Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 398.4 (477)

Iiiiia?aiei A?eoi??y Aaea???aia

AAIETHOe?ss OOII?*IIAI IA?ACO

A OE?A?INUeEIIO OIEUeEEI??

niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.12 – oe?a?iiciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeae?e? oieueeei?o ?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Oaeai/oe Ieaia Ieoaee?aia

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa

Iia?aaaiiee Aieiaeeie? Oaaei?iae/

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo ienoa-oeoaiciaanoaa oieueeei?o
oa aoiieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie

Oaaean Einei THoeiiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y ea??aieo eaae??a ina?oe.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny » 28″ ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 12-00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.01 ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca
aae?anith: 252033, Ee?a-33, aoe.

O. Oaa/aiea, 14 (eiioa?aioe-cae, ??-e iiaa?o).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (Ee?a,
aoe. O. Oaa/aiea, 14, e.97 ).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 26 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
A.I.I?neoi

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oe?a?inueea i?oieia?y – oea no?oeoo?iaaia
nenoaia c aaaaoueia /eiieeaie, ye? iiaeooue aca?iiae?yoe, neeaaeath/e
iaaiee eiiieaen na?oiaeyaeieo oyaeaiue ia?iaeo, aai ae ooieoe?iioaaoe
ie?aii, caeeoath/enue aiaeii/an iiaycaieie iaeia c iaeiei, oiaoi
aca?iiia?aao?ethaaoeny aai aca?iicai?ithaaoeny ia oeo /e ?ioeo aoaiao
aaiethoe?? i?oo.

Ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa i?o ?aaeaiaiooaaa onth
ethaenueeo iiaaae?ieo, a a?eueo?noue aeaiaio?a ethaenueei? eoeueoo?e, ui
cyaeeeny ia no/aniiio aoai?, iathoue ei??iiy o aeaai?e ia?a?ni?e
i?oieia??.

?aai O?aiei aaaaeaa, ui aoaeue-yeee oa?? ienoaoeoaa, iacaeaaeii a?ae
oiai, ioceea oea, e?oa?aoo?e /e aeeaiien, ? i?iaeoeoii oae caaii?
“ieae/i? na?aeiiino?” (oiaoi i?aena?aeiiino?), oiae? ye aeania i?ioean
oai?aiiy – oea caeaoi?noue i?aei?iaoe c “ieae/i? na?aeiiino?” oe?e?
eiiieaene aeaaii iioiaaieo ciaiue oa a?aaeaiue – a?oioeai?noue.

Aoaeue-yeee na?oiaeyae ia? ?ene i?o?/iiai, ? ??cieoey i?ae oeiaie
na?oiaeyaeo – eeoa a oiio, iane?eueee aeeaiei i?oieia?/i? aeaiaioe
i?noyoueny o i?aena?aeiiino? ethaeeie, aaeaea aacia?a/iei ? oie oaeo, ui
a iao?aaeeoe?ei?e neooaoe?? aai a iiiaio, eiee ethaeeia ia eiio?ieth?
nai? ae?? (nii, aooaeo, ao?aoa na?aeiiino? oiui) aeyaey?oueny oe?eee
eiiieaen a?oaoei?a, ai?uaieo o i?aena?aeiiino?.

Nie?ath/enue ia oea, ie ?icaeyaeaoeiaii ooieoe?iioaaiiy ie?aieo
eiiiiiaio?a i?oieia?/ii? na?aeiiino? o oieueeei??, oiaoi ia?ac ci?y,
eiai a?oaoeie oa iaoaii?oice. Ine?eueee ooii?/i? ia?ace ?
anaioiiethth/eie ? a?aeoai?ththoue i?ia?aei? eaiee aeeiai?ee
ia?iaeiiiiaoe/iiai ieneaiiy, oi ? aiae?c i?iya?a iniiaieo aeanoeainoae
oeeo ia?ac?a a aeai?e nenoai? a?aeiioaiue aeicaiey? ?aeiino?othaaoe ca
oieueeei?ieie oaenoaie ye ie?ai? aeaiaioe, oae ? oe?e? eiiieaene aeaai?o
oyaeaiue i?i Anana?o, eiai neeaaeieee, aca?iiae?th ethaenueeiai,
oaa?eiiiai oa ?ineeiiiai na?o?a c? na?oii aia?a oa “ieaei?i na?oii”, aea
iaoeathoue i?aaeee ? o.i. Oiaoi ?ice?eaathoueny einiiaii?/i?,
ai?i?noe/i?, oioai?/i? oyaeaiiy, a o cayceo c oeei – naiaioeea aaaaoueio
iaa?/ieo ae?e, nenoaia oaao, ??ciiiai?oi? ia?yaee, ye? a?aoo?-?aoo noaee
iaeiei c aecia/aeueieo /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
aoiiineoieia?/iiai oeio.

Oaea ?aeiino?oeoe?y aeaai?o i?oiiiaoe/ieo oyaeaiue aea? iiaeeea?noue
i?inoaaeeoe eiia??i? oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iaioaeueiino?.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aea? iniiaiei oaiaeaioe?yi
no/anii? oe?a?inueei? iaoee – eiiieaeniiio aea/aiith na?aeii?nieo oaeo?a
– ia?iaeieo a??oaaiue, oieueeei?o, ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ?ioeo yaeu oe?a?inueei? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e – oiaoi aeoiaeeoue ?c nenoaie oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoa ?iaioe – ?aeiino?othaaoe ie?ai? naiaioe/i? ?ene aeaai?o
oe?a?inueeeo ?eooae?a, aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino? ?oiueiai aieeao ia
oi?ioaaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?i nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee ? ia iniia?
oeueiai aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ooii?/ieo ia?ac?a a
nenoai? oe?a?inueeeo i?oiiiaoe/ieo oyaeaiue.

Aeoiaey/e c iinoaaeaii? a ?iaio? iaoe, iai?/aii ?yae eiie?aoieo
caaaeaiue:

– ?ice?eoe niaoeeo?eo ooieoe?iioaaiiy ooii?/ieo ia?ac?a a oe?a?inuee?e
ia?iaei?e einiiaii??;

– aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a i?oiiiaoe/iiai
na?oiaeyaeo, iiaycaieo ?c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi ooii?/ieo ia?ac?a;

– i?iaiae?coaaoe oi?ioaaiiy eieaeoeaieo na?oiaeyaeieo oyaeaiue
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, nie?ath/enue ia nenoaio a?oaoei?a ooii?/ieo
ia?ac?a ? aeine?aeeoe ?o aeeoo?ae??a?noue o no/aniiio i?oiiiaoe/iiio
ieneaii? oe?a?ioe?a.

Iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaeeee iiaoe/i? e i?icia? oai?e ?c
caaaeueiioieueeei?iiai oiiaeo, cie?aia ?c cae?aoeueeiai aei?iaeo
?.Iaiaeo?e, A.A??i/aiea, ?.?oae/aiea, I.A?ooaanueeiai, A.Aiaothea,
ss.Iiaeoeueeiai, I.*oaei-nueeiai, I.Noioeiaa, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa oa ?i.

