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I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

A?IIEOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?I. I.?. IE?IAIAA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

IE?EIEE TH??E AIEIAeEIE?IAE*

OAeE – 618. 3 – 06. 61: 618.6 – 092 -072; 612. 13.

AAIETHOe?ss IIEACIEE?A AAIIAeEIAI?EE A I?IOeAN?

?ICAEOEO AANOICO OA I?NEss ?IC?IAeAEAIIss

14. 01. 01. – Aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

A?iieoey – 1999?.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?2

Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea
IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaoo Noai?neaa Na?a?eiae/ –

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?2

Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea

IIC Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaeno?oe Aiaoie?e Ieeeoi?iae/ –

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?1

A?iieoeueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa

IIC Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ai?ii?i Ei?iae?e Aaeaioeiiae/ –

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?1

Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? Aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? IIC Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey

IIC Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoany “26” aeiaoiy1999?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 05.600.01 i?e A?iieoeueeiio Aea?aeaaiiio
iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa IIC Oe?a?ie (286018, i.
A?iieoey, aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 56).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? A?iieoeueeiai
Aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa IIC Oe?a?ie
(286018, i. A?iieoey, aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 56).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii ” 19 ” aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iieeaeueei I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?ci?e aanoic ( IA ) ? iaea?eueo iaaacia/iei na?aae
oneeaaeiaiue ia?aa?ao aaa?oiino?, iieia?a oa ia??iaeo i?ney
?ic?iaeaeaiiy ? iin?aea? i?ia?aeia i?noea a no?oeoo?? iaoa?einueei? oa
ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? e nia?oiino? ye o ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao, oae ? a
oeo, ui ?icaeaathoueny (Ieoaeeaiei A.O., 1990; Neaei?iaa E.N., 1994;
Dekker G.A., 1991; Duley L.,1992).

*anoioa IA, ca aeaieie A.I. Na?iaa oa ni?aaao. (1989,1994), A.A. ?iaiaa
(1995), F. Everett (1995), noaiiaeoue 6,9-12% o aaa?oieo c iaiaoyaeaiei
i?aii?a?aeiei oiiii, 20-40% – o aaa?oieo c aeno?aaai?oaeueiith
iaoieia??th ? ca inoaii? ?iee ia ia? oaiaeaioe?e aei cia/iiai cieaeaiiy
(Ieoaeeaiei A.O., 1990; Noaiaie?anueea A.E., 1990; Oeiioaiei E.A.,
1994).

A Oe?a?i? ii/eiath/e c 1994 ?. niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy /anoioe IA c
7,8 aei 9,1% ia 1000 iieia?a. Ca 1997-1998 ??. ieoiia aaaa IA a
no?oeoo?? oneeaaeiaiue aaa?oiino?, iieia?a oa i?neyiieiaiaiai ia??iaeo
noaiiaeea 16% i?ioe 12,4% o 1996 ?.

??aaiue ia?eiaoaeueii? nia?oiino? caeeoa?oueny ua aeineoue cia/iei ?
eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 3,8 – 9,5%, i?e oyaeeeo oi?iao aanoico a?i c?inoa?
aei 20 – 30%. Aieiaieie i?e/eiaie ia?eiaoaeueieo ao?ao i?e IA
aaaaeathoue ia?aae/ani? iieiae, aiiiae?th iieiaiai? ae?yeueiino?,
iaoieia?th ?icaeoeo ieaoeaioe, ia?aae/ania a?aeoa?oaaiiy ii?iaeueii
?icoaoiaaii? ieaoeaioe, cao?eieo ?icaeoeo ieiaea (Aaioeeianeee A.I.,
1990; Eieii?eoeaaa A.A., 1994).

Iieaciee iaoa?einueei? nia?oiino? a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaeoue 2,5%, i?e
oyaeeeo oi?iao IA a?i c?inoa? aei 8 -13,4%. Na?aae i?e/ei iaoa?einueei?
nia?oiino? aeacothoue ia oea?aa?iaaneoey?i? ii?ooaiiy, oyaee? ?iceaaee
aeeoaiiy, i?neyiieiaiao e?iaioa/o, neiae?ii AeAC, aino?o
ie?eiai-ia/?ieiao iaaeinoaoi?noue, naioe/iee oie (Aaioeuee?anueeee A.I.,
1990; Neaei?iaa E.N.,1994).

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui IA /ano?oa oneeaaeith? ia?aa?a aaa?oiino? o ae?iie
a?eii 21 – 25 oa noa?oa 30 ?ie?a, oiaoi o ae?iie aeoeaiiai
i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo, iiaeia ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui IA – nioe?aeueii
iaoiiaeaia caoai?thaaiiy.

Oiio a onueiio na?o? aeoeaii aaaeooue iiooee ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie IA c
oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiyi iia?oi?o ee?i?/ieo, eaai?aoi?ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeinoaoiuei iiaii aea/ai? iaoai?cie iaoiaaiaco, aecia/ai? oaeoi?e
?eceeo, ye? ca?eueoothoue a??ia?aei?noue ?icaeoeo IA, aea ia no/aniiio
aoai? aeaye? ieoaiiy ao?ieia?? IA caeeoathoueny iaae??oaieie (Naaaeueaaa
A.I., 1991).

