Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe

A??I*AIEI

A?eoi? Oaaei?iae/

OAeE 549.6:550.8:551.72(477)

AAIETHOe?EII-OI?IAOe?EIA IIAeAEUe

?ICAEOEO AIEEINUeEIAI IAAAAEIEO

A AeIEAIA???

Niaoe?aeuei?noue:04.00.01 — caaaeueia oa ?aa?iiaeueia aaieia?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiai? aeieoi?a

aaieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?ia?aeia??, aaio?i?? oa iao?ia?ao??
aaieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaeaoeueeee Eaii?ae Noai?neaaiae/

?inoeooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a),

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe,

Aooa?aa Aieiaeeie? Iaaeiae/

Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiaee oeaio? ?aae?iaaio?i?? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a),

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeaeae?eo

Aeieoi? aaieia?/ieo iaoe,

Ia?aiueei ?ai? Noaiaiiae/

E?eai??cueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao (i.E?eaee ??a),

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?

?aaia O?aiea (i.Euea?a).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “13” aeiaoiy 1999?. i 1100 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.162.02 i?e ?inoeooo?
aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252054 i.Ee?a, aoe.Ieany
Aii/a?a 55-A.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
(i.Ee?a, aoe.Ieany Aii/a?a 55-A)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “7” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe A.I. Eaaeeaeainueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?c caeiaoooyi Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino? aeieeea
ia-aaeueia iio?aaa a noai?aii? aeanii? i?ia?aei-ne?iaeiii? aace, ui
noaaeoue ia?aae aaieia?/iith neoaeaith oe?ieee ia?ae?e i?iaeai. Ia?o ca
ana oea noino?oueny ?icaoaeiae ??aee?nii-iaoaeaai? aace ne?iaeie. Iaeiei
c iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo o oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ? Aieeinueeee iaaaaeie.

I?e iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? iiooe?a ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei oa
ioe?iee iaoaeiiiniino? oa?eoi???, iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue iaeaaeeoue
iiaeaeth-aaiith aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo caiii? ei?e. I?e oeueiio iniaeeaa
cia/aiiy a?aeaiaeeoueny anoaiiaeaiith a?eiaeo ni?aa?aeiioaiue eiiieaen?a
a??nueeeo ii??ae ? ei?aeyoe?? i?inoi?iai a?aeie?aieaieo iaeei a?ae
iaeiiai ?ic??c?a c aeei?en-oaiiyi o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a oa i?eeii?a
aecia/aiiy a?eo. Aea a ?aa?iiao, aea ia?aaaaeathoue oeueo?aiaoaii?o?/i?,
iaaiaoe/i? oa iaoaniiaoe/i? e?enoa-e?/i? ooai?aiiy o?aaeeoe?ei?
a?ino?aoea?ao?/i?, aaieiai-no?oeoo?i? oa aaio?-i?/i? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy
a?aeiiniiai a?eo ii??ae aeineoue /anoi ia aeathoue iae-iicia/ieo
?acoeueoao?a. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia?niaeoeaiei ? canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a
oi?iaoe?eiiai aiae?co. C eiai aeiiiiiaith aaea?oueny noai?eoe
aai-ethoe?eii-oi?iaoe?eio iiaeaeue ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio, ui aeicaiey? a
aeaoaeyo a?aeo-ai?eoe iine?aeiai?noue iiae?e, ye? iaee i?noea a aeaaii
ieioe? /ane.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a
?ic-?iaoe? oi?iaoe?eieo e?eoa???a aecia/aiiy iine?aeiaiino? ooai?aiiy
eii-oaeooth/eo i?ae niaith e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae oa ei?aeyoe?? i?inoi?iai
a?-aeie?aieaieo ?ic??c?a no?aoeo?eiaaieo ooai?aiue aeieaia??th, oa
iiaoaeiaa ia oe?e iniia? aaiethoe?eii-oi?iaoe?eii? iiaeae? ?icaeoeo
Aieeinueeiai iaaa-aeieo. Aeinyaiaiith iaoe ni?eyei ae??oaiiy ianooiieo
caaaeaiue.

1) Aeei?enoiaoth/e oeiiii?oi? iciaee ii?iaeiooai?thth/eo oa
aeoeani?-ieo i?ia?ae?a, ?ic?iaeoe niin?a anoaiiaeaiiy iine?aeiaiino?
i?iyaeaiiy aaieia?/ieo i?ioean?a.

2) I?iaanoe oei?caoe?th aeaeie iniiaiiai neeaaeo c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy
?o a yeino? a?eiaeo ?aia??a.

3) Iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeeeiiiae?aieo o?e
iaoaniia-oeo?a oaeoiii-iaoaniiaoe/ieo cii i?e aecia/aii? a?eiaeo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?inoi?iai a?aeie?aieaieo iaeei a?ae iaeiiai eiiieaen?a
ii??ae.

4) Aecia/eoeny c i?e?iaeith ia?a?iaoe?eieo no?oeoo? a ii?iaeao
oi?iaoe?? ?aiae?a? oa c’ynoaaoe iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy iai?aeaeueiino? a
ii?iaeao ??ciiai a?eo oa aaiaceno.

5) I?iaanoe nenoaiia oi?iaoe?eia ?ic/eaioaaiiy eiiieaen?a ii??ae
Ai-eeinueeiai iaaaaeieo, ooi/ieoe oa aii?yaeeoaaoe ?iaeeeaoeai? iciaee
oi?iaoe?e oa ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th.

6) A?aeoai?eoe iine?aeiai?noue ?noi?eei-oaeoii?/ieo aoai?a ?icaeoeo
oa?e-oi???, i?iyaeaiiy a i?inoi?? oa /an? ?ic?eaieo ii?ooaiue ? i?iaanoe
?o ei-?aeyoe?th c ia??iaeaie neeaae/aoino?, oacaie ?aa?iiaeueiiai
iaoaii?o?cio, oeeeeaie iaaiaoe/ii? aeoeaiino? oa aiioaie aeoea?caoe??.

7) Ca ?acoeueoaoaie oi?iaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaoaeoaaoe iiaeaeue
aaiei-a?/iiai ?icaeoeo Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo a aeieaia???.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ui caoeuathoueny. Iaoeiaa iiaecia
iieyaa? a: 1) ?ic?iaoe? oa oe?ieiio canoinoaaii? i?e i?iaaaeaii?
oi?iaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue niiniao anoaiiaeaiiy iine?aeiaiino?
oi?ioaaiiy e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae, ui aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe a ia’?i?
aeeoiie?nueeiai oa in-ieoeueeiai eiiieaen?a aeae?eueea ??cieo ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi oi?iaoe?e; 2) i?iaa-aeaii?, c aeei?enoaiiyi ?i?a aeaeie
iniiaiiai neeaaeo oa nenoai aeeeiii-ae?aieo o?e iaoaniiaoeo?a
oaeoiii-iaoaniiaoe/ieo cii, ei?aeyoe?? i?inoi?iai a?aeie?aieaieo iaeei
a?ae iaeiiai no?aoeo?eiaaieo ?ic??c?a oa ?ioeo aai-eia?/ieo ia’?eo?a; 3)
aeiaaaeaii? aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o oi?ioaaiiy iai?aeaeueiino? oa
aoi?eiiiai (iaoaniiaoe/iiai) iioiaeaeaiiy iai?ae?a. Ie??i oiai, a ?iaio?
ii-iiaiio ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? aniaeoe ?noi?eei-oaeoii?/-iiai
?icaeoeo Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo; iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue aeae?eaiiy
i?ioiaaineiee?iaeueii? “iniiae”, neeaaeia? yei? caa?aaeeny na?aae
i?ioa?i-cienueeeo ii??ae o aeaeyae? o?aaiaio?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ui caoeuathoueny:

1) I?ae aieeaii a?eueo i?ci?o iaeeaaeaieo i?ioean?a, o?i?/iee neeaae oa
o?-ce/i? aeanoeaino? i?ia?ae?a iaaiaoe/ieo, iaoaii?o?/ieo oa
iaoaniiaoe/ieo ii??ae ci?iththoueny, i?enoiniaoth/enue aei iiaeo
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oiia, ?, aiane?aeie oeueiai, a?aeca?eaeththoue iiaoaiiee
oa?aeoa? oi?ioaaiiy noi?a-e?onoaeueieo oa ?io?ae?onoaeueieo ooai?aiue
aeieaia??th. C o?aooaaiiyi oeuei-ai, ooi/iaii a?aieoe?
?noi?eei-oaeoii?/ieo iaaaaoai?a (i?ioiaaineieeeiaeue-iiai, aieiaiiai
aaineieeeiaeueiiai, i?iaaiiiai oa ieaooi?iaiiai) ia i?ioyc? yeeo a
iaaeao Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo oi?ioaaeanue caiia ei?a eiioeiaioaeueiiai
oeio.

2) I?e anoaiiaeaii? iine?aeiaiino? oi?ioaaiiy i?inoi?iai
a?aeie?aiea-ieo iaeei a?ae iaeiiai aaieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a, a yeino?
a?eiaeo ?aia??a, ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?i? aeaeie oa nenoaie
iaoaniiaoe/ieo o?e oaeoiii-iaoani-iaoe/ieo cii.

3) Ooai?aiiy a?ai?oi?aeieo oi?iaoe?e aeeoiie?nueeiai eiiieaeno
a?aeaoaa-einy o aea? noaae??. Noaiiaeaiiy a?ai?oi?ae?a c iao???aith
niaoe?ae?caoe??th (ieaa?ii?aiaoeo-ieaa?ia?ai?oia oi?iaoe?y) ni?aiaei c
ii/aoeii i?ciueiaoaa?enueei-ai aoaio, a oie /an ye oei??iaiiy
a?ai?oi?ae?a caaaa/aieo ia eae?e (oi?ia-oe?y aeainethaeyieo a?ai?o?a)
a?aeaoaaeiny a e?ioe? oeueiai ae aoaio.

4) A ia’?i? inieoeueeiai eiiieaeno aeae?eythoueny aea? ??ciiai a?eo oa
aaia-ceno a?oie ii??ae. Aei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeianai? neeaaeia? oi?iaoe??
a?ai?oi?ae?a no?ieaoiai neeaaeo — i?iaeoeo?a a?ai?oecaoe?? aoocea?a
eean?anueei? na???, aei ae?oai? — ?io?oceai? ooai?aiiy
aaa?i-a?aiiae?i?eo-a?ai?oii? oi?iaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui noai?aiiy ca
?acoeue-oaoaie oi?iaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeae? ?icaeoeo caiii? ei?e
eiioeiai-oaeueiiai oeio a iaaeao Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo a aeieaia???
aeicaiey? aeae?-eeoe ie?ai? noaae?? aaineiee?iaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
oa?eoi???, aoaie ?? e?aoii?ca-oe?? oa oeeeee oaeoiaaiaco. Oea, a naith
/a?ao, aea? iiaeeea?noue ooi/ieoe oe?iea eiei ieoaiue aaiaoe/iiai ieaio
oa iai?oeoe aiioe i?iyaeaiiy ??cieo oei?a ?oaeiooai?aiue. C iaoith
ooi/iaiiy i?noeaaeo no?aoea?ao?/ieo noai, i?e anoaiiaeaii? a?eiaeo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae ??ciiai aaiaceno oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oeiiii?oi? iciaee i?ia?ae?a. ?ic?ia-eaii niin?a
aecia/aiiy a?aeiiniiai a?eo a??nueeeo ii??ae ii aio?aieo oa a?ioeoo
(aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai ? 1571529), ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iaeano?
aieeao ?io?oc?? ia ai?uoth/? ii?iaee. Oea iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e
a?aeai?? i?ia c iaoith ?o ?cioiiiiai aeaooaaiiy, ui ?noioii ciaioo?
aeo?aoe eioo?a oa /ano i?e i?iaaaeaii? aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ai?iaaaeaeai? a AAI “I?ai?/oe?aaieia?y”
i?e i?iaaaeaii? a?oiiaiai oa aeeaeiiiai aaieia?/iiai ea?ooaaiiy.
Aeena?-oaio ? ni?aaaoi?ii oano? ae?iaie/eo oa ainueie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo ca?o?a. Aeyaeai?, ia i?eeeaae? ii??ae Aieei?,
caeiiii??iino? a ci?i? oeii-ii?oieo iciae i?ia?ae?a iiaeooue aooe
ni?aaaaeeeaeie e aeey ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a iiae?aieo ca aaieia?/iith
aoaeiaith.

Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae. Oaeoe/iith iniiaith ?iaioe noaee aaaaoi??/i?
(ii/eiath/e c 1969 ?.) aeine?aeaeaiiy e?enoae?/ieo ooai?aiue
i?ai?/ii-cao?ae-ii? /anoeie Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa i?e aeeiiaii?
aea?aeaoaeaeaoieo oa ainiaei-aia??ieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o o
neeaae? aaio?i?/ii? aeniaaeeoe?? iao-eiai-aeine?aeieoeueeiai naeoi?o oa
eaoaae?e i?ia?aeia??, aaio?i?? oa iao?ia?a-o?? aaieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Aaoi? i?eeiaa o/anoue o
i?iaaaeaii? aaieia?/ii? ceiiee ianooaao 1:50 000 eeno?a I-35-19-A,A;
I-35-20-A,A; I-35-31-A,A,A,A; I-35-32-A,A,A,A; I-35-36-A,A,A,A;
I-35-44-A,A,A,A; I-35-45-A,A; I-35-46-A,A,A,A; I-35-57-A,A;
I-35-58-A,A; I-35-60-A,A,A,A; I-35-70-A,A,A,A oa I-35-72-A,A,
aeeiioth/e, aaciina?aaeiuei oi?iaoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy. C oe??th iaoith
aoei i?iaaaeaia ?aa?c?eia aea/aiiy ea?io a?eueo i?ae o?ueio oeny/
ea?ooaaeueieo oa aeeaieeo naa?aeeiaei, eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii cia/ia
e?eue-e?noue c?ace?a a??nueeeo ii??ae, aeeth/ath/e iao?ia?ao?/i?
(aeecueei 15 000 oe?o?a) oa i?ia?aeia?/i? (aeecueei 1 000 i?ioiei/ieo
i?ia) aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaiae?ciaai? iniaeeaino? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oa
ai?noo aeaiaio?a-aeii?oie a ii?iaeao oa i?ia?aeao c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoiae?a o?i?/iiai (a?eueo i?ae 2 000 aiae?c?a) oa niaeo?aeueiiai
(iiiaae 30 000 i?ia) aiae?co, iieoi’yii? oa iioe/ii? niaeo?ineii??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oneiaey ia?aciaaiey e
caeiiiia?iinoe ?aciauaiey no?aoeoi?iiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee oeaaoiuo,
?aaeeeo e aeaai?iaeiuo iaoaeeia” (O?oica, 1985) oa Ananithcieo
iao?iei-a?/ieo nai?ia?ao (Iao?icaaiaenuee, 1989; Eai?ia?aae, 1990),
i?enay/aieo ioe?ioe? ia?niaeoea ?oaeiiiniino? aaieia?/ieo oi?iaoe?e i?e
i?iaaaeaii? e?oiiiianooaaiiai aaieia?/iiai ea?ooaaiiy; Ananithciiio
neiiic?oi? “Iioiaaiey ieia?aeia” (E?eaee ??a, 1985), ae?oaiio oa
o?aoueiio Ananithcieo nai?ia?ao ii aeeeaaeaiith i?ia?aeia??
(Naa?aeeianuee, 1987, E?eaee ??a, 1988), Ananithci?e ia?aae? “Ecioiiiia
aeaoe?iaaiea aiaeiaai-iuo ?oaeieo oi?iaoeee” (Oaeeene, 1990). Ie?ai?
iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia ?iai/?e ia?aae? “Aeoeanni?iua
ieia?aeu ai?iuo ii?iae” (Iineaa, 1985), iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e eiioa?aioe??
“Oeu?eii” (Iaeana, 1987) oa ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1981-1997). Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iaae?oeiaaii aea? iiiia?ao??, 22 noaoo?, 5 oac, io?eiaii aaoi?nueea
na?aeioeoai.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio 4 ?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a, aeeeaaeaia ia 296 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo yeee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny 35 ?enoieaie, 37
oaaeeoeyie. Nienie aeei-?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e 281 iacaa.

Ca aeiiiiiao oa iino?eio i?aeo?eieo, aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo
ei-eaaai c Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo aeieoi?ai aaie.-i?i. iaoe A.A.
Iaeyae?, I.?. Oienoiio, I.? Eoe??ieo, eaiaeeaeaoai aaie. i?i. iaoe ?.I.
Inoao?e-/oe, I.A. C?i/aieo, ?.I. Nieieiao. Aaoi? aaaaea? nai?i
iaia’yceii a?aeaea-oe oaio na?oe?e iai’yo? O.I. Aaaoiiia?e, N.A. Ii?ico,
c yeeie iaaiai-?thaaa ieceo ieoaiue ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? aeine?aeaeaiue
oa iai?yiie ?iaioe.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

NO*ANIA OssAA I?I AAIEIA?*IO AOAeIAO

AIEEINUeEIAI IAAAAEIEO.

Na?aae aeooaeueieo i?iaeai i?ciaiiy aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae oa ?noi???
oi?-ioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ia?oi?yaeia cia/aiiy ia? aea/aiiy
Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa, ?noi?eei-oaeoii?/ia i?e?iaea yeiai i?eoiao?
/eiaei “caaaaeie”. Oea, ianaiia?aae, noino?oueny eiai i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii?
/anoeie, ui aeie?aieth?oueny ye nai???aeiee Aieeinueeee iaaaaeie.

Ia oaia??oi?e /an, noiniaii ?ice?eooy ?noi?eei-oaeoii?/ii? i?e?iaee
Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo, iaa?iiaaeaeaii aaee/aciee ? iaaecae/aeii
?icia-?oee aii??e/iee iaoa??ae, noi?ioeueiaai? eiai ??ciia?/i?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ia?aaaaeii iao?ieiai-aaio?i?/ii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. ? ana ae
caeeoa?oueyn aaeeea e?euee?noue ye /anoeiai ae??oaieo ieoaiue, oae ?
ni??ieo iieiaeaiue. Cie?aia, na?aae aeine?aeiee?a oi/eoueny noia?a/ea
uiaei e?eueeino? na?o, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo oaoa??anueei? na???. Ia
?nio? oaeiae ?aeeii? oi/ee ci?o uiaei ia?aeiii? i?e?iaee ii??ae
eean?anueei? na???. Iaei? aeine?aeieee aaaaethoue ?o inaaeiaeie
ooai?aiiyie, ae?oa? — a?iaa?naeueieie ii?iaeaie eeneiai neeaaeo, o?ao? —
iaoaii?o?ciaaieie eeneeie aooceaaie. C o?aooaaiiyi oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?ieo
iniaeeainoae, ?a/iaiai neeaaeo oa oiia ooai?aiiy, ii?iaee eean?anueei?
na??? aeaye? aeine?aeieee a?aeiinyoue aei oeiiaeo aaineieeeiaeueieo
ooai?aiue.