Aei aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caeo/aii c?acee na?oiai?
oieueeei?enoeee, o c?noaaeaii? c yeeie eaaoa aeyaeoe naiaioeeo ia?aco ?
c?icoi?oe oie i?oieia?/iee eiae, yeee ia?aaea? oeae ia?ac.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa i?iaeaie
aeaaiueiai na?oiaeyaeo oe?a?ioe?a ?icaeyaeathoueny a eiioaeno? aeyaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae ooii?/ieo ia?ac?a oa a?oaoei?a oeeo ia?ac?a, ui aeicaiey?
aiai?eoe i?i eoeueoo?ii-anoaoe/iee oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee oaiiiai
oi?ioaaiiy ineoieia?/ieo ?en oe?a?inueeiai aoiino. Oaeee ?aeo?n ?iaioe
ia?aii oiio, ui o oieueeei?? aeoio-eththoueny, ?ioaa?othoueny oa
cae??ieththoueny ie?ai? noa?aioeie i?oieia?/iiai ieneaiiy, ye?
aecia/athoue iniaeeaino? ?noi?e/ii? iaiyo?, ioaea, aieeaathoue ia oeyoe
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. A ine?eueee ooii?/i? ia?ace
iaeaaeaoue aei oaeeo noa?aioei?a, ui a?aeaeca?eaeththoue an? iacaai?
i?ioeane, oi ? aaiethoe?y oeeo ia?ac?a a?aeoai?thaaoeia ?noi??th
?icaeoeo oa iiaeaeueoi? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oyaeaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Iniiaieie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

– ii??aiyeueii-c?noaaiee, ui ?ice?eaa? i?e?iaeo (oiaoi a?oaoeie) ??cieo
ia?ac?a oe?a?inueeiai oieueeei?o;

– ?noi?eei-oeiieia?/iee, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai nii??aeiai?noue ??cieo ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi aeaiaio?a i?oiiiaoe/iiai oai?o iiynith?oueny iaeiaeiaeie
oiiaaie aaiace oa ?icaeoeo oeeo aeaiaio?a;

– ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee iaoiae, yeee, ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai,
aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe nii??aeiai?noue yaeu ye ?acoeueoao ?o ni?eueiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy.

Aeei?enoiaothoueny aeaye? aeaiaioe no?oeoo?aeueiiai iaoiaeo i?e
aiae?c? i?oieia?/ieo ia?ac?a.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? ??
aeei?enoaiiy o iiaeaeueoiio aeine?aeaeaii? iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeiiai na?oiaeyaeo, cie?aia i?iaeai, iiaycaieo c oioai?ciii,
oaa?eiieie eoeueoaie, ui aecia/a? iniaeeaino? ?ioeo aeaiaio?a ia?iaeiiai
na?oini?eeiyooy ? o? naiaioe/i? eaioethae, ye? iiaycothoue no/ania
ieneaiiy c eiai a?oa?/iith ia?aaeiniiaith.

Iaoa??ae oa aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, cie?aia o i?aeaioiaoe? oa aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a c
oe?a?iiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee, ?noi??? ca?oa?aeii? oa a?o/eciyii?
eoeueoo?e, aoiiineoieia??, o iaienaii? i?ae?o/iee?a, iin?aiee?a oa aeey
iaienaiiy iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia ni?eueieo can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo
oieueeei?o ?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa oa eaoaae?e oieueeei?enoeee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Ie?ai? aniaeoe ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii o aenooiao ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo (Ee?a, 1994, 1995, 1996), a?eueo?noue aenooi?a
iioae?eiaai?. Iaoa-??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny o i?aeaioiaoe?
eaeoe?e aeey nooaeaio?a-o?eieia?a, neooa/?a oaeoeueoaoo oe?a?iiciaanoaa
AeAEEI.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe coiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioo
neeaaeathoue anooi, o?e ?icae?ee, aeniiaee ? a?ae?ia?ao?y.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aecia/a?oueny oaia ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa oa?i?iieia?/iee aia?ao, iiaea?oueny iaeyae iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei /e iiina?aaeeiaaii oi?eathoueny aeaii? oaie,
ia?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ? iiaecia.

?nio? e?eueea iniiaieo iai?yi?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oieia?/ieo caeiaooe?a.
Oea aiae?oe/ia ineoieia?y, i?aaenoaaieee yei? (Ea?e THia, C?aioiae
O?aeae oa ?i.) aenoioee ?aeath eieaeoeaiiai iana?aeiiiai, oiaoi
a?oaoei?a; no?oeoo?ae?ci Eaa?-No?inna, ui aeyaey? no?oeoo?o i?oo /a?ac
naiaioe/ia oe?ea iaaieo eiai eiiiiiaio?a, aeciath/e i?e oeueiio ia?aaaao
ie?aiiai iaae caaaeueiei.

Ua iaeiei iai?yiii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oieia?? ? ?eooaeueii-i?oieia?/ia
oeiea (O?aca?, Oa???nii), yeith ?icaeyaea?oueny i?o ye a?aeaeoie
?eooaeo, ioaea, an? iaaeaaiiy ethaenoaa iiaycothoueny c iaaiei
?eooae?ciii. Oeth ae aeoieo i?aeoaa?aeaeo? A.O.Ein?a, ni?eeiath/e
aoaeue-yeo noa?o iaoee /e ienoaoeoaa ye i?oieia?/io.

E??i oiai, cia/ia i?noea a iaooe? i?i i?o iin?aea? aio?iiieia?/ia
a/aiiy, i?aaenoaaieee yeiai (Oaeei?, Aanaeianueeee) aiae?coaaee oai?e c
oi/ee ci?o ni?eueieo aeey ??cieo aoi?/ieo a?oi aeaiaio?a ia?a?niiai
ieneaiiy. Ioaea, noaa?aeaeoaaee, ui na?oiaa eoeueoo?a a iniiaiiio
neeaaea?oueny c a?oa?/ieo ia?aaeeoe?a, ye? eeoa aeaeici?iththoueny a
i?ioean? caaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Nie?ath/enue ia i?aoe? iacaaieo aeine?aeiee?a oa aeei?enoiaoth/e iniiai?
i?eioeeie ?oiuei? iaoiaeieia??, ie ?icaeyaeaoeiaii oieueeei?iee oa?? ye
naiaioe/ia oa neioaaiaoe/ia oe?ea, yea iiaea ia?aaeaaaoe caeiaeiaai?
eieaeoeai? oyaeaiiy aai ae iiiaeeiie? yaeua.

I?e ?icaeyae? ??cieo i?iya?a i?oieia?/iiai ia?aco ci?y iaeaaeeoue
canoinoaaoe ? iaoiaeeeo a?ia?ieo iiiceoe?e (aa?o-iec, aeeooy-nia?oue,
i?aaeie-iauaaeie, aiaea-aiaiiue oa ?i). I?e oeueiio ?ice?eaa?oueny
caycie ci?y c oe?eith ieceith ?ioeo i?oieia?/ieo ia?ac?a, ui a a?oaoei?
? eiai cai?iith aai o?nii iiaycai? c iei ooii?/iei iioiaeaeaiiyi (e?iue,
ioao, eaaai, aiae, ?eaa, ia?aoo? – nai aiaaoe?). A ?acoeueoao?
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueeiai i?oieia?/iiai
na?oiaeyaeo ye oe?e?nii? nenoaie ia?ac?a, iaeiei c eeth/iaeo o ye?e ?
ci?e.

Niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ooii?/ieo ia?ac?a a oe?a?inueeiio
oieueeei?? ia aoei, oi/a i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii ?? oi?eaeany
a?eueo?noue ye oe?a?inueeeo (I.Iaeneiiae/, I.Einoiia?ia,
I.I?e?oi?ianueeee, I.Iioaaiy, I.Noioeia, I.Aoaianue?a, O.Aonea?a,
I.Aanaeianueeee, A.Aiaothe, I.A?ooaanueeee), oae ? ca?oa?aeieo
(Aeae.O?aca?, A.Oaeei?, ?.Eaaa?ia, A.?aaiia, A.Oiii?ia, I.Aaeaoeueea,
A.??ueii?ia, O.Oeeayi, A.Aa?eao, Aeae. Eaiiaaee, A.A?ae?/ oa ?i.)
iaoeiaoe?a.