A?aeiii, ui IA – ? oyaeeei aa??aioii aeena?ae???, aeeni?ioa?iai?? o
aeaeyae? a?iiaieai?? ia oe? a?iii?ioa?iai?? a ii?aeiaii? c
iicaee?oeiiith oa aioo??oiueiee?oeiiith a?ia?a?ae?aoaoe??th. Aaaaoi
aaoi??a ?icaeyaeathoue eiai ye noai o?ii?/iiai oieo, ni?eueieie
aeaiaioaie yeiai ? a?iiaieai?y, aiai?y, a?iien?y, iinooiiaa ii?ooaiiy
ee?oeiiiai iaoaaie?cio, aaia?ae?ciaai? aeaeo?ie?oi? ?iceaaee
(Aanaeianeee A.A.,1988; Ai?iiei E.A., 1987,1988; Iaaeaaaeaa A.E., 1989;
Aa?ai/aiei A.A., 1992; Eaoo N.N., 1985, 1988, 1994).

No?eeee aaia?ae?ciaaiee niaci ye caoenii-i?enoinoaaeueia ?aaeoe?y
i?aai?cio ia iaaeinoaoi?noue ieaoeaioa?ii? aaiiia?ooc?? oa i?ia?anoth/o
a?iiaieai?th i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueiiai ia?eoa?e/iiai
iii?o noaeei, cieaeaiiy ?aieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo e?ia?, iiaeaeueoiai
ii?ooaiiy ?aaoeyoe?? aiaeii-aeaeo?ie?oiiai iai?io, oi?ioaaiiy oeaiiai
eiea, c?inoaiiy iaoieia?/ieo ci?i o oieiaaiieo i?aaiao (Ai?iiei E.A.,
1987, 1988; Aaeiiooia A.I.,1991; Naaaeueaaa A.I., 1989, 1991, 1992;
AEeciaaneee ss..A.1994; Oeeaoia A.E., 1989,1996).

Ae?aaiinoeea aanoic?a, ia aeaeue, a?oioo?oueny ia iaeneiaeueieo i?iyaao
iaoio?c?ieia?/ieo ii?ooaiue i?e oe?e iaoieia?? ( a?ia?oaic?y – ??
nooi?iue, i?ioa?io??y, iaa?yee, a?iio?io?y ieiaea), eiee e?eoaaeuei?
caoiaee aaea iaeiaoaeoeai? ? /anoi ia aaea?oueny oieeiooe iiaeaeueoeo
oneeaaeiaiue aeey iaoa?? oa ieiaea.

?yae aaoi??a i?iiiiothoue ae?aaiinooaaoe aeiee?i?/i? aai ?aii? ee?i?/i?
oi?ie aanoico c aeiiiiiaith ne?ei?iao na?aae a?oi ?eceeo aeey aeyaeaiiy
aaaaoaoeaii? aneiao??? a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo, i?eoiaaieo iaa?ye?a,
aecia/aiiy noaio nenoaie i?e?ioee?eoeyoe?? ? aaiinoaco ca aeaieie
eai?ey?ineii?? oa /ano cn?aeaiiy e?ia?. Aea i?e oeueiio ne?ae
a?aei?oeoe, ui i?ae /an eaoaioiiai ia??iaeo, eiee a?aeaoaa?oueny
iaoio?c?ieia?/iee ia?a?iciiae?e ??aeeie i?ae aiaeieie a?aeae?eaie
i?aai?cio, cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy iane o?ea iaia?, a iiyaa ia?eoa?e/ieo
iaa?ye?a na?ae/eoue i?i aeineoue o?eaaea ?nioaaiiy ii?ooaiue, ui
aaaaeathoue, ca aeaieie aeayeeo aaoi??a, noaiii ia?aaeaanoico (Eoeaeia
A.E., 1987; Ai?iiei E.A.,1988; Aaioeeianeee A.I.,1990; ?eaaeea
A.I.,1991; Aaneeaiei E.A.,1991, 1993; Eaoo N.N.,1988, 1994).

Oaeei /eiii, o??aaea Oeaiaaiaenoa?a – oaeaeoa aeieac oyaeeiai ia?aa?ao
aanoico, i?ae eiai ae?aaiinoe/iee oano.

A?eueo?noue no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue ni?yiiaaii ia iiooe ia?ea??a aanoico
a nenoai? aaii?aieia??, aooi?aaoeyoe?? ?aa?iiaeueiiai e?iaiia?ao,
aioeieneaeaioii?, eae?e?a?i-e?i?iiai? nenoaie. Iaeiae aiie iathoue ?yae
iaaeie?e?a, ye?, ia?o ca ana, iia’ycai? ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?iaaceaieo
iaoiaeee, neeaaei?noth ?o i?iaaaeaiiy ? aei?iaeia/ath.