A aoaeia? aeieaia??th Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo, ie??i noi?ae?onoaeueieo
oo-ai?aiue, aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue a?ai?oi?aee aeeoiie?nueeiai,
inieoeueeiai oa ei?inoainueeiai eiiieaen?a. sse aaaaea? ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a, noaiiaeaiiy a?ai?o?a aeeoiie?nueeiai
eiiieaeno a?aeaoaaeiny a i?ioiaai-neiee?iaeueiee ia??iae. Ia aeoieo I.?.
Aacai?iaeueea, A.?. Eo/eoeueeiai, E.A. Oea/oea c ?io?oc?yie
aeeoiie?nueeeo a?ai?o?a iia’ycaia oi?ioaaiiy ieaa?i-i?aiaoeo?a. O a?eueo
i?ci?o i?aoeyo eeoa i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeanue iayai?noue o?niiai aaiaoe/iiai
ca’yceo ieaa?ii?aiaoeo?a oa aeeoiie?nueeeo a?ai?o?a ? ia i?eeiaeenue
aei oaaae ?noioi? ?ica?aeiino? i?ae oaeoieia?/ieie aeaieie oa
oai?aoe/iei iaa?oiooaaiiyi aaiaceno i?aiaoeo?a. Aei neeaaeo inieoeueeiai
eiiieaeno aaaaeai? ??ciiiai?oi? eene? ii?iaee — aeeoa?aioe?aoe, ia
aeoieo ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? a/aieo, ?aeeii? inieoeueei? a?ai?oii?
iaaie. Aaaaea?oueny, ui noaiiaeaiiy ie?aieo /eai?a a?ai?oiiai ?yaeo
a?aeaoaaeiny a oae?e iine?aeiaiino?: aie?oe — a?ai?oe eean?anueeiai oeio
— eaa?oeaa? ae?i?eoe — a?aiiae?i?eoe — inieoeuee? a?ai?oe. Aea ae, ye
na?ae/eoue aaieia?/ia i?aeoeea, e?enoae?caoe?y a?ai?oii? iaaie, eio?a,
aei oiai ae, anei?ethaaea cia/io e?eue-e?noue aoocea?a iniiaiiai oa
na?aaeiueiai neeaaeo eean?anueei? na???, iiaeia ?icii/eiaoeny c a?eueo
iniiaieo /eai?a — eaa?oeaaeo ae?i?eo?a aai a?aii-ae?i?eo?a, aea ia c
aie?o-a?ai?o?a. Oiio, oe?eeii neooii aeieea? caieoaiiy, /e ae?enii
?icia?o? a?ai?oi?aee eiiieaeno ? iio?aeieie ?aeeii? inieoeueei?
a?a-i?oii? iaaie? Ia c’yniaaii aei e?ioey iieiaeaiiy a no?aoea?ao?/i?e
noai? n??eo caaaa/aieo ai?ii eaa?aaei?eo?a ? aaa?i-eaa?aaei?eo?a
ei?inoainueeiai eiiieaeno. Ia ciaeoea oaeiae caaeia?eueiiai iiyniaiiy
iayai?noue enaiie?o?a ?aiae?a?aeaeieo a?ioeoiaeo a?aei?i ei?inoainueeeo
a?ai?o?a, ia aeoieo ia?a-aaaeii? a?eueoino? aeine?aeiee?a a?eueo i?ci?o
ooai?aiue, a a?ai?oao ?aiae?a?, aai oaeo i?i?eaaiiy inoaii?ie a?ioeoiaeo
a?aei?i c iiee?ei-iaaiaoeoiaith no?oeoo?ith.

?nioth/? ??cii/eoaiiy ? noia?a/iino? aaaaoi o /iio coiiaeai? oei, ui o
aeanoeaiio ia nueiaiaei? aaieia?/i?e iaooe? aii??eei-oai?aoe/iiio oeeee?
i?ciaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny oe?eani?yiiaaia ci?uaiiy iaaiein?a naia ia
?icae-oie nooi aii??e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa iaaeiioe?iea oai?aoe/ieo.
Aea ae, ca-aaeueiith iciaeith oai?aoe/iiai ciaiiy ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoie eii-oeaiooaeueieo cania?a iiaoaeiae oae caaiiai “oai?aoe/iiai
na?oo”, a caaaeue-iith iciaeith aii??e/iiai ciaiiy — ni?yiiaai?noue ia
anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo eiioeaiooaeueiiai aia?aoo c ?aaeuei?noth. Ca?aene,
eia?/ii, aeieeaa? aaaeee-a?noue oai?aoe/iiai neeaaeieea no/anii?
aaieia??.

O noaiiaeaii? oa iiaeaeueo?e ?icaoaeia? oai?aoe/iiai ciaiiy i?eioeeiiai
aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? noai?aiiy nai???aeii? oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae?
aai-eia?/ii? aoaeiae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio, oiaoi a?aeoai?aiiy
aaiethoe?eii-oi?iaoe?eii? iiaeae? eiai ?icaeoeo. Eaeaoueny, ianaiia?aae,
i?i aecia/aiiy iaoiae?a, i?eioeei?a ? e?eoa???a aea/aiiy
i?inoi?iai-/aniaeo oa?aeoa?enoee aaieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a ca oiiae
a?ae/ooii? ao?aoe ieie aaaaoueio neeaaeiee?a “aaieia?/ii? iai’yo?”.
Oiio, iaiao?aeii yeiiiaa a?eueoa ?icaaeoceoe iaa?? ?iaeeeaoeaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ? iciae ?noi?eei-oaeoii?/ii? i?e?iaee aeieaia??enueeeo
ooai?aiue ye ca ?aooiie iaeiie/aiiai a?naiaeo aaieia?/ieo,
iao?ieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo oa aaio?i?/ieo aeaieo, oae ? oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy iia?oi?o oaeoieia?/ieo /eiiee?a. Ca aeiiiiiaith inoaii?o
iiaeia io?eiaoe aaeaeaaoia iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoea?ao?/ieo a?aieoeue ?
ia’?i?a “aaieia?/ieo o?e” aeieaia??th, aecia/eoe ?o noia?iiceoe?ei?
aca?iia?aeiineie, iiae?ei? i?iyae oaeoiii-iaaiaoe/ieo ?oaaae?a oa
??ciia?eiaeo aeoea?caoe?e. Cie?aia, i?e noai?aii? iniiae
aaiethoe?eii-oi?iaoe?eii? iiaeae? ?icaeoeo Aieei-nueeiai iaaaaeieo a
yeino? a?eiaeo ?aia??a aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ?i? aeaeie oa nenoaie
noaia?aeaeueieo aeeeiiiae?aieo o?e iaoaniiaoeo?a iioe?aieo a iaaeao
oaeoiii-iaoaniiaoe/ieo cii. I?e aecia/aii? ae a?eiaeo ni?aa?ae-iioaiue
eiioaeooth/eo i?ae niaith aaieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a ooai?aieo aeeeth/ii
e?enoae?/ieie ii?iaeaie, ie??i i?yieo aaieia?/ieo aeaieo, ne?ae
aeei?en-oiaoaaoe oeiiii?oi? iciaee ii?iaeiooai?thth/eo oa aeoeani?ieo
i?ia?ae?a.

2.I?IA?AEI-IAO?IA?AO?*I? E?EOA???

OI?IAOe?EIIAI AIAE?CO

O ca’yceo c ?icoe?aiiyi a inoaii? ?iee ia’?i?a ao??iiy, c’yaeeanue
ia-aaeueia iio?aaa o anaa?/iiio aea/aii? ea?iiaiai iaoa??aeo c iaoith
io?e-iaiiy iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?a/iaee neeaae ?
aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae. Cie?aia, aino?ith
caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia c’ynoaaiiy a?eiaeo ni?aa?aeiioaiue ?icao?aieo
naa?aeeiaeiaie iiaeo aaiei-a?/ieo o?e c ianeaaie aaea a?aeiieo ? aeia?a
aea/aieo e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae. Oea iaoiiaeaii oeie ianoaaeiaie, ui a
?aa?iiao a aoaeia? yeeo ia?aaa-aeathoue oeueo?aiaoaii?o?/i? oa
iaaiaoe/i? ooai?aiiy (i?aaeaai? ueoe, na?a-aeeii? ianeae), a
noi?ae?onoaeuei? oiau? ei?enoothoueny iacia/iei iioe-?aiiyi,
niinoa??aath/enue o aeaeyae? ne?ae?o?a na?aae iaaiaoeo?a oa
iae?iaaii-aiaoaeoe/ieo a?ai?o?a, a?ino?aoea?ao?/i? oa aaieiai-no?oeoo?i?
iaoiaee aec-ia/aii? a?aeiiniiai a?eo ii??ae ia iiaeooue aooe oe?iei
canoiniaai?. Iaa?oue, i?e iayaiino? “nioa caaa?ooaaiiy” c iaiiai aieo
e?i?? eiioaeoo ia caaaeaee ? aiaaiai?noue uiaei i?aaeeueiino? aeniiaeo
a?aeiinii iine?aeiaiino? oi?io-aaiiy eiioaeooth/eo i?ae niaith
e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae. Ae??oaiiy caaaeaiiy ua a?eueo oneeaaeith?oueny i?e
oiia? “?icao?thaaiiy” eiioaeo?a, ye oea /anoi o?aiey?oueny a i?aeoeoe?
aaieiai-ceiii/ieo ?ia?o. Aeei?enoaiiy o?oaei-i?nueeeo oa aei?iaeo
iaoiae?a ?cioiiii? ?aae?iiao??? oaeiae ia caaaeaee aea? iaeiicia/iee
?acoeueoao.

Nooo?ao aeiiiiiao i?e anoaiiaeaii? iine?aeiaiino? oi?ioaaiiy
e?en-oae?/ieo ii??ae iiaeooue iaaeaoe oeiiii?oi? iciaee i?ia?ae?a.
I?ia?ae ian-o?eueee /ooeeaee aei iaeiaioeo ci?i o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oiia o
/an?, ui aaea?oueny aecia/eoe, iaa?oue, iacia/i? a?aei?ie a eiai iciaeao
? c oni?oii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o ye “ea??ai?” i?e c’ynoaaii? ieoaiiy,
eio?ee c aaieia?/-ieo ia’?eo?a (i?ioean?a) a?eueo aeaai?e (iieiaeoee) ca
a?eii. I?e aeai?? oeiiii?oii? iciaee ne?ae aeio?eioaaoeny oaeeo aeiia:
1) i?ia?ae iiaeiai e?enoae?coaaoeny a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ?O-oiia; 2)
oeiiii?oia iciaea aeineoue eaaei ?ici?cia?oueny a cae/aeiiio
iao?ia?ao?/iiio oe?o?, aai i?i-oiei/i?e i?ia?. Oeei aeiiaai
a?aeiia?aeathoue oeiiii?o?ci o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oa caaa?aeaiiy
oaiiieie??ieo i?ia?ae?a, oeiiii?o?ci ia?aeaeueieo (iai-?aee) oa
aea?eieeiaeo c?inoaiue iieueiaeo oiao?a, oeiiii?o?ci
e?enoaeiii?-oieia?? oee?eiio.

2.1 Oeiiii?o?ci o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oa caaa?aeaiiy

iaaiaceaeueii-cae?cenoeo nethae

C onueiai ?icia?ooy iaaiaceaeueii-cae?cenoeo n?e?eao?a, a?ioeo ?
iaea?eueo iioe?aiei i?ia?aeii a??nueeeo ii??ae. No?ee?noue eiai
iaoiiaeaia aoiaeaeai-iyi a eiai no?oeoo?o c iaeiiai aieo i?aeoe/ii an?o
iao?iaaiieo aeaiaio?a, a c ?ioiai — oe?ieeie iaaeaie eieeaaiiy ?o ai?noo
a nethae?. Aiae?c /e-naeueieo ioae?eaoe?e i?enay/aieo a?ioeoo
na?ae/eoue, ui iaeiei c iaea?eueo noia?a/eeaeo ? ieoaiiy noiniaii
?nioaaiiy i?yiiai ca’yceo i?ae o?i?/iei neeaaeii a?ioeoo oa ai?uoth/i?
eiai ii?iaee. Ia aeoieo iaeieo aeine?aeiee?a o?i?/iee neeaae i?ia?aeo
aecia/a?oueny o?ceei-o?i?/ieie oiiaaie eiai e?enoae?caoe??. ?ioa, a?eueo
/enaeueia a?oia a/aieo ia?aeiiaia o oiio, ui ai?no ia?aaaaeii?
a?eueoino? i?ia?aeiooai?thth/eo eiiiiiaio?a o nethae? aec-ia/a?oueny ?o
e?euee?noth a iaoa?einuee?e ii?iae?.

Ae?enii, eiee a?ioeo ? ?aeeiei oaiiieie??iei i?ia?aeii ii?iaee, oi ia
aeieea? noii?ao uiaei ?nioaaiiy i?yiiai ca’yceo neeaae?a a?ioeo-ii?iaea.
Eiee ae o ia?aaaiacen? c a?ioeoii ni?a?nio? ?ioee
iaaiaceaeueii-cae?cenoee n?e?eao, oi ca’ycie neeaae?a a?ioeo-ii?iaea
ii?ooo?oueny. Oae, cia/aiiy eia-o?oe??ioo caaaeueii? cae?cenoino?
iaaiaceaeueii-cae?cenoeo n?e?eao?a a iaaeao ie?aii acyoiai ianeao
caeeoa?oueny i?aeoe/ii aac ci?i, a oie /an ye cae?-ceno?noue ii?iaee
eieeaa?oueny a aeineoue oe?ieeo iaaeao, a caeaaeiino? a?ae e?euee?niiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a i?e oai?/ieo i?ia?ae?a. I?e i?aeaeuai? cae?cenoino?
ii?iaee niinoa??aa?oueny ia c?inoaiiy cae?cenoino? oaiiieie??-ieo
i?ia?ae?a, a ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? a?eueo cae?cenoiai i?ia?aeo (a?aiaoo
a /oaeiiai-aa?aee/?anueeiio, iaaiaoeoo a inieoeueeiio, a?ioeoo a
ei?inoainueei-io a?ai?oao). Oiaoi, caaaeueia cae?ceno?noue a?ioeoo ?
?ioeo oai?/ieo i?ia-?ae?a aecia/a?oueny o?ceei-o?i?/ieie ia?aiao?aie
nenoaie, a oie /an ye neeaae ii?iaee ?aaoeth? e?euee?noue oiai /e ?ioiai
iaaiaceaeueii-cae?cenoiai i?ia?aeo a i?e.

C ?ioiai aieo, o?i?/iee neeaae a?ioeoo ia ci?ith?oueny ii ia’?io
aaiei-a?/iiai o?ea, iaa?oue o oae?e neeaaei?e (aaaaoioaci?e) nii?oae? ye
Ei?in-oainueeee ieooii. Oea aeicaiey? c?iaeoe i?eiouaiiy, ui a ia??iae
noaiia-eaiiy a?ai?oieo ianea?a iaei i?noea ?nioaaiiy yeeoinue aaaio?a,
eio?? e iaoiiaeee ae??aithaaiiy o?i?/iiai neeaaeo a?ioeoo ii onueiio
ia’?io aaiei-a?/iiai o?ea. Oaeeie aaaioaie iiaee aenooiaoe eaoe?
eiiiiiaioe, ui aeineoue o?eaaeee /an o?eueo?oaaeenue e??cue /anoeiai, a
iiaeeeai e iiai?noth cae?enoae?ciaai? a??nuee? ii?iaee.

sseui c?iaeaia i?eiouaiiy ia? i?aai ia ?nioaaiiy, oi, a?aoiaoth/e
a?ae-e?eo?noue an?o aac aeiyoeo aaieia?/ieo nenoai ii a?aeiioaiith aei
oeth?ae?a, iiaeaii i?eionoeoe iiaeeea?noue ?o i?iieeiaiiy a ii?iaee
aecieiioaeoo ? oi?ioaaiiy aiane?aeie oeueiai ia?ao?aeii? ciie a ye?e
o?i?/iee neeaae a?ioeoo ai?uoth/i? ?io?ocea ii?iaee aoaea
“i?enoiniaoaaoeny” aei iiaeo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oiia.

I?aaii??i?noue c?iaeaii i?eiouaiiy ia?aa??yeanue ia aaeee?e e?eueeino?
eiie?aoieo aaieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a. Aeey oeueiai c ii??ae ui eiioaeoothoue
iaeia c iaeiith, ia ??cieo a?aenoaiyo a?ae eiioaeoo ii
ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio i?io?eth a?aeae?aeenue na??? i?ioiei/ieo i?ia.
Onueiai aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii o?i?/ii a?ioeo iaeaea c? noa oaeeo na??e.
Io?eiaiee aiae?oe/iee iaoa??ae aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a?ioeo
ii??ae aecieiioaeoo, i?ae ae??th oeth?ae?a ye? i?a?othoue c iieiaei?
?io?oc?? aai c iaoaniiaoe/ii? ciie, ci?ith? na?e o?i?/iee neeaae,
iaaeeaeath/enue ca o?i?ciii aei nethaee a?eueo iieiaei? ii?iaee. Oe?
ianoaaeie aeicaieythoue aecia/aoe a?aeiiniee a?e aeaio eiioaeooth/eo
i?ae niaith e?en-oae?/ieo ii??ae aeecueeeo ca o?i?/iei neeaaeii.

Aea ae, o?i?/iee neeaae a?ioeoo iaoiiaeth? eiai o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ?,
ianaiia?aae caaa?aeaiiy oa noaio ieaio?i?cio. Oeei ? iiynith?oueny
iio?aaa aea/aiiy iaoiaeaie iioe/ii? niaeo?ineii?? oeo no?oeoo?ieo
ia?aoai?aiue a nethae? ye? a?aeaoaathoueny i?ae aieeaii a?eueo i?ci?o,
iaeeaaeaieo i?ioean?a.

Aea/aiiy iioe/ieo niaeo??a a?ioeoo o aeaeei?e iaeano? na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui aa??aoe?? a caaa?aeaii? a?ioeoo aecia/athoueny ?ioaineai?noth
nioa iiaee-iaiiy a oeueo?ao?ieaoia?e oa /a?aii?e iaeanoyo. Ia?aaaaeaiiy
a caaa?aeaii? a?ioeoo caeaieo oii?a iaoiiaeaia c?inoaiiyi aieeao nioae
i?e 700 ii. A?aenooi?noue oe??? nioae coiiaeth? i?aiaeaaa caaa?aeaiiy
i?ia?aeo. C?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? iaio nioa iiaeeiaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei
caaa?aeaiiy a?ioeoo a oaiiee a?ycii-caeaieoaaoi-ei?e/iaaee eie??.

I?e?iaeiuei, aeieea? caieoaiiy, yeeie oaeoi?aie iaoiiaeth?oueny
ca?eue-oaiiy (ciaioaiiy) ?ioaineaiino? nioa iiaeeiaiiy a
oeueo?ao?ieaoia?e oa /a?aii?e iaeanoyo niaeo??a? Aeey oeueiai iaoiaeaie
iioe/ii? niaeo?ineii?? aoee aea/ai? a?ioeoe ??cieo ca a?eii
a?ai?oi?aeieo eiiieaen?a. Ni?anoaa-eaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieaco?
, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi ieeniiai iioai-oe?aeo, yea iaei i?noea i?e
ia?aoiae? a?ae aeeoiie?nueeiai /a?ac ei?inoai-nueeee ?, aeae?, aei
inieoeueeiai ciaioo?oueny aaniethoia oa a?aeiinia eiioeai-o?aoe?y
iioe/ii aeoeaieo oeaio??a e?aaiae-iaoae, a ?ieue oeaio??a iaoae-iaoae
c?inoa?. Oiaoi, aecia/aeueiei oaeoi?ii eiio?ieth eiioeaio?aoe?? ??cieo
ii-oe/ii aeoeaieo oeaio??a, a ca?aene e iniaeeainoae caaa?aeaiiy a?ioeoo
a?a-i?oi?ae?a ??cieo eiiieaen?a Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo, ? aaee/eia
ieenii-a?aeiiaiiai iioaioe?aeo.

