no a?eeiai-iie?naoa?eaeieo eiiieaen?a,
oei?io?eo, a?eueieo ai?iieeneio, noie ieeneaieo iie?oaiie?a oa
oaiieea?aiiiaeo eeneio, aee?iieeneioiee neeaae ? caeaaei?noue i?ae
iaeiie/aiiyi i?e?iaeaiaio?a o ne?iaei? oa aea?aaii oacy?iii aeey
iaaii?a iiaee a?ei? oei?e Oe?a?ie. Aea/aii aiaoii?/i? ae?aaiinoe/i?
iciaee iaaii?a iiaee a?ei?. Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue ai?noo eaeoei?a
a?ae aeaeo ne?iaeie oa niiniao iaea?aeaiiy aeno?aeoo. ?ic?iaeaii
oaoiieia?th ? neeaae a?iioaiceaiiai cai?o, aecia/ai? iieacieee
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? cai?o ca ciai?oi?ie oa aiaoii?/ieie iciaeaie, aecia/ai?
/eneia? iieacieee, e?euee?niee ai?no ieneei?e/ieo eeneio, oeaaiii?ae?a,
aeoaeeueieo ?a/iaei , aee?iieeneioiee neeaae, Iaea?aeai? noo? aeno?aeoe
cai?o.Aecia/aii ei?aeyoe?th i?ae iaeiie/aiiyi i?e?iaeaiaio?a o nooeo
aeno?aeoao cai??a a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeno?aaaioo. Aecia/aia oiene/i?noue
oa niaoeeo?/ia a?iioaiceaia ae?y nooeo aiaeieo oa nie?oiaeo aeno?aeo?a
?ineeiieo cai??a c iiaeith a?eith Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue
?ic?iaeaii aeaa i?iaeoe OON: “ Iaaiie iiaee a?ei?”, “3a??
a?iioaiceaiee”.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiaea a?ea,Viscum album,oa?iaeiaiinoe/ia aea/aiiy,
a?ieia?/i? ?a/iaeie, i?e?iaeaiaioe, aee?i? eeneioe, a?iioaiceaiee ca??.

E?anieeiaa O.A. “Oa?iaeiaiinoe/aneia eco/aiea iiaeu aaeie e ?ac?aaioea
ia aa iniiaa oa?iaeieiae/aneeo n?aaenoa”.-?oeiienue.

Aeena?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oa?iaoeaaoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 15.00.02-oa?iaoeaaoe/aneay oeiey e
oa?iaeiaiicey.-Oe?aeineay oa?iaoeaaoe/aneay aeaaeaiey, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aia?aua i?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniia oeoioeie/aneia eco/aiea iiaaaia iiaeu
aaeie, eioi?ay ?ani?ino?aiaia a Oe?aeia. Onoaiiaeaii i?enoonoaea
?acee/iuo a?oi AAA: ieneei?e/iuo eeneio, naiaiaeiuo ai?iieeneio,
eaeoeiia, naiaiaeiuo e naycaiuo naoa?ia, aeoaeeueiuo aauanoa
eiiaeaine?iaaiiie a?oiiu, o?eoa?iaiiauo niaaeeiaiee, eoia?eiia,
oeaaiiieaeia a caaeneiinoe io aea?aaueaa oacyaa.

Iaoiaeaie aeeaeeiniie yeno?aeoeee, aoiaaeiie, oiieineieiie e eieiii/iie
o?iiaoia?aoee aeaeaeaiu e onoaiiaeaii no?iaiea 16 aauanoa: 2
i?iecaiaeiuo eoia?eia — oiaaeeoa?ii e neiiieaoei (aia?aua ii naaaeaieyi
aeinooiiie iai eeoa?aoo?u) 2 i?iecaiaeiuo o?eoa?iaiieaeia (o?nieiaay e
ieaiiieiaay eeneiou), 5 i?iecaiaeiuo ieneei?e/iuo ( eioaeiay,
n-eoia?iaay, oa?oeiaay, oei?iaaiiaay oa iaioei?iaaiiaay eeneiou), 2
i?iecaiaeiuo aaicieiie eeneiou (aaeiaay e yeaaiaay eeneiou), 4
oeaaiiieaea (eaa?oeaoei, ethoaieei, eaa?oeao?ei, ecieaa?oeao?ei), 1
aauanoai noa?ieaeiie i?e?iaeu ( -neoinoa?ei).