Cia/iee aei?iaie c oeeo ieoaiue ciaoiaeeii ? o i?aoeyo no/anieo
oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a oaeeo, ye A.Aa?ai, I.Eiiiiaiei, I.Iacye,
I.Ooiaaea, E.Aeoia?anueea, I.Oaeai/oe, A.Iia?aaaiiee, A.Cae?ciye,
A.Aeaaeaethe, A.Onaoaiei oa ?i.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Aaiethoe?y ia?aco ci?y a oe?a?inuee?e ia?iaei?e
einiiaii??” ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aco ci?y o
einiiaii?/ieo i?oao.

Einiiaii?/i? i?oe iin?aeathoue iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae an?o ?ioeo
i?oieia?/ieo ooai?aiue. Aiie, cacae/ae, a?aeaeaathoue a?oa?/i? oyaeaiiy
ethaeeie i?i iioiaeaeaiiy Anana?oo, eiai ono??e, i?i caycie an?o
neeaaeiee?a eini?/ii? iiaeae? oa i?noea ethaeeie a i?e.

?icaeyaeath/e i?e?ieini ye ni?iaeoiaaio a ?ioo ieiueio /anoeieo
iae?ieinio, ethaee na?aeiii i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaee ?iaeeiiee oa noni?eueiee
ono??e oei oyaeaiiyi i?i ae?eni?noue, ye? aoee noi?iiaai? ?ai?oa ?
ciaeoee a?aeaeooy o i?oiiiaoe/i?e oai?/ino? aai a ?ioeo oi?iao
ia?a?niiai ienoaoeoaa.

Caeeoee einiiaii?/ieo i?o?a niinoa??aa?ii, cie?aia, o a?eueoino? aeai??a
oe?a?inueeiai oieueeei?o, ooieoe??th yeiai aoei eiioi?eaoeaia oa
iaii??aeueia a?aeaeooy ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iaeiei c iaeoi?aa?naeuei?oeo ia?ac?a i?oiiiaoe/ii? na?aeiiino? ? ia?ac
na?oiaiai ae?aaa, yeee oa?a?aa o naaa o?ainoi?iaoe?th aaaaoueio
oieueeei?ieo aeaiaio?a. I?ioyaii noie?oue ? oeny/ie?oue oeae ia?ac
caeeoaany anaioiiethth/ith eiioeaioe??th eini?/iiai ono?ith ? iniiaiith
(a iiaeaeoaee ?aeeiith) oaiith ienoaoeoaa.

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aenoith?oueny oaca i?i oa, ui na?oiaa ae?aai ia i?inoi
a?aeoai?thaaei iaai? i?oieia?/i? oyaeaiiy, iiaycai? ?c aoaioaaiiyi
i?aaee?a aai c eoeueoii ie?aieo aia?a, — oea aoea ni?iaa aa?oeeaeueii?
oa ai?eciioaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? Anana?oo, iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy iaaii?
i?e?iaeii? nenoaie, aea a eiaeiee aeaiaio iin?aeaa nai? i?noea ?
aeeiioaaa naith /?oei ?aaeaiaioiaaio ooieoe?th. C aaiethoe??th
i?oieia?/ieo oyaeaiue oaea /?oe?noue ii?oooaaeany, a aeaiaioe, ui ?ai?oa
iiaycoaaeeny c eiie?aoiith noa?ith ? i?inoi?ii, ii/aee ooieoe?iioaaoe ye
naiino?ei?, caa??aath/e i?e oeueiio nai? iniiaia cia/aiiy, aea
iaaoaath/e, caeaaeii a?ae iiceoe?e, iiaeo ye?nieo ?en. Oae, i?noea
?icoaooaaiiy ci?y ia na?oiaiio ae?aa? iiaea ci?ithaaoeny, caeaaeii a?ae
naiaioeee oeueiai ia?aco a eiie?aoiiio oieueeei?iiio oai??, oiae? ye
caaaaeaii aaaaeaoe, ui ia?a?nii a?i i?noeany i?e ei?ai?, oi/a, yeui
aeoiaeeoe, iai?eeeaae, c aeecitheiaiai eoeueoo, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe,
ui ci?e i?noeany ye?ac o aa?oi?e noa?? oe??? iiaeae?. Oae? i?inoi?ia?
ci?ie ia caeaaeaoue a?ae aeai?o oieueeei?iiai oai?o. Iai?eeeaae, o
caiiaeyiiyo, ?iiae? iaa?oue o ??cieo aa??aioao iaeiiai oaenoo, aa/eii
??cio iiceoe?th ci?y ia na?oiaiio ae?aa? (“…Oeo?oiay ci?y ia aenie?e
ai?? i?ae nei?i eaiaiai…”, “… A a o?i aeoa? – o?e ai?caea: ? oea?
Naaoe, ? oea?eoey Ieaia, ? oea?aiei…”, “…Ia In?yinuee?i ii?? noi?oue
aeoa, ia o?i aeoa? – ss?oneaa Eaca?aae/…”). ?iiae? o eaceao
cono??/a?oueny aca?iiae?y aeaio ci??ieo ia?niiaae?a, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei
??cieo noa? – iaaanii? oa i?aecaiii?, – ui coiiaeth?oueny i?noeai
?oiuei? noiaaiee i?ae /an iaaaciaee (aeoiei oa e?iia aea?aaa aai ica?i,
??/iee aa?aa).

Ioaea, ci?e iiaea ia?aaoaaoe o aoaeue-ye?e ieiuei? na?oiaiai aea?aaa, a
cia/eoue, aenooiaoe a ?ie? aieiaea?y i?aecaiiiai na?oo
(ioioiaeithth/enue o oaeiio aeiaaeeo c? nia?oth); a ia?ac? iaaanii?
?noioe, nai???aeii? ?iinoan? niiy/iiai aiaeanoaa aai i?inoi aaaeeie,
ieacoia, ui aeeeeea? iioi?ioi? ii/oooy nai?i aeaeyaeii ? iiayco?oueny c
iaa??th oa caaiaiiaie, caaaeyee iaaiiio niiniao aeeooy ? a?ieia?/iei
iniaeeainoyi.

Ie??i oeueiai, ci?e aa?oeeaeueii? no?oeoo?e nai iiaea ni?eeiaoeny ye
na?oiaa ae?aai, oiae? ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui naia a?i ? oai?oeai oeueiai
na?oo ? aiaeii/an ao?eaiiyi aeoo oai?aiiy (caaaeaeii oieueeei?i? oaenoe,
a yeeo ci?e ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ae?aai c io?oeieie ieiaeaie aai
iiaa?oa?oueny aei e?no – oiaoi o na?e i?o?/iee i?ino?? – ? iae?o/o?oueny
iaaeiei aea?aaa /e eoua, aai noa? iinoii, ii yeiio aa?i?iy ia?aoiaeeoue
c iaeiiai na?oo a ?ioee).