Caeaoi?noue nethaee aaiethoe?iioaaoe i?ae aieeaii oaeoi??a iaoaii?o?cio
oa iaoaniiaoico aeicaiey? cai?iiiioaaoe niin?a aecia/aiiy a?aeiiniiai
a?eo aeaio eiioaeooth/eo i?ae niaith a?ioeoai?uoth/eo ii??ae. A?i
aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? yaeua aaiethoe?? iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae
a?ioeoo a?eueo aeaai?o ca a?eii ii??ae i?ae aieeaii a?eueo i?ciueiai
iaeeaaeaiiai i?ioeano. Niin?a caoeuaiee aaoi?nueeei na?aeioeoaii ?
1571529 (1990 ?) ? iiaea aooe ae-ei?enoaiee i?e anoaiiaeai? a?eiaeo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue aoaeue-yeeo e?enoae?/ieo a?ioeoai?uoth/eo ooai?aiue ye?
eiioaeoothoue iaeei c iaeiei, aea i?e oiia? ui e?i?y eiioaeoo i?ae ieie
ia ? oaeoii?/iith.

2.2 Oeiiii?o?ci caeiiii??ieo c?inoaiue iieueiaeo oiao?a

Iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e, i?enay/aieo
oeiiii?o?cio iieueiaeo oiao?a, aeei?enoaiiy eiai a aaieia?/i?e i?aeoeoe?
ae?ae iaaein-oaoiuei. A ia?oo /a?ao oea noino?oueny oeiiii?o?cio
aea?eieeiaeo c?inoaiue ieaa?ieeaco oa eae?oiaoo.

Iiia?aaei?ie aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeiaaaeaii, ui caeii aea?eieeoaaiiy
aecia-/a?oueny, ianaiia?aae, o?ceei-o?i?/ieie oiiaaie e?enoae?caoe??
iieueiaeo oiao?a. Ca?aene i?eoiaeeii aei aeniiaeo, ui iieueia? oiaoe
ii??ae aeecueeeo ca o?i?/iei neeaaeii ye? e?enoae?coaaeenue a ??ci?
ia??iaee aaieia?/iiai /ano, aiane?aeie iaei? eiia??iino? ni?aiaaeaiiy
?O-oiia ?o noaiiaeaiiy, aoaeooue ooai?thaaoe i?ino? ?inoia? aea?eieee
ca ??cieie caeiiaie. Iaaaaeaii aeae?eueea i?eeeaae?a. Oae, c iaoith
?ici?ciaaaiiy ? oei?caoe?? aeaeie iniiaiiai neeaaeo ??ciiai a?eo oa
aeei?enoaiiy ?o a iiaeaeueoiio a yeino? a?eiaeo ?aia??a, ia i?eeeaae?
a?eueo i?ae aeaionio aeaeeiaeo o?e, aoei aea/aii ?iciiae?e a ieaa?ieeac?
aaceo?a ??ciiai oeio i?inoeo ?inoiaeo aea?eiee?a. sse iieacaee
i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy a ieaa?ieeac? aeaeie ae?aaac?a oa ae?aaaciaeo
ii?o??eo?a, noaiiaeaiiy yeeo a?aeaoaaeiny a iinoaeeoiie?nueeee /an, aea
ia?aae oei??iaiiyi inieoeueeeo a?ai?o?a, cono??/athoueny eeoa i?ino?
ea?enaaae-nuee? aea?eieee. Iaaiaee, a ieaa?ieeac? aaa?i-aeiea?eo?a, ui
oi?ioaaeenue a iinoinieoeueeee /an, cono??/athoueny eeoa i?ino?
aeuea?o-ea?enaaaenuee? ?inoia? aea?eieee. Ia?niaeoeaiei ? oaeiae
aeei?enoaiiy caeii?a aea?eieeoaaiiy eae?oiaoo c iaoith c’ynoaaiiy
aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae ii??ae i?e aaieia?/-iiio ea?ooaaii? aaeeeeo
ieiu, a iaaeao yeeo iioe?ai? ia?aaaaeii a?ai?oi?aei? ooai?aiiy.
Iai?eeeaae, aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii i?inoi?iaee ?ic-iiae?e ii?oieia?/ieo
oei?a eae?oiaoo a a?ai?oi?aeao inieoeueeiai eiiieaeno. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
eae?oiao c a?aoeith oaoiaoiiai oeio (eae?oiao-1) cono??/a?oueny
aeeeth/ii a eeneeo aooceaao eean?anueei? na???, oa c??aeea
niinoa??aa?oueny o aeaeyae? ?ae?eo?a o a?ai?oeciaaieo ?o aea?aaeaioao —
eeania?oao. A inoaii?o /?eueia i?noea caeia? eae?oiao ?c niiiiaeaeiei
aai ee?oeiaei oeiaie i?e?ieeeiiai? a?aoee (eae?oiao-2), yeee, ie??i
eeania?-o?a, iioe?aiee ua e a a?ai?oeciaaieo iaoaaaceoao na???,
ae??anueeeo ae?i?eoao oa a no?ieaoeo ca o?i?/iei neeaaeii a?ai?oi?aeao
oeueo?aiaoaii?o?-/iiai aaiaceno inieoeueeiai eiiieaeno. Inoaii?
i?i?eaathoueny ?io?oc?yie inieoeueeeo a?aiiae?i?eo?a oa a?ai?o?a, a yeeo
cono??/a?oueny eeoa eae?oiao c iaaeineiiaeith a?aoeith oaoiaoiiai oeio
(eae?oiao-3), aeineoue /anoi oneeaaeiaiee i?inoeie ea?enaaaenueeeie
aea?eieeaie. I?iaaaeaia o oaeee niin?a oei?caoe?y a?ai?o?a aeicaiey?
aeineoue aiaaiaii ieiioo?thaaoe aaieia?/i? ?io?oceai? o?ea, eio?? a
a?eueo ?aii?o i?aoeyo ?icaeyaeaeeny oeoi? c a?ai?-oi?aeaie
oeueo?aiaoaii?o?/iiai aaiaceno.

2.3 Oeiiii?o?ci e?enoaeiii?oieia?? oee?eiio

Ii?oieia?y e?enoae?a i?ia?ae?a acaaae?, ? oee?eiio cie?aia,
iaoiia-eaia c iaeiiai aieo ?o no?oeoo?ith, a c ?ioiai — o?ceei-o?i?/ieie
oiiaaie ?o e?enoae?caoe??. Oiaoi, ia?en e?enoae?a aecia/a?oueny
no?oeoo?ith, a oie /an ye ?icia?ooy i?inoeo oi?i ia ieo — ae??th
ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a.

Aea/aiiy e?enoaeiii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oee?eiio c a?eueo i?ae
ainueienio i?ioiei/ieo i?ia ?c ii??ae ??cieo ca a?eii oa aaiacenii
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui eiao?oe??io aeaeiaaeaiino? e?enoae?a i?ia?aeo
ciaioo?oueny o i??o c?inoaiiy eeneioiino? i?ia?aeiooai?thth/iai
na?aaeiaeua. I?e oeueiio ia ne?ae aeeeth/aoe aieea ia
e?enoaeiii?oieia?th i?ia?aeo ai?noo a iaoa-?einuee?e ii?iae? oee?eii?th.
Oae, i?e iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo i?ia?aeiooai-?thth/iai aeaiaioo —
oee?eii?th, a?i aoaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny, ianaiia?aae, ia oi?ioaaiiy ia
e?enoaeao oee?eiio a?aiae aino?i? aeei??ai?aee {311}, ye? iathoue
iaaaeeeo ?aoeeoey?io aonoeio. Iaaiaee, i?e c?inoaii? eiioeaio-?aoe?? a
i?ia?aeiooai?thth/iio na?aaeiaeu?, a?ai? aino?i? aeei??ai?aee aoaeooue
aeo?niyoeny a?aiyie aeei??ai?aee {111}, yeei i?eoaiaii? iaaaaaoi a?eueo?
cia/aiiy ?aoeeoey?ii? aonoeie. Oea iaoiiaeth? iinooiiao ci?io
nieniii-ae?aiiai ia?eno e?enoae?a i?ia?aeo nii/aoeo “oi?iaaeiiiae?aiei”,
a aaea iio?i — ei?ioeii?eciaoe/iei.

A inoaii? ?iee aa?a/a aeeneooo?oueny ieoaiiy noiniaii i?e/ei
aeieeiai-iy ca?ai oee?eiio e?oaei? oi?ie. Ia aeoieo ia?aaaaeii?
a?eueoino? aeine?ae-iee?a, iaaeaaiiy e?enoaeaie oee?eiio e?oaei? oi?ie
?aae?co?oueny a i?ioean? ?o iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee i?e o?ainii?ooaaii? ca?ai
i?ia?aeo aiaeieie iioi-eaie. I?inoioa oa eia?/i?noue i??eoaaiue o ceooe?
c oyaeaiiyie i?i iaaecae-/aeii aenieo no?ee?noue oee?eiio uiaei aieeao
oaeoi??a iaoaii?o?cio oa iaaiaoecio, neoaoaaee ia?oii?e/eiith iiyae e
oaeaeeiai iioe?aiiy oae caaiiai “oee?eiiiaiai iaoiaeo” ?aeiino?oeoe??
?noi??? oi?ioaaiiy e?enoae?/-ieo ii??ae, aeoiaey/e c ii?oieia??
e?enoae?a oee?eiio.

I?iaaaeaia aea/aiiy ca?ai oee?eiio e?oaei? oi?ie iieacaei, ui ca
oa-?aeoa?ii iiaa?oi? aiie iiae?eythoueny ia aeaa oeie. Aei ia?oiai oeio
a?aeii-nyoueny ca?ia c aeaaeaiueeith iiaa?oiath e neeueiei aeiaciei
aeeneii, ye?, aaccaia?a/ii, ? iiaiooai?aiiyie. Iiaa?oiy ca?ai ae?oaiai
oeio iaoiaa, e iiaea aeieeaoe aeaiia oeyoaie, aai i?e iaoai?/i?e
ia?iaoe? ieineia?aieo e?enoae?a, aai aiane?aeie /anoeiaiai ?ic/eiaiiy
aaaaoia?aiiee?a i?ia?aeo a o?i?/ii aeoeaiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aea/aiiy i?ae
?ano?iaei i?e?ineiiii e?oaeeo ca?ai oee?eiio c aetha?aeueieo a?aeeeaae?a
aeyaeei ia ?o iiaa?oi? aaeeeo e?euee?noue ii ??ciiio i???ioiaaieo
ai?icae oa oo?eo?a. Oa?aeoa? ii-aa?oi? ca?ai i?ia?aeo i?aeaeaieo
?ic/eiaiith ia? a ieai? “/a?aieo/anoee” ?aeue’?o. Ca?aene i?eoiaeeii aei
aeniiaeo, ui ?aeiino?oeoe?y ?noi??? oi?ioaaiiy e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae,
aeoiaey/e eeoa c e?oaei? oi?ie e?enoae?a, iiaea aooe ia aeineoue
ei?aeoiith yeui a?aenooi? ia?aeiieea? aeieace niiniao ooai?aiiy ie?oaeeo
ca?ai i?ia?aeo.

A inoaii? ?iee a aaieia?/i?e i?aeoeoe? ciaoiaeyoue oe?iea canoinoaaiiy
??ciiiai?oi? noaie aaiethoe?? aaa?oono e?enoae?a oee?eiio a caeaaeiino?
a?ae ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e oa eoaeiino? oee?eiiiooai?thth/iai na?aaeiaeua.
?acii c oei a e?oa?aoo?? a?aenooi? a?eueo-iaio caaa?oai? ?ic?iaee a yeeo
aeei?en-oiaoaaeeny a o iiai?e i??? ci?iaiiy ii?oieia?? e?enoae?a
oee?eiio a yeino? ?iaeeeaoi??a i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy neeaaeieo
ieooiii-iaoaii?o?/ieo eiii-eaen?a aeieaia??th.

Aea/aiiy eiia?iaoe?e i?inoeo oi?i ia aaaaoia?aiieeao oee?eiio c
?aaeue-ieo aaieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a, iine?aeiaiino? ?o iiyae e a?aeiinieo
?ici???a a?a-iae aeicaiey? cai?iiiioaaoe caaaeueio noaio
i?inoi?iai-a?eiai? aaiethoe?? ii?oieia?? i?ia?aeo (oaae. 1), a ye?e
aeae?ey?oueny aeaa aaa?oonieo ?yaee — oee?eiiiaee oa a?aoeeioiaee. I?e
iaaieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oiiaao eiaeai ?yae iiaea ?icu?iethaaoenue,
ooai?thth/e aeiaeaoeia? i?ae?yaee 1a oa 2a, ye? ?ic??ciythoueny eeoa
a?aeiinieie ?ici??aie a?aiae i?eci ia?oiai oa ae?oaiai ?iaeo, aai
ni?iuoaaoeny (?aaeooe?thaaoe) o ca’yceo c? cieeiaiiyi o??? /e ?ioi?
eaiee aeo?aeiiai ?yaeo (i?ae?yaeo).

Oaaeeoey 1

Caaaeueia noaia i?inoi?iai-a?eiai? aaiethoe?? ii?oieia?? oee?eiio a
ii?iaeao

Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo

1 2 3 4 5
6

{311}

{331} {331} {311}

1 {111} {111} {111} {111} {111}
{311}

{110} {110} {110} {110}
{110}

7 8 9 10
11

{311}

{331} {331} {311}

1a {111} {111} {111} {111}
{311}

{110} {110} {110} {110}
{110}

{100} {100} {100} {100}
{100}

12 13 14 15
16

{311}

{331} {331} {311}

2a {111} {111} {111} {111}
{311}

{100} {100} {100} {100}
{100}

{110} {110} {110} {110}
{110}

17 18 19
20

{311}

2 {111} {111} {111}
{311}

{100} {100}
{100}

Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia, ia?o ca ana, a?aeia?aaea? aaiethoe?th ii?oieia??
e?enoae?a oee?eiio a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaae?iiy eiioeaio?aoe?? oee?eii?th
a i?ia?aeiooai?thth/iio na?aaeiaeu?: a?ae ?ciiao?e/iiai ia?eno e?enoae?a
i?e iae-neiaeuei?e eiioeaio?aoe?? a iueiio oee?eii?th, /a?ac noiai/anoee
aei nieniii-ae?aiiai i?e iaea?eueo iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo
aeaeiooai?thth/iai aeaiaioo.

Iienoaai? aaiethoe?ei? aaa?ooni? ?yaee — oea eeoa ocaaaeueithth/a noaia
iine?aeiaiino? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ii?oieia?? e?enoae?a oee?eiio, yea iiaea a
?aae?coaaoeny o iiai?e i??? a ?aeaaeueieo oiiaao o?eaaeiai ?inoo
e?enoae?a i?ia?aeo i?e iiiioiiiiio iaae?ii? a i?ia?aeiooai?thth/iio
na?aaeiaeu? eiioeaio?aoe?? oee?eii?th. A eiie?aoieo aea aaieia?/ieo
oiiaao, i?ae aieeaii oe?eiai ?yaeo i?e/ei eio?? ia caaaeaee iiaeia
a?aooaaoe, aaiethoe?ei? aaa?ooni? ?yaee iiaeooue aoaeoe ie?ai? nai?
eaiee, iaaoaath/e oeiiii?oiee aeey oiai /e ?ioiai ia’?eoo aeaeyae. Oea
aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe e?enoaeiii?oiei-a?th oee?eiio i?e ei?aeyoe??
oa ?ic/eaioaaii? a??nueeeo ii??ae.

Ne?ae oaeiae i?aee?aneeoe, ui a aecieiioaeoiaeo /anoeiao a?ai?oi?aeieo
ianea?a, aai iiaeeco iaeanoae ?icaeoeo oeueo?aiaoaii?o?/ieo oa
iaoaniia-oe/ieo ii??ae ooai?ththoueny ciie, iaeano? /e ae?eyiee ii??ae,
eio?? ai?uothoue ie??i aeaniiai (neiaaiaoe/iiai) ua e /oaeee
(ai?aaiaoe/iee) oee?eii, yeee ca nai?ie ii?oieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie
i?/ei ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oee?eiio a?eueo iieiaei? ii?iaee. Oe?
ianoaaeie aeicaieythoue, ca iaai?ii ii?oieia?/ieo a?aei?i e?enoae?a
oee?eiio, aecia/aoe a?aeiiniee a?e eiioaeooth/eo i?ae niaith
e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae.

3.AAIETHOe?EII-OI?IAOe?EIA IIAeAEUe AAIEIA?*II?

AOAeIAE AIEEINUeEIAI IAAAAEIEO

Iaeaaaii?o? aeinyaiaiiy inoaii?o aeanyoee?oue a iaeano? i?ciaiiy
?noi??? ?icaeoeo aaieia?/ieo no?oeoo? caiii? ei?e aoee io?eiai? caaaeyee
canoino-aaiith iaoiae?a oi?iaoe?eiiai aiae?co. Oi?iaoe??, ye
i?e?iaeiuei-?noi?e/i? ia’?eoe, oi?iothoueny ia iaaieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo
no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a caiii? ei?e, i?e iaaieo ?aaeeiao oaeoii?/ieo
?oo?a. Aei oiai ae, inia-eeaino? o??? /e ?ioi? oi?iaoe?? aecia/athoueny
ua e a?eii ?? ooai?aiiy, ui iaoiiaeaii aaiethoe??th caiii? ei?e a /an?
oa i?inoi??. Oiio caaaeaiiyi oi?iaoe?eiiai aiae?co ? aecia/aiiy
iine?aeiaiino? ooai?aiiy oi?iaoe?e, ui a naith /a?ao aeicaiey?
a?aeoai?eoe oaeoii?/iee ?aaeei a yeiio aiie oi?-ioaaeeny.

Io?eiai? i?e i?iaaaeaii? oi?iaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaii?
?icaeyaeathoueny a ??/eu? no/anii? eiioeaioe?? noaae?eiiai ?icaeoeo
caiii? ei?e c o?aooaaiiyi i?eioeeio /ano i?iyaeaiiy caaa?oaeueii?
neeaae/aoino? oa aecia/aiiyie oi?iaoe?eiiai neeaaeo nai???aeieo o
aaiaoe/iiio a?aeiioaii? ??ciia?eiaeo eiiieaen?a noi?ae?onoaeueieo oa
?io?ae?onoaeueieo ooai?aiue. Oea aeicaiey? noai?eoe i?ea?iaeueio noaio
(aaiethoe?eii-oi?iaoe?eio iiaeaeue) iaeaioaeoi-i?/iiai ?icaeoeo
oa?eoi??? Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo acaaae?, oa ie?aieo eiai
no?oeoo?ii-oi?iaoe?eieo cii a i?ioa?ici?.