Aia?aua ii?aaeaeaii eiee/anoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea aaeeiai-iieenaoa-?eaeiuo
eiiieaenia ( 1,78,-3,8 %), oei?ioeeea (0.44-0,9%), naiaiaeiuo
aieiieeneio (3,9-5,1%), noiiu ieeneyaiuo iieeoaiieia (3,33-1,17%) e
oaiieea?aiiiaeo eeneio (0,47-0,87%) aeey iiaaaia iiaeu aaeie oei?u
Oe?aeiu, eioi?ay auea caaioiaeaia inaiueth e aaniie n iyoe
aea?aaueaa-oacyaa : aeaoeee inaaaei?iaeiee , oiiiey /i?iiai, yaeiie
aeiiaoiae, ynaiy iaueiiaaiiiai e aiy?uoieea oe?aeineiai. Onoaiiaeaii,
/oi niaea?aeaiea yoeo niaaeeiaiee caaeneo io aea?aaueaa ia eioi?uo
ia?aceoe?oao iiaea aaeay.

Aia?aua iaoiaeii aaciaeeaeeiniie ae?iiaoia?aoee eco/ai aee?iieeneioiue
ninoaa iiaaaia iiaeu aaeie. Onoaiiaeaii i?enoonoaea 10 aee?iuo eeneio
n?aaee eioi?uo niaea?aeaiea iaianuuaiiuo eeneio ninoaaeyao 54,25 % n
i?aiaeaaeaieai ieaeiiaie 20,06 % e eeiieaiiaie eeneiou 23,39 % , a
ianuuaiiuo 45,75 % n i?aiaeaaeaieai niaea?aeaiey iaeueieoeiiaie eeneiou
37,03 %.. Iaoiaeii aoiiii-aienneiiiiai niaeo?ioioiiao?e?iaaiey
onoaiiaeaia caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo iaeiieaieai iee?iaeaiaioia a nu?uea e
aea?aaii oacyeiii ia eioi?ii ia?aceooao iiaea aaeay.

Ii?aaeaeaiu aiaoiie/aneea aeeaaiinoe/aneea i?eciaee iiaaaia iiaee aaeie.
Aeey eenoueaa, eaianoeia oeaaoea, noaaey oa?aeoa?ii i?enoonoaea oi?ioi
?acaeoie eooeeoee aeaeoiai oeaaoa, aeioeeie iaae eeaoeaie; aieueoia
eiee/anoai ae?oc, neiaeaiiuo ec e?enoaeeia,?aniieiaeaiiuo ii e?oao n
oaiiui iyoiii a oeai?a. Oa?aeoa?ii oaeeeiaiii-aeoaiaeaeiia ?aniieiaeaiea
eeaoie iacioeeea aeey noaaeae e eenoueaa .I?enoonoaea a ei?a noaaey
o/anoeia eoayiuo aieieii iaae oeiyiie e iiae eneeaiie i?iaiaeyueo
io/eia e eeaoie n e?enoaeee/aneei ianeii.Aeeaoeeoiue oei onouee/iiai
aiia?aoa n e?oiiuie caiueathueie eeaoeaie, n eooeeoey?iuie aunooiaie.
Aeey oeaaoea oa?aeoa?iu iiiai/eneaiiua 2-, 3-eeaoi/iua oiieinoaiiua
aieinee ni niaoeeoe/aneie oa?ieiaeueiie eeaoeie. ?acoeueoaou
eniieueciaaiu aeey i?iyeoa AON “Iiaaae iiaeu aaeie”.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai ?aaeoeee aaethoeiaoeee onoaiiaeaia caaeneiinoue
niaea?aeaiey eaeoeia io aeaea nu?uey e niiniaa iieo/aiey yeno?aeoa.
Iaeaieueoaa niaea?aeaiea eaeoeiia ii?aaeaeaii aeey aiaeiiai aeno?aeoa
naaaeaai nu?uey iiaaaia iiaee , ia?aceoe?oauae ia eaa aaeie. A nooii
nu?uea eaeoeiia niaea?aeeoueny iaiueoa. Nooea yeno?aeoe iiaee ia
aeceaatho aaethoeiaoeee, .Aeiioaiceaiay aeoeaiinoue nooiai yeno?aeoa
iiaeu ia ca aeneo io niaea?aeaiey eaeoeiia.

