Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Aaeithe Aiaaeai Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 800.2; 808.3-087

Aaiethoe?y oe?a?inueei? iiae a ae?anii??

(aoii- ? nioe?ie?iaa?noe/i? aniaeoe)

Niaoe?aeueiino?: 10.02.01 — oe?a?inueea iiaa,

10.02.15 — caaaeueia iiaiciaanoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeae?e? nioe?ie?iaa?noeee ?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei?
iiae IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? o?ei-

eia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeoeaiei Aaea??e A?eoi?iae/, aee?aeoi? Oeaio?o
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia IAI Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ei/a?aai Ieoaeei Iao?iae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai oa oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
I?aoi?ae A?eai??e Iao?iae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo caaaeueii-neaa?noe/ii?
i?iaeaiaoeee oa no?aeiineia’yi-nueeeo iia ?inoeoooo iiaiciaanoaa
?i.I.I.Iioaai? IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? iiae; II Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 6 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.173.01 i?e ?inoeooo? oe?a?inueei?
iiae IAI Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, aoe. A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo (Ee?a,
aoe. A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 2 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe A.?.Eena

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe??

?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? iiae a ae?anii?? — oea ia eeoa /anoeia ?noi???
iaoe?iiaeueii? iiae. Oea aaaeeeaee nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iee ? aoiieoeueoo?iee
?ano?n. Iiaia i?aeoeea ae?anii?e aea? aaci?aoeaaeaioiee aeina?ae
aeaeeaaiiy ? naiiona?aeiieaiiy, i?yieo eiioaeo?a c aaaaoueia na?oiaeie
iiaaie e o oeueiio nain? ? oi?eaeueiei aeaea?aeii aeaieo, /anoeiith
iaoe?iiaeueiiai e?iaaioiiaeo.

Ae?anii?a, oae naii ye ? ?aa?iie iaoa?eeiai? Oe?a?ie, a?ae/oaa? ca
niaith ii?aeueia i?aai ia o/anoue o caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiio iiaioai?aii?.
Iei? aiia iaiaaa?oueny ciaeoe nai? i?noea a oeueiio i?ioean?, /anii
ae?th/e ca ?ia?oe??th c aioaaii?noe/ieo iiceoe?e. Na?e aianie o
?icoi?iiy i?iaeai, ui noiyoue ia?aae oe?a?ioeyie a e?a?iao iinaeaiiy, oa
o oi?ioaaiiy niai?ieoeueei? iiaii? na?aeiiino? a ae?anii?? e a Oe?a?i?
iieeeeai? c?iaeoe no/ani? nioe?i- oa aoiie?iaa?noe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Oeei coiiaeaia aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie.

Iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?i oe?a?inueeo iiao a ae?anii?? iaaaaaoi.
Iaea?aeii?oeie ? iiiia?ao?/i? i?aoe? TH.I.AEeoeoaiea:
«Oe?a?inueei-aiae?enuee? i?aeiiai? a?aeiineie. Oe?a?inueea iiaa o NOA ?
Eaiaae?» (1964), «Iiai? eiioaeoe» (1966) oa «Oe?a?inueea iiaa ia
e?iaa?noe/i?e ea?o? Eaiaaee» (1990), iioae?eiaaia aaea i?ney nia?o?
aaoi?a. Aiie i?enay/ai? ianaiia?aae i?aeiiai?e ?ioa?oa?aioe?? ia ??cieo
no?oeoo?ieo ??aiyo iiae. C /ano aeoiaeo inoaiiuei? eieaeee ieioei 9
?ie?a, niiaiaieo ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e, ui aieeioee ia na?aeii?noue ?
iaoa?eeiaeo, ? ae?anii?ieo oe?a?ioe?a. Ci?ieany noaoon oe?a?inueei? iiae
ia aaouee?auei?, a ioaea, e noaoon ?? a ae?anii??: oaia? aiia — iiaa
aea?aeaaii? iaoe??. Caaaeueiee i?iaiic uiaei ?icaeoeo iiaii? neooaoe?? a
Oe?a?i? noaa cia/ii iioei?noe/i?oei, oea aieeaa? ia aca?iiae?th i?ae
iiaieie i?ioeanaie a ae?anii?? oa ia aoi?/iiio iaoa?eeo.

Iaoa e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?? — noai?eoe
eiioeaiooaeueio iniiao aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? iiae a ae?anii?? oa ?? aca?iei c e?iaa?noe/iei aeiae?eeyi o
e?a?iao iinaeaiiy oa c iaoa?eeiaith Oe?a?iith. Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe
ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

1) aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe?eieo i?ioean?a o aoiiiiai?e na?aeiiino?
ai?a?aio?a ? ?oi?o iauaaee?a o e?a?iao iinaeaiiy;

2) aea/aiiy i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? o aca?iiae?? c iiaiith
na?aeii?noth ?iaeea?aea;

3) c’ynoaaiiy aoiieoeueoo?ieo i???ioaoe?e ? i??i?eoao?a o i?aaenoaaiee?a
??cieo aeaiia?ao?/ieo a?oi oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e;

4) aeyaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo iiaeaeae iiaii? iiaaae?iee o ??cieo
eiioi?eaoeaieo neooaoe?yo oa aiae?c aieeao iiaii? na?aeiiino? ia ?o
oi?ioaaiiy;

5) aeiiiaiaiiy e oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeaa?aaioiiai
eaene/iiai oiiaeo, ?ic?iaea e canoinoaaiiy eaae?oaoeaii-noaoenoe/ieo
iaoiae?a iieno iieueiaiai iaoa??aeo;

6) aiae?c iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e o i?aaiieni?e i?aeoeoe? ae?anii?e oa
iia?oi?o aieea?a ia ?? ?icaeoie iai?ee?ioe? XX no.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiioaaeany a ?aieao iaoeiai? oaie «I?iaeaie iiaii? ?aeiino? iaoe??:
ae?anii?a e Oe?a?ia» a?aeiia?aeii aei ieai?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ?
ia?oei a oe?a?inueeiio iiaiciaanoa? eiiieaeniei aeine?aeaeaiiyi iiaiiai
aeeooy ae?anii?e, ui ?acii c aiae?cii aeeaa?aaioiiai eaene/iiai oiiaeo,
i?aaenoaaeaiiai a ia??iaee/ieo oa iaia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo ??ciiiai?oii?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe??, aaiaeeoue o iaoeiaee ia?a oe?ieee
ianea nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iiai iieueiaiai iaoa??aeo, io?eiaiiai oeyoii
aieaooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi ? iieie?iue ae?anii?e.

O eiioaeno? aca?iiae?? iiaii? na?aeiiino? c ii/oooyi aoi?/ii? oa
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? aia?oa aeine?aeaeothoueny aoiie?iaa?noe/ia
aaiethoe?y eaie?anueei-?oneinueei? aoiia?ao?/ii? a?oie oa i?iaeaia
ia?a?iaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? ye iane?aeeo iie?aaeoi?ieo anei?eyoi?nueeeo
aieea?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee, nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy
iiiianoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, ia o?eueee ye aei ia’?eoa, aea e aei «noa’?eoa»
iiaii? iie?oeee, yeee ni?aaey? iiaeaethth/ee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy iiaii?
na?aeiiino? aoiieoeueoo?ii? ni?eueiioe.

O aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaii iae?ai?acaioaoeai?oee iei? aiae?c ??ciiieaiiaeo
i?aaiienieo oaiaeaioe?e, iioe?aieo o ae?anii??; i?iiiio?oueny iiaee
iiaeyae ia aeei?enoaiiy oe??? /anoeie iiaiiai aeina?aeo i?e ae?iaeaii?
i?oia?ao?/ieo ii?i, ianaiia?aae i?e aaeaioaoe?? iia?oi?o ?ioiiiaieo
caiice/aiue.

Oia?oa aea?oueny nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iee i?iaiic ?icaeoeo iiaii? neooaoe??
a oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii?? oa iiaeaeueoeo aca?iei iiaii? i?aeoeee
oe?a?ioe?a ca?oa?aeaey c e?oa?aoo?iith ii?iith aoi?/iiai iaoa?eea.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy e i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.
Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ? aianeii o ?icaoaeiao eiioeaiooaeueieo iniia
«ciai?oiuei?» iiaii? iie?oeee oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaae. Oai?aoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe ?icaeiai? a eiie?aoi?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey ina?oi?o, iaoeiaeo, aeaeaaie/eo, ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oa
?ioeo ?inoeoooe?e, i???iooth/e ?o ia ?ioaa?oaaiiy ae?anii?ii? ni?eueiioe
a caaaeueiioe?a?inueeee iiaioai?/ee i?ioean.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy 5-ai ?icae?eo oa aii??e/ia aaca aeaieo,
i?aaenoaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a ?iaio?
Oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? eii?n?? c ieoaiue i?aaiieno iaae ?icae?eaie
«I?aaiien ne?a ?ioiiiaiiai iioiaeaeaiiy», «?ioiiiai? aaia?ao?/i? iacae»,
«Ianeia’yinuee? i??caeua» oa i?ae?icae?eaie i?i a?aei?ithaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo ne?a. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue iaoa??aee aeey aoc?anueeeo
i?ae?o/iee?a oa iin?aiee?a c nioe?ie?iaa?noeee, aoiie?iaa?noeee,
caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa, nioe?ieia?? oa aoiieia??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. On? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iane?aeeii naiino?eii? i?aoe? aeena?oaioa. Iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, iaienaieo o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, iaia?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aena?oeaii a iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeyo ia Ae?oaiio (1993, Euea?a) ? O?aoueiio
(1996, Oa?e?a) i?aeia?iaeieo eiia?anao oe?a?i?no?a, iaoeiaiio nai?ia??
Aa?aa?aenueeiai ?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa (1994, Eaia??aeae, NOA),
nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iiio nai?ia?? i?io. Ii?iaia Eaa?? a ?inoeooo?
i?ai?/iiaia?eeainueeeo nooae?e ?i. Aeae.O.Eaiiaae? (1997, Aa?e?i), aeaio
i?aeia?iaeieo ? oanoe iaoe?iiaeueieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo (1993—1998,
Ee?a), can?aeaiiyo a/aii? ?aaee (1998) oa a?aeae?eo nioe?ie?iaa?noeee
?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie (1998—1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e iiiia?ao?? «Iiaia ?aei?noue iaoe??: ae?anii?a e
Oe?a?ia» (20 ae?oe. a?e.) oa 20 iaoeiaeo noaooyo (caaaeueiei ianyaii
10,7 ae?oe. a?e.). A aeaeo?iiiiio aeaeyae? iioae?eiaaii aea? noaoo?
(caa. ianya 1,1 ae?oe. a?e.) a iaoeiaiio aeo?iae? “Sapienti” 1998, ? 2-3
oa 1999, ? 5 (http://sapienti.kiev.ua).