C o?aooaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a oi?iaoe?eiiai aiae?co noi?ae?onoaeueieo oa
?io?ae?onoaeueieo ooai?aiue, /ano i?iyaeaiiy neeaae/aoino? oa ?ic?eaieo
ii?ooaiue a iaaeao oa?eoi??? Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo a aaia?ae?ciaaiiio
ieai? aeie?aieai? a?oaenueeee i?ioiaaineiee?iaeueiee, i?ioa?icienueeee
ai-eiaiee aaineiee?iaeueiee, i?iaaiiee oa ieaooi?iaiee
?noi?eei-oaeoii?/i? iaaaaoaie, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue noaae?ei?noue
iai?aaeaiiai i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy eiioeiaioaeueii? caiii? ei?e a ?aa?ii?.

3.1 I?ioiaaineiee?iaeueiee iaaaaoai

Iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e, i?enay/aieo aaieia?/i?e
aoaeia? Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo a ieo iaeaea a?aenooi? na?ae/aiiy
noiniaii ?noi??? ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio a a?oa?, aei e?ioey ia c’yniaai?
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy i?ae ooai?aiiyie aei?no?ianueei-aocueei? oa
oaoa??anueei? na??e. Aaaaea?oueny, ui a?aieoey i?ae ieie i?ioiaeeoue ii
Aiae?tho?anueeiio ?iceiio. Iani?aaae? ae a?aieoeth i?ae aeaiia ??ciiai
a?eo oiauaie ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe i?eaeecii ia 1,5-2 ei. i?aaeai?oa
Aiae?tho?anueei? nenoaie ?iceii?a, aei oiai ae aiia ii-neoue aeineoue
neeaaeiee oa?aeoa?. Ooai?aiiy oaoa??anueei? na???, o aeaeyae?
eeeiiiiae?aieo o?e, aeineoue aeaeaei i?iieeathoue o oiauo ii??ae
aei?no?ianueei-aocueei? na???. Iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy iiae?aieo
aca?iia?aeiioaiue i?ae aeaiia ??ciiai a?eo oiauaie aei e?ioey ia
c’yniaaiee. Oea iiaea aeacoaaoe aai ia ?nioaaiiy iinooiiaeo oaoe?aeueieo
ia?aoiae?a i?ae ieie, ui iaei eiia??ii ? anooia? a i?ioe??//y c aeaiieie
?cioiiiiai aeaooaaiiy, aai ia ia??aiii??ia i?iyaeaiiy i?ioean?a
ae?aooi?aco.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c caaaeueii i?eeiyoith ?noi?eei-oaeoii?/iith
eiioeaioe??th na?aae ooai?aiue i?ioa?icienueei? a?ai?o-neaioeaai?
iaeano? ne?ae ooeaoe o?aaiaioe a?oaenueeeo a?aioe?o-caeaiieai’yii? oa
a?ai?o-caeaiieai’yii? iaeanoae, aea/aiiy yeeo aeicaiey?, o caaaeueieo
?enao, a?aeoai?eoe ?noi??th ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? a a?oa?.
Oaeeie o?aaiaioaie-inoaioeyie, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iiaeooue aenooiaoe
Eo?/eoeueea oa Aooyinueea no?oeoo?e neeaaeai?, ia a?aei?io a?ae
caaaa/aieo eaeueoe??i ooai?aiue ei/a??anueei? na?oe,
aenieiiaaiaceaeueieie ea?aiiaoieie ii?iaeaie. No?oeoo?e iathoue /?oe?
iie?aiiaeuei? eiioo?e, caaaeyee iaiaaeaiith ?o c on?o aie?a oaeoii?/ieie
?iceiiaie, ? oiio aiie iiaeooue aaaaeaoeny aeieaie i?aaeaaiuei? “iniiae”
aeaaaeaieie ia iiaa?oith oaeoii?/ieie ?ooaie. ?acth/a noiae?noue
i?ia?aeue-iiai neeaaeo oa o?i?cio ea?aiiaoieo ii??ae Eo?/eoeueei? oa
Aooyinueei? no?oe-oo? c aiaeia?/ieie ooai?aiiyie aei?no?ianueei-aocueei?
na??? Iiae?euenueeiai iaaaaeieo aeicaiey? ?o ia?aeaeecoaaoe ? aaaaeaoe
ii?iaee oeeo no?oeoo? a?oaenueeeie.

Aeieii?oia? ea?aiiaoi? ii?iaee a?aeianai? aei ooai?aiue
ia?io?-eaeueoee-o??iai? oi?iaoe?? e cono??/athoueny ia?aaaaeii a
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? Aieei-nueeiai iaaaaeieo. Aeaeeia /anoeia ?ic??co
oi?iaoe?? ?icii/eia?oueny iiooaeiueith oiauath aeieii?oiaeo ia?io??a oa
eaeueoeeo???a c ia/enaeueieie i?ioa?eaie ia?aaio?aieeo?a. A na?aaei?e
eiai /anoei? e?euee?noue i?ioa?e?a ia?aaio?aieeo?a oa ?o iiooaei?noue
ca?eueoo?oueny, a oie /an ye ia’?i ea?ai-iaoieo ii??ae ciaioo?oueny. O
aa?oi?e /anoei? ?ic??co ?noioiuei c?inoa? ?ieue i?ioa?e?a
aio?aie-a?ioeoiaeo aiaen?a.

3.2 Aieiaiee aaineiee?iaeuei?e iaaaaoai

C o?aooaaiiyi oaeoii?/ieo iniaeeainoae aieiaiee aaineiee?iaeueiee
iaaaaoai ?icaeoeo eiioeiaioaeueii? ei?e a iaaeao Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo
iiae?ey?oueny ia aeaa aoaia: ?aiiueiaoaa?enueeee, yeee ioiieth?
?aiiueiaainei-ee?iaeueio oa aeania aaineiee?iaeueio noaae??;
i?ciueiaoaa?enueeee aoai ?nioaaa ai?iaeiaae on??? ?aiiueii?iaaiii?
noaae??. C o?aooaaiiyi i?iyaeaiiy oac neeaae/aoino?, i?ciueiaoaa?enueeee
aoai ae?eeoueny ia aeaa i?aeaoaia: ?aii?e oa i?ci?e.

3.2.1 Oi?iaoe?? ?aiiueiaoaa?enueeiai aoaio

Ia ii/aoeo iaeaii?ioa?icith a iaaeao i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie
Oe?a-?inueeiai ueoa ?nioaaa aaineee?iaeueiee i?iaei, a yeiio
a?aeaoaaeiny iaei-ie/aiiy oa?eaaiieo a?aeeeaae?a iiaia?aae-aieeinueei?
oiau?. I?ioeane naaee-iaioaaaiaco, /an a?ae /ano, ia?a?eaaeenue
aeeeaaiiyi iaaie oeueo?ainiiaii-ai oa iniiaiiai neeaaeo (ae?aaaciaa
oi?iaoe?y). Iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii aoo-ceaia ae?yeuei?noue i?iyaeeanue a
i?aaeaii?e /anoei? oa?eoi???, a oie /an ye a oeaio?aeuei?e oa i?ai?/i?e
?? /anoeiao oi?ioaaeenue ia?aaaaeii i?n/aii-aee-ieno? inaaei/i? ii?iaee.
Aeaui i?ci?oa aei ii??ae anieaeii? oi?iaoe?? aeiaea?oueny ea?aiiaoia
?a/iaeia, iaoiiaethth/e oi?ioaaiiy, aieiaiei /eiii, o i?a-aeaii?e
/anoei? ?aa?iio, ii??ae aaiiyeiai? oi?iaoe??. Oi?ioaaiiy
aooceaii-inaaei/ii? oiau? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny oei??iaiiyi /enaeueieo
aeeeueieo aai ooieiiiae?aieo ?io?oc?e aaa?i-ia??aeioeoiai? oi?iaoe??.

Iai?ee?ioe? aeania aaineiee?iaeueii? noaae?? aieiaiiai
aaineiee?iaeueiiai iaaaaoaio neeaaeia? iiaia?aae-aieeinueei? oiau? oa
?io?oaeothoe? ?? oeueo?ain-iiai? oa iniiai? ii?iaee caciaee iaoaii?o?cio
a oiiaao ai?aeio-aio?aie?oiai? oaoe??. Iaoaii?o?/i? i?ioeane iineee
?cio?i?/iee oa?aeoa? e iaoiiaeee aeieeiaiiy ca ?aooiie oa?eaaiieo
a?aeeeaae?a a?ioeoiaeo, a?aiao-a?ioeoiaeo, ioneia?o-a?ioeoiaeo oa
aio?aie-a?ioeoiaeo i?e?iaiaen?a, ia?ao-ai?aiiy aoocea?a
oeueo?ainiiaiiai, iniiaiiai oa na?aaeiueiai neeaaeo a iaoaae?aaace,
i?oiaio?aie?oe e aeoeiie?oia? neaioe? oa aio?aie?caoe?th ?
a?i-oeoecaoe?th ?io?oceaieo ii??ae aaa?i-ia??aeioeoiai? oi?iaoe??.

3.2.2 Oi?iaoe?? i?ciueiaoaa?enueeiai aoaio

I?ciueiaoaa?enueeee aoai ?icaeoeo eiioeiaioaeueii? ei?e a iaaeao
Aieei-nueeiai iaaaaeieo ca /anii ni?aiaa c ?aiiueii?iaaiiith noaae??th
oi?ioaaiiy aaineiee?iae?. Ia i?ioyc? aoaio, a iaaeao i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii?
/anoeie Oe?a-?inueeiai ueoa, i?iyaeeenue aieiaia oa i?ciy oace
neeaae/aoino?: ia ii/aoeo ?aiiueiai i?ciueiaoaa?enueeiai oa i?ciueiai
i?ciueiaoaa?enueeiai i?aeaoai?a, a?aeiia?aeii.

C aieiaiith oacith neeaae/aoino? a /an? ni?aiaei i?iyaeaiiy i?ioean?a
aeio?i?/iiai iaoaii?o?cio, ui iaoiiaeei ia?aoai?aiiy i?iaeoeo?a
?cio?-i?/iiai iaoaii?o?cio (i?e?iaiaen?a oa i?oiaio?aie?o?a) a
a?ioeoia?, a?a-iao-a?ioeoia? oa a?ao?o-a?ioeoia? aiaene ai?iaenueei?
na?oe. Iiaeaeueoa ia?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeio?i?/iiai iaoaii?o?cio
i?ecaaei aei ooai?ai-iy ii??ae ieaa?ii?aiaoeo-ieaa?ia?ai?oii? oi?iaoe??.
A ia’?i? oi?iaoe?? aeae?-eythoueny ieaa?ii?aiaoeoe — i?iaeoeoe i?ioean?a
iaoaii?o?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, oa aaiaoe/ii nii??aeiai? c ieie
ieaa?ia?ai?oe. Inoaii? oi?iothoue na?aae ieaa?ii?aiaoeo?a iaaaeee? ca
?ici??aie aacei?aiaa? o?ea, iiooaei?noth a?ae aeae?eueeio naioeiao??a
aei ia?oeo iao??a.

Ia ?nioaaiiy ?aeeiiai a aaiaoe/iiio a?aeiioaii? ?yaeo ii??ae aiaen —
?i’?eoe?eiee aiaen — ieaa?ii?aiaoeo — ieaa?ia?ai?o aeaco? iaeiaeiaee
iaa?? ii?oieia?/ieo a?aei?i e?enoae?a oee?eiio oa iayai?noue o?aiaeo
ci?iaiiy niaeo?ineii?/ieo ia?aiao??a a?ioeoo iai?yiie yeiai aeaco? ia
ca?eueoaiiy i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae aiaeno aei ieaa?ia?ai?oo e?eueeino?
iioe/ii aeoeaieo oeaio??a iaoae-iaoae, ui iaeiicia/ii aeaco? ia
iinooiiaa c?inoaiiy aeoeaiino? eenith o i??o ia?inoaiiy i?ioean?a
aeio?i?/iiai iaoaii?o?cio (i?aiaoecaoe??). Caaa?oeany i?aeaoai
oi?ioaaiiyi aeeeiiiae?aieo o?e iaa-iaceaeueieo ae?iineae-ieaa?ieeaciaeo
iaoaniiaoeo?a Na?ieinueei-Aa?aa??a-nueei? oaeoiii-iaoaniiaoe/ii? ciie.
Ia i?ioyc? i?ciueiai i?ciueiaoaa?enueeiai i?aeaoaio oi?ioaaeenue ii?iaee
oi?iaoe?? aeainethaeyieo a?ai?o?a. Aei ?? neeaaeo aeeth/ai? nai???aei?
iao??e-eae?eiaiai ?yaeo ii?iaee iienai? a e?oa?aoo?? i?ae iacaith
“aeeoiie?nuee?” a?ai?oe. ?o oi?ioaaiiy ni?aiaei c i?iyaeaiiyi i?ciuei?
oace neeaae/aoino?. Aea/aiiy ea?io a?eueo i?ae ni?iea o?ueionioiao?iaeo
? o?ueio a?n?inioiao?i-aeo naa?aeeiaei i?iao?aieo a iaaeao
AEeoiie?nueeiai, Eo?/eoeueeiai, Na?-a?anueeiai, E?aniia??nueeiai,
Eenae?anueeiai oa Oaea/einueeiai ianea?a iiea-caei, ui, i?eiaeii?, aei
aeeaeie a?n?inio iao??a, ?o ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia-neaaie.
Iaea??ia?aei?oa, oea i?inoi?iai a?aeie?aieai? iaeia a?ae iaeii? iaeano?
aiaeni-i?aiaoeoiai? oiau? ?ynii iane/ai? aeeeueieie o?eaie
aeeoiie?nueeeo a?ai?o?a iiooaei?noth a?ae aeae?eueeio aeanyoe?a
naioeiao??a aei aeanyoe?a iao??a. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui a iaaeao oaeeo
iaeanoae aeania aeeoiie?nuee? a?ai?oe neeaaeathoue eeoa 30-50% ?o
ia’?io. Ca iaaeaie oae caaieo a?ai?oieo “ianea?a” e?euee?noue a?ai?oiiai
iaoa??aeo ia ia?aaeuo? 5-15%.

Iniaeea?noth i?ia?aeueiiai neeaaeo aeeoiie?nueeeo a?ai?o?a ?
iianthaeiee ?icaeoie ioneia?oo oa eae?oiaoo, oa i?eaeecii ??aia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a ii-?iae? ieaa?ieeaco oa eae?oiaoo. ?acii c oei
?niothoue nooo?a? ?ica?aeiino? a e?euee?niiio oa ye?niiio neeaae?
aeoeani?ieo i?ia?ae?a, ui aeaco? ia e?enoa-e?caoe?th aeeoiie?nueeeo
a?ai?o?a c i?inoi?iai a?aeie?aieaieo iaeei a?ae iaeiiai ina?aaee?a
a?ai?oii? iaaie.. A?aeie?aieaii?noue ina?aaee?a iaaie coiiaeth? iaai?
iani?aiaaeaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oiia e?enoae?caoe?? a?ai?o?a ??cieo
“ianea?a” ? ye iane?aeie — ?icia?ooy a iaai?? aeoeani?ieo i?ia?ae?a
(?eueia-ieoo a Eo?/eoeueeiio oa Na?a?anueeiio, a?aiaoo a
E?aniia??nueeiio oa Eenae?anueeiio, noaio a Oaea/einueeiio oa iiiaoeeoo
a AEeoiie?nueeiio “ianeaao”).

Ieaeiy a?eiaa iaaea oi?ioaaiiy aeeoiie?nueeeo a?ai?o?a aecia/a?oueny
caaaeyee c??caiith o?eaie a?ai?o?a nioaanoino? ieaa?ii?aiaoeo?a, a
oaeiae n?/-iei iieiaeaiiyi o?e a?ai?o?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei o?e
ae?iineae-ieaa?ieeaciaeo iaoaniiaoeo?a Na?ieinueei-Aa?aa??anueei?
oaeoiii-iaoaniiaoe/ii? ciie. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i a?aenooi?noue
aaiaoe/iiai ca’yceo i?ae ieaa?ii?aiaoeoaie oa aee-oiie?nueeeie
a?ai?oaie. Ae?enii, aeeoiie?nueea iaaia, yea aei oiai ae ooai-?thaaea
iaaaeee? ca ?ici??aie i?inoi?iai a?aeie?aieai? ina?aaeee, ia aoea
caeaoiith aaia?oaaoe oiiae iaiao?aei? aeey oi?ioaaiiy iiooaeiuei?,
noaei? ca ye?niei oa e?euee?niei iaai?ii ii?iaeiooai?thth/eo oa
aeoeani?ieo i?ia?ae?a, oiau? ieaa?ii?aiaoeo?a.

3.3 I?iaaiiee iaaaaoai

I?iaaiiee iaaaaoai ?icii/aany ia ii/aoeo iacii?ioa?icith. Oa?ae-oa?iith
?enith iaaaaoaio aoei i?iyaeaiiy ?ioaineaieo aeeaiaeo (aa?iaiioeiieo)
oaeoii?/ieo ?oo?a, eio?? e iaoiiaeee iica?/ii-aeieiao aoaeiao
Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo, a c ?ioiai — ooai?aiiy Inieoeueei? oa
Ee-oeinueei? i?aea??nueeeo caiaaeei. Inieoeueea caiaaeeia caeiaea
oeaio?aeueio oa i?ai?/io /anoeie Inieoeueeiai aeieo, Eeoeinueea —
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeio /anoeio Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeio
/anoeio Ei?inoainueeiai oaeoi-i?/ieo aeie?a. A iaaeao i?aea??nueeeo
caiaaeei i?iyaeany ?ioaineaiee aoo-ceaiee iaaiaoeci, o?i?ci yeiai
caeiiii??ii ci?ithaaany a /an? a?ae aacaeueo-aiaeaceoiaiai, /a?ac
aiaeaceoi-aeaoeeoiaee aei e?ia?eoiaiai. Iaee i?noea e iaai?
caeiiii??iino? a ci?i? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo aoocea?a aiaeaceoiai?
oi?-iaoe?? o a?e ?o i?aeeeneaiiy c iaaeeaeaiiyi aei a?eueo i?aeiyoeo
aeie?a. Oiio, a iaaeao Inieoeueei? i?aea??nueei? caiaaeeie oi?ioaaeenue
ii?iaee aacaeueo-aiaeaceoiai? noaoi?iaoe?? aiaeaceoiai? oi?iaoe??. A
iaaeao aea a?eueo eiini-e?aeiaaii? oa?eoi???, yeith ia oie /an aoea
oa?eoi??y Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai ? Ei?inoainueeiai aeie?a, ia aeaio
iiaa?oith aeeeaaeenue eaae aiaeaceo-e?ia-?eoiai? noaoi?iaoe??, o neeaae?
yei? e?euee?nii ia?aaaaeaee aoeeai?oe na?aae-iueiai neeaaeo.

C oaeoii?/ieie ?iceiiaie i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai
iai-?yie?a, eio?? iaoiiaeee ?ic/eaioaaiiy oa?eoi??? ia aeiee ae?oaiai oa
o?a-oueiai ii?yaee?a, iia’ycaia oei??iaiiy aeaeie ae?aaac-ae?i?eoiai?
oi?iaoe?? (ia?oee aeaeeiaee eiiieaen).