?ac?aaioai ninoaa aeiioaiceaiiai nai?a: iiaaae iiaee, oeaaoee
aiy?uoieea, o?aaa ionou?ieea, o?aaa ouny/aeenoeea, o?aaa oaiua.
I?aaeeiaeaia oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey e ii?aaeaeaiu iieacaoaee
eaeaioeoeeaoeee nai?a ii aiaoiei e aiaoiie/aneei i?eciaeai, ii?aaeaeaiu
/eneiaua, eiee/anoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea ieneei?e/iuo eeneio ( 3,16 %),
oeaaiiieaeia (0,17 % ) e aeoaeeueiuo aauanoa(1,89 %).

Aia?aua eco/ai aee?iieeneioiue ninoaa aeiioaiceaiiai nai?a a nayce n
aiciiaeiinoueth eniieueciaaiey eainoee?iaaiiie oi?iu eciaeue/iiiai
nai?a. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi niaea?aeaiea iaianuuaiiuo aee?iuo eeneio
ninoaaeyao 56,24 % n i?aiaeaaeathuei niaea?aeaieai eeiieaaie-21,95 %,
eeiieaiiaie -20,34 % e ieaeiiaie -12,8 %, a niaea?aeaiea ianuuaiiuo
ninoaaeyao 43,11 % ec eioi?uo 33,20 % i?eoiaeeony ia iaeueieoeiiaoth
eeneioo.

Iieo/aiu aiaeiue e nie?oiaue nooea yeno?aeou aeiioaiceaiiai nai?a

Onoaiiaeaia ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo iaeiieaieai 22 iee?iaeaiaioia a nooeo
yeno?aeoao nai?ia a caaeneiinoe io yeno?aaaioa. Nooie aiaeiee yeno?aeo
aeiioaiceaiiai nai?a iaeaieeaaao aieueoaa eiee/anoai ia?aaioea,
eiaaeueoa, naeioea, ieeaey, cia/eoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea no?iioeey e
aethie?ey. Nooie nie?oiaee yeno?aeo ii n?aaiaieth n aiaeiui niaea?aeeo
aieueoa iaaee, oeeiea e aeaeaca.

Ii?aaeaeaia oiene/iinoue nooeo aeno?aeoia e .niaoeeoe/aneay
aeiioaiceaiay aeoeaiinoue.

?ac?aaioaiu AIAe ia iiaaae iiaeu aaeie e aeiioaiceaiue nai? ?acoeueoaoe
?aaiou aiaae?aiu a o/aaiue i?ioeann Oe?aeineie oa?iaoeaaoe/aneie
aeaaeaie e Caii?iaeneiai iaaeeoeeineiai einoeoooa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiaea aaeay, Viscum album,oa?iaeiaiinoe/aneia eco/aiea,
aeieiae/anee aeoeaiua aauanoaa, iee?iyeaiaiou, aee?iua
eeneiou,aeiioaiceaiue nai?.

Krasnikova T.A. Pharmakognosy study of Viscum album and development on
its basis of pharmacological means.

Thesis on the Candidata of Pharmaceutical Sciences Degree on a
speciality 15.00.02-Pharmaceutical chemistry and Pharmacognosy. —
Ukrainian Academy of Pharmacy, Kharkov, 1999.

Phytochemical studiyng of the Viscum album has been carried out. From
the investigsted raw material the structure of 16 individual substances
has been isolaated and obtained: 2 cumarinum, 2 terpenoidum, 5 benzoic
acids derivaatives, 4 flavanoles, 1 steroid. The quantitative contents
albuminous — polysaharidum complexes, chlorofilum, free acid albuminus,
sum polyphenolus and benzoic acids of acids lipid structure and
dependence between accumulation of microelements in raw material and
tree — host for Viscum album of Ukraine.

The anatomic diagnostic tags Viscum album are investigated. The
dependence of the contents lectinum from a kind of raw material and
method of obtaining of an extract is established . The technology and
structure hypotensivum species is developed, the parameters of
identification of the tax on external and anatomic tags are determined,
the numerical parameters and quantitative contents of benzoic acids,
flfvonoides, tanning of substances, fatty acid structure are determined.
The dry extracts of the tax are obtained, the correlation between
accumulation mikroelements in dry extracts of the taxes is determined
depending on extract. Is determined toxic and specific hypotensivum
activity for dry water and spirituous of extracts of the hypotensivum
species with Viscum album. By results of researches two projects
Temporary Pharmacopoeia Articles » Cormus Viscum album » and » Species
hypotensivum » are developed.

Key words: Viscum album, Pharmakognosy study, biologically active
substances, microelements, fatty acid, hypotensivum species.

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