Aeaea?aeii iaoa??aeo aeey iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe?? noaee /eneaii?
aeaeaiiy ca?oa?aeii? oe?a?inueei? ia??iaeeee ??cieo ?ie?a ? ??cieo
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i???ioaoe?e (caaaeii 30 iaca), neiaieee, iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii iia’ycai? c oaiith, a oaeiae
aeai? nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iiai aieaooaaiiy 102 ?aniiiaeaio?a (91 c? NOA ? 11
c Eaiaaee), c?a?ai? aaoi?ii i?ae /an ia?aaoaaiiy a Ainoii? oa
Iueth-Ei?eo a 1994 ?. ? /anoeiai aeiiiaiai? a Oe?a?i? a 1996 ?.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oa?aeoa? ?iaioe e eiei iinoaaeaieo o i?e
caaaeaiue coiiaeee eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? iaoiaeieia??, yea aeeth/a?
eiio?anoeaiee ? eiiiiiaioiee aiae?c, aeaiaioe aeane?eioeaiiai e
ii??aiyeueiiai iaoiae?a. A ii?aoethaaii? iieueiaiai iaoa??aeo
canoiniaaii e?iaainoaoenoe/iee iaoiae.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e e aeaea?ae. Ianya
oaenoo noaiiaeoue 397 noi??iie, aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 35 oaaeeoeue, 3
ae?aa?aie oa 1 noaio.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O Anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, aecia/aii iaoo e
caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, iienaii iaoiaeeeo e aeaea?aeueio aaco
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneaii oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy, i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue ?
iaoeiao iiaecio iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?icae?e 1. «Iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie ? iiaia iie?oeea a e?a?iao
iinaeaiiy». ?icae?e ii/eia?oueny iaeyaeii eeth/iaeo iiiyoue ? i?eioeei?a
iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee NOA ? Eaiaaee uiaei ai?a?aionueeeo iaioei.
Oi?eaeuei?noue aia?eeainueeiai ? eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoa iieyaa? a
oiio, ui eiaeia c ieo noaei iaoe??th, ia iath/e iiiiaoi?/ii? aace.
Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aei?noue i?e oeueiio ??oioo?oueny ia na?aeiii noi?iiaai?e
?aeaieia??, a ia ia ni?euei?e aoi?/i?e niaaeuei?. Oiio aaea ca nai?th
i?e?iaeith oaea noni?euenoai ia iiaei aac i?aeic?e noaaeoeny aei
aoi?/ieo o?aaeeoe?e, caaacaieo c? Noa?iai Na?oo, ? i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai
/ano a?aeaeaaaei ia?aaaao oi?o?eiaaiei ? oaeaeeici?iiei cae/eai ia?aae
no?ieaoei ?icia?ooyi eiina?aaoeaieo o?aaeeoe?e.

A inoaii?e /aa?o? XIX — ia ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy a NOA c?inee
iiaithaaiiy, ui aiaeueaaiaoe?y ai?a?aio?a o iiao, aia?eeainueeo, iaoe?th
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaeoi iia?eueii. Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii oi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee noaea iieai?ea uiaei aoii-iaoe?iiaeueieo oi?i
?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy. Ianiaee iaieea ai?a?aio?a aeeeeeaa iai?ee?ioe? XIX
no. na?aae ??eaiaenueei? eaoieeoeueei? ???a?o?? ?oo, yeee io?eiaa iacao
«aia?eeai?ci». NOA i?ineaaeyee ye ?aeeio e?a?io a na?o?, ui ao?eth?
i?eioeeie «Aiaa ? ethaeyiino?», a oi?aeanoai aiaei-aia?eeainueei?
oeea?e?caoe?? iaei a icia/aoe a?o a?aoa?noaa e iiaaae aei an?o ethaeae.
I?iiaaaiaeenonueeei ??ciiaeaeii aia?eeai?cio noaea ?aeaieia?y
«ieaaeeueiiai eacaia» (melting pot), yea i?iaieiooaaea, ui a Aia?eoe?
oi?io?oueny eoeueoo?a iiaiai oeio, caniiaaia ia e?aueo o?aaeeoe?yo,
i?eianaieo ia ?? caieth i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo ia?iae?a. Oea iaei
icia/aoe, ui a?aeaeai?noue aia?eeainuee?e eoeueoo?? aiaeii/an ca’yco?
ethaeeio c ?? ??aeiith eoeueoo?ith oa ?ioeie aeinyaiaiiyie ethaenueei?
oeea?e?caoe??. Oaea ?aeaieia?y aeoeaii ai?iaaaeaeoaaeany a e?ioe? XIX —
ia ii/aoeo XX no.; aiia ni?aaeyea ? iei? ni?aaey? cia/iee aieea ia ??ci?
iieie?iiy ai?a?aio?a. Caaeey a?eueoi? i?eaaaeeaino? «aia?eeai?ci»
iaiaaaeeny i?aaenoaaeoe ye iiiyooy iaoae?iaa?noe/ia, i?aeaoi?/io i??th,
a?aeaeai?noue ye?e ia caeaaeeoue a?ae iaoa?einueei? iiae.

Ia?aeiiiei iiiaioii o a?ae?iaeaeaii? aoi?/ii? na?aeiiino?
iiaii-eoeueoo?ieo iaioei NOA noaea ao?oeeaa oaeey naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy
/i?iioe??iai ianaeaiiy a na?aaeei? 60-o ?ie?a. Aoi?/ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a
NOA aeaaei aoi?/i?noue c? noiaaiee ?iaeeie e ieieeoe?, c?iaeaoe ??, ca
na?ae/aiiyie aeayeeo nioe?ieia?a, i?anoeaeiith e iaa?oue naeiiiith.
Oaia? aiia iiaea cayaeyoe i?i naaa, ye i?i caaaeueia aeaai (iai?eeeaae,
o aeiaaeeo c aeaiiiaiith ina?oith). Caaaeyee nai???aei?e «eaaae?caoe??»
aoi?/iino?, ?? aeoiaeo ?c cao?ieo iai?aii? eoeueoo?e aeeoioii?y aoi?/ia
:: iicaaoi?/ia noaea aenie?oeeoiith ? oea aiineoue aeiaeaoeia? ithaine a
?ieue aiae?enueei? iiae ye ciai?oiueiai ia?ea?a iaeiiai c eiiiiiaio?a
oe??? aeeoioii??.

A aiaeiiiai?e Eaiaae? iaaoa iioe?aiiy i?o i?i oa, ui ?? oa?aeoa?iith
?enith ? oiea?aioia noaaeaiiy aei eoeueoo?ieo a?aei?iiinoae ona?aaeei?
e?a?ie, ui Eaiaaea iica?/ia, oiae? ye NOA — ieaaeeueiee eacai. Ca?aeii c
oaeith a?c??th Eaiaaea caaaeaee cae?enithaaea iaio?oe?eio iie?eoeueoo?io
iie?oeeo, a a 1981 ?. i?iaieineea ?? io?oe?eii. I?ioa aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeayeeo eaiaaenueeeo iaoeiaoe?a aeathoue i?aenoaae i?eioneaoe, ui
aoi?/i? ni?eueiioe a Eaiaae?, cie?aia a ia??iae aei ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie, aeaeeee ia caaaeyee i?aeo?eioe? a?iiaaenueeino?, a anoia?a/ ?e.
Ia oea aeacothoue ? aeaye? na?ae/aiiy iaoiai aieaooaaiiy. I?iaeiaaeaiiy
aoi?/iiai ?nioaaiiy ni?eeia?oueny ye iaoaeia?/iee noai, yeee ne?ae
iiaeieaoe, a ia ye aeaea?aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai caaaa/aiiy e ai?aeino?.
Aiaeieaiaaeoe? aaaaeathoue, ui iie?oeea ieaaeeueiiai eacaia,
cae?enithaaia a iiaiiio ianyc?, iiaea aanoe aei ?aniaiai ae?iaeaeaiiy.
Iaoii?noue aiie aeiaaathoue a?ae ai?a?aio?a iaeiia?/iiai i?enoinoaaiiy.
I?aaenoaaieee iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio oaaaeathoue iie?oeeo
aaaaoieoeueoo?iino? aeaieeeith, ai aeciath/e e i?iiaaoth/e iiaa?oiaa?
aeyae aoi?/iiai (iai?eeeaae, iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeo, nayoa, cae/a?), aiia
a?aeaa?oa? oaaao a?ae aeoii/aieo ? aiaeii/an iiaooi?o oi?i
?inoeoooe?eiiai ?anecio. Aei ieo o ia?oo /a?ao iaeaaeaoue ina?oiy
nenoaia e iiaa.

O eiioaeno? ianooaaieo na?oiaeyaeieo ci?i iai?ee?ioe? XX no. caciaei
aaiethoe?? naia iiiyooy aoi?/iino?. Iaeeieoeath a?aee?eo a
aia?eeainuee?e ? aaaaoueio ?ioeo «iiaea?ieo» nenoaiao oe?iiinoae yaii /e
?iie?oeeoii aenooia? ie?aia ethaeeia, ?iaeea?ae. ?ioaeaeooaeueii e
nioe?aeueii ae??a?noue eiie?aoii? iniae, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeaeua
«iiaea?ia» oe?ii?noue, a?aeie?aieth?oueny a?ae ?? iioiaeaeaiiy oa ?ioeo
iica?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Aoi?/i?noue o I?ai?/i?e Aia?eoe?
iaiiaeeeai c?icoi?oe /e iienaoe, aaeath/enue o?eueee aei oa?i?iieia??
Noa?iai Na?oo. Aiia ia aeeaaea?oueny a aeneethceaio noaio «ana aai
i?/iai». Iinooiiaee caiaiaae aoi?/ieo iia iiaea ni?a?nioaaoe c? cia/iei
ianyaii ia?a?iaeueii? aoi?/iino?. Oe? yaeua iino?eii aca?iiae?thoue ?
aeiiiaiththoue iaeia iaeiiai. Ia?a?iaeueia, aea ua aeeaa e aeoeaia
aoi?/i?noue (ui ia?aaea?oueny aaea ii-aiae?enueee) caa??aa?oueny
aeineoue aeiaai i?ney oiai, ye iiaa cacia? eaoa?a?? /e cieea? oe?eeii.