Niaoeeo?/iith ?enith i?iaaiiai iaaaaoaio ? oa, ui ooai?aiiy aooceaii?
oiau?, aeaui i?ci?oa, caciaee iaoaniiaoe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy, oi?ioth/e o
oaeee niin?a oe?ieo ca o?i?ciii aaio ii??ae oi?iaoe?? a?ai?oi?ae?a
no?ieaoiai neeaaeo. Aei neeaaeo oi?iaoe?? aaaaeai? i?iaeoeoe
a?ai?oecaoe?? aoeeai?/ieo ii??ae aiaeeceoiai? oi?iaoe?? (eean?anueea
na??y), ui ao?aoeee nai? no?oeoo?i? oa ?io? iciaee ia?aeiieo ii??ae.
A?ai?oecaoe?y ?aae?coaaeany oeyoii ?icaaaeaiiy aoeeai?o?a iniiaiiai oa
na?aaeiueiai neeaaeo n?ae?/ieie eiiiiiaioaie, aea aac ?noioiiai
aeianaiiy ca iaae? nenoaie iao?/ieo eiiiiiaio?a.

Caaaeueia ni?yiiaai?noue ia?aoai?aiiy ia?aeiiiai noano?aoo ??ciiai
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo iaaaaeaia a oaae. 2, o aeaeyae? a?aeiia?aeieo ?yae?a
ii??ae, eio?? ca’ycai? i?ae niaith iinooiiaeie ia?aoiaeaie ? o?nii
anioe?ththoue o i?inoi??. Oaea o?aeoiaea aaiaoe/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
ii?iaeaie ana?a-aeei? a?oie aeineoue caaeia?eueii iiynith? ?nioth/a a
?ic??cao aeeaieeo naa?aeeiaei ? ii eaoa?ae? ?icoa?oaaiiy ??cieo oei?a
oeueo?aiaoaii?o?o?a, ye? oniaaeeoaaee no?aoeo?eiaai?noue oa no?oeoo?iee
ieai ii??ae eean?anueei? na???, “i?aea?oaia” oa aacei?aiaaa caeyaaiiy
ie?aieo o?e i?aeaeuaii? iniiaiino? (ae??anuee? ae?i?eoe, nethaeyi?
a?aiiae?i?eoe) na?aae eeneeo ooai?aiue, ieanoiiiae?ai?, eoiieiaeaei? oa
?io? a?eueo neeaaeii? eiio?ao?aoe?? oi?ie caeyaaiiy a?ai?oi?aeieo
ii??ae, iaiaeii??aei?noue oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae, ?acth/a
noiae?noue ii?oieia?? e?enoae?a oee?eiio, iaeiaeia?noue e?euee?nieo
niaeo?ineii?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?ioeoo a on?o aac aeiyoeo a?aei?iao
oeueo?aiaoaii?o?o?a.

Noaiiaeaiiy ii??ae aaa?i-a?aiiae?i?eo-a?ai?oii? oi?iaoe?? a /an?
ni?aiaei c caaa?oaeueiith noaae??th oi?ioaaiiy caiaeiaiai i?aeiyooy.
Iaaaeee? ca ?ic i??aie ?io?oc?? inieoeueeiai aaa?i, a?aiiae?i?eoo oa
a?ai?oo i?inoi?iai oyae?-thoue aei iaea?eueo ?ooiii? i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii?
/anoeie Aieeinueeiai iaaaaei-eo. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith ?io?oceaieo
ooai?aiue ? caeaia caaa?aeaiiy a?ioe-oo oa eiai iecueea cae?ceno?noue ?
?icia?ooy ii?oieia?/ieo oei?a e?enoae?a oee?eiio. ?io?oceai? ae ii?iaee
a?eueo eoaeii? aaa?i-iiioeii?o-n??i?oiai? oi?-iaoe?? e?enoae?coaaeenue a
iaaeao a?eueo eiinie?aeiaaieo ia oie /an oeaio-?aeuei?e oa no?aei?e
/anoeiao aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi???. Aiie ai?uothoue aenieicae?cenoee
a?ioeo oaiii-caeaiiai caaa?aeaiiy ? oethi?eo ye aeoeani?iee i?ia?ae.

Oaaeeoey 2

?yaee oeueo?aiaoaii?o?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy ii??ae aiaeaceoiai?
oi?iaoe??.

Iiia?

?yaeo Ii?iaee eean?anueei? na??? Oeueo?aiaoaii?o?oe inieoeueeiai

eiiieaeno

1 Aeiea?eoe — iaoaae?aaace- Ae??anuee? ae?i?eoe — na?aaeiueica?-

ieno? a?ioeoia? a?aiiae?i?eoe —

na?aaeiueica?ieno? ieaa?ia?ai?oe

2 Ieaa?iii?o??eoe — eaioeoe — Ae??aiica?ieno? a?ioeoia? a?aii-

ae?i?eoe — na?aaeiueica?ieno? a?a-

iiae?i?eoe — na?aaeiueica?ieno?

i?e?ieeei-ieaa?ieeacia? a?ai?oe

3 Eaa?oeaa? ii?o??e — eaioeoe — Ae??aiica?ieno? ieaa?ieeac-i?e-

?ieeeiia? a?ai?oe — na?aaeiuei-

ca?ieno? ieaa?ieeac-i?e?ieeeiia?

oa nooo?ai i?e?ieeeiia? a?ai?oe

3.4 Ieaooi?iaiee iaaaaoai

C ?icaeoeii caiaeiaiai i?aeiyooy iinooiiai ia?inoaee neee
?icoyaoaai-iy, eio?? iaaoee naiai iaeneioio c aeinyaiaiiyi eiai iaeaeui?
oi/ee. Oea iaoiiaeei ooai?aiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? ?iceii?a a
oeaio?aeuei?e ? iniaeeai e?aeiaeo /anoeiao caiaeiaiai i?aeiyooy ?
oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ai?no?a oa a?aaai?a. Noaae??th in?aeaiiy oaeoe/ii
caaa?oeeiny oi?ioaaiiy oaeoi-i?/iiai ieaio i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie
Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa, yeee, o caaaeueieo ?enao, caa??any aei iaoeo aei?a.
Caeeaaeaiiy I?ei’yonueeiai i?iae-io aecia/eei i?ai?/io ieieeoeth
Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa, a aeieeiaiiy nenoaie noaia?eae?iiaeueieo ?iceii?a
a?aeie?aieei a?ae ueoa Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeo ieeoo. A oeae aea /an
aecia/eeeny e eiioo?e oaeoii?/ieo aeie?a ia?oiai ii?yaeeo: Inieoeueeiai,
Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai oa Ei?inoainueeiai.

Nenoaie oaeoii?/ieo ?iceii?a, ui aecia/eee i?ai?/io oa cao?aeio
a?aie-oe? Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa, neoaoaaee eaiaeaie aeey i?aeiyooy
oiea?o-aacaeueoiai? iaaie aeeae/a aei iiaa?oi?. ?? ?ice?enoae?caoe?y e
iaoiiaeea aeieeiaiiy iniiaieo aeaeie ae?oaiai aeaeeiaiai eiiieaeno.
Aeaeee aaa?i-aeiea?eo?a a?oiothoueny o aeaa a?aeie?aieaieo iaeei a?ae
iaeiiai aeaeeiaeo iiyna. Ia?oee iiyn aeaeie ?icoeia? c
i?ai?/iiai-caoiaeo ia i?aaeaiee no?ae Inieoeueeee oaeoii?/iee aeie. ?
i?inoaaeo?oueny aeae? aaea a iaaeao Iiaia?aae-Aieei-nueeiai aeieo.
Ae?oaee aeaeeiaee iiyn ne?aeeo?oueny oiiaeiaae i?ai?/ii? ieieeoe?
Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa, ioiieth? ce?aa ? ni?aaa Inieoeueeee oaeoii?/iee aeie
? ciiao ceeaa?oueny a ?aeeiee iiyn noaia?eae?iiaeueiiai iai?yieo ia
i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e ieieeoe? aeieo, i?inoaaeoth/enue aeaeaei ia
i?aaeaiue oii-aeiaae cao?aeiiai e?ath Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa.

Ii caaa?oaii? noaiiaeaiiy aeaeie aaa?i-aeiea?eo?a aeine?aeaeoaaia
oa?e-oi??y ia i?ioyc? aeineoue o?eaaeiai /ano ciaoiaeeeany o noai?
a?aeiiniiai oaeoii?/iiai niieith. Aeanue ia iaae? 1800 iei. ?ie?a
?icii/aeany iiaa oae-ey iniiaiiai iaaiaoecio. O ia?oo oaco noi?ioaaeenue
?io?oc?? n??eo iaa-iaceaeueieo ? caaaa/aieo ai?ii eaa?aaei?eo?a,
aaa?i-eaa?aaei?eo?a oa o?ao?-oi?aeiiai aaa?i, o ae?oao — /i?iiai
eieuei?o aaaaoeo ia cae?ci iaeiai?iaeo iniiai?o ii??ae
aaa?i-eaa?aaei?eoiai? oi?iaoe??.

Iaaooue, c /anii oei??iaiiy ?io?oc?e iniiaieo ii??ae ni?aiaei
caeeaaeai-iy ii nenoai? ?aae?aeueieo ?iceii?a Ioaa/?anueeiai
iaeaii?iaeio, yeee ca-iiaithaaany eiioeiaioaeueieie a?aeeeaaeaie
aetha?aeueii-aeaetha?aeueii? oi?-iaoe??. I?ioeane naaeeiaioaaaiaco, /an
a?ae /ano, ia?a?eaaeenue aeeeaaiiyi ia aeaiio iiaa?oith eaa
o?ao?aacaeueoiai? oi?iaoe??. Caeeoeia? ii?oe?? iniiaii? eaae,
e?enoae?coth/enue a oaeoii?/ieo o??ueiao, iaoiiaeee oi?ioaaiiy aeaeie
o?aoueiai aeaeeiaiai eiiieaeno. Iai?oeeinue aea? iaeano? iioe?aiiy
inoaii?o. Ia?oa iaeanoue oyae?? aei cao?aeii? oa i?aaeaii-cao?aeii?
ieieeoeue Ei?inoainueeiai oaeoii?/iiai aeieo, ae?oaa — aeoyao?oueny
oiiaeiaae i?ai?/ii? oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? a?aieoeue
Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai aeieo. Aeaeee ?eueia-ieoai?uoth/eo
aaa?i-aeiea?eo?a o?aoueiai aeaeeiaiai eiiieaeno ?icoeiathoue inieoeuee?
a?ai?oe, aeaeee aaceo?a ae?oaiai aeaeeiaiai eiiieaeno oa /i?i?
aaa?i-eaa?aaei?eoe ?, a naith /a?ao, c??cathoueny ei?inoainueeeie
a?ai?oaie.

Ii caaa?oaii? iniiaiiai iaaiaoecio, iaeanoue oaeoii?/ii? aeoeaiino?
ci?noeeany aeaui ia cao?ae. O oeae /an a?aeaoeiny caeeaaeaiiy a iaaeao
Iiaia-?aae-Aieeinueeiai oaeoii?/iiai aeieo E?aniia??nueei-AEeoiie?nueei?
oaeoi-i?/ii? ciie. Inoaiiy i?inoaaeo?oueny c i?aaeaiiai noiaeo ia
i?ai?/iee cao?ae ca ac?iooii 320-3300 oiiaeiaae e?i?? ui i?ioiaeeoue ia
no?ae a?ae i. AEeoiie?, /a?ac nn. Aa?ao?, E?aniia??ea, Eeoei. Ia
ieieeoe? n. Oaiuee?aea aiia c??-ca? a?eueo aeaaith
Na?ieinueei-Aa?aa??anueeo oaeoiii-iaoaniiaoe/io ciio, a ia i?ai?/i?e
ieieeoe? Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai oaeoii?/iiai aeieo, a naith /a?ao,
ia?aoeia?oueny a?eueo iieiaeith Nouaii-Ia?aeainueeith
oaeoiii-iaoa-niiaoe/iith ciiith. Iaoaniiaoe/i? ?ic/eie ui oee?eoethaaee
a iaaeao E?aniia??nueei-AEeoiie?nueei? ciie iaoiiaeee oi?ioaaiiy ii??ae
oi?iaoe?? iao?iaeo iaoaniiaoeo?a. Na?aae iiaiooai?aiue ciie ne?ae
?ic??ciyoe aeaa ??ci? ca a?eii oeie iaoaniiaoeo?a — aeuea?oeo?a.
Aeuea?oeoe ia?oiai a?eueo aeaa-iueiai oeio oi?iothoue na?aae
iaoaniiaoe/ii ci?iaieo ii??ae aiaeni-i?aiaoe-oiai? oiau? oa ii??ae
eeoeinueeiai eiiieaeno iiooaei? (ia?o? aeanyoee iao??a) aeeeiiiae?ai?
o?ea, ye? i?inoaaeothoueny ia a?aenoaiue o aeae?eueea e?eiiao??a.
Aeuea?oeoe ae?oaiai oeio ooai?ththoue iacia/ii? iiooaeiino? (ia?o?
iao?e) o?ea aeiaaeeiith a aeae?eueea aeanyoe?a iao??a, ye? aeineoue
/anoi ia?aoeiathoue iaoaniiaoeoe ia?oiai oeio.

Ia ?oaaae? aeanue o 1750 iei. ?ie?a a iaaeao Ei?inoainueeiai
oaeoii?/iiai aeieo i?iyaeeanue iiaa oaeey ?io?oceaiiai iaaiaoecio, ui e
iaoiiaeei ooai?aiiy a?ai?o?a oi?iaoe?? ?aiae?a?. Aaaaea?oueny ui
oa?aeoa?enoe/iith ic-iaeith, caaaeyee ye?e o? /e ?io? ooai?aiiy iiaeia
a?aeianoe aei neeaaeo ?aiae?a?a?ai?oii? oi?iaoe?? aenooia? i?enooi?noue
nai???aeieo ooai?aiue — iai?ae?a. ?acii c oei a?aeiii aaeeea e?euee?noue
aeiaaee?a iiyae iai?ae?a a i?e?iaiaenao, eeania?oao, iniiaieo ii?iaeao
?, ia?aoo?, i?aiaoeoao ye? oi?iothoue aecieiioaeoi? /anoeie
iaoaniiaoe/ieo o?e ??ciiai a?eo oa aaia-ceno, ui aeaco? ia aeiaaeueiee
oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo ia?a?iaoe?eieo no?oeoo?. Aeoiaey/e c ?a/iaiai neeaaeo
yae?a, ana ?icia?ooy iai?ae?a iiaea aooe caa-aeaii aei /ioe?ueio oei?a:
1) iai?aee c “ii?iaeiei” yae?ii; 2) iai?aee c eae?o-iaoiaei yae?ii; 3)
iai?aee c ieaa?ieeaciaei yae?ii; 4) iai?aee c eaa?oeaaei yae?ii. Na?aae
ieo, ca neeaaeii iaieiiie ? c o?aooaaiiyi ?o e?eueeino?, aeae?ey?oueny
i’yoiaaeoeyoue a?aei?i ca?oiiaaieo a oaae. 3. Oe?eeii neooii ae-ieea?
caieoaiiy, a yeee aea iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy iai?ae?a? Ca?iaeaeaiiy
iai-?ae?a ?icii/eia?oueny c iiyae “?ioa?noeoe?eieo”
ca?iyoie-iiaiooai?aiue ea-e?oiaoo, ye?, ?ic?inoath/enue, iinooiiai
ioiieththoue ana iia? e iia? ae?eyiee ii?iaee, iaaoaath/e caie?oaeaii?
oi?ie iiiie?enoaeueiiai iai?aeo, aai, cia/ii ??aeoa, ia?eno neeaaeiiai
iai?aea c “ii?iaeiei” yae?ii ? eae?oiaoiaith iaieiieith. Cai?uaiiy
eae?oiaoii eaeueoe?eai?uoth/eo i?ia?ae?a ia?aaiaeeoue o ?ic/ei
eaeueoe?e, eio?ee ia ne?aeoth/?e noaae?? ooai?aiiy ia?a?iaoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e oi?io? ciai?oith ie?aieeaciao iaieiieo ia iai?aeao oa
iaaae-?enoaee-iiaiooai?aiiy ie?aieeaco. I?ney aeo?a/aiiy eaeueoe?th ia
iiaoaeiao ie?aieeaciai? iaieiiee, a ?ic/eiao ciiao c?inoa? aeoeai?noue
eae?th. Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei ia?inoaiiy ciai?oiuei? eae?oiaoiai? iaieiiee
ia iai?aeao oa e?enoae?caoe?? a?eueo i?ciuei? aaia?aoe?? ii?o??iaeano
eae?oiaoo. Ii caaa?oai-i? e?enoae?caoe?? iieueiaeo oiao?a, ?ic/eie, ui
o?eueo?othoueny e??cue ii?iaeo, iaaoaathoue eeneiai oa?aeoa?o, ui
iaoiiaeth? ?ioaineaio e?enoae?caoe?th ii?o??iaeano eaa?oeth ? oi?ioaaiiy
ia ieo i?e?iiaaiaoeoiai? iaieiiee. Ioaea nenoaiia aea/aiiy iai?ae?a c
??cieo ca a?eii oa aaiacenii ii??ae, ?icaeyaeaiiy /enaeueieo a?aei?i
oeeo nai???aeieo ooai?aiue ia ye ?cieueiaai? iaeia a?ae iaeiiai yaeua
iieaco?, ui oi?ioaaiiy iai?ae?a oea neeaaeiee noaae?e-iee i?ioean. C
?ioiai aieo, ciao?aeee neeaaeieo iai?ae?a c “ii?iaeiei” yae?ii
iaeiicia/ii aeaco? ia oa, ui aeieeiaiiy ia?a?iaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e
a?aeao-aa?oueny aaea a cae?enoae?ciaai?e ii?iae?, oiaoi iaoaniiaoe/iei
oeyoii. Nie?ath/enue ia iae?i- oa i?e?ineii?/i? iciaee, oa c o?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo na?aae a?ai?o?a ei?inoainueeiai eiiieaeno
ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe aea? a?oie ii??ae. Aei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeiinyoueny /?oei
ii?o??iaeae-i? a?ai?oe c iiee?ei-iaaiaoeoiaith oa i?e?ia?ao?/iith
no?oeoo?aie, aei ae?oai? — a?ai?oe, aeaui a?eueo iniiai? ca neeaaeii, c
a?i?ae?iii?oiith no?oe-oo?ith. A?ai?oe ia?oi? a?oie, ye i?aaeei,
ooai?ththoue iaeyi?aee iaaeiei ianea?a aaa?i-eaa?aaei?eo?a, aai
oyae?thoue aei eiioaeoo c ii?iaeaie ?aie, a a?ai?oe ae?oai? a?oie
neeaaeathoue, ia?aaaaeii, oeaio?aeuei? /anoeie ieooiio.