Na?oiaa ae?aai iiaea cia?aaeoaaoeny o aeaeyae? ?aeiino? ioao?a,
ieacoi?a, eiieoieo oa ethaeeie. I?e oeueiio ethaeeia ciaoiaeeoueny aai o
e?ii?, aai ae ii?aeio?oueny c? noiaao?ii, oiaoi naia oiniaeth? ae?aai,
aai noi?oue a?ey aea?aaa. O aoaeue-yeiio aeiaaeeo oeae iioea
iiayco?oueny c eoeueoii aea?oaii?eiioaiiy ye aoaioaaiiy aiaeanoaa
aea?aaa, c yeei ioioiaeith?oueny ci?e, /e c oyaeaiiyie i?i
aea?oaii?eiioaiiy ye i?i aeo noai?aiiy na?oo oa iiiaeaiiy anueiai nouiai
ca aeiiiiiaith iiaoi?ii? ?eooaeueii? aea?oae. Oiio o oieueeei?ieo oai?ao
neiaie?/ia nia?oue aa?iy /anoi ia?aaea?oueny ai?ciaeii, eiee eiai
i?eaycothoue aei aea?aaa. Oae naii o?acaieia?cie oeio “aeaoe aeoaa”,
“a??caoe aeoaa”, “iia?aoeny c aeoaii”, “ae?coe ia nooa aea?aai”,
“aeianoe ia aa?o aea?aaa” icia/athoue nia?oue /e caaeaaeue.

O ?iaio? iaaieioo?oueny, ui o neiayi ?nioaaa eoeueo ci?y ye ie?aiiai
aiaeanoaa, yeee a naith /a?ao o?nii ia?aie?oa?oueny ?c aoaioaaiiyi
aeoo?a aea?aa, a ia?ac? yeeo ia??aeei aenooiaee ci?? oa aoae?. Oeae
eoeueo aoa iano?eueee ?iciianthaeaeaiei, ui oeaiee eiai iayai? e aein? a
iniiaieo oeeeeao neiayinueeeo nayo oa ?eooaeuei?e ia?yaeiaino?. E??i
oiai, ?nio? aace?/ cae/a?a oa iia???a, a iniiao yeeo iieeaaeaii naia
ai?i?noe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i aeoo?a aea?aa oa caycie oeeo aeoo?a c? ci?yie
(aoae?aie/a aea?oaa, ?i?oaoe?eia oa aa?aaeueia iaa?y, ni?yiiaaia ia
iiceoeaiee /e iaaaoeaiee ?acoeueoao oiui).

I?i ioioiaeiaiiy ci?y c aeooii aea?aaa na?ae/aoue ? /eneaii? iiene
neiayinueeeo eaieu, iaiaei?iiei eiiiiiaioii yeeo (ii?yae c aea?oiaieie
aea?aie, nayuaiiei aiaiai, eaiaiai) iaa aooe ci?e, ui ni?eeiaany ye aeoo
?ineeie aai ye ao?eaiiy aiaeanoaa, yeiio oea eaieua i?enay/oaaeiny. ?
oi/a aaaeei neacaoe, ui aoei ia?a?niei, a ui aoi?eiiei: eoeueo ci?y ye
iaeiiai c aiaeanoa /e ai?i?noe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i ci?y-aeooa, aea
aoaioaaiiy eiai ye nayuaiii? ?noioe aacia?a/ia.

Aa??aoe??th na?oiaiai ae?aaa o aeaeyae? ci?y iiaeooue neoaeeoe e ?io?
ia?eoe, caaaeueia i?oieia?/ia naia yeeo /?oei aeaco? ia caycie c oe??th
ooii?/iith ?noioith. Oea aeacee, iiiaeo? ci?yie, oa?i/ai? ci??ieie
aieiaaie /e i?ee?aoai? ae??cueaeaiei cia?aaeaiiyi oeeo oaa?ei; iaeeoe?
aai ee?, ye? i?ney eiioaeoo c ieacoiii (oi?eiooeny iaeeoeath ci??,
?ic?aiaoe ci?th oa aeaao oa ?i.) iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ye iaa?/ia
cia?yaeaey, ni?yiiaaia iae/ano?oa ia ci?io ee?iaoe/ieo oiia (aeeeee
aeiuo, iaaiaee – a?aeaaaeaiiy a?iciai? oia?e, aeoi?a), – oiaoi
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny iiina?aaeeiaaia ao?o/aiiy o ethaenuee? ni?aae aieiaea?y
iaaaniiai na?oo. Ia?aoo? – ?io? i?aaeiaoe aa?oeeaeueii? no?oeoo?e, ia
ye? iiaea ia?aoai?thaaoeny ci?e (aieea, aa?aoaii, iiyn, no??/ea oa ?i.).

C ia?acii ci?y o?nii iiaycaiee iioea aea?oaii?eiioaiiy ooii?/ii? ?noioe,
ui ia? e?eueea iniiaieo cia/aiue. O ia?oo /a?ao, oea ?aeay
einiiaii?/iiai ono?ith na?oo, aii?yaeeoaaiiy an?o eaiie ethaenueeiai
aeeooy ca aeiiiiiaith aaeanoaa ooii?/ii? ?noioe, ui oiniaethaaea oain ?
caaaaeaea eiino?oeoeaiei neeai. (Cae/aeii, ooo iiaeia iiaa/eoe caycie c
aeecitheiaeie i?oaie i?i ai?ioueao aeaio a?ao?a, ui oiniaeththoue ??ci?
ia/aea).

?ioith eaieith oeueiai ae iioeao ? aaeanoai ae?aeiiiiiae?aii? ?noioe,
aea aaea ia ca?aaee cieuaiiy oaino, a caaeey oiai, uia c /anoei ?? o?ea
ooai?eany na?o (a?aeaii?i oeueiai aa/eii a oe?a?inueeeo eaceao, eiee
e?ia aaeoiai ae?aeiia ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ??/eo, aai eiee aa?i?,
ao?eath/e a?ae ci?y, eeaeathoue ia oeyoo /a??ai? ?a/?, caeiaoo? o
ci??aiio ae oea?noa? – a?aa?iue, ?ooiee, ianie, – ye? ia?aoai?ththoueny
ia e?n, ii?a, ai?o ? o.i.).

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui aeineoue /anoi aea?oaii?eiioaiiy
?icoi??oueny ye can?a caeo/aiiy aei nae?aeueiiai, iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe
oa, /iai ia aoei ?ai?oa, aeoea?coaaoe i?e?iaei? neee /e i/enoeoenue,
iiiaeoenue ca iina?aaeieoeoaii aea?oae. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ni?eeoaaiiy c? na?oii iiia?eeo, ? oiae? aea?oaa
(iae/ano?oa ethaenueea, i?ci?oa – oaa?eiia) – oea aea? aiaeanoao oeueiai
na?oo aai ae oyaeaiiy i?i oioai, a ?acoeueoao? aaeanoaa yeiai ethaeeia
caeiaoaa? ye?nue iniaeea? ciaiiy /e yeino?, ui aieeaathoue ia ?icaeoie
noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio. ? oi/a ia iiaeia oi/ii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ci?e
aoa oioaiii neiayi, aea, aiae?coth/e oieueeei?i? c?acee, iiaeaii
aiai?eoe, ui oea oe?eeii eiia??ia i?eiouaiiy.