Oaeaeea c?inoaiiy naiina?aeiiino? aoi?/ieo iaioei ia
i?ai?/iiaia?eeainueeiio eiioeiaio? aeeeeeaei a na?aaeei? 60-o ?ie?a
aeaaaee a?aeaoe aia?eeainueeeo o/aieo. Aeia? Oaoaai, aecia/iee
aia?eeainueeee nioe?ie?iaa?no ii?aacueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, iaea?aeii?oee c
ia?oeo aeine?aeiee?a ae?anii?ieo iia, iioae?eoaaa o 1953 ?. nai?
aeaioiiia aeine?aeaeaiiy «Ii?aacueea iiaa a Aia?eoe?. Aea/aiiy
aeaiiiaii? iiaaae?iee». A iniiao oe??? i?aoe? eyaee c?a?ai? iei iieueia?
niinoa?aaeaiiy oa ?ioa?a’th c 260 ?ioi?iaioaie, i?aaenoaaieeaie
ii?aacueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?eueiioe a NOA. ?acii c «Iiaieie
eiioaeoaie» O.Aaei?aeoa (1953) oey i?aoey ni?aaeea aaeeeee aieea ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaii? iniaenoino? a?e?iaa?a, i?iaeai iiaiiai aeaeeaaiiy
e e?iaaioeeaeo.

O 1966 ?. aeeoei o na?o eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th
Aeaeiooa A. O?oiaia «Iiaia eiyeuei?noue o Niieo/aieo Ooaoao. Caoeno ?
caa?aaeaiiy ia-aiae?enueeeo ??aeieo iia aoi?/ieie oa ?ae?a?eieie
iaioeiaie a NOA». Oey eieaeea ia o?eueee iii?oii aieeioea ia ?icaeoie
nioe?ie?iaa?noeee ye ie?aii? aeenoeeie?ie, aea e ni?eyea oi?ioaaiith a
iaoeiaoe?a ? a?iiaaenueeino? iiaiai iiaeyaeo ia iiae aoi?/ieo iaioei ye
ia e?iaa?noe/iee ?ano?n. Iiai? ?ano?ne aia?eeainueeeo ai?a?aionueeeo
a?oi ii/eiathoue ni?eeiaoeny ye oe?iiee caeiaooie, ui caneoaiao? ia
aeciaiiy e caoeno a?ae i?aenooi?a aiao?? oa aioeiao??. I?ia?aeia ?aeay,
yei? yaii /e ?iie?oeeoii aeio?eio?oueny a?eueo?noue aaoi??a oe???
eieaeoeaii? i?aoe?, caiaeeoueny aei oiai, ui anei?eyoe?y a Aia?eoe?
a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ia eiie?aoiiio ia?iaeia?, yeee
ia? aeania aoi?/ia iaee//y, a ?aaeoa eiiieaenia? aano?aeoieo iiiyoue,
oaeeo ye caaaeueia naiaiaea oa a??i?noue aeaiie?aoe/iei ?aeaaeai.

Nioe?ie?iaa?noe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, ye o
ae?anii??, oae ? ia ?noi?e/i?e aaouee?auei?, iieacothoue, ui a?ic?y
aoiieoeueoo?ii? eiyeueiino? ia caiaeeoueny aei aaiaeueiiai
a?aenooiieoeoaa a?ae iiae «c?aaeaeaiiai» ia?iaeo. Ca a?iioacith
aca?iicaeaaeiino?, a?ae ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? c eoeueoo?ith L1 aeeeeea?
iaeii/anii a?ae ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? c eoeueoo?ith L2; ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, aeey
oiai uia ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe naaa c aoiieoeueoo?iith a?oiith, ui aiai?eoue
?ioith iiaith, i?ae L1, iniaa ioneoue nia?oo a?ae/ooe aeineoue neeueiee
ca’ycie c a?oiith L1. Ethaee caeaoi? ao?a/aoe ?ene aoi?/ii? iiaaae?iee,
ia iaaoaath/e iaoii?noue ?ioeo. Ao?aoa aoi?/ieo ?en iiaea
noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny iiyaith a?ae/oaeaiiai, aiii?/iiai noaaeaiiy /e
aiii?/ieo in?a, ui ia aa?ooue o/ano? a aeeoo? aeiaeii? ni?eueiioe. O
oeueiio nain? caa?aaeaiiy aoi?/iino? ? ?aaeoa aaaeaiei aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy
caaaeueiiai aeeoo?aiai oiiono oa caaacia/aiiy noni?eueii? aoaeoeaiino?
iniae ? oe?eeii a?aeiia?aea? caaaeuei?e ?aeaieia?? aia?eeainueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

?icae?e 2. «Oe?a?ioe? a Iiaiio Na?o?: a?ae iiae ai?a?aoe?? aei iiae
ae?anii?e». ?noi??th oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? ca ieaai oiiaii ae?eyoue ia
aeae?eueea aoai?a: I — c e?ioey 70-o ?ie?a ieioeiai noie?ooy aei ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie; oiae? c oa?eoi??e, ui iaeaaeaee Aano?i-Oai?uei?, a ca?ac
neeaaeathoue cao?aeio /anoeio Oe?a?ie, ae?oaei, ca iaio?oe?eieie
ioe?ieaie, i?eaeecii 600 oen. in?a; II — ia??iae i?ae aeaiia na?oiaeie
a?eiaie, oa?aeoa?iee cia/ii iaioith e?euee?noth ai?a?aio?a /a?ac ci?ie a
ai?a?aoe?ei?e iie?oeoe? (aeecueei 100 oen. in?a); III — i?eaoooy
aeecueei 120 oen. a?aeaioe?a, ye? i?ney cae?i/aiiy ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie ia?aaoaaee a oaai?ao aeey ia?ai?uaieo in?a o Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?.
Iacia/ia ai?a?aoe?y niinoa??aa?oueny e i?ioyaii inoaii?o aeanyoee?oue.
Iacaaaeath/e ia naith ia/enaeuei?noue, oey iia?oiy ai?a?aoe?y, caaaeyee
cia/iiio a?aenioeo in?a c aeuith ina?oith, aaaaoi c yeeo noathoue
aeiienoaa/aie oa ?aaeaeoi?aie oe?a?inueeeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, iiaea
ni?aaeoe iii?oiee ye?niee aieea ia iiaio neooaoe?th.

Aei ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie oe?a?ioe? ia?aaaaeii i?eaoaaee a Aia?eeo,
uia o?yooaaoeny a?ae ceeaei?a, /anoi c iai??ii iiaa?iooeny aeiaeiio,
ca?iaeaoe aeinoaoiuei aeey i?eaeaaiiy aeaniiai ainiiaea?noaa.
Caeaa?eueoiai oea aoee a?aei?, iaienueiaii? naeyie /e iaeieoe, ye? /anoi
ia ona?aeiiethaaee nai?? iaoe?iiaeueii? /e aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino?.
Neiaieaie naiiaecia/aiiy aoee aeey ieo ianaiia?aae ia noia?a/eea?
iiiyooy no/aniiai iaoe?iiae?cio, a ?ae?a?y e oea?eiaii-eiioan?eia
iaeaaei?noue. Iniaeeai oea noinoaaeiny oe?a?inueeeo ?aa?ii?a
Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia???. Oai neiaa a?aei-eaoieee /e oi?ao aoee ia
i?aeoeoe? iacaith ia?iaeo, a?aeiiiai iei? i?ae ?iaiai oe?a?ioe?. Aaaaoi
c ai?a?aio?a a?ae/oee naaa oe?a?ioeyie o?eueee a Niieo/aieo Ooaoao
Aia?eee.

Ai?a?aioe oae caaii? ae?oai? oaee?, ui i?eaoaaee a i?aeai?iiee ia??iae,
ia iniaeeai a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a. Aiie i?e?aeioaaeeny
aei ?nioth/eo aaea ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ? ia?aeiaee niin?a aeeooy
oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe. Iie?oe/i? e ?ae?a?ei? noia?a/ee, ui oi/eeeny
i?ae oe?a?ioeyie a oeae /an, oi/ ? ia ni?eyee ?oiueiio ia’?aeiaiith, aea
iaee e iaai? iiceoeai? iane?aeee. O iaaieiieo aeeneon?yo ae?iaeeany e
aoea noi?ioeueiaaia oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeaieia?y. Iaeiae o
e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii? iie?oe/i? e ?ae?a?ei? noia?a/ee i?ecaaee aei
iii?oieo ao?ao a oe?a?inuee?e a?iiaae?. Oe?a?ioe?, ia?iaeaeai? a
Aia?eoe?, iacaaaeath/e ia iaiieaaeea? coneeey caeo/eoe ?o aei
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy, oae ? ia ciiaee aei e?ioey c?icoi?oe noo?
oeeo aeeneon?e. C ii/oooyi ?ic/a?iaaiino? aiie iinooiiai a?aeoiaeeee
a?ae nai?? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?iiaaee.

O?aoy oaeey ai?a?aoe??, ui i?eaoea iaaaeiac? i?ney ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie, nooo?ai a?ae??ciyeany a?ae aeaio iiia?aaei?o. Aei ia? aoiaeeee ia
eeoa aeo?aeoe? c ??cieo iaeanoae Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, aea e a?aeaioe? c
oeo ?aa?ii?a, ye? iaeaaeaee aei Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. Iia? ai?a?aioe aaea
iaee oeieo ?aeaieia?/ii? ai?ioueae, ui ?icai?ioeany a Oe?a?i? i?ae
aeaiia na?oiaeie a?eiaie, ?, ia a?aei?io a?ae iniiaii? iane o/aniee?a
iiia?aaei?o ai?a?aoe?eieo oaeeue, a?aecia/aeeny aenieei ??aiai
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?. C?oeioaoenue ?c cia/ii ineaaeaiith
oe?a?inueeith a?iiaaeith, iia? ai?a?aioe ia o?eueee canioaaee oe?eee
?yae aeanieo i?aai?caoe?e oa ia?ao?e, a e iin?ee i?ia?aei? noaiiaeua a
aaaaoueio ?nioth/eo. Aiie iaaeaaaee aaeeeiai cia/aiiy caa?aaeaiith a
ae?oae ? aioe?a iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oa ?oiueiio aieiae?iith
oe?a?inueeith iiaith. Ao?aoa ??aeii? iiae ae?oueie ni?eeiaeany ye
iaiii?aaia oeiaea nai?io aeaniiio ?noao, ai iicaaaeyea ?o iiaeeeaino?
aoi?/ii ioioiaeithaaoe naaa c iauaaeeaie oae, ye aiie ioioiaeithaaee
naaa c? nai?ie i?aaeeaie.