Oaaeeoey 3

Eeaneo?eaoe?y iai?ae?a c ii??ae Ei?inoainueeiai ieooiio

Oei A?aei?ia Neeaae yae?a I?ia?aeueiee neeaae iaieiiee

1 1

2

3

4

5

6

7 Ii?iaea

Ii?iaea

Ii?iaea

Ii?iaea

Ii?iaea

Ii?iaea

Ii?iaea Eae?oiao 1

Eae?oiao 1, ieaa?ieeac

Eae?oiao 1, ieaa?ieeac, eae?oiao 2

Eae?oiao 1, ieaa?ieeac, eae?oiao 2, i?e?i-

iaaiaoeo

Ieaa?ieeac

Ieaa?ieeac, eae?oiao 2

Ieaa?ieeac, eae?oiao 2, i?e?iiaaiaoeo

2 8

9

10

11 Eae?oiao 1

Eae?oiao 1

Eae?oiao 1

Eae?oiao 1 Ieaa?ieeac

Ieaa?ieeac, eae?oiao 2

Ieaa?ieeac, eae?oiao 2, i?e?iiaaiaoeo

I?e?iiaaiaoeo

3 12

13

14 Ieaa?ieeac

Ieaa?ieeac

Ieaa?ieeac Eae?oiao 2

Eae?oiao 2, i?e?iiaaiaoeo

I?e?iiaaiaoeo

4 15 Eaa?oe I?e?iiaaiaoeo

Ia caaa?oaeuei?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??? a aeieaia??? a?aeaoeiny
caeea-aeaiiy Nooaii-Ia?aeainueei? oa Ai?einueei? oaeoii?/ieo cii.
Iaoaniiaoe/i? ?ic/eie, ui oee?eoethaaee a iaaeao oeeo cii iaoiiaeee
oi?ioaaiiy ii-??ae oi?iaoe?? eae?e-iao?iaeo iaoaniiaoeo?a.

?noi??y ?icaeoeo Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo a iaii?ioa?ici? aea/aeany ia
i?eeeaae? A?eue/ainueei? caiaaeeie. A?ecey?nueeei ?iceiiii no?oeoo?a
iiae?ey-?oueny ia aea? /anoeie: i?aaeaiio. yea ia? a ieai? e?i?eii
aeoyaiooo oi?io i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai i?inoyaaiiy, aeiiaiaio ia?aaaaeii
eaa?oeaaeie ii?o??a-ie, ? i?ai?/io, o oi?i? o?aiaoe??, neeaaeaio ye
aooceaaie — eaa?oeaaeie ii?-o??aie, aiaeaceoiaeie ii?o??eoaie ?
aacaeueoaie, oae ? oa?eaaiieie ooai-?aiiyie — i?neiaeeaie
a?oaica?ienoeie ? iie?i?eoiaeie. Eaa?oeaa? ii?o??e caeyaathoue a iniia?
?ic??co aoeeaiiaaiii-inaaei/ii? oiau? ? a?aeianai? aei ca?aie?anueei?
na?oe, ?? ieaeiuei? i?aena?oe. Aei neeaaeo aa?oiuei? i?aena?oe aaaaea-i?
i?neiaeee a?oaica?ieno? oa iie?i?eoia?, a oaeiae aacaeueoe oa
aiaeaceoia? ii?o??eoe. Oa?aeoa? eiioaeoo i?neiaee?a ? iniiaieo aoocea?a
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui inoaii? aeeeaaeeny aaea ia ?icieoo ? /anoeiai
aeaceioaa?iaaio ii-aa?oith oeaieiaeo ii??ae.

Aei neeaaeo oieea/?anueei? na?oe aaaaeai? eaa?oeeoiaeaei? ia?o/nuee?
i?nei-aeee.

4. ?NOI??ss OI?IOAAIIss OOAI?AIUe AIEEINUeEIAI

IAAAAEIEO A AeIEAIA???

O caiae? c a?aei?aoeueiaaiith noaiith iaeaioaeoii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa, a ?? iaaeao i?iyaeeenue
/ioe?e iaaa-aoaia noaiiaeaiiy caiii? ei?e eiioeiaioaeueiiai oeio:
i?ioiaaineiee?-iaeueiee, aieiaiee aaineiee?iaeueiee, i?iaaiiee oa
ieaooi?iaiee.

A?oaenueeee i?ioiaaineiee?iaeueiee iaaaaoai ioiieth? iaea?eueo ?aii?e,
ii/aoeiaee ia??iae ?icaeoeo eiioeiaioaeueii? ei?e a iaaeao Aieeinueeiai
iaaaaeieo. Ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioiaaineiee?iaeueiiai
o?i-ao, oaeaee?noue caio?aiiy oa?eoi??? aeineoue aaeeea ? ia iiaea aooe
neii-iainiaaia oaeaee?noth iaeiie/aiiy inaaei/ieo a?aeeeaae?a. C /anii
caio-?aiiy oa?eoi??? aeaui oiia?eueieeiny ? a i?iaeiao ?icii/aeiny
iaeiie/aiiy aeeaieiaiaeieo inaaee?a o?iiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy (ioe,
e?aiieno? noyae?iiy, ia?aaeeno? oa ea?aiiaoi? inaaeee). Caiaeii oaca
caio?aiiy ci?ieeany oa-cith i?aeiyooy. Aiane?aeie oeueiai a neeaae?
o?iiaaiieo a?aeeeaae?a ii/aea c?inoa-oe /anoea oa?eaaiiiai iaoa??aeo.
I?ioeane inaaeeiiaeiie/aiiy a?aeaoaaeeny ia oe? eieeaaeueieo ?oo?a
nii/aoeo aaeeei? aiie?ooaee, yea o i??o iaeiie/aiiy inaaee?a iinooiiai
ciaiooaaeany. Oea iaoiiaeei iiyao a na?aaei?e, ia?aaaaeii, ea?aiiaoi?e
/anoei? ?ic??co nii/aoeo iiiaeeiieeo cia/ii? iiooaeiino? i?ioa?e?a
ia?aaeenoeo oa ea?aiiaoii-aeeienoeo inaae-e?a, e?euee?noue yeeo
ca?eueooaaeany o aa?oi?e eiai /anoei? c iaeii/aniei ciaioaiiyi
iiooaeiino? i?ioa?e?a.

Iai?ee?ioe? i?ioiaaineiee?iaeueiiai iaaaaoaio i?iyaeeanue iiooaeiy
ca-aa?oaeueia oaca neeaae/aoino?, yea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeany ?aa?iiaeueiei
?cio?-i?/iei iaoaii?o?ciii inaaee?a a oiiaao aeniei? aio?aie?oiai? oa
a?aioe?-oiai? oaoe?e. Oea e iaoiiaeei ooai?aiiy nai???aeiiai
e?enoae?/iiai eiii-eaeno i?ioiaaineiee?iaeueii? “iniiae”. ?acth/a
noiae?noue i?ia?aeueiiai ? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ia?io??a, eaeueoeeo???a oa
ia?aaio?aie?o?a i?ioiaaineiee?-iaeueii? “iniiae” Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo
c aiaeia?/ieie ooai?aiiyie aei?no?ianueei-aocueei? na??? Iiae?euenueeiai
iaaaaeieo aeicaiey? ia?aeaeeco-aaoe ea?aiiaoi? ii?iaee, ui neeaaeathoue
Eo?/eoeueeo oa Aooyinueeo no?oeoo?e, c a?oaenueeeie ii?iaeaie oe???
na???.

Ia ii/aoeo iaeaii?ioa?icith ia a?oaenuee?e i?ioiaaineiee?iaeuei?e
“iniia?” a iaaeao i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa
a?aeaoeiny caeeaaeaiiy aaineiee?iaeueiiai o?iao c /?oeith ciiaeueiith
aoaeiaith. A i?a-aeaii?e eiai /anoei? ?nioaaa aaaaineiee?iaeueiee
?aaeei, aea i?ioeane inaaeeiiaeiie/aiiy noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny ?ioaineaiei
iniiaiei aoeeai?ciii, a oie /an ye a eiai i?ai?/i?e /anoei? i?ioeane
naaeeiaioaaaiaco i?io?eaee a i?iaaineiee?iaeueiiio ?aaeei?.

Oi?iaeiaae iaeaea onueiai ?aiiueiaoaa?enueeiai aoaio aieiaiiai
aaineie-e?iaeueiiai iaaaaoaio i?aeoe/ii ia an?e oa?eoi??? Aieeinueeiai
iaaaaeieo ia?aaaaeaee i?ioeane caio?aiiy, aeeiai?ea yeeo cao?eniaaia
oi?ioaaiiyi inaaee?a iiaia?aae-aieeinueei? oiau?. Iaeiie/aiiy ia?aaaaeii
i?n/aii-aee-ienoeo a?aeeeaae?a a?aeaoaaeiny o aiaeiiio na?aaeiaeu? ?
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny aeoeaiith aoeeai?/iith ae?yeuei?noth.
Aooceaii-inaaei/ia oiaua i?i?eaaeanue iaaaeeeeie ca ?ici??aie
ooieiiiae?aieie, aai aeeeueii? oi?ie ?io?oc?yie iniiaieo oa
oeueo?ainiiaieo ii??ae.

Iai?ee?ioe? ?aiiueiaoaa?enueeiai aoaio, ia i?ioyc? aeania
aaineiee?-iaeueii? noaae?? ?icaeoeo i?ioa?icienueei? aaineiee?iae?,
aooceaii-inaaei/i? ooai?aiiy oa ?io?oaeoth/? ?o oeueo?ainiiai? oa
iniiai? ii?iaee caciaee ?ioaineaiiai ?cio?i?/iiai iaoaii?o?cio a oiiaao
ai?aeio-aio?aie?oiai? oaoe??. Aiane?aeie oeueiai oa?eaaii? a?aeeeaaee
aoee ia?aoai?ai? a a?aiao-a?ioeoia?, ioneia?o-a?ioeoia? oa a?ioeoia?
i?e?iaaiene ianeaii? oaenoo?e, a aooceai? ii?iaee — a i?oiaio?aie?oe.
?io?oceai? ae ii?iaee caciaee ?ioai-neaii? aio?aie?caoe?? oa
a?ioeoecaoe??.

I???ioiaii aeanue ia iaae? 2100 iei. ?ie?a ?icii/aeany ?aiiueii?iaaiia
noaae?y (i?ciueiaoaa?enueeee aoai), yea caaa?oeea aieiaiee
aaineiee?iaeueiee iaaaaoai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi???. A oeae /an i?iyaeeenue,
uiiaeiaioa, aea? oace neeaae/aoino?: aieiaia oa i?ciy. Aieiaia oaca
neeaae/aoino? a iaaeao aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? ?aae?coaaeanue ia
?aiiueiio i?ciueiaoaa?enueeiio i?ae-aoai?. Aeoeai? ai?ioai?/? i?ioeane
iaoiiaeee aeieeiaiiy ?iceii?a ye aa?oeeaeueiiai, oae ? oaiaaioe?eiiai
iai?yie?a ? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny i?ioea-naie aeio?i?/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai
iaoaii?o?cio. I?a?oth/? oi?iaeiaae ineaaeaieo cii nooo?ai iao?ia?
a?ai?oecoth/? ?ic/eie iaoiiaeee iiaoi?io caaaeueio ia?ae?enoae?caoe?th
iaoaii?o?o?a iiaia?aae-aieeinueei? oiau?, c ooai?aiiyi ?aeeiiai a
aaiaoe/iiio a?aeiioaii? ?yaeo ii??ae: aiaen — ?i’?eoe?eiee aiaen —
ieaa?ii?aiaoeo — ieaa?ia?ai?o. I?ioeane iaoaii?o?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??,
ui i?iyaeeenue i?e aeio?i?/iiio iaoaii?o?ci?, coiiaeee ooai?aiiy /?oei?
iaoaii?o?/ii? ciiaeueiino?. O ciai?oi?e, iaea?eueo iecueeioaiia?aoo?i?e
iaeano? i?iyaeaiiy aeio?i?/iiai iaoaii?o?cio ii ae??aiica?ienoiio
i?e?iaiaeniaiio noano?aoo oi?ioaaeenue na?aaeiueica?ien-o?, /?oei
neaioethaao? iiaiooai?aiiy — aiaene. Iiyaa a inoaii?o, nii/aoeo
iiiaeeiieeo nooo?ai eaa?oeaaeo, a aaea iio?i eaa?oe-iieueiaioiaoiaeo
i?iaeeee?a iaoiiaeea ?o iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae aei ?i’?eoe?eieo aiaen?a, ?
aeae? aei ieaa?ii?aiaoeo?a. Ieaa?ia?ai?oe, nai?i aeieeiaiiyi
ciaia’ycai?, iaaooue, oi?ioaaiith a i?aiaoeoia?e oiau? cii ?ioaineaii?
o??ueioaaoino?. Eieaeue-ia ciyooy oeneo a iaaeao oaeeo cii ??aiioe?iii
i?aeaeuaiith oaiia?aoo?e, a oea a naith /a?ao iiaei coiiaeoe iiyao
ina?aaee?a ieaa?ia?ai?oii? iaaie, e?enoae?caoe?y yei? e i?eaaea aei
ooai?aiiy iaaaeeeeo ca ?ici??aie, aacei-?aiaaeo o?e ieaa?ia?ai?o?a.

Ioaea, ia e?iaoeue ?aiiueiai i?ciueiaoaa?enueeiai i?aeaoaio, a iaaeao
i?ai?/-ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa, noi?ioaaeany a??nueea
nenoaia, yea, caiaeii aoea ?icaeoa ia ie?ai? aeiee ciiaie ?iceii?a
ia?aaaeii cao?ae-i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai iai?yieo. Iaea?eueoith c ieo aoea
Na?ieinueei-Aa?aa-??anueea oaeoii?/ia ciia. Oee?eoethth/? a ?? iaaeao
caaaa/ai? eaeueoe??i oa iaai??i aenieioaiia?aoo?i? iaoaniiaoe/i?
?ic/eie coiiaeee ooai?aiiy na?aae iaoaii?o?o?a anieaeii? oi?iaoe?? oa
aiaeni-i?aiaoeoiai? oiau? /enaeueieo noaia?aeaeueii ?icoaoiaaieo
aeeeiiiae?aieo o?e ae?iineae-ieaa?i-eeaciaeo iaoaniiaoeo?a.

I?ciy oaca neeaae/aoino? ?icii/aeany aaea ia i?ciueiio
i?ciueiaoaa?e-nueeiio i?aeaoai?. Ai?ioai?/? i?ioeane noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny
aeeoiie?nueeei a?a-i?oiei iaaiaoeciii c iao??e-eae??aith
niaoe?ae?caoe??th. O oeae /an ia aeeae-i? a aeae?eueea e?eiiao??a
oi?ioaaeeny i?inoi?iai a?aeie?aieai? iaeei a?ae iaeiiai ina?aaeee
iaaiiooai?aiiy. A?ai?oia aeeoiie?nueea iaaia i?aei?iaeanue o a?eueo
aenie? ai?eciioe ? ?ico?eaeany ii nenoai? ?iceii?a oaiaaioe?eiiai
iai?yieo, oi?ioth/e o oaeee niin?a nenoaie noaia?aeaeueii ?icoaoiaaieo
noaai?eciioaeueieo o?e. Noaiiaeaiiyi a?ai?o?a aeeoiie?nueeiai oeio
oae-oe/ii caaa?oeany aieiaiee aaineiee?iaeueiee iaaaaoai ?icaeoeo
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa.

Aeania i?iaaiiee iaaaaoai ?icii/aany i?iyaeaiiyi aeeaiai?
(aa?iaiioeiii?) oaeoii?ee. Aa?iaiioeii? oaeoii?/i? ?ooe, ia?aaaaeii
i?a-i?/ii-cao?aeiiai oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai iai?yie?a, iaoiiaeee
?ic/eaioaaiiy neeaae/aoi? iaeano? ia ie?ai? oaeoii?/i? aeiee ae?oaiai oa
o?aoueiai ii?yaee?a, oi?ioth/e o oaeee niin?a iica?/ii-aeieiao aoaeiao
Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo. Iaei? aeiee caio?thaaeeny ia aeeaeio ?io?,
iaaiaee, i?aei?iaeenue ? eeoa ia aeaio ae?eyieao niinoa??aaeanue no?eea
oaiaeaioe?y aei caio?aiiy, ui e iaoii-aeei oi?ioaaiiy Inieoeueei? oa
Eeoeinueei? i?aea??nueeeo caiaaeei. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ?iceii?a
i?iieeaea ia cia/i? aeeaeie, aeinyaath/e iaeano? oi?ioaaiiy ina?aaee?a
iniiaii? iaaie, ? a?ae?a?aaaea ?ieue eaiae?a ii yeei aacaeueoiaa iaaia
i?aei?iaeany o a?eueo aenie? ai?eciioe ? cae?enoa-e?ciaoaaeany oai o
aeaeyae? aeaeie ae?aaac?a oa ae?aaaciaeo ii?o??eo?a (ia?oee aeaeeiaee
eiiieaen), oeaiaiooth/e ie?ai? oaeoii?/i? aeiee. O iaaeao a?eueo
aei?noeeo ? noaa?eueieo no?oeoo? oeio na?aaeeiieo ianea?a (no?aeia
/anoeia Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai aeieo) c aeinoaoiuei iiooaeiueith
a?ai?oiith ei?ith, ?iceiie, o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a, aeinyaaee eeoa
iaeanoae oi?ioaaiiy aiaea-ceoiai? iaaie. A iaaeao oaeeo oa?eoi??e
oi?ioaaeeny aeaeee ae?i?eoiaeo ii?o??eo?a. A i?aea??nueeeo aea
caiaaeeiao iaaia aeeeaaeany ia aeaio iiaa?o-ith, oi?ioth/e iiooaeith
aooceaio oiauo eean?anueei? na???.

Ia iaae? 2020 iei. ?ie?a (aaniethoiee a?e eaioeo?a) aoeeai?oe
eean?a-nueei? na??? caciaee ?ioaineaiiai ia?aoai?aiiy (a?ai?oecaoe??)
i?ae aieeaii a?ai?oecoth/eo ?ic/ei?a c iao??e-eae??aith
niaoe?ae?caoe??th. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aeieeea oe?iea aaia ii??ae, a?ae
ae?i?eo?a aei a?ai?o?a oeueo?aiaoaii?o?/iiai aaiaceno (oi?iaoe?y
a?ai?oi?ae?a no?ieaoiai neeaaeo). Noaiiaeaiiy aeania ?io?oceaieo ii??ae
inieoeueeiai eiiieaeno a?aeaoaaeiny aaea iai?ee?ioe? i?i-aaiiiai
iaaaaoaio ? ?aae?coaaeany o aea? oace. O ia?oo oaco oei??ithaa-eenue
iaaaeee? ca ?ici??aie ooieiiiae?ai? ?io?oc?? a?aiiae?i?eo?a. Na?aaeiuei-
aei a?oaica?ienoeo inieoeuee? ?io?oceai? a?ai?oe ooai?eeenue o ae?oao
oaco. Iaeiioe?ai?oith oi?iith ?o o?e ? aeeeueia, cia/ii ??aeoa
cono??/athoueny ooieiiiae?ai? ?io?oc?? a?ai?o?a. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
iaaiaoeo?a inieoeueeiai eiiieaeno, yea aeicaiey? aeineoue oiaaiaii
a?ae??ciyoe ?o a?ae a?ai?oi?ae?a oeueo?aiaoaii?o?/iiai aaiaceno oiai ae
eiiieaeno, ? caeaia caaa?aeaiiy a?ioeoo oa aenieee ai?no aeoeani?iiai
iaaiaoeoo oa noaio. Oea aeaco? ia e?enoae?caoe?th ?io?oceaieo ii??ae
eiiieaeno a oiiaao aeniei? aeoeaiino? eenith.