Aacia?a/ii, iiooee ?aii?o aeinoia??ieo ae?aaiinoe/ieo e?eoa???a IA ca
aeiiiiiaith ia?iaaceaieo, ?ioi?iaoeaieo, ?ai?acaioaoeaieo, eaaeeo aeey
aeeiiaiiy iaoiae?a caeeoathoueny aeooaeueieie e ia?niaeoeaieie ?
aeioaia?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaoiae oao?aiiey?ii? ?aia?ao?? a oeueiio
aniaeo? ia? iaea?eueoa ia?aaaa, aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe e?euee?nio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo noaio ea?ae?iaaiiaeeiai?ee ia an?o ??aiyo, aeeth/ath/e
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?-iee. E??i oiai, a?oiooth/enue ia aeinyaiaiiyo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ? aeei?enoaii? iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e, iaoiae
?ioaa?aeueii? ?aia?ao?? caeeoa?oueny no/aniei ? ia?niaeoeaiei.

I?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano, ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiue E.N.
Ia?neaieiiaa (1977), A.I. Aeoeyaaie (1974, 1988), A.I. Naaaeueaaie
(1986, 1989) oa ?i., noai?aii aaco aeaieo i?i noai oeaio?aeueii? oa
ia?eoa?e/ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee o aaa?oieo ia aenio? oneeaaeiaiiy aaa?oiino?
i?ci?i aanoicii.

Caaaeyee i?aoeyi Aoaeaaneie E.A. (1981), Eaaoiaa A.A. (1982), Oaa?iaa
TH.I. (1985), Eaaiiaa E.I. (1985), Ai?iieia E.A. (1988), Aaeiiooiaa A.I.
(1991), c’yniaaii iaoai?cie aaii?aieia?/ieo ii?ooaiue o aaa?oieo c IA.