??ci? aaoi?e iaceaathoue oe?a?inueeo ca?oa?aeio ni?eueiioo oi
ai?a?aoe??th, oi ae?anii?ith, a ?iiae? iaiia neiaaie iaeii/anii. Oey
oa?i?iieia?/ia ia/?oe?noue cia/iith i??ith a?aeia?aaea? ?aaeueiee noai
ni?aa, ia eeoa a nain? aeaiia?ao?/iiai noaoono /eai?a a?iiaaee (o i?e ?
ye ai?a?aioe c ??ciei noaaeai, oae ? o?iaeaeaioe? e?a?ie iinaeaiiy), aea
e o na?oiaeyaeiiio ?icoi?ii?. Aeai?noee oa?aeoa? aoa i?eoaiaiiee
«aia?eeainuee?e ?on?» (oaea naiiiacaa cono??/a?oueny a ai?a?aoe?ei?e
i?an? ii/aoeo XX no.) a?ae naiiai ii/aoeo ?? ?nioaaiiy. Ca?ia?o/aie, ye?
ieaioaaee iiaa?iooeny aeiaeiio, c?a?aaoe a?ioae ia eeaiioue caie?,
ooaeiao oa ?aiaiaio, ua ia aoee ae?anii?ith; iaa?oue o?, a eiai a Iiaiio
Na?o? ia?iaeeeeny ae?oe. *anoeia c ieo, aeinyaioaoe caaeoiaiiai, ?
ni?aaae? iiaa?ioeany aeiaeiio. Aeey ieo ieoaiiy aeanii? ?aeaioe/iino? ia
caciaei e?ece. I?ioa a?eueo?noue aeineoue oaeaeei caaaioea, ui ?i oa
?oi?i iauaaeeai noaeeeiny aeeoe a e?a?i? iinaeaiiy. I?ioean aaeaioaoe??
aei iiaiai aeeooy e iiaiai na?oiaeyaeo niia?eueieea iiai?iia oaeey
iie?oe/ii? ai?a?aoe??. Naia caaaeyee ?e iiaeyae ia ae?anii?o ye ia
«?ioa??aeueio /anoeio oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo», yea «aiiai? ioioiaeith?
nai? iie?oe/i? ?aeaaee c ?aeaaeaie oe?eiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo», noaa
aaaiiei oaeoi?ii noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?.

Iei?oi? naiia?ae/oooy oe?a?ioe?a ae?anii?e, i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo
iieie?iue, iauaaee?a /e o/aniee?a e?eueeio ai?a?aoe?eieo oaeeue, aaaeei
c?icoi?oe aac o?aooaaiiy oiai, ca yeeo oiia a?aeaoaaeiny oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaeyaeo oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe. A?ae ii/aoe?a i?aai?ciaaiiai
a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a o Iiaiio Na?o? (e?iaoeue ieioeiai
noie?ooy) oea naiia?ae/oooy aoei ?icaeai?iei ia o?eueee ineoieia?/ii,
aea e aecenoaioe?eii (noa?ee e?ae :: iiaa «aaouee?aueia»).
?icaeai?i?noue aeyaeyeany aaea a naiiiaca?, yea iaea a ae?acii
ie?anethaaoe ianya ?aeaioe/iino?, aea iaoii?noue aoea iaiaeiicia/iith —
/a?ac ?eneo. O?, ui iacaaaeaee caeeoaeeny a Aia?eoe?, iio?aieyee ?acii c
?ioeie ai?a?aioaie a eaoaai??th oae caaieo hyphenated Americans, oiaoi
aia?eeaioe?a-/a?ac-?eneo, i?aoai?thth/enue a Ukrainian Americans
(iiae?aii aei Polish Americans, Italian Americans oiui). Ia iaae? XIX—XX
no. neooaoe?y oneeaaeithaaeany oei, ui ca ieaai i?eaoaaee ua ia
oe?a?ioe?, a ?oneie-oe?a?ioe?, ea?iaoi-?oneie, oa?i-?oneie,
a?aei-eaoieeee, a oi e i?inoi «oe?na?nuee? ethaee». Aeo?aeoe?a c?
noa?iai e?ath ia’?aeioaaee o?e iniiai? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?ei? oaeoi?e: (1)
aoi?/ia naiiiacaa, (2) «?onueea oea?eaa», (3) iiaa (ycue, aan?aea).
Ia?a?nio oai?e?nonueeo ?aeaioe/i?noue ai?a?aio?a iaaea?ia iaceaathoue
«ia?io?yeueiith» (parochial): ?ae?a?eia e aoi?/ia noaiiaeee a i?e
ia?icae?eueia oe?ea. ? oea?eaa, ? naia a??a, ? iaa?oue Aia iaae?eyeeny
icia/aiiyi «?onueeee».

O e?ioe? ieioeiai — ia ii/aoeo iei?oiueiai noie?ooy a ai?a?aio?a,
iin??a ??cieo oe?a?inueeeo aiai??a, ia aoei ua ?aeeii? iiaii?
na?aeiiino?. A?eueo?noue ?c ieo ia iaee oyaeaiiy i?i yeeenue
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeee iiaiee noaiaea?o, oei a?eueoa, ui oiae? a?i ua
ia?aaoaaa o noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy. Oaea ieanoe/i?noue naiiai iiaiiai
iaoa??aeo ? eiai iin??a aeaaaea i?ino?? aeey ae?e ??ciiiai?oiei
anei?eyoi?ai, ye? i?aaioee aoyaiooe oeth ua aii?oio iano o noa?o naiai
eoeueoo?iiai aieeao, oi?ioth/e ?oith aoiiiiaio na?aeii?noue o aaaeaiiio
aeey naaa iai?yieo. Noaey/e c iieai?ee a i?an?, iniaeeaith aeoeai?noth
a?aecia/aeeny i?eoeeueieee i?iiineianueeiai, i?ineiaaoeueeiai e
i?iiaaey?nueeiai iai?yie?a. O eiaeiiio c aeiaaee?a canoiniaoaaeeny nai?
i?aeoiaee aei iiaiiai ieoaiiy, ui aoee ai?iaiaai?, ye i?aaeei, ua a
aeiai?a?aoe?eiee ia??iae.

O e?a?i? iinaeaiiy aoi?/ia /e iaoe?iiaeueia naiiona?aeiieaiiy noaei ua
o?ni?oa iia»ycaiei c iiaith, i?ae oaeiia: oea aoea ?aeeia /anoeia
eieeoiueiai aeeooy, yeo iiaeia aoei eaaei ia?aaacoe c niaith ia iia?
caie?, ? yea aeaaaea ciiao i?aeo?eioaaoe ni?eeoaaiiy c caieyeaie /e
iaa?oue c ?iiaoi?/ieie non?aeaie. Iiaa aoea ia o?eueee aeaea?aeii
iinoaeuea?/ieo niiaaae?a i?i eieeoi? aeeooy, aea e /anoeith oeueiai
aeeooy. Caaaeueia c?icoi?e?noue aaeeoeueeiai ?ioa?ae?aeaeoo, ui
aacoaaany ia euea?anueeiio eieia, i?eoaeaeoeea i?aaethaaiiy ae?aeaeoieo
?ica?aeiinoae a ai?a?aio?a c aoiia?ao?/ii a?aei?iieo ?aa?ii?a.

O noa?iio e?a? ieoaiiy ?aeaioe/iino? ia??aeei caiaeeeiny aei ?ici???a
naea (village identity), a uiaei iiae aaeeaaeiny aecia/aiiy «aiai?eoe
ii-iaoiio». Oe?a?inuee? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? caeeaaee, caniiaai? a i?noeyo
iinaeaiiy, ooaa?aeaeoaaee ?aeath iaoe?iiaeueii?, a ia i?inoi aoi?/ii?
?aeiino?. Na?aae ai?a?aio?a oa ?oi?o iauaaee?a iaaoaaei ana a?eueoiai
iioe?aiiy a?ae/oooy iiaii? eiyeueiino? iiaiai oeio — ?aei?noue ?c iiaith
aaaaoii?eueeiiiiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Ia ii/aoeo OO no.
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie oe?a?ioe?a o NOA aeinyaioa o??? iicia/ee,
eiee i?aaeiaoii iaaiai?aiiy noaei, ooi ? a?eueoei oe?a?ioeai, i?ae ooi
aeania ? oe?a?ioeai. Ia?a?niee, oai?e?nonueeee eieaeoea?ci iinooiiai
o?ainoi?ioaaany a iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeaieia?th. Oea a?aeaoaaeiny
ia?aeaeueii c i?ioeanii iaoe?iiaeueii? e iiaii? eiinie?aeaoe?? ia
Aaouee?auei?. Iniiaia a?aei?ii?noue iieyaaea a oiio, ui a Oe?a?i?
aoiia?ao?/i? a?oie ia’?aeioaaeeny aeey o/ano? a ni?eueiiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeeoo? c e?ioeaaith iaoith ooai?aiiy iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae, a a Iiaiio Na?o? ia?niaeoeae oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
iaioeie aoee iaae?acieie.