I?e oeueiio iaiayceiaeie oiiaaie oaeiai aea?oaii?eiioaiiy aoee:
aeia?ia?euei?noue aea?oae, aeeiiaiiy oeueiai ia?yaeo “aea?aiei”, a ia
aoaeue-yeei /eaiii ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa, iino?eiee eiiieaen
?eooaeueieo niinia?a cieuaiiy aea?oae, caiia?aaiiy aine?an?iith oeyoii
?iceeaeaiiy /anoei o?ea, niaeaiiy ? o.i., a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aea?oae a ?io?e
?iinoan?, ia?aoo? – ia?a?niee eai?aae?ci /e nai???aeiee aeo oeeaaeaiiy
caiia?oo ye ia?yae nii??aeiaiiy an?o /eai?a aeaii? noni?eueii?
oi?iaoe??. ?ethno?aoe?? oaeeo aea?oaii?eiioaiue aa/eii o oieueeei?ieo
oai?ao (ye o caea?iaonuee?e eacoe? “Noa?inoa”).

E??i oiai, aea?oaii?eiioaiiy o eaceao iiaea aooe oaeiae a?aeaeoeii
i?ci?oeo ?i?oe?aeueieo ia?yae?a, ye?, a naith /a?ao, a?aeoai?thaaee
?aaeueia aaeanoai aea?oae ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ci?e – aiaea – aiaiiue” a nenoai? oe?a?inueeiai
i?oiiiaoe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo” i?aaenoaaeaii ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aco ci?y a
nenoai? a?ia?ii? iiiceoe?? “aiaea-aiaiiue”. I?e?iaeii ianoi?ni?
eiiiiiaioe aiaiiue oa aiaea noaiiaeyoue ooo nai???aeio ?aei?noue
i?ioeeaaeiinoae ? iiaeooue ia eeoa aa?iii?eii ia?aoiaeeoe iaeia a iaeia,
aea e aca?iicai?ithaaoeny. Ioaea, ? ooii?/i? ia?ace, ye? aiaeii/an
ioioiaeiththoueny c? noeo??th ? aenooiathoue ?? aieiaea?yie,
ni?eeiathoueny iaiaeiicia/ii ? iaaoaathoue oe?eiai iaai?o aeiaeaoeiaeo
nai, na?aae yeeo iiaeia aeae?eeoe e?eueea iniiaieo.

Ci?e ni?eeia?oueny ? aoaiiao?oueny ye aeoo aiaeieieua /e aiaith, aai ae
nai ciaeueiao?oueny o aeaeyae? aiaiyii? /e aiaeyii? ??/ee. Iaeae?aci?oa
oea aeyaeeiny ca /an?a o?enoeyinoaa, eiee iaeei ciaeueiaoaaeiny o
aeaeyae? aiaiyii? ??/ee, yeo iaa??aa? ci?e aai yeo a?i nai ooai?th?,
oiio a caiiaeyiiyo oai?iao a?aeneeaee “aei uaeai iaeea” (oiaoi –
anioe?aoe?y ae?aeiia c iaeaeueiith ??eith), a iaeei iaceaaee “??eith
ci??aith”, ui ii/eia?oueny a?ae i?aei?aeaey o?iio ?nona O?enoa. Oaeei
/eiii, neeaaea?oueny a?aaeaiiy, ui o?ei ci?y ? aiaeii/an ? aiaiyiith
??/eith, ? iaeaeueiei oeyoii, ii yeiio ?ooathoueny a??oi? aeoo?.

Ia ei?enoue ioioiaeiaiiy oeyoo oa ??/ee na?ae/eoue aaaaoi oaeo?a ?
a?aeiiinoae. Iai?eeeaae, ia Iie?nn? i?ae /an iinooe cae?eniththoue
?eooae cai?thaaiiy aei?iae aai ?onea ??ee, ui aenioea. I?e oeueiio aei
ieoaa ai?yaathoueny e?oi? aai iieiae? ae?iee-oaeiaeoe?, ye?, i/aaeaeii,
aeeiiothoue oo ae ?ieue, yeo a ?iaeeeueieo ia?yaeao aeeiio? aaaa-a?aiea:
aiie ? iina?aaeieeaie i?ae na?oii ethaeae oa na?oii iiia?eeo. (Oe?eaai,
ui iae/ano?oa cai?aiee oeyo can?aathoue ian?iiyi iaeo, yea ? iaiayceiaei
eiiiiiaioii a?eueoino? ia?yaeiaeo ae?e). Ioaea, aei?iaa a oeueiio
a?oa?/iiio ia?yae? anioe?th?oueny c ??eith.

O oaeiio aeiaaeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny anioe?aoeaiee caycie aaaaoueio ie?aieo
oieueeei?ieo aeaiaio?a, ye? aenooiathoue ye aca?iicai?ithaai? (?onei
??/ee=aei?iaa; iaeei=ica?i, eieiaeycue, ii?a ? o.i.).

*anoi ci?e-ainiiaea? noeo?? aenooia? o einiiaii?/i?e iiaeae?, yea
aeyaey?oueny o ??cieo eiaeao i?oieia?/ii? na?aeiiino?, iai?eeeaae o
caiiaeyiiyo: “?iceeeiny nei? ii?a. Ia oeueiio ii?? noi?oue aeoa: i?ae
oei aeoaii eaaeeoue ci?y iaoneiouay…” Ii??aiyeii oe? ?yaeee
oe?a?inueeiai caiiaeyiiy c ?iae?enueeei i?oii i?i Oaoo – oeny/iaieiaiai
ci?y, oea?y ieacoi?a oa iaa?a, ui i?aeo?eio? caieth. Ia eiai e?eueoeyo
iina?aae na?oiaiai ieaaio nieoue A?oio.

A oe?a?inueeiio oieueeei?? aiaeieieua /e aieioi ? cae/aeiei i?noeai
iiiaoeaiiy ia/enoi? neee, c yeith ia?iaeia oyaa iiaycoaaea ? ci??a, oiio
o a?eueoino? oieueeei?ieo oai??a, aea eaeaoueny i?i ci??a, iaiayceiaith
? i?enooi?noue aiaee. O oaeeo aeiaaeeao aa/eii a?aaeaoe?th ia?a?nieo
oyaeaiue: ci?e aaea ia oiniaeth? noeo?th, aea iaeiaeiai caeeoa?oueny
iaa?/ii iiaycaiei ?c iath. Ci?e oa eiai oieueeei?i? cai?iieee ia
ao?a/athoue ia?a?niiai i?o?/iiai cayceo ?c iioiea?//yi – i?aeaiaeiith
e?a?iith iiia?eeo. No?aoii ii?ooeoe ei?aeii oea?noaa iiia?eeo
iiyniththoueny ? caai?iie uiaei eoiaiiy, ye? caa?aaeeny ia eeoa o
ia?a?nieo, aea e o oeea?e?ciaaieo ia?iae?a. Iai?eeeaae, I.I.Aeiaaeaiei,
cae?i/oth/e aaoia?ia?ao?/iee oa?? “Ca/a?iaaia Aeania”, ieoa: “Oiae?
Aeania aoea aeeaieith ? aeno?ith ??/eith. O i?e oiae? ua ia eoiaany
i?ooi, ? ia i?neao ?? iaeaea i?ooi ua ia aaeyany aieee. <...> Ae?a/aoa
ia eoiaeenue iaa?oue o nayoi, ni?iiey/enue neeaeaoe ni?i/ee. *ieia?eai c
aeaai?o-aeaaai ia e?/eei eoiaoeny ca cae/a?i. AE?iee ae aiyeeny aiaeith
cieoue caei?iay…” Inue /iio oae /anoi ? aiaeo, ? ci??a
aeei?enoiaothoue o /aeeoaaii?, o ia?iaei?e iaaeeoeei?. Oiio ? ia?yaee ia
aoaioaaiiy aiaee, o yeeo i?inoaaeothoueny oeaiee aeaai?o
aea?oaii?eiioaiue, ni?eeiathoueny ye nai???aeia ni?iaa ethaeeie
iaeaaiaeeoe eiioaeo ?c aeooii-aiaeanoaii noeo??, yeei aeania
caeeoa?oueny ci?e, oi/a ia oeueiio aaea ia iaaieioo?oueny, ine?eueee
ci?e iinoa? a ??cieo nai?o o?ainoi?iaoe?yo (?eaa, naoaia, aiaeyiee
(aiaiyiee) ae?aeii oa ?i.).