I?ioa ua ia aea/aia aaiethoe?y aieai?/ieo neiae?ii?a o ?ac?
iaoneeaaeiaii? aaa?oiino?, ia iiiaio i?e?aeiaiiy aanoico oa i?ney
?ic?iaeaeaiiy, oiio caeeoathoueny iaiaa?oioiaaieie caniae ?ioaineaii?
oa?ai?? aanoico. Ia aecia/ai? ?aii? ae?aaiinoe/i? iieacieee aanoico, ia
iia’ycai? c ?iaaceaieie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaia? ?aeeii? aeoiee
uiaei aecia/aiiy o a?oi? ?eceeo aaa?oieo e?eoe/iiai ia??iaeo aanoaoe??
ii ?icaeoeo IA. Ana oea coiiaeei aea?? oaie oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ?
naiino?eiei iaoeiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, aeeiia ia eaoaae?? aeooa?noaa oa
a?iaeieia?? ?2 Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.
I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, a?aeiia?aeii aei ieai?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o aeaaeai?? oa aea?aeaaieo ieai?a IIC Oe?a?ie. Oaia aeena?oaoe??
caoaa?aeaeaia ia can?aeaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, i?ioieie ?3 a?ae 1
aa?aciy 1995 ?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/eoe ia aeiee?i?/iiio aoai? ci?ie aaiiaeeiai?ee
ia iae?i- ? i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiio ??aiyo, a oaeiae ia aoai? ee?i?/iiai
i?iyao IA ? ?aeiiaaeanoeaioe?? aeey iiaeaeueoi? i?io?eaeoeee aeieeiaiiy
oneeaaeiaiue.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?iaanoe ee?i?/io ioe?ieo iieaciee?a
oeaio?aeueii? ? ia?eoa?e/ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee i?ae /an aaa?oiino?
o?c?ieia?/ii?, oneeaaeiaii? IA e a i?neyiieiaiaiio ia??iae?. Aeaoe
ioe?ieo iieacieeai oeaio?aeueii? ? ia?eoa?e/ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee o
aaa?oieo, a?oie ?eceeo uiaei ?icaeoeo IA. Aea/eoe ae?aaiinoe/io
oe?ii?noue ? o?iiieia?th neiioii?a aanoico, aeyaeaieo iaoiaeii
oao?aiiey?ii? ?aia?ao??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii aea/aiiy
aaiethoe?? aieai?/ieo neiae?ii?a i?ae /an iaoneeaaeiaii? aaa?oiino?, ia
iiiaio aeieeiaiiy aanoico oa i?ney ?ic?iaeaeaiiy; noaiaea?oeciaai?
aaiiaeeiai?/i? iieacieee a a?oi? caei?iaeo aaa?oieo ? ii?iae?eue;
anoaiiaeaii iiaeeea?noue ae?aaiinoeee i?eoiaaii? iaaeinoaoiino?
e?iaiia?ao i?ae /an aaa?oiino?, oneeaaeiaii? IA; aecia/ai? ?aii?
ae?aaiinoe/i? iieacieee aanoico, ye? ia iia’ycai? c ?iaaceaieie
iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy; ia iniia? io?eiaieo aeaieo ?ic?iaeaii
ae?aaiinoe/iee iiaeoeue aanoico, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai ? iiaeeeaei
i?iaiaeeoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo aaiiaeeiai?/ieo ci?i ia iiiaio i?e?aeiaiiy
aanoico, eiai ee?i?/iiai i?iyao oa ?aa?ano i?ney ?ic?iaeaeaiiy,
aecia/aoe oei aaiiaeeiai?ee, oi?io aanoico, i?iaiaeeoe ei?aeoe?th oa
eiio?ieue ca ?acoeueoaoaie e?eoaaiiy, i?io?eaeoeeo oneeaaeiaiue aeey
iaoa?? oa ieiaea.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aecia/ai? aaiiaeeiai?/i?
ii?ooaiiy, ye? aeieeathoue a i?ioean? iaoneeaaeiaii? aaa?oiino?, o ?ac?
i?e?aeiaiiy aanoico oa i?ney ?ic?iaeaeaiiy, ? ?o ee?i?/ia cia/aiiy.
Iieacaii ae?aaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy ?aia?ao?? uiaei aeyaeaiiy ?aii?o
aeiee?i?/ieo iciae IA i?ae /an aaa?oiino?, eiio?ieth ca aoaeoeai?noth
eiai e?eoaaiiy e i?iaiico oneeaaeiaiue ia aoai? ?ic?iaeaeaiiy oa
i?neyiieiaiai-ai ia??iaeo. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ni?eythoue
noai?aiith no/anii? iiaeae? iaoiaaiaco oneeaaeiaiue aaa?oiino? ia oe?
aeenoee?eoeyoi?ieo ii?ooaiue oa a?iien??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? iniaenoith i?aoeath aaoi?a,
iane?aeeii ?aoaeueiiai aiae?co ee?i?/iiai iaoa??aeo e aeineiiaeiai
iaieiae?iiy no/aniith oaoiieia??th ia?iaaceaieo aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ca a?aenooiino? ?eceeo aeey iaoa?? oa ieiaea. Iniaenoi
aaoi?ii iaa?oioiaaii e ii?aoeueiaaii ae?aaiinoe/io iiaeaeue, yea
ia’?aeio? ?yae aeinoia??ieo iieaciee?a oeaio?aeueii? oa ia?eoa?e/ii?
aaiiaeeiai?ee, io?eiaieo iaoiaeii ?ioaa?aeueii? ?aia?ao??, i?eaeaoieo
aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy IA aaa?oieo, eiai oneeaaeiaiue oa eiio?ieth ca
aoaeoeai?noth e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a. An? aeine?aeaeaiiy e iaoaiaoe/iee
aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeeiiai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?aii
ia can?aeaii? a/aii? ?aaee iaae?ao?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo EIAII ?i. I.E.
Ooieea, OO tha?eaei?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo EIAII ?i. I.E. Ooieea
(1997), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo OII ?2 Aei?i?ianueeiai ?aeiio
i. Ee?aa i?ioyaii oa?i?io aeeiiaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ca e?ioeaaeie
?acoeueoaoaie. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?1 EIAII ?i. I.E. Ooieea a
i?ia?ai? i?aeaioiaee e?ea??a-?ioa?i?a, ee?i?/ieo i?aeeiaoi??a, ia
oeeeeao oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 7 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, c
ieo o oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao – 4, oace a ca??ieeao – 3.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 114 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, 4 ?icae?e?a
aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai iieacieea, a oiio /ene? 134 aeaea?ae c
e?a?i NIAe oa 136 ?iicaiieo, 2 aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa eethno?iaaia 26
oaaeeoeyie, 1 ?enoieii oa 25 ae?aa?aiaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue
ianoaaeaii 167 aaa?oieo oa 74 ii?iae?ee? o 1-oo oa ia 5-oo aeiao i?ney
iieia?a. Oeyoii aeiaaeeiaeo oeeo? ?c caaaeueii? iiioeyoe?? ianoaaeaieo
aoei aeae?eaii aaa?oieo oa ii?iae?eue c i?iyaaie aanoico ??ciiai nooiaiy
oyaeeino? ca oeaeith A?oe?iaa?a. An?o ianoaaeaieo ?iciiae?eaii ia aea?
a?oie: I – c iaiaoyaeaiei ia?aa?aii aaa?oiino?, II – c oneeaaeiaiei IA
ia??iaeii aanoaoe??.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie aeeth/aii 129 aaa?oieo ? ii?iae?eue c iaoneeaaeiaiei
ia?aa?aii aaa?oiino?. C ieo i?ae /an i?ia?anoth/i? aaa?oiino? ianoaaeaii
94 ae?iee, o oiio /ene? a oa?i?iao aaa?oiino? 10-12 oeae – 7, 16-18 oeae
– 21, 22-24 oeae – 16, 28-32 oeae – 24, 36-40 oeae – 26. O
i?neyiieiaiaiio ia??iae? ianoaaeaii 35 ii?iae?eue: 22 – c o?c?ieia?/iith
e?iaiao?aoith, yea ia ia?aaeuoaaea 10 ie/ea, ? 13 – c iaoieia?/iith
e?iaiao?aoith (iiiaae 10 ie/ea). C ieo i?ioyaii 1-? aeiae i?ney iieia?a
ianoaaeaii 10 ii?iae?eue c ii?iaeueiith e?iaiao?aoith oa 8 – c
iaoieia?/iith. Ia 5-oo aeiao i?ney iieia?a c e?iaiao?aoith a
o?c?ieia?/ieo iaaeao ianoaaeaii 16 ii?iae?eue oa c e?iaiao?aoith iiiaae
10 ie/ea – 9.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie oa?eoei 112 aaa?oieo ? ii?iae?eue c oneeaaeiaiei
ia?aa?aii aaa?oiino? IA ??ciiai nooiaiy oyaeeino? ca oeaeith A?oe?iaa?a.
C ieo i?ae /an i?ia?anoth/i? aaa?oiino? ianoaaeaii 73 ae?iee. A
i?aea?oi? aaa?oieo c aiaeyieith oa iao?iiao??th I nooiaiy ie?aii
i?iaiaeeee ianoaaeaiiy ia iiiaio aini?oae?caoe?? oa ia?aae iieiaaie, ia
oii? e?eoaaiiy. ?iciiae?e ae?iie a oe?e a?oi? aoa oaeei: 20 aaa?oieo c
iaa?yeaie, na?aae ieo 10 – ia iiiaio aini?oae?caoe?? oa 10 – ia oii?
e?eoaaiiy; 40 aaa?oieo c iao?iiao??th I nooiaiy, aeeth/ath/e 22 – ia
iiiaio aini?oae?caoe?? oa 18 – ia oii? e?eoaaiiy; 13 aaa?oieo c
iao?iiao??th II-III nooiaiy, c ieo 7 – ia iiiaio aini?oae?caoe?? oa 6 –
ia oii? e?eoaaiiy. O i?neyiieiaiaiio ia??iae? ianoaaeaii 39 ii?iae?eue:
13 – c iaa?yeaie, c ieo 9 – o 1-oo, oa 11 – ia 5-oo aeiao i?ney iieia?a;
20 – c iao?iiao??th I nooiaiy, c ieo 18 – i?ioyaii 1-? aeiae oa 17 – ia
5-oo aeiao i?ney iieia?a; 6 – c iao?iiao??th II-III nooiaiy, aeeth/ath/e
6 – i?ioyaii 1-? aeiae oa 5 – ia 5-oo aeiao i?ney iieia?a. C o?aooaaiiyi
e?iaiao?aoe i?ae /an iieia?a ianoaaeaieo ?iciiae?eeee ia aea? a?oie: 27
ii?iae?eue c ii?iaeueiith e?iaiao?aoith oa 12 – c iaoieia?/iith. C ieo
i?ioyaii 1-? aeiae i?ney iieia?a ianoaaeaii 25 ii?iae?eue c ii?iaeueiith
e?iaiao?aoith oa 12 – c iaoieia?/iith. Ia 5-oo aeiao ianoaaeaia 21
ii?iae?eey c e?iaiao?aoith
10 ie/ea. Oaeiae aeae?eaia i?aea?oia ii?iae?eue c iaa?yeaie oa
iao?iiao??th I nooiaiy, ye? aoee ianoaaeai? i?ioyaii 1-? oa 5-? aeiae
i?ney iieia?a c o?aooaaiiyi oiai, i?iaiaeeee ?i /e i? e?eoaaiiy aanoico
ia?aae iieiaaie: (10 ii?iae?eue c iaa?yeaie oa 21 ii?iae?eey c
iao?iiao??th I nooiaiy, yeei e?eoaaiiy aanoico ia i?iaiaeeee, oa 10
ii?iae?eue c iaa?yeaie e 14 – c iao?iiao??th I nooiaiy oyaeeino?, o yeeo
iieiae ianoaee ia oii? e?eoaaiiy).