C ia?oeo ?ie?a i?aai?ciaaiiai a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy i?ia?aeia i?noea a
a?eueoino? ae?oeiaaieo aenooi?a oa aeneiaethaaiue c i?eaiaeo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiicaa?aaeaiiy iin?aeathoue ieoaiiy iiae, /e ia ?aeeii?
ae?acii? iciaee, ca yeith iiaeia aoei i?ciaaaoe «nai?o» o /oaei??aeiiio
ioi/aii?. Oey oaia ia??iaee/ii aeieea? ia noi??ieao ae?anii?ii? i?ane.
Ia aeiaaeeiai oaeee aieeaiaee i?aai, ye aacaoa «Naiaiaea», ui aoa
aaaeeeaei cia?yaeaeyi oi?ioaaiiy e aeyao a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee, iiaea? 22
ethoiai 1929 ?. a ?ao?iniaeoeaiiio iaeyae? i?ae iacaith «”Naiaiaea” ia
neoaea? naiio ia?iaeia?» (n. 3) oaeee o?eaie c? naiai iiia?a 35-e?oiuei?
aeaaiino? (a?ae 1 aeiaoiy 1893 ?.):

«A ia?aaeia?e noaoo? i?ae iaaieiaeii «Ethae nai?» /eoa?ii i?ae eioei
oaea: “Oae ye a iiiaeeiie?e ethaeei? ?noue oaea a?iaeaeaia ethaia aei
aeeoy, aei ?noioaaiiy, oae naii a eiaei?i ia?iae? ?noue i?e?iaeia ethaia
aei aeaniiai ?noioaaiiy ia?iaeiiai, eio?a iieyaa? ia aan?ae?, ia iia?.
…Oie, ooi iieeaea? ??aeio iiao aai ?? oeo?a?oueny, noeaea?oueny, eiaeoa
ia aa?o aooe i?eciaiei, ye iaeinoaii?oei ae?aaii, i?aeeei, aac /anoe,
aeo?aeii aeo?ae?a. Oaeee /ieia?e ia aa?o, uia eiai nayoa caiey iineea. …
*ieia?e, anoeaeath/eeny nai?? iao??ii? aan?aee, iiiiaiy? no?aoiee
nia?oaeueiee ia?iaeiee a??o. … Oaeiai ae?iaeea iaceaa?ii c?aaeieeii,
ia?ae?i/eeii naiai ia?iaea, THaeith, i?aaeaoaeai, iaeaeieeii,
aene??iaioii iaeiaeaei?oiai aeeaioiiai, ui ieaco? ii caie?… Anoeaeaoeny
nai?? ??aeii? iiae, oae cia/eoue, yeae anoeaeaoeny nai?? ??aeii?
iaoa??».

O e?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a caiaeueia eaoaai?e/i?noue oe??? oeeoaoe cao/eoue
noee?noe/iei aiao?ii?ciii, oei a?eueoa i?eaa?oath/e oaaao aei aino?ioe
ieoaiiy ? eiai iaia?ao?aeiino?. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui a oeeoiaaiiio o?eaeo
o?ao?o? o?eueee aac?iaiia ?aeaioe/i?noue «nai?» ? a?aeiia?aei?
?aeaioeo?eaoi?e iiae: ??aeia iiaa, iao??ia aan?aea. Ioae?oeenoe/iee
iaoin ioae?eaoe?? 1893 ?., c iaeiiai aieo, ? ?? ia?aae?oeo a 1929 ?., c
?ioiai, aae?aniaai? ia o?eueee a?aei?iiei aoaeeoi??yi, no?iai eaaeo/e,
aiie noinoaaeeny «??cieo» iia. O ia?oiio aeiaaeeo oea aoea i?inoi «iaoa»
iiaa (aia??ea ??aeiiai naea, ?ioa?ae?aeaeo oiui), o ae?oaiio — iaoa
oe?a?inueea iiaa, iiaa aaeeeiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo (a?ae Nyio aei
Aeiio).

Aiii?iio ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th a?aeaeca?eaethaaea e ioeueiaa iacaa
aaouee?aueie, yea a ai?a?aoe?? (ia aac aieeao a?aeiia?aeiiai noa?aioeio
iieuenueei? iiae) ae?noaea iai?aaiaeyoeaia iaeiaioaaiiy — Noa?ee E?ae,
aai i?inoi E?ae. I?oia?ao?/i? aa??aioe — iaienaiiy c aaeeei? ? iaei?
e?oa?e — caeaee ?ac i?aee?aneththoue ia?a?iaeuei?noue oe??? iii?iaoe??
ye aeanii?-caaaeueii? iacae. Aac?iaii?noue aaeeeith i??ith iia’ycaia c
iaaecia/aiith /e aeao?niith ?aeaioe/i?noth naieo e?ayi ? ?oi?i
naiia?ae/oooyi. Iaeo?aeueia iacaa e?ae noinoaaeany caiaeue, ui a ??ciee
/an (? neio?iiii oaeiae) iaeaaeaee aei ??cieo aea?aeaa: Oai?ueie,
Iieueu?, Aano?i-Oai?ueie, *aoineiaa//eie, ?in??, N?N? oiui. Iacaaoe ?o
?onnth /e Oe?a?iith ia aeaaaee i?aenoaa ye aaiiie?oe/i? i?e/eie (oaei?
aea?aeaae ia ea?o? na?oo oiae? ia ?nioaaei), oae ? a?ia?ii?i?/iee
oa?aeoa? oa?i?ia ?onue, ui ioiiethaaa cia/ii a?eueo? iaoe?e. Eieaeuei?
aoiioiiii?ie (Eaie?aueia, Aooeoeueueia, Aiee?aueia oiui), o naith /a?ao,
aoee aoae/eie a?ae eoeueoo?ii-iiaiiai eiioeiooio aeecueeinii??aeiaieo
?onueeeo e?a?a.

Iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo i?e/ei aoi?/ii? eiinie?aeaoe?? e a?aeoiaeo a?ae
ia?a?nii? «aeao?nii? ?aeaioe/iino?» noaea /a?aiaa aa?an?y ia
iaoe?iiaeueia «ss» — aia?eeai?caoe?y. Iaianeeueieoeuee? iaoiaee
anei?eyoe??, oaeoi? «/oaei? caie?» oa aeia?ia?eueiino? ia?a?caeo a
e?a?io iinaeaiiy nooo?ai ci?ithaaee oa?aeoa? iiiceoe?? aei oe??? iiai?,
ianooiath/i? ?aeaioe/iino?. Aei aeao?nii? iacae aeiaeaaaeiny ua iaeia
icia/aiiy — «aia?eeainueeee», ? aiia, oaeei /eiii, noaaaea
aeaiaeao?niith. Oea aeiaeaoeiai caieoooaaei e aac oiai neeaaeio
ia?aaeeaio eiyeueiinoae. Iiiyooy “aia?eeainuee? oe?a?ioe?” /e
“aia?eeainuee? ?oneie” eaaoa iaaeaaaeeny aeey eiioeaiooae?caoe??, i?ae
“aia?eeainuee? oe?a?ioe?-?oneie”, “aia?eeainuee? oa?i-?oneie”,
“aia?eeainuee? eaiee-?oneie” oiui.

Nii/aoeo aecia/aiiy iniaenoi? e eieaeoeaii? naiino? aeeaaeaeiny a oaeo
oi?ioeo: «Ie neiu aaeeeie ?oneie Iaoa?e e ai?iaeaia aUeueiie Aia?eee»
(Naiaiaea. — Oaiieei, 08.08.1895, n.1). Oi/ aeiey noa?iai e?ath e
iaaeae? caeeoaeany iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caoe?eaaeaiue
?onueei-oe?a?inueei? a?iiaaee, aeeooy a e?a?i? iinaeaiiy aenoaaei iia?
i??i?eoaoe e ia ?ac noaaeei ai?a?aio?a o neooaoe?th aeai?o i?ae noa?eie
e iiaeie eiyeueiinoyie.

Ia?a?niee, aoiia?ao?/iee eieaeoea?ci ?onei?a, iia’ycaiee ianaiia?aae c
iniaenoei aeina?aeii, c ieioeei aeeooyi o E?a?. O «iaoo?aeueiiio
aeaeyae?» a?i aeinooiiee o?eueee ia?oiio iieie?iith — aeania ai?a?aioai.
?oi? iauaaeee, ia?iaeaeai? a Iiaiio Na?o?, caeaoi? canai?oe neiaie?/i?
oe?iiino?, ui aeieeathoue oaea ia ianooii?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo eieaeoeaii?
na?aeiiino?. Aiia ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeo?ae a?ae eiie?aoieo /ooo?aeo
a?aaeaiue, ?aeaieia?caoe?th oe?e?niiai ia?aco iaoe?? /e aoi?/ii? a?oie,
ocaaaeueiaio a?c?th «ni?eueiiai iaeaooiueiai». Noaey/e c onueiai, oaei?
«?oneinueei? i???» (ia a?aei?io a?ae oe?a?inueei?, iai?eeeaae) o
eiioan?eii, iie?oe/ii e iiaii ?ic’?aeiaii? ?oneinueei? ni?eueiioe ia
aeieeei. Ia inoaiith ?ieue a?ae?a?aea a oeueiio ?? aoiii?i?/ia
aeaci???ioiaai?noue. Ia aeoieo I.?.Iaai/? (1984:88), aeey a?eueoino?
ea?iaoi-?onei?a, ui neeaaea?oueny iei? c i?aaenoaaiee?a ae?oaiai,
o?aoueiai e /aoaa?oiai iieie?iue, noia?a/ee uiaei iaoe?iiaeueii? /e
aoi?/ii? ?aeaioe/iino? a e?auiio aeiaaeeo ni?eeiathoueny ye nooi
iaoeia?, a oi e cian?i ia iathoue cia/aiiy.

Ca’ycie c iiaith ? aaaeeeaei noaa?e?coth/ei /eiieeii oaeiai /anii
aii?oiiai e oenoeiai iiiyooy, ye ?aeaioe/i?noue. Iia? ye noni?eueiiio
yaeuo, caaaeyee ?? ?ia?oe?eiino? aeanoeaa a?eueoa no?ee?noue. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? — naiai ?iaeo «uiaeaiiiai
ieaa?noeeoo» (A.?aiai) — iiaa aaea ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ia iiaea aooe
i?aaeiaoii iia?aoeaiiai aeai?o. Ia i?ioeaaao eiiiiceoiei iacaai
?aeaioe/iino? (oa?i-?oneie, ea?iaoi?ine, aia?eeainuee? oe?a?ioe? oiui),
iacaa iiae, yeith ei?enooaaeeny (ei?enoothoueny) iin?? oeeo
?aeaioe/iinoae, ye i?aaeei, iaeiieiiiiiaioia (?onueea, caiaeii
oe?a?inueea). Ca oe??th iiiianoe/iith iiiie?oi?noth noi?oue oe?euei?noue
naiiai iiiyooy. ?onueea (iei? oe?a?inueea) iiaa ? ?ioaa?aeueiith
iciaeith aa??aoeaieo o /an? (?one/?, ?oneie, oe?a?ioe?; ?oniaee,
?ooaioe?, oa?i-?oneie, ea?iaoi?oneie) oa i?inoi?? (Aaeeoeueea ?onue,
Iaea ?onue, Ea?iaonueea ?onue, Eaiaae?enueea ?onue ? o. i.)
?aeaioe/iinoae. O?ainoeaaeaioi?noue iiae ? ?? i?aaeeia?/i?noue aca?iii
iia’ycai?.