Ua iaeiei i?iyaii aiaeyii? i?e?iaee ci?? ? ia?ac aanaeee.
Ooieoe?iiaeueii ci?y-aanaeea ? iaae?aoi?ii i?ae aeaiia na?oaie, ui
ii?aeio? iaai ? caieth, oiaoi caa??aa?oueny oyaeaiiy i?i ??
i?eiaeaaei?noue aei oeeo aeaio na?o?a, o yeeo, ca ??cieie i?o?/ieie
eiioeaioe?yie, ia?aaoaathoue aeoo? iaa?ae/ee?a. Oae? oyaeaiiy
iiaycothoue ci?th c iaaaniith aieiaith, iiyniththoue aeei?enoaiiy ?? a
ia?yaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai oeeeeo.

Aiaiyia i?e?iaea ci?y-ae?aeiia iiaea aeyaeyoeny ii-??ciiio. A?i iiaea
ioioiaeithaaoeny ?c iaaaniei, caiiei aai i?aecaiiei aiaiai. O ia?oiio
aeiaaeeo ia?ac ci?y aenooia? o cayceo ?c niiy/iei aiaeanoaii, aai ae
ci?e nai oiniaeth? niioea /e oae? i?e?iaei? yaeua, ye aeeneaaea, aiaiyia
eoey, aeoi?.

Ci?e ye i?aaenoaaiee caiiiai aiaith ni?eeia?oueny aai ye aeoo noeo??,
aai ye oaoi? aiaeanoai aiaiyii? i?e?iaee, i?noeai ia?aaoaaiiy yeiai ?
aeiiaoi? aiaieua. Cae/ae aoaioaaiiy oeueiai aiaeanoaa cono??/a?ii o
aaaaoueio oe?a?inueeeo ia?yaeao oa a??oaaiiyo.

Cae/aeii, iaea?eueoa oaaae i?eae?eaii ci?th-i?aaenoaaieeo i?aecaiiiai
aiaith, aieiaea?th /eneaiieo nea?a?a, caeieaoe yeiai o a?eueoino?
oieueeei?ieo oai??a iiaeooue eeoa eiaae?, ye? oaeiae ca ia?iaeieie
oyaeaiiyie iaee i?e/aoi?noue aei i?aecaiiiai na?oo e ai?ee i?eai?eoaaoe
aiaiiue.

E??i oiai, ci?e oa eiai cai?iieee aeieeathoue c aiaee /e c aiaiyii?
noeo?? ? iiaycothoueny c ?a/aie, ui iathoue i?yia /e iiina?aaeeiaaia
a?aeiioaiiy aei iueiai (/a?aiiee eie??, caycie c iaoaeaie, eiaaeuenoaii
? o.i.)

O ?iaio? ?aeiino?oeiaaii eaioethae oieueeei?ieo aeaiaio?a, ye? o aeoieao
iathoue ooii?/i? ia?ace, ui aeicaiey? ii-iiaiio iiaeyiooe ia o? /e ?io?
i?oieia?/i? oyaeaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Ci?e a oe?a?inueeiio aano?a???.
?aeaioeo?eaoe?y oa iaoaii?oice” ?icaeyiooi ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?ac?a ci?y,
eiiy, ioaoa oa naei? ye aca?iicai?iieo ? aeyaeaii ni?euei? cia/aiiy
ia?ac?a oeeo oaa?ei o eiioaeno? ??cieo na?aeii?nieo ? ooaeiaei?o yaeu
(na?oiaa ae?aai, ciai?oiy iiae?ai?noue, iaeiaeia? ooieoe?? o
oieueeei?iiio oai??, i?o?/iee i?ino?? ia?aaoaaiiy oiui).

Iaeiei c eeth/iaeo o na?oia?e i?oieia?? ? ia?ac eiiy. sse ? aaaaoi
?ioeo, e?iue ia? o?niee caycie c? ci??i ? aenooia? eiai cai?iieeii,
?ice?eaath/e iia? iniaeeaino? ooii?/iiai ia?aco, ui aeicaiey?
iaeneiaeueii oi/ii aecia/eoe i?noea ia?aco ci?y a oe?a?inueeiio
i?oieia?/iiio na?oiaeyae?.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii oe?a?inueeee oieueeei?iee iaoa??ae o
c?noaaeaii? eiai c? na?oiaei, ? aeyaeaiee caycie oeeo aeaio ciiii?oieo
ia?niiaae?a, ye? iaaecae/aeii /anoi aenooiathoue o oieueeei?? e a
a?oaoei? ? aaoueeaie ai?/iiai aa?iy aai oioaiiith oaa?eiith eiai ?iaeo.
Aeieacii oeueiai iiaeooue neoaeeoe /eneaii? iioeae onii-iiaoe/ii?
oai?/ino?, ye? ?aae?ciaothoueny o ??cieo aeai?ao. Ni?iao?ii aeae?eeoe
iniiai? c ieo.

Ciai?oi?e aeaeyae eiiy /anoi a?aeiia?aea? iienai aiaiyiiai ci?y /e
ae?aeiia (e?iue ia? cieioo oeo?o, c i?cae??a o iueiai aaeeoue aeei; a?i
?noue iieoiy, i? aea?, ana iaaeiei iueiai ia? a?aeo?iie cieioiai,
n??aiiai /e i?aeiiai eieuei?o; eiee a?i a?aeeoue, caiey aoaea, ?ne?e
neieyoueny c-i?ae eiieo – ana na?ae/eoue i?i i?eiaeaaei?noue oe???
?noioe aei oea?noaa ia?oaeo, ci??aiai na?oo, a?nnth yeiai, aei ?a/?,
ia??aeei ? noiai (cai?ia na?oiaiai ae?aaa, aea?oiaiee), aei yeiai
i?eaycaiee e?iue.

*anoi e?iue ? aeani?noth ci?y, eiai ae?oaii ? ii?aaeieeii aai
iaeoe?ii?oei, ui ? o i?aecaiiiai aieiaea?y. Ioaea, aee?aaeaiiy eiiy
aa?i?i /e caoiieaiiy eiai ye aieiaiai o?ioay aeaco? ia nii??aeiai?noue
ci?y ? ia?oaea (o oaeiio aeiaaeeo iaieiae?iiy /a??aiei eiiai neiaie?co?
ia?aaea/o aeaaee, oiae? ye nai e?iue noa? iii?/ieeii naiai iiaiai
ainiiaea?y) aai iana i?ieeyooy, ? iiaeaeueoa ai?ioueaa aiaaoe?y c ?ioeie
eaceiaeie noi?ioeaieeaie ni?eeiaoeiaoueny ye i?iaeiaaeaiiy ai?ioueae c?
ci??i, yeee ia?aeoia o ?ioo ?iinoanue. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo caaeaaeue aa?iy
/a?ac iina?aaeieoeoai eiiy iiaea ni?eeiaoeny ye aieaaeyaeaiiy i?aaee?a.