Aecia/aiiy ae?aaiinoe/ieo iieaciee?a oeaio?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee
i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii ?iiaaeainii? oao?aiiey?ii? ?aia?ao?? ca Eoa?/aeii, a
iieaciee?a ia?eoa?e/ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee – iaoiaeii ?aiaacia?ao??.

?aia?ao?y ? iaoiaeii ?a?no?aoe?? ioeueniaeo eieeaaiiue noia?iiai iii?o
oeaiei aeine?aeaeoaaii? ae?eyiee o?ea no?oio aeniei? /anoioe (70-100
eAoe) oa iaei? neee (2 – 2,5 A). Oa?aeoa? ?aia?ao?/ii? e?eai? caeaaeeoue
a?ae na?oeaai? ae?yeueiino?, ioeueniaeo eieeaaiiue e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy oa
noaio i?oaeii-a’yceeo aeanoeainoae noaeei (Aooiai E.A. oa ni?aaao.,
1983).

Aeey ?a?no?aoe?? ?aia?ao?/ieo e?eaeo aeei?enoiaoaaee ?ioaa?aeueiee
?aiaiae?caoi? ?A-5 – 01. ?aaeei aiie?ooaeii-/aniaeo aei??thaaiiue
oeueiai a?o/eciyiiai i?eeaaeo caaaeyee aiiioiaaiiio i?e?ii?ioeani?o
caaacia/o? aaoiiaoecaoe?th i?ioean?a ?a?no?aoe??, oeeo?iai? ia?iaee oa
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?aineaiae?a ia aeeniea? e aeaeo?ia?ao?/iiio aeioe?
caieno. I?ia?aiia oi?aae?iiy oeeie i?ioeanaie, iaa?? no/anieo
?aiaeaeo?iae?a, aeaioiaeaieo c oieueaiaaiiai ae?aeaeo?eea ia eaanaiia?e
iniia?, aeicaieeee aeinyaoe aeniei? ae??oaeueii? caeaoiino? oa
i?i?iaeueieo iioeaie aei??thaaiue (5 – 10%), ui iaioa i?eiouaiiai aeey
ia?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a (Eoaeieeia A.A., 1985).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ca o?ueiia ae?aaiinoe/ieie iaoiaeeeaie: OeEA
(oeaio?aeueia eaaae?iaaiiaeeiai?ea), OeIA (oeaio?aeueia oa ia?eoa?e/ia
aaiiaeeiai?ea), IA (ia?eoa?e/ia aaiiaeeiai?ea).