Ni?aa?aeiini?noue iiiyoue «??aeia iiaa» ? «aaouee?aueia» aecia/a?
cia/iith i??ith no?oeoo?iaai?noue ?aeaioe/iino?. Iai?eeeaae, ??aeia
oe?a?inueea iiaa, ni?aa?aeiinia ye c iiiyooyi Oe?a?ia, oae ? c «aoae/ith
aaouee?aueiith» Aooeoeueueiith, Aiee?aueiith, Eaie?aueiith o aooeoe?a,
aiee?a, cia/ii? /anoeie eaie?a. Eeane/iith ? noaia c oe?eeiaeoith
a?aeiia?aei?noth aoiii?i?/iiai icia/aiiy ??aeii? iiae iaca?
aaouee?aueie: Iieueua — iieuenueea iiaa, O?aioe?y — o?aioeocueea iiaa,
Oe?a?ia — oe?a?inueea iiaa. Noaey/e c aanea «Ethaeth oy, Eaieiaeii, iiy
iaoe ??aeia», /eoa/? aacaoe «Ea?iaonueea ?onue» aaaaeathoue
aaouee?aueiith (?noi?e/iith aaouee?aueiith) naia Eaieiaeio. I?ioa ?o
??aeiith iiaith aoea (?) ?onueea iiaa. Ia ea?iaoi?onueea, oa?i-?onueea,
eaie?anueei-?onueea, eaie?anueea ? o. i., a naia ?onueea. Oey ae iiaa
aoea /e ? ??aeiith (iei? ye oe?a?inueea) aeey aooeoe?a, aiee?a,
aaeeoeueeeo ?onei?a, aoeiaeioe?a oa ?i.

?ioa?oa?aioe?y eiioeaiooaeueii-naian?ieia?/ieo noa? oe?a?inueei? oa
aia?eeainueei? eoeueoo? iicia/a?oueny ia ci?no? oaeeo iii?iaoe?e, ye
iaoe?iiaeuei?noue, iao??ioeci, iaoe?iiae?ci oiui. sse aeaeii c
a?aeiia?aeae, eiaeai oeoia/eoue oe? iiiyooy ii-??ciiio. A oe?a?inuee?e
iia? a?e?iaa?a naiaioeea eaenaie iaoe?iiaeuei?noue eiioai?io?oueny
cia/aiiyi aiae?enueeiai neiaa nationality, ui a aia?eeainueeiio
?icoi?ii? ? neiii?iii a?iiaaeyinoaa. O iiaii? eiyeueiino? a?e?iaa?a ?
aeaa iniiai? aei??e: eiioi?eaoeaiee, iia’ycaiee ?c ciai?oi?ie aeyaaie
iiaii? iiaaae?iee, oa ?aeaieia?/iee, coiiaeaiee i?noeai eiaeii? c iia o
nenoai? oe?iiinoae aeaii? iniae. ?oith aca?iiae?th a iiai?e na?aeiiino?
a?aeaeca?eaeth? iiiyooy “??aeia iiaa”, yea iaaoei cia/iiai iioe?aiiy ia
o?eueee a iianyeaeaiiiio aaeeoeo, a e o aeaiia?ao?/i?e i?aeoeoe?.

Ni?eeiyooy oeueiai iiiyooy a ae?anii??, c iaeiiai aieo, ? a Oe?a?i?, c
?ioiai, iaoioiaei?. A?aei?iiino? ii/eiathoueny aaea c oiai, ui
oe?a?inueeee oa?i?i ??aeia iiaa ? eiai aiae?enuee? a?aeiia?aeieee native
language, mother tongue nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny ca nai?i ci?noii. sse
iieacaei aieaooaaiiy, aaeeea /anoeia ?aniiiaeaio?a ?icoi?? oeth
a?aei?ii?noue, ? oiio a?aeiia?ae? ia caieoaiiy, ui noinoaaeeny ??aeii?
iiae, caeaa?eueoiai ia aoee niiioaiieie:

«(1) Iiy ??aeia iiaa: if you say native tongue — oi aiae?enueea, yeui ae
eaaeaoa ??aeia iiaa, oi oea oe?a?inueea. ??aeia, oea iia’ycaii c
n?i’?th, ?iaeeiith, ?ioeiia iiaa; (2) Iiiyooy “??aeiiai” a aiae?enuee?e
iia? ? aia?eeainuee?e eoeueoo?? iaia?. Iaoei ae?oyi ia?aaeaaaee oea ii
e?i?? ?iaeo» [?ioa?a’th — A.A.].

Naia ?aaeoe?y ia caieoaiiy i?i ??aeio iiao ia iaio aaaeeeaa, i?ae
eiie?aoia noaoenoeea aeai?o i?ae oe?a?inueeith oa aiae?enueeith iiaaie.
Aa/aiiy ?aniiiaeaioii eiioeaiooaeueii? a?aei?iiino? i?ae iiiyooyie
??aeia iiaa ? native language aeaco? ia ni?eeiyooy iei aoii-nioe?aeueieo
i?iaeai /a?ac i?ecio aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo, iaaooiai a Iiaiio Na?o?.

O oiae? iieooaaiiy, cae?eniaiiai a 1994 ?., ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue
ae?anii?eo?a, ia?iaeaeaieo a Oe?a?i? (95%), aac iniaeeaeo aaaaiue
iacaaee nai?th ??aeiith iiaith oe?a?inueeo, aea? iiae — oe?a?inueeo e
aiae?enueeo iaeii/anii — 5%, aiae?enueeo iiao ia iacaaa ??aeiith
aeiaeiee c iieooaaieo. ?acii c oei, iaeaea iieiaeia i?aaenoaaiee?a oe???
a?oie (45%) aaaaeathoue, ui ethaeeia iiaea iaoe aea? ??aei? iiae, ?aooa
(55%) ia?aeiiai?, ui ne?ae aeae?aoe uinue iaeia — ??aeiith iiaea aooe
o?eueee iaeia iiaa. ?iaeoee ?iciiae?e eiyeueiinoae o i?aaenoaaiee?a
oe?a?inoaa, ia?iaeaeaieo iica Oe?a?iith. Oe?a?inueeo iiao ca ??aeio
aecia? eeoa iieiaeia iieoaieo — 51%, oaaaea? ??aeieie iaeaea? iiae 36%;
o?, ooi ?aeaioeo?eo? naaa ianaiia?aae c aiae?enueeith iiaith,
noaiiaeyoue 13%. Ua e?aa?aeuei?oeie ? iiaeyaee uiaei iiaeeeaino?
ni?a?nioaaiiy aeaio ??aeieo iia. Iiceoeaio a?aeiia?aeue ia oea caieoaiiy
aeaee 90% iieoaieo, iaaaoeaio — o?eueee 10%. On? ?aniiiaeaioe, ui ia
aeiioneathoue ?nioaaiiy aeaio ??aeieo iia, aaaaeathoue nai?th ??aeiith
iiaith oe?a?inueeo. O?, ooi aaaaea? ??aeiith aiae?enueeo, noia?aenioeiai
? i?eoeeueieeaie i?ioeeaaeii? oi/ee ci?o. C?icoi?ei, ui oaeo ae
iiceoe?th caeiathoue ? o?, ooi ia i?aeoeoe? ?aae?coaaa oeae i?eioeei,
oiaoi a?oia aeai??aeiiiiaieo. Ioaea, a?oia oeo, ooi aaaaea?, ui iiaeeea?
aea? ??aei? iiae, aeeth/a? a naaa on?o aeai??aeiiiiaieo (39%) ? on?o
aiaei??aeiiiiaieo (12%), a oaeiae /anoeio oe?a?ii??aeiiiiaieo (49% — o
aeoaeeao iieacai? i?iii?oe?? a?ae caaaeueiiai neeaaeo oe??? ia’?aeiaii?
a?oie).

Noaoenoe/i? ?ic?aooiee iaaeaicia/ii aeacothoue ia caeaaei?noue iiaii?
na?aeiiino? a?ae i?noey ia?iaeaeaiiy. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ?
aeneiaethaaiiy ?aniiiaeaio?a:

«??aeia — aiae?enueea iiaa, y ooo ia?iaeeany, … eiaeia ethaeeia ia?
??aeio iiao, aea aiia ia?iaeeeany, oa, yeith aiia iiaea eaaoa aiai?eoe.
Oi a?eueo-iaio ? ??aeia iiaa. Oe?a?inueea ia? aooe ii?th ??aeiith
iiaith, ai aaoueee ? ae?aeon? ? ?io? i?aaeee aoee oe?a?ioe?, aea … a!
(iaoa? ?oeith). Iiaea aooe o?e /e /ioe?e [??aei? iiae]. sse ethaeeia
ae?enii cae?aia ?, oi e?ioa ?e» [?ioa?a’th — A.A.].

Aecenoaioe?eiee oaeoi? (a?iiaaeyinoai, Aaouee?aueia) i?e?iaeii
iia’ycaiee c eiioi?eaoeaiei: /anoiaaeeaai?noth a?aeiia?aeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiaeo, oe?ioith ioiieaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? noa?e,
?ioaineai?noth ciai?oiueiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iioieo (oaeaaa/aiiy, i?ana,
ianiaa eoeueoo?a oiui), a ioaea, e iiaiith eiiiaoaioe??th iin?y. Aeaeaei
ia an? a?e?iaae a?ae?aco aecia/athoue nai? oe?ii?ni? i??i?eoaoe; iiaia
eiyeuei?noue /anoi iaaoaa? ia aeneethceaiiai a eiii?ii?niiai oeio, eiee
??aeieie aeciathoueny aiaeii/an aea? iiae. Eiye?nonueeee ?aeyoea?ci
aeyaey?oueny oaeiae o ?icoi?ii? ??aeii? iiae ye ii/oooy c? ci?iiith
?ioaineai?noth, ui ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae iiaaie ye i?ae a?eueo
??aeiith ? iaio ??aeiith.