Aa?ie ca aeiiiiiaith ci??aiai eiiy noa? aieiaea?ai iioiea?/iiai
oea?noaa, ui oaeiae ? iciaeith nii??aeiaiino? ci?y oa aiaaoe?y. Nthaee
ae aoiaeyoue o? iioeae, o yeeo i?inoaaeo?oueny caycie aa?iy c eiiai ye
oaeei (aiie ia?iaeaeothoueny a iaeei aeaiue, ? iiei/ieie a?aoaie,
iathoue iaeiaeia? cae?aiino? oa ?i., oiaoi aa/eii i?ecia/aiiy ?o iaeia
iaeiiio).

Iioe?aiei o eaceao oa eaaaiaeao ? iioea ai?ciaiiy ci??aei oa
ia?oaeiaei eiiyie iaeia iaeiiai, oiaoi aeac?aea ia ?oi? a?aoa?noai aai
eaceiaa iia?aoeinoai ooii?/ieo eiiae c eiiai aiaaoe?y – ?c caiiei eiiai.

Ia?aoo?, o?niee caycie eiiy c ia/enoith neeith; canoinoaaiiy e?inueeeo
e?noie, /a?aia, aieino a iaa?/ieo ae?yo, a ia?yaeao niaeaiiy a?aeueie oa
aa??aoe?yo oeeo ia?yae?a; ni?eeiyooy eiiy ye iina?aaeieea i?ae aeaiia
na?oaie, a, ioaea, aeei?enoaiiy a iioiaaeueieo ia?yaeao, a
aea?oaii?eiioaiiyo i?aecaiiiio aieiaea?th aai iiaia ioioiaeiaiiy eiai c
oeei aieiaea?ai; iaae?eaiiy oaiainueeeie aeanoeainoyie (caaaeaeii
eaceia? ai?ciaee, eiee e?iue aeiiiiaaa? aa?ith aeeoiaoeny a ie?ii?,
ia?aaeaa/a? iaeaooi? /e nai aeeiio? caaaeaiiy aa?iy) aeaco? ia eiai
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th c ia?acii ci?y.

Ioaea, i?aenoiiaoth/e ana neacaia, iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i oa, ui a a?oaoei?
e?iue ? ci??i, a aeania aa?ie (a?aoiaoth/e, a naith /a?ao, eiai caycie c
eiiai) ? aai iauaaeeii ci?y, aai eiai a?aoii-aioeiiaeii.

Ii?aeiaiiy ia?aco ci?y c ia?acii ioaoa, a ?acoeueoao? yeiai cyaey?oueny
oaioanoe/ia /oaeiaenueei, ? a?aeoai?aiiyi ??cieo i?oieia?/ieo oyaeaiue
i?i na?o iiia?eeo oa eiai aieiaea?y. Aeeaiaeaeiee ioao (oiaoi e?eeaoee
ae?aeii) oae naii, ye ? ci?e, ? aee?aaea/ai ethaenueeeo, cie?aia
aeeoy/eo aeoo. I?e oeueiio anioe?aoe?y ci?y ?c ioaoii a?aeaoaa?oueny ia
eeoa o cayceo c ?oi?ie ooieoe?iiaeueieie iniaeeainoyie, aea ? o
ni?eueieo ?enao ciai?oiueiai aeaeyaeo iaio oieueeei?ieo ia?niiaae?a:
eetha-iaua; o?ei, ae?eoa eoneith; caeaoi?noue e?oaoe, oiaoi ia?aoiaeeoe
c iaeii? noa?e aei ?ioi? (iniaeeai /?oei oea aenooia? c iaeyaeo ia ?oith
iiceoe?th o na?oiaiio ae?aa?), no?ieao?noue ? o.i.

Ia oae /?oei aeyaey?oueny ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ci?y oa naei?. Ni?eueiith
eaieith oeeo aeaio ia?ac?a ? ?oi?e caycie, c iaeiiai aieo, — ?c
aiaiyii? noeo??th oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei eoeueoii ieiaeth/ino?, c
?ioiai – c einiiaii?/iith iiaeaeeth na?oiaiai ae?aaa oa c iioeaii
aea?oaii?eiioaiiy.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeaiee i?aenoiie i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?nii?o?eoth/e ie?ai? ?aae?? ae?eniino?, aeaiiino?oth/e noaaeaiiy aei
ieo a?eueoino? /eai?a noni?eueii? oi?iaoe??, ui coiiaeaia aeayeeie
iniaeeainoyie ia?a?niiai ieneaiiy, oieueeei?i? oai?e ?, c iaeiiai aieo,
ia?oeie ni?iaaie oei?caoe?? yaeu aeaio ??cieo ii?yaee?a (aano?aeoiiai oa
eiie?aoiiai, aeeaiai oa iaaeeaiai na?o?a), c ?ioiai – ii?aeiaiiyi
noa?eoa ? aeaiioaoa ae?eniino?, iaiiaeeea?noue ?o ?ic??ciaiiy.

Iaeiei c iaeiioe?ai?oeo ia?ac?a na?oiaiai oieueeei?o ? ia?ac ci?y.
Aaiethoe?y ia?aco ci?y o na?oiaiio oieueeei?? neeaaeia ?
aaaaoinooiaiaaa. Ia oa /e ?ioa ni?eeiyooy eiai iin??i i?oieia?/iiai
ieneaiiy, a, ioaea, ia ??ciiiai?oia oeoia/aiiy ?iiae? iaeiiai e oiai ae
i?o?/iiai nthaeaoo aieeaaee oaeoi?e ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai, nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, iaioaeueiee oei aoiino, ia?aoo?, aeieia?/i?
iniaeeaino?.

A oe?a?inueeiio oieueeei?? ia?ac ci?y i?enooi?e a oiio /e ?ioiio
aeaeyae? a on?o iniiaieo i?oieia?/ieo nthaeaoao: oea ? einiiaii?/i?
i?oe, a yeeo ci?e aenooia? oai?oeai-aeai?o?aii aai ae ioioiaeith?oueny c
??cieie /anoeiaie Anana?oo: iaaii, caieath, na?oiaei ae?aaii, na?oiaei
yeoeai; i?oe i?i oioaiieo oaa?ei (ioaoa, eiiy, aeea, eaaaia ? o.ae.),
ye? ia??aeei aenooiathoue oieueeei?ieie cai?iieeaie ci?y aai ae,
iaaiaee, eiai aioeiiaeaie (ye, iai?eeeaae, aee, yeee caaaeaee caeia?
iiey?io iiceoe?th uiaei ci?y); oea ? i?oe aeecitheiaiai eoeueoo, a yeeo
ci?e iinoa? o aeaio nai?o ?iinoanyo: c iaeiiai aieo, ye aiaeanoai
“aa?oiueiai” na?oo (ca?aene – ? caycie ci?y c? noeo??th iia?o?y, c
iaaanieie aiaeaie oa eoeueoii ieiaeth/ino?) oa ye ooii?/ia ?noioa,
aieiaea? i?aecaiiiai na?oo iiia?eeo, oiniaeaiiy aiaiyii? noeo??, a o
i?ci?o?e o?enoeyinuee?e o?ainoi?iaoe?? – naoaia, ui a?/ii ai?aoueny c
aiaii oa ethaeueie, aai iaio aieiaie/ee, aea iaaecae/aeii ??ciiiai?oiee
o nai?o i?iyaao /i?o.