Caeaaeii a?ae ia?aii? iaoiaeeee oa e?eueeino? eaiae?a ?aiieaoeciia?aoa
(?IA) niiniae iaeeaaeaiiy aeaeo?iae?a aoee ??cieie. Ca iaoiaeeeith OeEA
no?oiia? oa iioaioe?aeuei? aeaeo?iaee, aeaeo?iae AEA iaeeaaeaee ca
Eoa?/aeii (1966) o iiaeeo?eaoe?? TH.O. Iooea?y (1977). Ca iaoiaeeeith
OeIA ?ic?iaeaia noaia aei??thaaiiy iieaciee?a aaiiaeeiai?ee o aeaio
?aaeeiao ?iaioe: oao?aiiey?iiio oa a?iiey?iiio. O oao?aiiey?iiio ?aaeei?
aeaeo?iaee ia ii??aiyeuei? ae?eyiee e?ioe?aie iaeeaaeaee o 4 ??cieo
iiaeeo?eaoe?yo: 1) aa?oiy o?aoeia ia?aaeie?//y oa ae?eyiea
i?iiaiaai-i’ynoiiai noaeiaa; 2) ieaeiy o?aoeia ia?aaeie?//y oa ae?eyiea
e?eoueiaiai noaeiaa; 3) aa?oiy o?aoeia aii?eee oa ae?eyiea
aii?eeiai-noiiiiai noaeiaa; 4) ieaeiy o?aoeia aii?eee oa ae?eyiea
eie?iiiai noaeiaa. O a?iiey?iiio ?aaeei? aeaeo?iaee iaeeaaeaee ia
na?aaeeio ia?aaeie?//y oa aii?eee. Ca iaoiaeeeith IA aeaeo?iaee
iaeeaaeaee ia aii?eeo.

E?euee?niee aiae?c ?aia?ai i?iaiaeeee a?aeiia?aeii aei
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e A.I. Iaoaaeeiaa oa ni?aaao. (1983),
E.A. Aooiai oa ni?aaao. (1983), A.A. Eoaeieeiaa (1985), O.N.
Aeiia?aaeiaie (1986), aeeth/ath/e aecia/aiiy oaeeo iieaciee?a:

A. Aeey oeaio?aeueii? ea?ae?iaaiiaeeiai?ee – *NN (/anoioa na?oeaaeo
nei?i/aiue), OI (oaea?iee ia’?i na?oey), OIN (oaeeeiiee ia’?i na?oey),
O? (oaea?iee ?iaeaen), N? (na?oeaaee ?iaeaen), NAO (na?aaei?e
a?oa??aeueiee oene), CIIN (caaaeueiee ia?eoa?e/iee ii?? noaeei), ?AO
(?iaioa na?oey), ONOe (o?eaae?noue na?oeaaiai oeeeeo), *I (/aniaee
iieaciee – o?eaae?noue ia??iaeo iai?oaeaiiy i?iea?aea), A*I (a?aeiiniee
/aniaee iieaciee – a?aeiioaiiy *I aei ONOe), OA (oaca aeaiaiiy), AAe?
(aiie?ooaea aeeo?aia?aie), AI (aaciaee ii?? oeaiei), IE 1 (ieiueia
aeiaeaoiuei? ?AAe), IE 2 ( ieiueia a?ae’?iii? ?AAe), IO (ieiueia o?ea).
Aeiaeaoeiai aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ioaineaiino? e?iaiia?ao aecia/aee
ia’?iio oaeaee?noue aeaiaiiy (IOA ie/n) ca oi?ioeith IOA = OI / OA, aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiia?ao a a?oa??aeueiiio oa aaiiciiio ?one? – ?iaeaen
aaiiaeeiai?ee (?A) ye a?aeiioaiiy IE 1 aei IE 2.