?icae?e 3. «Iiaia na?aeii?noue ? iiaia iiaaae?iea a aeaiiiaiiio
nioe?oi?». Aaaeeeaei iieacieeii ?ioaa?iaaiino? iniae a eoeueoo?ii-iiaia
na?aaeiaeua e?a?ie iinaeaiiy ? ?? aioo??oi?e aeeneo?n — aeei?enoaiiy
iaei??? /e aeaio (??aeoa e?eueeio) iia o iaa?oeeoeueiaaiiio
(aioo??oiueiio) iiaeaii?, a oaeiae ei?enooaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiith iiaith
/e ?? aeaiaioaie a ?icaeoiao, ia iia’ycaieo c i?ioeanii aiai??iiy.
Caieoaiiy «sseith iiaith Ae aeoia?oa, ia?aaoaath/e ia naiio??» aeeeeeaei
a ?aniiiaeaio?a iaea?eueoa ?icaeoi?a, noii?a?a ? aaaaiue. Ia?aaaaei?e
a?eueoino? iieoaieo i?eoaiaiia aioo??oiy aeeaein?y, yea a
iaecaaaeuei?oeo ?enao a?aeaeca?eaeth? no?aoaa?? ia?aieeaiiy eiae?a i?e
caoeiaiio iiaeaii?. Caeaaeii a?ae «ciai?oiuei?» eiioi?eaoeaii? neooaoe??
niiioaiii aieea?oueny a?aeiia?aeiee iaoe?iiaeueiee eiae. Eiioi?eaoeaio
neooaoe?th aioo??oiueiai aeeneo?no oa?aeoa?ecothoue oae? iciaee: (1)
i?noea ia?aaoaaiiy noa’?eoa (aaeiia, ia ?iaio?, a o?ainii?o? oiui), (2)
oaia ?icaeoi?a (?iaeeii? ni?aae, noinoiee c eieaaaie ii ?iaio?, iniaenoa
aeeooy, aeica?eey, iie?oeea ? iiae.), (3) oa?aeoa? aioo??oiueiai
aeeneo?no (aioo??oi?e ae?aeia c oyaiei ni?a?iciiaieeii, iieai?ea,
ii?aeuei? /e o?einionuee? ?icaeoie, iio?e na?aeiiino?, iieeoaa,
iaaeeoaoe?y oiui), (4) ?ia?oe?y iiia?aaeiueiai eiioi?eaoeaiiai aeoo.

Oa?aeoa? aioo??oiueiai aeeneo?no coiiaeaiee ia eeoa neooaoeaii
(iiia?aaei?e ni?a?iciiaiee, oaia ?icaeoi?a oiui), a e na?oiaeyaeiai
(a?aeaeai?noue iaaiei ?aeaaeai) oa aecenoaioe?eii (ia?oa iiaa, iiaia
a?ia?ao?y ?iaeeie ? o.i.). Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aii??e/ieo aeaieo
(na?ae/aiue ?aniiiaeaio?a) iaiaeue, i?e?iaeii aeieea? i?eiouaiiy i?i
eiioai?iiaai?noue oe?a?inueeiiiaiiai ieneaiiy aiae?ciaie, ?niai?ciaie /e
?ioeie iaea?ii?ciaie, oi/ e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e aca?iii?iieeiaiiy iia o
aioo??oiueiio aeeneo?n? aac aeiiiiiae niaoe?aeueieo iaoiaeee aei??yoe
iaiiaeeeai.

Oa?aeoa? aioo??oiuei? aeeaein?? nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae iaeaaeiino? aei
ia?oiai ai?a?aoe?eiiai /e iiaeaeueoeo iieie?iue. Aeey oeo, ooi ai?a?oaaa
o c??eiio a?oe?, aeoiaiiy oe?a?inueeith iiaith ia? ianaiia?aae
?ao?iniaeoeaiee /aniaee eiioaeno. Oea ia eeoa niiaaaee ieioeiai, aea e
aeoiee i?i no/anio Oe?a?io /e i?i naith «aoae/o aaouee?aueio», yea iiaea
ia?aaoaaoe e iica aaia?ao?/ieie iaaeaie iei?oiuei? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae (ii?oa?aei? ?aa?iie Iieueu?, Neiaa//eie oiui). Ni?eeoaaiiy
iiaeoiee c e?a?i naiai aeeoeinoaa ia?aaaaeii a?aeaoaa?oueny aac o/ano?
iiae, iaaooi? a ai?a?aoe??.

Aeey ia?iaeaeaieo o ae?anii?? a?eueoith i??ith oa?aeoa?ia
eiioaenooaeueia oa eiineooaoeaia coiiaeai?noue ia?aoiaeo ia oe?a?inueeo
iiao. Aioo??oi?e aeeneo?n noa? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi caoeiaiai iiaeaiiy /e
i?aeaioiaeith aei iueiai. Iiae?aiei /eiii i?ea’ycai? aei eiioi?eaoeaieo
neooaoe?e ? oae? oi?ie iacaoeiaiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiae, ye ienaiia
oai?/?noue, eenooaaiiy, iiaa niiaeae?iue, iieeoae oiui. Iiaa niiaeae?iue
— iniaeeaa oaia, ui caneoaiao? niaoe?aeueiiai aea/aiiy. Oa iaa?oue
i?eiaa?aei? niinoa?aaeaiiy aeathoue oe?eaaee iaoa??ae aeey c?noaaeaiiy.
Ii??aithth/e niiaeae?iiy a?e?iaa?a (iie?e?iaa?a) c ?oi?ie ?icaeoiaie /e
niiaaaeaie iayao, caoaaaeo?ii ae?acio oeiieia?/io iiae?ai?noue. ?o
nii??aeith? iniaeeaa cia/aiiy no?aoaa?? i?noey: eieae?caoe?y nthaeaoo
niiaeae?iiy aecia/a? «iaoe?iiaeuei?noue» iiae.

Ca aaaaoueia iciaeaie ia?aieeaiiy eiae?a o aioo??oiueiio iiaeaii?
a?e?iaa?a iaaaaeo? oa naia yaeua a a?oeeoeueiaai?e iia?. Iaeiae
aioo??oi?e aeeneo?n iaio caeaaeiee a?ae ??cieo nioe?aeueieo oiiaiinoae,
oiio eia?/ii i?eionoeoe, ui i?aeiiai? ia?aoiaee a?aeaoaathoueny a iueiio
a?eueo niiioaiii. Na?ae/aiiy ?aniiiaeaio?a aeathoue i?aenoaae aeey
i?eiouaiiy, ui aiie iiaeooue a?aeaoaaoeny ye o ianooaa? an??? iiaii?
nenoaie, oae ? ia iaeiiio /e aeae?eueeio c ?? no?oeoo?ieo ??ai?a o
aeaeyae? iaea?ii?/ieo ae?aieaiue (iai?eeeaae, ?ioiiiaieo oiiai, a?aiai
oiui). Oaeei /eiii, a?aeaoaa?oueny ia eeoa ia?aieeaiiy, a e /anoeiaa
ci?ooaaiiy eiae?a.

Nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c aeaiiiaii? e ii/anoe aeaieoeueoo?ii?
iniaenoino? ii-iiaiio noaaeoue ieoaiiy i?i iai?aiiai?noue
(semilingualism), ui ? noiooieeii ? ieiia?eueiei noai?iaeoeoii
aeaiiiaiino?. Ei?ioea aeao?i?oe?y oeueiai yaeua iiaea a iaoe oaeee
aeaeyae: oea aeaiiiai?noue ?c iaiiaiei ??aiai iiaii? eiiiaoaioe?? o iaio
iiaao. Oai?aoe/iei iane?aeeii iai?aiiaiino? iaea ae aooe
iai?aeiioi?eaoe?y, eiee aei o/aniee?a aeioiaeeoue eeoa /anoeia
iia?aeiieaiiy, a ?aooa aoaeoueny /a?ac oae caaiee i?aeeiaeiaee ooi.
I?ioa oea i?eiouaiiy ni?aaaaeeeaa ianaiia?aae uiaei ni?eeoaaiiy i?ae
iai?aiiaieie e iiiie?iaaaie. Aaeaea aeey naieo iai?aiiaoe?a ci?ooaaiiy
oa ia?aieeaiiy eiae?a ? i?aai?/iei noaiii; noeoiii iaeaea? iiae
ni?eeiathoueny ieie ye ?aeeia eiioi?eaoeaia na?aaeiaeua.

O e?a?i? iinaeaiiy ua a?eueoith i??ith, i?ae ia ?noi?e/i?e
aaouee?auei?, iniiaiei ooieoe?iiaeueiei ina?aaeeii iiae aoea e
caeeoa?oueny n?i’y. Ianaiia?aae c iath iia’yco?oueny iiiyooy «??aeia
iiaa». ?ciethth/e ?iaeeio a?ae ?ioiiiaiiai na?aaeiaeua, aiia a?ae?a?a?
iniaeeao ?ieue o noai?ai? aoiinoa?e ?iaeeiiiai caoeoeo oa ?ioeiiino?.
Niaoeeo?ea iiaiiai aeoiaaiiy ae?oae o ae?anii?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui
oe?a?inueea iiaa i?e?a/aia aooe caniaii ni?eeoaaiiy o aocueeiio eie?
aaiaoe/ii /e aoi?/ii nii??aeiaieo ethaeae. O ?ae?ii? ??aeia iiaa
aecenoaioe?eii aeoeaioiaaiei aeyaey?oueny naia ia?oee eiiiiiaio —
??aeia. Iiaa ye can?a eiioi?eaoe??, noa? aiaeii/an caniaii
aeneiioi?eaoe??. Oea aeiaaa? a?ae aaouee?a iniaeeaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo
no?aoaa?e.

Iaei??th c aieiaieo i?iaeai o iiaiiio aeoiaaii? ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
i?eiono e ia?aeiiaiiy, iniaeeai a aeeoy/iio oa i?aee?oeiaiio a?oe?, eiee
oi?io?oueny iniaeno?noue ? i?eoiaeeoue ona?aeiieaiiy nai?? ?iaeoino?
i?ae ?aooa ?iaaniee?a. Aioaaii?ci i?ae eiyeuei?noth aei aoiieoeueoo?ii?
ni?eueiioe, c iaeiiai aieo, oa noeo?eiith nie?aea?i?noth aeeoeie c?
nai?th a?eiaith a?oiith, c ?ioiai, caaino?th?oueny. O
aeeoy/i-i?aee?oeiaiio a?oe? iiiyooy “iaia’ycie”, ye ? aoaeue-yea ?ioa
oi?ia i?eiono, ni?eeia?oueny c aeeeeeii. O i?ioean? oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy
eiioi?eaoeaia noa?a aeeoeie no??iei ?icoe?th?oueny. Oe?a?inueea iiaa, ui
ianeoaiao? ianaiia?aae ?iaeeii? iio?aae, noa? ana iaio i?eaeaoiith aeey
?iciiae i?i aeeooy e?a?ie iinaeaiiy, aeey iaaiai?aiiy
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo, ?ioaeaeooaeueieo, i?ioan?eieo oai oiui.
A?ae/oaa?oueny a?ae oa?i?iieia??, ?ae?iiaoeee; iiooaeiee oene ia iiaoe?a
ni?aaeythoue ? a?aiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeii?ioth/i? iiae. Ona oea eyaa?
aaaeeei oyaa?ai ia na?aeii?noue ? i?aena?aeii?noue iiaoe?a.