Iaeaea iaeii/anii c iaaiaoeoaie inieoeueeiai eiiieaeno, a?aeaoaaeiny
oei??iaiiy noaeoaeieo a?ai?oi?ae?a eeoeinueeiai eiiieaeno. Noaiiaeaiiy
inoaii?o a iaaeao a?eueo aei?noei? (e?aoii?ciaaii?) no?oeoo?e, yeith ia
oie /an aoa Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeee oaeoii?/iee aeie, iaoiiaeei
niaoeeo?/i?noue ?o o?i?/iiai oa i?ia?aeueiiai neeaaeo. A?ai?oi?aee
eiiieaeno a?eueo eoaei?, ai?uothoue aenieicae?ceno? oaiiieieuei?ia?
i?ia?aee ? caaaa/ai? ia aeoeani?-iee oethi?eo.

Ii caaa?oaii? noaiiaeaiiy ?io?oceaieo ii??ae eeoeinueeiai oa
inieoeue-eiai eiiieaen?a, caiaeiaa i?aeiyooy, ui oi?ioaaeiny ia i?ioyc?
onueiai i?iaaiiiai iaaaaoaio, aeinyaei nai?? iaeaeui? oi/ee ? i?ae
ae??th nee ?icoy-aoaaiiy ii/aei ?iceiethaaoeny ? ?iciaaeaoenue ia ie?ai?
ai?noe oa a?aaaie. C iiiaioo in?aeaiiy caiaeiaiai i?aeiyooy aeania e
?icii/aany ieaooi?iaiee iaaaaoai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??? i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii?
/anoeie Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa. A oeae /an inoaoi/ii aecia/eeeny eiioo?e
Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo. Nenoa-ia noaoe?ioieo oaeoii?/ieo ?iceii?a
(I?ei’yonueeee i?iaei) aecia/eea i?ai?/io a?aieoeth Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa,
a nenoaia ?iceii?a noaia?eae?iiaeue-iiai iai?yieo a?ae ueoa a?aeie?aieea
Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeo ieeoo. Noaoe-?ioi? oa noaia?eae?iiaeuei? ?iceiie
nyaaee cia/ieo aeeaei ? neoaoaaee oeyoaie i?aeiyooy oiea?oiai? iaaie o
aa?oi? ai?eciioe. ?? ?ice?enoae?caoe?y iaoiiaeea oi?ioaaiiy ?i?a aeaeie
aaa?i-aeiea?eo?a ae?oaiai aeaeeiaiai eiiieaeno.

Aeanue ia iaae? 1800 iei. ?ie?a (aaniethoiee a?e n??eo eaa?aaei?eo?a),
oeaio? oaeoii?/ii? aeoeaiino? ci?noeany o no?aeiiio iai?yieo. O oeae /an
a iaaeao Ei?inoainueeiai oaeoii?/iiai aeieo caeeaaeaany Ioaa/?anueeee
ia-eaii?iaei, yeee aeiiaithaaany aetha?aeueii-aeaetha?aeueieie
a?aeeeaaeaie ioaa/?anueei? oiau?. I?ioeane inaaeeiiaeiie/aiiy, ?ieiee,
noi?iaiaeaeoaa-eeny aeeeaaiiyi ia aeaiio iiaa?oith noaeoaeieo aoocea?a
iniiaiiai neeaaeo (o?ao?aacaeueoiaa oi?iaoe?y). Caeeoee ae
o?ao?aacaeueoiai? eaae, ?ice?en-oae?ciaoth/enue a oaeoii?/ieo o??ueiao,
oi?ioaaee aeaeee ?eueiaieoai?uoth-/eo aaa?i-aeiea?eo?a o?aoueiai
aeaeeiaiai eiiieaeno.

Ii/aoie ei?inoainueeiai oaeoiii-iaaiaoe/iiai oeeeeo iicia/eany
oei??-iaiiyi ?io?oc?e iniiaieo ii??ae. Noaiiaeaiiy ?o a?aeaoaaeiny o
aea? oace. O ia?oo oaco ooai?eeenue ?io?oc?? n??eo, caaaa/aieo iaai??i
oa ai?ii eaa?a-aei?eo?a, aaa?i-eaa?aaei?eo?a oa o?ao?oi?aeiiai aaa?i, o
ae?oao — cae?cenoeo, iecueeiai?iaeo oaiiiai eieuei?o oeueo?aaaceo?a oa
aaceo?a.

Ii caaa?oaii? iniiaiiai iaaiaoecio, aea ia?aae oei??iaiiyi a?ai?o?a
oi?iaoe?? ?aiae?a? ?nioaaa iaaaeeeee i?ii?aeie /ano a iaaeao yeiai
a?aeaoei-ny caeeaaeaiiy E?aniia??nueei-AEeoiie?nueei? oaeoii?/ii? ciie ?
e?enoae?ca-oe?y a ?? iaaeao na?aaeiueioaiia?aoo?ieo iaoaniiaoe/ieo
ii??ae — aeuea?oeo?a.

Noaiiaeaiiy a?ai?oi?ae?a oi?iaoe?? ?aiae?a? ?aae?coaaeiny o aeaa aoaia.
Ia ia?oiio, a?aeiinii niie?eiiio o oaeoii?/iiio a?aeiioaii?, aoai?
e?enoae?-coaaeenue a?ai?oe i?eiie??aeaaeo oaoe?e c /?oeith
iiee?ei-iaaiaoeoiaith no?oeoo?ith. Iiiiaeaiiy oaeoii?/ii? aeoeaiino?
iaoiiaeei ?iceaioaaiiy aaea oaa?aei?, aai iaeaea oaa?aei? iaieiiee
?io?oc?? ? i?aeiyooy ii o??ueiai ui ooai?eeeny a?eueo aeeaeiieo ii?oe?e
a?ai?oii? iaaie, oi?ioth/e o oaeee niin?a o?ea a?ai?o?a oeaio?aeueieo
oaoe?e. A iinoiaaiaoe/io noaae?th ei?inoai-nuee? a?ai?oe, ia i?ioyc?
aeineoue aaeeeiai a?ae??ceo /ano, i?aeaeaaaeenue aieeao oeth?ae?a, ui e
iaoiiaeei ae??aithaaiiy o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oaiiieie??ieo i?ia?ae?a a
i?iaeoeoao iaio oac oei??iaiiy, oa oi?ioaaiiy a ieo oeiiai?
ia?a?iaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e.

Iai?ee?ioe? iacii?ioa?icith iiiiaeeenue oaeoii?/i? ?ooe o iaaeao
Nouaii-Ia?aeainueei? oaeoii?/ii? ciie. Oee?eoethth/? ii i?aeiiaeaiei
oae-oii?/iei o??ueiai iaoaniiaoe/i? ?ic/eie, aaiethoe?iioth/e a /an?
a?ae eoaeieo aei eeneeo, iaoiiaeee e?enoae?caoe?th oe?iei? aaie
iaoaniiaoe/ieo ii??ae.

A ?eoa? ia iacii?ioa?icienuee?e iniia? a?aeaoeiny caeeaaeaiiy
A?eai-nueei? caiaaeeie ? oi?ioaaiiy a ?? iaaeao iiooaeiuei? oiau?
aoocea?a eeneiai neeaaeo. Aeaui i?ci?oa, ia ?icieo?e iiaa?oi? aooceaii?
oiau? ?icii/aeiny iaeiie/aiiy oeaieiaiai iaoa??aeo. I?ioeane
naaeeiaioaaaiaco, /an a?ae /ano, ia?a?eaaeenue aeeeaaiiyi aoocea?a
iniiaiiai oa na?aaeiueiai neeaaeo

Ia caaa?oaiiy ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui eiaei?e ?c cacia/aieo noaae?e
?icaeoeo caiii? ei?e eiioeiaioaeueiiai oeio a iaaeao aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
?aa?iio i?eoaiaiia iaaia iaoaeiaai?/ia niaoe?ae?caoe?y. Oae, ooai?aiiy
anieaeii? oi?iaoe??, a ia?oo /a?ao a?ao?oia? aiaene, ? ia?niaeoeaieie ia
iiooee ?iaeiaeu a?ao?oo oa iie?iaoae?a. Ii?iaee oi?iaoe?e
ieaa?ii?aiaoeo-ieaa?ia?ai?oii?, aaa?i-a?aiiae?i?eo-a?ai?oii? ?, iniaeeai
oi?iaoe?? a?ai?o?a ?aiae?a? oa iaoaniiaoe/ieo ooai?aiue
Nouaii-Ia?aeainueei? oaeoiii-iaoaniiaoe/ii? ciie iathoue
??aee?niiiaoaeueio niaoe?ae?caoe?th. Ia?niaeoea-ieie ia aa?ee??ao
i?ia?ae?caoe?th ? ii?iaee oi?iaoe?? aeainethaeyieo a?ai?o?a, ? a ia?oo
/a?ao ?o iaaiaoeoe, iaoaniiaoeo?a Nouaii-Ia?aeainueei? ciie; ia
iie?aaeai — aaa?i-a?aiiae?i?eo-a?ai?oii? oi?iaoe??; ia oaioae-i?ia?e —
iaoani-iaoeoe (eaaeuei?oe) n. Ea?iee?aee. Iniiai? ii?iaee
aaa?i-eaa?aaei?eoiai? oi?iaoe?? niaoe?ae?ciaai? ia aiaoeo-?eueiaieoiao
i?ia?ae?caoe?th. A?aoiaaiiy aeeeaaeaiiai aeua aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe
oe?eani?yiiaai? iiooeiai-ioe?ii/i? ?iaioe a iaaeao ?aa?iio.

AENIIAEE

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie oi?iaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue c?iaeai? oai?aoe/i?
ocaaaeue-iaiiy ? cai?iiiiiaaia aaiethoe?eii-oi?iaoe?eia iiaeaeue
?icaeoeo Aieei-nueeiai iaaaaeieo a aeieaia???. C ?ioiai aieo, ia iniia?
io?eiaieo oai-?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue c?iaeaii ooi/iaiiy iieiaeaiiy
ie?aieo no?aoe-a?ao?/ieo i?ae?icae?e?a oa cae?eniaii a iieueiaeo oiiaao
oe?eani?yiiaaiee iiooe eaiie a?aenooi?o ia oeae /an o caaaeueiiio
eaioethaeeo aaieiai-oaeoii?/ii? ?noi??? ?icaeoeo i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii?
/anoeie Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa.

Ca?aeii c cai?iiiiiaaiith iiaeaeth, a iaaeao Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo
aeae?-ey?oueny /ioe?e iaaaaoaie ?icaeoeo ei?e eiioeiaioaeueiiai oeio:
i?ioi-aaineiee?iaeueiee, aieiaiee aaineiee?iaeueiee, i?iaaiiee oa
ieaooi?iaiee. Ooai?aiiy a?oaenueei? i?ioiaaineiee?iaeueii? “iniiae”
caa?aaeeny eeoa o aeaeyae? o?aaiaio?a na?aae i?ioa?icienueeeo
e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae. C o?aoo-aaiiyi iniaeeainoae oaeoii?/iiai ?aaeeio a
ia’?i? aieiaiiai aaineiee?-iaeueiiai iaaaaoaio aeae?ey?oueny aeaa
naiino?eieo aoaia: ?aiiueiaoaa?enueeee, yeee aeeth/a? ?aiith
aaineiee?iaeueio oa aeania aaineiee?iaeueio noaae?? ?icaeoeo
i?ioa?icienueei? aaineiee?iae? ? caaa?oeany i?iyaeaiiyi ?cio?-i?/iiai
?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoaii?o?cio, oa i?ciueiaoaa?enueeee, ui ?nioaaa ia
i?ioyc? ?aiiueii?aaii? noaae??. Ca /anii i?iyaeaiiy oac neeaae/aoino?,
i?ciueiaoaa?enueeee aoai iiae?ey?oueny ia aeaa i?aeaoaie: ?aii?e, ia
i?ioyc? yeiai i?iyaeeenue aieiaia oaca neeaae/aoino? oa noi?iaiaeaeoth/?
?? i?ioeane aeio?i?/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoaii?o?cio, oa i?ci?e, eiee
i?iyaeeanue i?ciy oaca neeaae/aoino?. I?iaaiiee iaaaaoai ?icii/aany
?ioaineaiith aa?iaii-oeiiith (aeeaiaith) oaeoii?eith, ui e iaoiiaeei
iica?/ii-aeieiao aoaeiao ?aa?iio. Ii ?iceiiai i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai oa
i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai iai?yie?a a?aeaoaaeiny i?aeiyooy iaaie ? aeeeaaiiy ??
a iaaeao i?aea??nueeeo caiaaeei ia aeaiio iiaa?oith. Aeaui i?ci?oa
aooceai? ii?iaee aoee i?aeaeai? a?ai?oe-caoe??, ui i?eaaei aei
oi?ioaaiiy a?ai?oi?ae?a no?ieaoiai neeaaeo . Iai?e-e?ioe? i?iaaiiiai
iaaaaoaio i?iyaeany ?ioaineaiee ?io?oceaiee a?ai?oiee iaaiaoeci.
Ieaooi?iaiee iaaaaoai ?icii/aany ?oeiaoe??th caiaeiaiai i?ae-iyooy oa
oei??iaiiyi oiea?oiaeo a?iaa?naeueieo ?io?oc?e. Aeaui i?ci?oa
a?aeaoaaeiny noaiiaeaiiy ?io?oc?e aaa?i-eaa?aaei?eo?a oa a?ai?o?a
?aiae?a?.

I?iaaaeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie oaeiae anoaiiaeaii, ui eaoe? eiiiiiaioe,
i?iieeath/? o ai?uoth/? e?enoae?/i? ii?iaee, coiiaethaaee i?enoinoaaiiy
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo aaea cae?enoae?ciaaiiai a?ioeoo ? ?ioeo oaiiieie??ieo
i?ia?ae?a aei iiaeo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oiia, Oea aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe
aaiethoe?th oeiiii?oieo iciae i?ia?ae?a aeey c’ynoaaiiy iine?aeiaiino?
i?iyaeaiiy a?eueo i?ci?o iaeeaaeaieo i?ioean?a. O oaeee niin?a a ia’?i?
aeeoiie?nueeiai eiiieaeno aaeaeiny aeae?eeoe aea? ??ci? ca a?eii ?
aaiacenii oi?iaoe??; ieaa?ii?aiaoeo-ieaa?ia?ai?oio oa aeainethaeyieo
a?ai?o?a. Ia?aeii-eeai aeiaaaeaii, ui a neeaae? inieoeueeiai eiiieaeno
ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe aea? a?oie ii??ae Aei ia?oi? a?aeianai? a?ai?oi?aee
oeueo?aiaoaii?o?/iiai aaiaceno — i?iaeoeoe a?ai?oecaoe?? aoocea?a
eean?anueei? na???, aei ae?oai? — aeania ?io?oceai? oi?ioaaiiy
eiiieaeno. Aeiaaaeaia iaoaniiaoe/ia i?e?iaea iai?aeaeueiino? a ii?iaeao
??ciiai aaiaceno oa a?eo.

INIIAI? ?IAIOE AAOI?A II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

a) Iiiia?ao??

1. Aaiethoe?y oeiiii?oieo iciae i?ia?ae?a a oiiaao iaoaii?o?cio oa
iaoaniiaoico. — Ee?a: A?iie, 1996 — 28 n.

2. No?aoea?aoi-oi?iaoe?eia iiaeaeue ?icaeoeo Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo a
aeieaia???. — Ee?a: Aeaeaa. oeaio? “Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao”, 1998 — 124
n.

a) Noaoo?:

3. I nayce ninoaaia aeioeo-ii?iaea (ia i?eia?a a?aieoia
naaa?i-ca-iaaeiie /anoe Oe?aeineiai ueoa).//Ieia?ae. na. Eueaia. oi-oa,
1977, o. 31, aui. 6, n.34-36 (Ni?aaaoi? O.I.Aaaoiiiaa).

4. N?ano?aiea aeioeoa n aeueaeoii a a?aieoa Ei?inoaineiai ieooiia
(Oe?aeineee ueo).//Eiinoeoooeey e naienoaa ieia?aeia, 1977, ? 11,
n.99-103. (Ni?aaaoi? O.I. Aaaoiiiaa).

5. Iaieaeu iieaauo oiaoia a ii?iaeao-naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe
Oe?aei-neiai ueoa.// Ieia?ae. na. Eueaia. oi-oa, 1979, o.33, aui. 1,
n.91-94. (ni?aaaoi? O.I.Aaaoiiiaa).

6. Iiuo eniieueciaaiey iao?ia?aoe/aneeo e no?oeoo?iuo oa?aeoa?enoee
a?aieoia oi?iaoeee ?aiaeeae aeey eo aic?anoiiai ?an/eaiaiey (ia i?eia?a
Ei?inoaineiai ieooiia).// Aani. Eeaa. oi-oa. Aii?inu i?eeeaaeiie
aai-oeiee e iao?ioeceee, 1981, n.43-52. (Ni?aaaoi?e O.I. Aaaoiiiaa, I.A.
C?i/aiei, A.O. I?iaeaeaiaea).

7. Iiaaaeaiea aeioeoa a ianoaiiaea a?aieoecaoeee ai?iuo ii?iae
naaa-?i-caiaaeiie /anoe Oe?aeineiai ueoa.// Ieia?ae. na. Eueaia. oi-oa,
1982, o.36, aui. 1, n.96-98. (Ni?aaaoi? O.I. Aaaoiiiaa).

8. I?aa?auaiea aeioeoa e ei?aeea?eoa a aa?aee/aaneii a?aieoa
(Oe?a-eineee ueo).// Ieia?ae. na. Eueaia. oi-oa, 1982, o. 36, aui. 3,
n.38-40. (Ci?aaaoi? O.I. Aaaoiiiaa).

9. Cia/aiea oeiiii?oiuo iniaaiiinoae ii?iaeiia?acothueo ieia?aeia aeey
iao?iaaiaoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ieooiie/aneeo ia?aciaaiee.// Aani. Eeaa.
oi-oa, I?eeeaaeiay aaioeiey e iao?ioeceea, 1983, aui. 10, n.34-40
(Ci?aaaoi?e O.I. Aaaoiiiaa, A.O. Aeiia?aaeia, TH.E. Aanaiia).

10. Iioe?aiiy ai?o a ii?iaeao aii?oiceo-a?ai?oii? oi?iaoe??
Oe?a?i-nueeiai ueoa.// A?ni. Ee?a. oi-oo. Aaieia?y, 1983, o. 45, ? 2,
n.35-41. (Ni?aaaoi?e I.A. C?i/aiei, A.A. Iaaeia, E.ss. Oaaa/iee).

11. Ai? eae aiciiaeiue eiaeeeaoi? noaiiaeaiey aaaa?i-eaa?aaei?eoiauo
ianneaia Ei?inoaineiai ieooiia (Oe?aeineee ueo).// Aani. Eeaa. oi-oa.
1984, o. 46, ? 3, n.25-34 (Ni?aaaoi?e I.A. C?i/aiei , A.A. Iaaeia,
E.ss. Oaaa/iee).