A. Aeey ia?eoa?e/ii? ea?ae?iaaiiaeeiai?ee (oa?aeoa?enoeea I?A) – IE
(ioeueniaee e?iaiaieea), OIE (o?aeoe?y ioeueniaiai e?iaiaieeao –
a?aeiioaiiy IE aei OI), *OI (/an oaeaeeiai iaiiaiaiiy noaeei), *I? (/an
i?aeaeuaiiy ?aia?aie), *II (/an iia?eueiiai iaiiaiaiiy noaeei), A?A
(aiie?ooaea ?aia?aie), AI, A? (aiie?ooaea ?ioeeco?e), Ae? (aeee?ioe/iee
?iaeaen – a?aeiioaiiy A? aei A?A), ?I (?aia?ao?/iee iieaciee –
a?aeiioaiiy A?A aei AI), AA (aaiiciee a?aeieea), *NN, Ao (aiie?ooaea
?aia?aie a oi/oe? O – ??aaiue iaiiaiaiiy noaeei, yeee caeeoa?oueny
ia?aae ii/aoeii nenoiee). Aeey a?eueo ia’?eoeaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
ia?eoa?e/ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee aeiaeaaeeiai aecia/aee /aniaee iieaciee
noaeeiiai oiiono (*INO) – a?aeiioaiiy *OI aei *II, aiie?ooaeiee iieaciee
noaeeiiai oiiono (AINO) – a?aeiioaiiy aiie?ooaee oaeaeeiai iaiiaiaiiy
(A) aei A?A, ?iaeaen ia?eoa?e/iiai iii?o (?II, %) – a?aeiioaiiy A? aei
A, ?iaeaen aeanoe/iino? (?A, %) – a?aeiioaiiy A aei aiie?ooaee
iia?eueiiai iaiiaiaiiy (A?A-A), ?iaeaen N?iiiaena (?N) – a?aeiioaiiy Ao
aei A?A, iaeneiaeueio oaeaee?noue oaeaeeiai iaiiaiaiiy noaeei (V max,
Ii/n) – a?aeiioaiiy A aei *OI, na?aaeith oaeaee?noue iia?eueiiai
iaiiaiaiiy noaeei (V n?., Ii/n) – a?aeiioaiiy (A?A – A) aei *II.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ii?aoeueiaai? ca iaoaiaoe/iei aiae?cii iaoiaeaie
aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiae?coth/e ci?ie oeaio?aeueii?
ea?ae?iaaiiaeeiai?ee i?ioyaii o?c?ieia?/ii? aaa?oiino?, anoaiiaeee, ui c
?icaeoeii aaa?oiino? iiaoaiii oi?iothoueny o?e oaciaeo
ea?ae?iaeeiai?/-ieo neiae?iie: iaaaioaaeaiiy ia’?iii – o 22-24 oeae;
a?ia?aeeiai?? – i?ney 28-32 oeae; a?iiaeeiai?? – iaia?aaeiaei? iieia?a.
I?e oeueiio ia??iae iaea?eueoiai aaiiaeeiai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
na?oeaai-noaeeio nenoaio niinoa??aa?oueny a ia??iae 22-24 oeae
aaa?oiino?. I?i oea na?ae/aoue iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy *NN (86,03 2,69)
oae/oa, (p0,05) oa
AA – ca?eueoo?oueny c (5,933 3,214) % aei (9,223 2,446) %, (p>0,05).
Cieaeaiiy iieaciee?a AINO aei 0,605 0,031 ? *INO aei 0,552 0,067
iaia?aaeiaei? iieia?a na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy noaeeiiai
oiiono. A?eueoo /ooeea?noue aei oeueiai ia? aiie?ooaeiee iieaciee
noaeeiiai oiiono, yeee ia 4-6 oeae ?ai?oa, i?ae *INO, aeaco? ia oea.

Ia?aaoaeiaa aaiiaeeiai?ee i?ney iieia?a ia? nai? iniaeeaino?. Oea
iia’ycaia c aeeeth/aiiyi ?c nenoaie e?iaiia?ao iaoeiai-ieaoeaioa?ii?
eaiee oa a?aeiia?aeiei ciaioaiiyi ?iiino? noaeeiiai ?onea, IOeE,
ia?a?iciiae?eii e?iaiaieeao, yeee iaiao?aeiee aeey eiiiainaoe??
e?iaiao?aoe, aea caeaaeeoue a?ae ?? nooiaiy oa aeoeaiino? eaeoaoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo.

I?ioyaii 1-? aeiae o caei?iaeo ii?iae?eue c ii?iaeueiith e?iaiao?aoith
niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy *NN aei (77,21 3,76) oae./oa, cieaeaiiy OI
aei (87,1 4,92) ie, (p0,05) ?
cieaeaiiyi IOA aei (274,96 19,99) ie/n, (p0,05) ?
(352,84 28,84) ie/n, (p0,05), *II – aei (0,096 0,005) n, *INO – aei 0,364 0,025, (p0,05); o?eaae?noue na?oeaaiai oeeeeo nei?i/o?oueny ia 2,13 –
3,06 – 6,67%, (p>0,05). Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oe?? cieaeaiiy OI, OIE,
O?, N? oa AAe?. ?ioaineai?noue cieaeaiiy OI ? N? o ?ac? i?ia?anoth/iai
aanoico aeua, i?ae O? ? OIE. Oae, o a?oi? aaa?oieo c iaa?yeaie cieaeaiiy
OI e N? noaiiaeei a?aeiia?aeii 8,78 ? 7,39%, (p>0,05), O? oa OIE – 4,42
? 3,84%, (p>0,05). O oe?e a?oi? aeyaeaii cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy CIIN – ia
22,34%, (p0,05),
ui na?ae/eoue i?i aieai?/i? ii?ooaiiy e caione oeaieo iaoai?ci?a
aaeaioaoe??.