I?oieia?/i? oyaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aeeeeeathoue cia/iee ?ioa?an
naia ca?ac, eiee aino?i noi?oue ieoaiiy naiiaecia/aiiy iaoe?? oa
iiaeaeueoeo oeyo?a iie?oe/iiai, eoeueoo?iiai, ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo. I?o
noa? iaoa??aeueiei ae?acieeii noeoiiino? ia?a?nieo iiaeyae?a
aii??e/iiai, iiaooiaiai oa aeeaeaeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o oa ?aaeueiei ia?eoii
aeey iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oieueeei?ii? niaaeueie ia?iaeo.
Aoaeue-yeee oieueeei?iee ia?ac ? eiaeii oe?ei? nenoaie i?oieia?/ieo
oyaeaiue, ui ?nioaaee ?ai?oa ? i?iaeiaaeothoue ?nioaaoe o na?aeiiino?
no/anii? ethaeeie a i?eoiaaieo oi?iao. Ia?ac ci?y ia ? aeiyoeii, eiai
naiaioe/ia iiea iano?eueee oe?iea, ui ioiieth? ia o?eueee ??ci?
oieueeei?i? aeai?e, a e aeyaey?oueny ia ??ai? iiaooo, cae/a?a oa ?ioeo
ciaeiaeo nenoai oe?a?inueei? aoiieoeueoo?e oa i?iaeiaaeo? ooieoe?iioaaoe
o o?ainoi?iiaaiiio eeane/iiio aeaeyae? ? o no/aniiio iiaiio ni?eeiyoo?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aei ieoaiiy aaiace ? ?icaeoeo noa?iaeaai?o ia?iaeieo oyaeaiue o
oieueeei?? // Iaoa??aee O? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo
“?noi??y iaoee, ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?: o?aaeeoe?? ? no/ani?noue”.
– Ieeiea?a, 1996. – N.103-106.

2. I?oieiaaia “ci?e – aiaea – aiaiiue” a oe?a?inueeiio oieueeei??. //
Oe?a?inueea iiaa oa e?oa?aoo?a. – 1999. – *.12.

3. O?ainoi?iaoe?y ?eooaeo aea?oaii?eiioaiiy a oe?a?inueeiio oieueeei??
// ?ioi?iaoe?eiee a?niee AI Aeui? oeiee Oe?a?ie. Aeiaeaoie. – 1999. – ?
21. – 1,4 a?e.

4. Ieioea ? i?eeaeaoi? a oe?a?inueeiio i?oieia?/iiio na?oiaeyae? // Ca.:
Aoiieoeueoo?a Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny ? *i?iiaeeuenueea o?aaaae?y. – Aei.3.
– ??aia, 1999. – 0,9 a?e.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iiiiia?aiei A.A. Aaiethoe?y ooii?/iiai ia?aco a oe?a?inueeiio
oieueeei??. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.12 – oe?a?iiciaanoai. ?inoeooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith ooii?/iiai ia?aco oa eiai /eneaiieo
o?ainoi?iaoe?e o eiiieaen? i?oiiiaoe/ieo oyaeaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.
Oe?a?inueeee oieueeei?iee iaoa??ae oi/a ? a?aeaeaa? caaaeuei? na?oia?
i?ioeane ?icaeoeo i?oieia?/ii? nenoaie oyaeaiue, aea ia? niaoeeo?/i?
?ene, ioaea, iio?aao? ie?aiiai ?icaeyaeo.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny i?noea, ?ieue ? cia/aiiy
ooii?/ieo ia?ac?a o nenoai? ia?iaeieo cae/a?a oa a??oaaiue. Aiae?c
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a eoeueoo?e aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe ?o,
ye i?aai?/i? oi?ie, ui caaacia/othoue oe?e?ni?noue eoeueoo?e ethaenoaa
acaaae?.

Oea aeicaiey? ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoe aei aea/aiiy ? aeeeaaeaiiy
ia?iaeiiiiaoe/ii? oai?/ino? ye oaiiiaio iaoe?iiaeueii? aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e, ui ca oeiii ieneaiiy oyae?? aei i?oieia?? ? aei ooaeiaeiuei?
e?oa?aoo?e – ye ienoaoeoai neiaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oe?a?iiciaanoai, i?oieiaaia, iaoeia? i?eioeeie,
iaoe?iiaeueiee na?oiaeyae.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iiiiia?aiei A.A. Yaiethoeey ooiie/aneiai ia?aca a oe?aeineii oieueeei?a.
– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.12 – oe?aeiiaaaeaiea. Einoeooo
oe?aeiiaaaeaiey Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth ooiie/aneiai ia?aca e aai
iiiai/eneaiiuo o?ainoi?iaoeee a eiiieaena ieoieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee
oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. Oe?aeineee oieueeei?iue iaoa?eae, oioy e
ioia?aaeaao iauea ie?iaua i?ioeannu ?acaeoey ieoieiae/aneie nenoaiu
i?aaenoaaeaiee, ii eiaao e niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou, iiyoiio o?aaoao
ioaeaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey.

A i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiey ii?aaeaeythony ianoi, ?ieue e cia/aiea
ooiie/aneeo ia?acia a nenoaia ia?iaeiuo iau/aaa e aa?iaaiee. Aiaeec
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a?oae/aneeo yeaiaioia ae?aaiae eoeueoo?u iicaieyao
?anniao?eaaoue eo eae i?aaie/aneea oi?iu, /oi iaania/eaaao oeaeinoiinoue
eoeueoo?u /aeiaa/anoaa aiiaua.

Yoi iicaieyao ii-iiaiio iiaeieoe e eco/aieth e eceiaeaieth
ia?iaeiiiiyoe/aneiai oai?/anoaa eae oaiiiaio iaoeeiiaeueiie aeooiaiie
eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay ii oeio iuoeaiey oyaioaao e ieoieiaee e e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a – eae eneonnoai neiaa.

Oaia ?aaiou /?acau/aeii aeooaeueia e eiaao eae iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneia, oae
e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea enneaaeiaaiey ?anniao?eaaaony ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ia?aca
ciay a oe?aeineie einiiaiie/aneie nenoaia, a /anoiinoe a oaeeo ie?iauo
ia?aciuo oieaa?naeeyo, eae iioea aea?oaii?eiioaiey e “ie?iaia ae?aai”.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea ?anniio?aii aeia?ioth iiiiceoeeth “aiaea – iaiiue” e
a? acaeiiaeaenoaea n ia?acii ciay eae aeanoeeeia eee aeooa noeoee.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea i?iaiaeece?iaaii oieueeei?iua ie?iaicc?ai/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey oe?aeioeaa a nayce n nenoaiie a?oaoeiia ooiie/aneeo
ia?acia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oe?aeiiaaaeaiea, ieoieiaaia, iao/iua i?eioeeiu,
iaoeeiiaeueiia ie?iaicc?aiea.

Annotation

Ponomarenko Victoria Valeriyevna Evolution of chthonic image in
Ukrainian folklore.

Dissertation for a scientific degree of the candidate philological
sciences in speciality — 09.00.12 — Ukrainian study- Institute of
Ukrainian Study of Kiev University of Taras Shevchenko, Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation devoted to the study of chthonic image and his multiple
transformations in the complex of mythological notions of Ukrainian
people is presented for a defense. Ukrainian folklore material though
reflects the general world processes of development of mythological
system of notions but it also has a specific features, that’s why it
requires separate consideration.

In the process of research the place, role and significance of chthonic
images in the system of people customs and beliefs are determined. This
permits newly approach to the study and presentation of people poetic
art as phenomena of the national spiritual culture, which according to
the mode of thinking is drawn towards mythology and beles-letters — as
an art of the word.

Key words: Ukrainian study, mythologema, scientific principles, national
ideology.

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