12. Aaioeie/aneea oeiu aeaae naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe Oe?aeineiai ueoa e
iaeioi?ua aii?inu eo no?aoea?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey.// Aaie. aeo?i.,
1986, o. 46, ? 7, n. 68-77.(Ni?aaaoi?e I.A. C?i/aiei, TH.?.
Aeia?yi-nueeee, A.O. Eaaociee).

13. I ninoaaa e iaueaia inieoeeiai eiiieaena (Oe?aeineee ueo).// Aani.
Eeaa. oi-oa. Aaieiaey, 1986, o. 46, ? 5, n.11-16. (Ni?aaaoi?e I.A.
C?i/aiei, ?.I. Ua?aeia, A.I. Aiae???a).

14. Iiuo eniieueciaaiey oeiiii?oiuo iniaaiiinoae ii?iaeiia?acoth-ueo
ieia?aeia i?e aaieiae/aneii ea?oe?iaaiee./ Ieia?aeiae/aneay
e?enoaeia?aoey e aa i?eiaiaiea a i?aeoeea aaieiai-nueaii/iuo ?aaio —
Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1986, 95-101. (Ni?aaaoi? I.A.C?i/aiei).

15. Yaiethoeey ii?oieiaee aeoeanni?iiai oee?eiia a aeieaia?eeneeo
ii-?iaeao naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe Oe?aeineiai ueoa.// Aani. Eeaa. oi-oa.
Aaieiaey. 1987, aui. 6, n.35-40. (Ni?aaaoi? I.A. C?i/aiei).

16. I?e?iaea e oeiiii?oiia cia/aiea ie?anee aeioeoa a?aieoieaeiuo
eiiieaenia (ia i?eia?a naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe Oe?aeineiai ueoa).
Ieia-?ae. aeo?i. 1988, o. 10, ? 4, n.23-30. (Ni?aaaoi?e A.I. Oiiaiei,
I.A. C?i/aiei, I.I. Ieaoiiia).

17. I?e?iaea caaa?aeaiiy a?ioeoo a a?ai?oi?aeao i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo
Oe?a-?inueeiai ueoa.// Aeii. AI O?N?, 1988, na?. A, ? 1, n.45-48.
(Ni?aaa-oi?e A.I. Oiiaiei, I.I. Ieaoiiia).

18. Yaiethoeey o?iiioi?iuo oeaio?ia e ie?anee aeioeoa eae eiaeeeaoi?
i?ioeannia iaoaii?oecia e iaoaniiaoica.// Aaie. aeo?i., 1988, o. 48, ?
4, n.48-56. (Ni?aaaoi?e A.I. Oiiaiei, I.A. C?i/aiei, I.I. Ieaoiiia).

19. I aeaoo eiioeaioeeyo yaiethoeee ii?oieiaee aeoeanni?iiai oee?eiia./
Oeiiii?oeci, neioac e eniieueciaaiea oee?eiia — Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea,
1989, n.20-24. (Ni?aaaoi? I.A. C?i/aiei).

20. Caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiey nenoai iioe/anee aeoeaieo oeaio?ia aeioeoa
a na?eyo aiaen-ieaiaoeo-a?aieo caiaaeiie /anoe Oe?aeineiai
ue-oa.//Ieia?ae. na. Eueaia. oi-oa, 1990, o. 44, aui. 3, n.38-45.
(Ni?aaaoi-?e A.I. ?iaeooiee, A.I. Oiiaiei, I.A. C?i/aiei).

21. E?enoaeeioeie/aneea iniaaiiinoe aeioeoa naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe
Oe?aeineiai ueoa ii aeaiiui EE-niaeo?ineiiee.// Ieia?ae. aeo?i., 1990,
o. 12, ? 6, n.8-18. (Ni?aaaoi?e E.I. ?eue/aiei, A.I. Oiiaiei, I.A.
C?i/aiei).

22. Iiaee oei iie?iaoae?/iiai c?oaeai?iiy a ea?aiiaoieo ii?iaeao
aei-eaia??th Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo.//Aeii. AI O?N?, na?. A, 1990, ? 11,
n.7-9. (Ni?aaaoi?e ss.I. Aae?e, I.A. C?i/aiei, I.I. Aeooia).

23. Aaiaoe/aneea aniaeou iioe/aneie niaeo?ineiiee ii?iaeiia?acoth-ueo
oaiiioeaaoiuo ieia?aeia iaoeo-oeueo?aiaoeoiauo eiiieaenia naaa?i-caiaaea
Oe?aeineiai ueoa.// Ieia?ae. aeo?i. 1991, o. 13, ? 5, n.22-30,

(Ni?aaaoi?e A.I. Oiiaiei, ss.I. Aae?e, E.A. Eiaoo).

24. Ci?ia iioeei- oa ?*-niaeo?ineii?/ieo ia?aiao??a a?ioeoo i?e
eoae-iiio iaoaniiaoic?.// Aeii. AI Oe?a?ie, 1991, na?. A, ? 6, n.35-39.
(Ni?aaaoi?e E.I. ?eue/aiei, A.I. Oiiaiei).

a) Oace aeiiia?aeae:

25. Ii?oieiae/aneea ?yaeu oee?eiia e eo yaiethoeey a
ecaanoeiai-ua-ei/iuo ii?iaeao aeieaia?ey naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe
Oe?aeineiai ueoa./Ae-oeanni?iua ieia?aeu ai?iuo ii?iae — I.: Iaoea,
1985, n.6-7.

26. I a?aiaiiii aeeaiaciia oi?ie?iaaiey aaaa?i-aia?oiceoiauo ian-neaia
naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe Oe?aeineiai ueoa./ Iaaiaoeci, iaoaii?-oeci e
aaio?iiieiaey aeieaia?ey Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ieaooi?iu a nayce n
e?oiiiianooaaiui ea?oe?iaaieai — Iao?icaaiaene: Iaoea, 1987, n.35-37.
(Ni?aaaoi?e I.A. C?i/aiei , A.A. Iaaeia).

27. Yaiethoeey nenoaiu iioe/aneeo oeaio?ia aeioeoa eae iieacaoaeue
iinoiaaiaoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee a?aieoieaeia./Ioeaiea ia?niaeoea
?oaeiiiniinoe aaieiae/aneeo oi?iaoeee i?e e?oiiiianooaaiii
aaieiae/an-eii ea?oe?iaaiee e iieneao ieia?aei-aaioeie/aneeie iaoiaeaie.
— E.: Iaoea, 1988, n.52-53. (Ni?aaaoi? A.I. Oiiaiei)

28. Aic?ano iieeiaoaeee/aneiai i?oaeaiaiey naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe
Oe?aeineiai ueoa./ Ecioiiiia aeaoe?iaaiea yiaeiaaiiuo oi?iaoeee — Ee-aa:
1990, n.49-51 (Ni?aaaoi?e A.I. Aa?oiaeyae, A.I. Neia?e?a, I.A.
C?i-/aiei, I.I. Aeooia).

29. Iao?iiaai?oia aaiethoe?y Iaenueeiai cieioi?oaeiiai i?iyao
(Oe?a-?inueeee ueo)./ Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aeiaaieia?? Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a:
1997, n.41-42. (Ni?aaaoi?e I.I. ?aaoiaiei, A.A. Nooi?aaea).

a) Aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai:

30. Niinia ii?aaeaeaiey ioiineoaeueiiai aic?anoa eiioaeoe?othueo
aeioeo-aioeaieniaea?aeaueo iaaiaoe/aneeo ii?iae.//Aaoi?. na-ai 1571529,
1988, 4n. (Ni?aaaoi?e A.I. Oiiaiei, I.A. C?i/aiei, I.I. Ieaoiiia).

ae) Iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee:

31. E?enoaeiaaiacen nieae. — Ee?a: AI III “Oe?aociie?a?ao”, 1988, 22 n.

32. E?enoaeia?ao?y. Ee?a: ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? “Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao”, 1997, 105n.

AIIOAOe?ss

A??I*AIEI A.O. Aaiethoe?eii-oi?iaoe?eia iiaeaeue ?icaeoeo Aieei-nueeiai
iaaaaeieo a aeieaia???. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aaieia?/ieo iaoe ii
niaoe?aeueiino? 04.00.01 — caaaeueia oa ?aa?iiaeueia aaieia?y. —
Ee?anueeee oi?-aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 1999.

Ia aaeeeiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae? aeiaaaeaii, ui oeiiii?oi? aeanoe-aino?
ii?iaeiooai?thth/eo oa aeoeani?ieo i?ia?ae?a aaiethoe?iiothoue i?ae
aiee-aii a?eueo i?ci?o iaeeaaeaieo i?ioean?a. Oea aeicaiey? iai?oeoe
iine?aeiai?noue i?iyaeaiiy ieioeeo aaieia?/ieo iiae?e, ui aeineoue
aaaeeeai i?e a?aeoai?ai-i? ?noi??? aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo aaeeeeo
?aa?ii?a.

Nie?ath/enue ia ?acoeueoaoe oi?iaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue, c?iaeai?
oai?a-oe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy ? ?ic?iaeaia aaiethoe?eii-oi?iaoe?eia iiaeaeue
aaieia?/-iiai ?icaeoeo Aieeinueeiai iaaaaeieo a aeieaia???. Ca?aeii
cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? a iaaeao i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie Oe?a?inueeiai
ueoa i?iyaeeenue /ioe?e iaaaaoaia ?icaeoeo caiii? ei?e eiioeiaioaeueiiai
oeio: a?oaenueeee i?iaaineiee?iaeueiee, i?ioa?icienueeee aieiaiee
aaineiee?iaeueiee, i?iaai-iee, ieaooi?iaiee.

A?EI*AIEI A.O. Yaiethoeeiiii-oi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue ?acaeoey Aieuineiai
iaaaaeiea a aeieaia?ee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aaieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 04.00.01 — iauay e ?aaeiiaeueiay aaieiaey — Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 1999.

Aiaeec iiiai/eneaiiuo ioaeeeaoeee, iinayuaiiuo eco/aieth aaieiaee
Aieuineiai iaaaaeiea, iieacuaaao, /oi i?aeoe/anee ii eaaeaeiio iaueaeoo,
ioiineoaeueii aai aaieiae/aneiai no?iaiey, nouanoaoao aeaa e aieaa,
/anoi acaeiieneeth/athueo ae?oa ae?oaa, oi/ae c?aiey. Nouanoaothuea
i?ioeai?a-/ey e ?acii/oaiey ai iiiaii iaoneiaeaiu oai. /oi a
yiie?eei-oai?aoe/aneii oeueea iiciaiey i?e?iaeu ioia/aaony
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia nia-uaiea aeoeaioia eae ?ac ia ?acaeoea yiie?e/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee e iaaei-ioeaiea oai?aoe/aneeo. Aianoa n oai caaea/ae
oai?aoe/aneiai ciaiey yaeyao-ny ?ac?aaioea eiioeaiooaeueiiai iiaeoiaea e
eco/aieth iaueaeoa, a yiie?e/an-eiai — onoaiiaeaiea nayce
eiioeaiooaeueiiai aiia?aoa n ?aaeueiinoueth. Io-nthaea e auieuaaao
aaaeiinoue oai?aoe/aneie ninoaaeythuae nia?aiaiiie aaieiae/aneie iaoee.

A noaiiaeaiee e ?acaeoee oai?aoe/aneeo ciaiee aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao
nicaeaiea i?eioeeieaeueiie oai?aoe/aneie iiaeaee aaieiae/aneiai no?iaiey
?aaeiia. Iaioeaieioth iiiiuue i?e aa nicaeaiee ieacuaaao i?iaaaeaiea
oi?iaoeeiiiuo enneaaeiaaiee. Iaeiaei, a ?aaeiiao, a no?iaiee eioi?uo
i?aiaeaaeathoue e?enoaeee/aneea ia?aciaaiey, ainnicaeaiea
iineaaeiaaoaeue-iinoe niauoee n iiiiuueth aeino?aoea?aoe/aneeo,
aaieiai-no?oeoo?iuo e aaioeie/aneeo iaoiaeia /anoi ia aeaao iaeeaeaaiuo
?acoeueoaoia. O?aaoaony ?ac?aaioea iiauo iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo i?eeiiia,
niiniaia eee iaoiaeia ii?a-aeaeaiey iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?iyaeaiey
aaieiae/aneeo niauoee. Iaioeaie-ioth iiiiuue caeanue iiaeao ieacaoue
eco/aiea oeiiii?oecia ieia?aeia ec eiioaeoe?othueo ae?oa n ae?oaii
iaueaeoia. Ieia?ae, iinea naiae e?enoae-eecaoeee, inoaaony ianoieueei
/oanoaeoaeueiui e iineaaeothuei iaeaeoei eciaiaieyi oeceei-oeie/aneeo
oneiaee, /oi oeiiii?oiua iniaaiiinoe aai iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny eae
“?oeiaiaeyuea” i?e auyniaiee eaeie ec aaieiae/aneeo iaueaeoia
(i?ioeannia) aieaa iieiaeie (ae?aaiee). Anee aea aaieiae/aneea iaueaeou
i?ino?ainoaaiii ?aciauaiu, oi i?e auyniaiee eo aic?anoiuo
acaeiiioiioaiee, a ea/anoaa aic?anoiuo ?aia?ia, iiaeia eniieueciaaoue
?ie aeaae iniiaiiai ninoaaa e nenoaiu oae iaoaniiaoeoia
oaeoiii-iaoaniiaoe/aneeo cii aieueoie i?ioyaeaiiinoe.

Ana yoi, a ni/aoaiee n aeaiiuie oi?iaoeeiiiuo enneaaeiaaiee, iicai-eeei
i?aaeeiaeeoue yaiethoeeiiii-oi?iaoeeiiioth iiaeaeue ?acaeoey Aieuinei-ai
iaaaaeiea a aeieaia?ee. Niaeanii yoie iiaeaee, a ?acaeoee caiiie ei?u
eiioeiaioaeueiiai oeia a ?aaeiia auaeaeyaony /aou?a iaaayoaia:
i?ioiaai-neieeeiaeueiue, aeaaiue aaineieeeiaeueiue, a iaueaia eioi?iai
auaeaeythony ?aiiaaoaaeeneee e iicaeiaaoaaeeneee yoaiu, i?iaaiiue e
ieaooi?iai-iue. I?ioiaaineieeeiaeueiue enoi?eei-oaeoiie/aneee iaaayoai
io?aaeaao ia/aeueiua noaaeee ?acaeoey caiiie ei?u eiioeiaioaeueiiai oeia
a i?a-aeaeao naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe Oe?aeineiai ueoa, caoeene?iaaiiua
ia?aci-aaieai oieue ea?aiiaoiuo, e?aiienoi-ea?aiiaoiuo e ia?aaeenouo
inaaeeia iaoaii?oeciaaiiuo a oneiaeyo aunieie aioeaieeoiaie e
a?aioeeoiaie oaoeee.

Aia/aea iaeaii?ioa?iciy ?aaeeciaaeinue caeiaeaiea ia
i?ioiaaineieee-iaeueiie “iniiaa” aaineieeeiaeueiiai o?iaa, a i?aaeaeao
eioi?iai oi?ie?i-aaeanue iiuiay yooceaii-inaaei/iay oieua (oaoa?aaneay
na?ey). I?ioeannu naaeeiaioaaaiaca nii?iaiaeaeaeenue aiaae?aieai
iaaieueoeo eio?ocee iniia-iiai e oeueo?ainiiaiiai ninoaaa. A eiioea
nianoaaiii aaineieeeiaeueiie noaaeee ?acaeoey aaineieeeiaee
yooceaii-inaaei/iay oieua e i?i?uaath-uea aa eio?ocee i?aoa?iaee
ecioeie/aneee iaoaii?oeci a oneiaeyo yie-aeio-aioeaieeoiaie oaoeee. N
o/aoii a?aiaie i?iyaeaiey oac neeaae/a-oinoe iicaeiaaoaaeeneee yoai
aeaeeony ia aeaa iiaeyoaia, ?aiiee e iicaeiee. Ia ?aiiai iiaeyoaia
i?iyaeeanue aeaaiay oaca neeaae/aoinoe nii?iaiaeaeaa-oayny eioaineaiui
aeeioeie/aneei iaoaii?oeciii, /oi i?eaaei e iia-oi?iiio i?aia?aciaaieth
i?iaeoeoia ecioeie/aneiai iaoaii?oecia (iea-aeiieaiaoeo-ieaaeia?aieoiay
oi?iaoeey); ia iicaeiai iiaeyoaia — iiciyy oaca neeaae/aoinoe
nii?iaiaeaeaaoayny aiaae?aieai a?aieoia aeeoiie?neiai eiiieaena.

I?iaaiiue iaaayoai ?acaeoey Aieuineiai iaaaaeiea ia/aeny eioainea-iie
aeuaiaie oaeoiieeie, /oi i?eaaei e oi?ie?iaaieth iicae/ii-aeiei-aiai aai
no?iaiey. A i?aaeaeao iaaeai?iuo aiaaeei i?ienoiaeeei eceeyiea yooceaia
aiaeaceoiaie oi?iaoeee. N eiia/iie noaaeeae oi?ie?iaaiey nai-aeiaiai
iiaeiyoey naycaii aiaae?aiea a?aieoieaeia inieoeeiai eiiieaena.

Ieaooi?iaiiue iaaayoai ia/aeny ?ac?ooaieai e?aaauo /anoae naiaeiaiai
iiaeiyoey e aiaae?aieai aeaae aaaa?i-aeiea?eoia aoi?iai aeaeei-aiai
eiiieaena. Ianeieueei iicaea i?ienoiaeeo caeiaeaiea Ioaa/aaneiai
iaeaii?iaeaa, a i?aaeaeao eioi?iai iaeaieeaaeenue
aeaethaeaeueii-aethae-aeueiua ioeiaeaiey. Inaaei/iay oieua i?i?uaaeanue
eio?oceyie aaaa?i-eaa?aaei?eoia, a caoai a?aieoia ?aiaeeae. Caaa?oeeinue
?acaeoea ?aaeiia a aeieaia?ee oi?ie?iaaieai ia?aciaaiee ia?o/neie na?ee.

GRINCHENRO V.F. Evolutionary-formational paattern of Volynsk mega-block
in Precambrian. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for a doctor’s dedree of science in geology on the
speciality 04.00.01 — general and regional geology. Kiev Taras
Schevchenko University. A lot of data available prove the idea that
main typomorphic features of rocr-forming as well as accessory minerals
show evolutionally altered caused by the subseguent episodes in
geological history of the region. This fact makes it possible to make
any reconstractions in evolutional history of large region of Ukrainian
shield. Based on the formational analisys, evolutionary pattern of
Volynsk mega-block in Precambrian have been proposed. According to the
pattern, four stages of continental crust evolution should be
distingushed in North-Eastern region of Ukrainian Shield: Archean
protogeosinclinal, Proterozoic geosinclinal (main), orogenic and
platform.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue, oi?iaoe??, oeiiii?o?ci,
aeieaia??e, ei?aeyoe?y, no?aoea?ao?y, Oe?a?inueeee ueo.

Caeiaoaa/ A.O.A??i/aiei

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