?iaioa na?oey c ?iaeoeii aanoico ci?ith?oueny aeaioacii: cieaeo?oueny ia
9,36% i?e iaa?yeao, (p0,05), ia 13,91% i?e H I nooiaiy ? ia 17,31% i?e I
II-III nooiaiy, (p>0,05), ii??aiyii c iieacieeaie eiio?ieueii? a?oie.
?ioaineai?noue e?iaiia?ao oaeiae ciaioo?oueny. I?e iaa?yeao aeyaeaii
cieaeaiiy IOA aei (311,72 18,38) ie/n, (p>0,05) oa ?A aei 1,41 0,1,
(p0,05), ONOe c?inoa? aei (0,731
0,032) n, (p>0,05), A*I – aei (17,27 0,68) %, (p>0,05), IOA
ciaioo?oueny aei (285,28 23,03) ie/n, (p>0,05). On? iieacieee, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai oeaio?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee, o ii?iae?eue c IA
aoee iaaaaaoi a??oeie, i?ae o caei?iaeo ii?iae?eue, o oiio /ene? c
iaoieia?/iith e?iaiao?aoith. Noai e?eoe/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia’?iii, yeee
aeyaeaii o ii?iae?eue c iaoieia?/iith e?iaiao?aoith ia 5-oo aeiao i?ney
iieia?a, ca aeaieie ci?i ONOe, OA (ca?eueooaaeeny) oa A*I (ciaiooaaany),
i?e IA o?ainoi?io?oueny o noai a?aeiinii? eiiiainaoe?? aeao?oeeoo IOeE.
I?aeoaa?aeaiiyi oeueiai ? ciaioaiiy oao?ea?ae??, ?ioaineaiino? ?iaioe
na?oey, cieaeaiiy CIIN ? ia?aeaeueia ciaioaiiy caeaoiino? i?iea?aea aei
nei?i/aiiy.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e nooi?iue e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy e?ioe?aie o aaa?oieo c IA,
aeyaeee eiai cieaeaiiy i?yii i?iii?oe?eii oyaeeino? aanoico ii??aiyii c
oaeeie iieacieeaie o caei?iaeo aaa?oieo. Ciia iaeneiaeueiiai
e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiith a?oiith i?e oeueiio ia
ci?ith?oueny: ia ?ooe? – ae?eyiea e?eoueiaiai noaeiaa oa ieaeiuei?
o?aoeie ia?aaeie?//y, ia iic? – ae?eyiea eie?iiiai noaeiaa oa ieaeiuei?
o?aoeie aii?eee. O?eueee o aaa?oieo c iaa?yeaie OI o ae?eyioe? eie?iiiai
noaeiaa aoa aeuee i?ae o caei?iaeo – (382,70 47,02) ie i?ioe (357,21
37,11) ie – ia 7,1%, (p0,05),
i?ioe (107,53 6,59) % ? aei (0,620 0,028)% i?ioe (0,627 0,014) %,
(p>0,05). I?e iao?iiao?? oe? iieacieee ci?iththoueny o cai?ioiiio
iai?yi?. ?ioi?iaoeaieie uiaei aeyaeaiiy aeenoee?eoeyoi?ieo ii?ooaiue o
aaa?oieo ia ?aiiueiio aoai? ?icaeoeo aanoico ? oaeiae iieacieee AINO oa
?N (oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4. IIEACIEEE IA?EOA?E*II? AAIIAeEIAI?EE

O AAA?OIEO C I?CI?I AANOICII , I m

IA Eiio?ieueia a?oia

(36-40 oeae) Iaa?yee I I nooiaiyHII-III nooiaiyA?, Ii0,040
0,0030,045 0,002*0,033 0,003*0,032 0,006Ae?60,6 3,1479,0 2,76**63,5
4,0276,2 2,25?II, %107,53 6,59*103,30 6,96114,67 11,66119,50
5,29?I, %0,627 0,014**0,620 0,0280,643 0,0210,680 0,058*AINO0,605
0,0310,594 0,0130,578 0,0520,565 0,004*?N18,49 4,0919,36 3,15 24,06
1,1327,72 2,95**

O an?o ii?iae?eue c IA aaiiaeeiai?/i? ii?ooaiiy a ?aii?e i?neyiieiaiaee
ia??iae caa??aathoueny. Iaio ae?aaeaiue i?iyaeythoueny o ii?iae?eue c
iaa?yeaie. A oe?e a?oi? iieacieee *OI, *I?, *II, *INO, AINO, A?
ci?ithaaeenue i?ioyaii ia?oeo i’yoe ae?a iaiaeiicia/ii, aea c?aooith
ia?aaeuoaaee oae? nai? iieacieee o caei?iaeo ii?iae?eue iaa?oue o ?ac?
iaoieia?/ii? e?iaiao?aoe, i?e ye?e oaeiae ciaioo?oueny nooi?iue
e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy na?aaei?o ? ae??aieo noaeei e aeaui i?aeaeuo?oueny ?oi?e
oiion. A?A a iniiai?e a?oi? ii?iae?eue nii/aoeo c?inoaea aei (0,06
0,005) Ii, iio?i cieaeoaaeanue aei (0,05 0,005) Ii, aea caeeoaeanue
aeuith, i?ae o caei?iaeo ii?iae?eue ia 6%, (p

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