O ?icaeoeo iiaii? iniaenoino? ae?anii?eo?a ae?oaiai e ianooiieo
iieie?iue iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue oae? aea? iiae??: aeinyaiaiy ieie
oe?eueiiai a?eo e iae?oaeaiiy. Oe?eueia aeeooy ia/a ?ic?eaa? caieiaia
?iaeeiia eiei oe?a?inueei? iiae. Ni?eeoaaiiy c aiaeiiiaieie ?iaanieeaie,
aeoeaia i?ciaaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue ia ?io?e-i?ae-?iaeeiia iia? ca
ei?ioeee /an ia eeoa ia?aoai?ththoue aeeoeio-iiiie?iaaa a a?e?iaaa, a e
ci?iththoue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae iiaaie. Iinooiiai L2 (ae?oaa iiaa:
aiae?enueea, ?niainueea oiui) noa? aeii?ioth/ith a iaeiiai c ae?oae,
iio?i i?iieea? a ?oi? ni?eeoaaiiy i?ae niaith e iinooiiai iioe?th?oueny
ia ?ioeo /eai?a n?i’?. Aeey ae?oae, ui iathoue noa?oeo a?ao?a ? nanoa?
oe?eueiiai a?eo, iaa?oue a oe?a?inueei-oe?a?inueeeo n?i’yo ?iaeeiia
aeaiiiai?noue ii/eia?oueny iano?eueee ?aii, ui aiie i?aeoe/ii ia
caciathoue o aeeoeinoa? oe?a?inueei? iaeiiiiaiino?.

A aoi?/ii iaeii??aeieo n?i’yo ia ??aee?ni? aeiaaeee, eiee c aaoueeii oa
iao??’th aeeoeia ni?eeo?oueny ??cieie iiaaie. Oea iiaea aooe aeeeeeaii
iaeaaei?noth eiaeiiai c aaouee?a aei ??cieo ai?a?aoe?eieo iieie?iue, a
oaeiae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie oiiaeiaaiiyie aaouee?a ? ae?oae. Iaa?oue yeui
iai? aaouee?a iaeaaeaoue aei oiai naiiai ai?a?aoe?eiiai iieie?iiy, ?oi?e
aeiai?a?aoe?eiee oa iiai?a?aoe?eiee noaae iiaea nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia
iiaeae? iiaii? iiaaae?iee. Iai?eeeaae, o?eaeoeyoee?oiy aia?eeaiea,
aaoueei yei? iioiaeeoue c Eieiie?, a iaoe c? Eueaiaa, ?iciiaey? a n?i’?
??cieie iiaaie: c aaoueeii — o?eueee ii-oe?a?inueee, c iao??’th — ?
ii-oe?a?inueee, ? ii-aiae?enueee. Ia iao iiaeyae, ae??oaeueiee aieea ia
oi?ioaaiiy iiaieo i??i?eoao?a eiaeiiai ?c caaaeaieo aaouee?a ni?aaei oa,
ui /ieia?e iio?aiea o e?a?io iinaeaiiy (ia ii/aoeo 50-o) aaea
noi?iiaaiei a?n?iiaaeoeyoee?oi?i thiaeii, a iaeaooiy iaoe — eeoa
aeaa’yoe??/iith ae?a/eieith. Nii/aoeo ?oi? ae?oe ?iciiaeyee o?eueee
ii-oe?a?inueee, i?eaeecii c aeaa’yoee?oiueiai a?eo aiie noaee iioae a?ae
aaouee?a ia?aoiaeeoe ia aiae?enueeo iiao. Caiaeii oey iiaa noaea aeey
ieo ia?aaaaeiei, a a?aeoae ? iniiaiei caniaii ni?eeoaaiiy. Oaeei /eiii,
a?eueoa ye iieiaeia ?iaeeie (a ?? ii/aoeiaiio neeaae?, aac cyoy e
iaa?noee) ia?aeoea ia aiae?enueeo iiao. Aiia, ii?yae c oe?a?inueeith,
noaea iiaith n?i’? (the language of my family).

Oe?a?inueea iiaa, ye ? a?eueo?noue ?ioeo iia iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, ia
caeaoia eiieo?oaaoe a ae?anii?? c iai?aiith iiaith e?a?ie iinaeaiiy.
Oiio aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii caa?aaeaiy iiae a ae?oae ? ooieoe?iiaeueia
naa?aaaoe?y oeo na?aaeiaeu, c yeeie iia’ycaia eiaeia c iia. Aaoueee
na?aeiii aaeathoueny aei oeueiai, uia oieeiooe /anoiai ia?aieeaiiy
eiae?a oa iaea?ii?/iino? iiae nai?o ae?oae. Oea neeaaeiaa /anoeia oae
caaii? «caoenii? ?cieyoe??» aoiiiiaii? a?oie. Aeia? Oaoaai aeaoaeueii
iieno? oeae oaiiiai ia i?eeeaae? ii?aacueei? aeoiieoeueoo?ii? a?oie a
NOA. Iiae?ai? neooaoe?? aeieeathoue oaeiae o ai?a?aio?a ?ioeo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

O i?ae?icae?e? «E?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e ?iaeeiii? aeeaein??» iaaaaeaii
noaoenoe/i? ?ic?aooiee, io?eiai? aiane?aeie aieaooaaiiy, ca oaeeie
?oa?eeaie: ni?eeoaaiiy c aaoueeaie, ni?eeoaaiiy c a?aoaie e nano?aie,
ni?eeoaaiiy a iiae?oaeae?, ni?eeoaaiiy c ae?oueie. O ianooiieo
i?ae?icae?eao noaoenoe/ieie iieacieeaie i?aaenoaaeaia oaeiae iiaia
iiaaae?iea ae?anii?eo?a iica ?iaeeiiei eieii, oa iiai? i??i?eoaoe a
?ae?a?eii-oea?eiai?e noa??.

Oe?a?ioe?, ia a?aei?io a?ae a?eueoino? ?ioeo ae?anii?, caaaeaee
i?aaioee ooaa?aeeoe ia eeoa ?iaeeiiee, a e nioe?aeueiee noaoon nai??
iiae. A?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i?, i?ioan?ei?, ienoaoeuee?, iaoeia?, ina?oi?
oa ?io? i?aai?caoe?? e onoaiiae noaaaee ca noi?nieoeoaii aaaeeeaeie
ina?aaeeaie iioe?aiiy e ?icaeoeo iiae.

Iiaia iie?oeea ni?eueiioe aeyaey?oueny ianaiia?aae o aeoiai?e
ae?yeueiino? aeeoy/i-thiaoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Naia aiie iieeeeai?
noai?eoe na?aaeiaeua aeey ni?eeoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ae?oae iica
?iaeeiith, aeaoe oe?a?inuee?e iia? ooieoe?iiaeueio ia?niaeoeao a
iaeaeeae/iio e a?aeaeaeaiiio iaeaooiueiio. Uii?aaaea, i?ioenoaaeaiiy
?ioeiii? eaia?iino? oe?a?inueei? iiae ye iciaee cae?eoiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaooi einiiiie?oe/i?e a?aee?eoino? aiae?enueei?, yea
neiaie?co? aia?eeainueeo (? oe?oa — cao?aeio, iiaea?io, o?aai?noe/io)
oeea?e?caoe?th, oneeaaeith? aeinyaei?noue oe??? iaoe. Ia oeueiio oe?
aeyae aeneethceaiiai iiaiiai eiye?cio caeathoueny iieiae? noa?iiiaeiith
aeno?aaaaaioi?noth. Ine?eueee ia?aaoaaiiy a oe?a?inueeiio oiaa?enoa?
iiiie?iaa?a-aia?eeaioe?a (?iaee/?a, eieaa, ciaeiieo) noa? /ei?ac
cae/i?oei yaeuai, oi /anoioi?noue ia?aieeaiiy c oe?a?inueei? iiae ia
aiae?enueeo (ia i?ioeaaao cai?ioiiio i?ioeania? — c aiae?enueei? ia
oe?a?inueeo) aeaaeae? c?inoa?. Caaaeueiei noa?aioeiii iiaii? iiaaae?iee
noaea anioe?eiaai?noue oe?a?inueei? iiae c i?aaenoaaieeaie noa?oiai
iieie?iiy, oiaoi c iieie?iiyi aaouee?a /e ae?ae?a, aaeaea e o ?iaeeiiiio
eie? ni?eeoaaiiy ii-oe?a?inueee a?aeaoaa?oueny ianaiia?aae c ieie.

I?ioyaii inoaii?o aeanyoee?oue cacia? nooo?aeo ci?i no?oeoo?a naii?
?iaeeie e ?iaeeiiiai aeeooy. Iieiae? iiae?oaeaey oaia? ??aeei aeeaooue
?acii c? nai?ie aaoueeaie. AE?iea aeaaeae? /ano?oa i?aoeth? iica aeiiii,
ia iaiaaeoth/enue o?aaeeoe?eiith eieenue ?ieeth aeiiaoiuei? ainiiaeei?.
Oaeei /eiii, nooo?ai ci?iththoueny e?euee?ni? i?iii?oe?? i?ae
oe?a?inueeei iiaeaiiyi o ?iaeeiiiio eie? (aaoueee—ae?oe—iioee) oa
aiae?enueeei iiaeaiiyi iica ?iaeeiith — c ?iaanieeaie, eieaaaie oiui.
Aeuee ??aaiue i?eaooe?a aea? ciiao iieiaeei n?i’yi, ye? iathoue ae?oae
oe?eueiiai a?eo, iie?iooaaoe nai? aeeoeia? oiiae, ia?anaeyth/enue c
oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie i?noa, aea ia?aaaaeii ciaoiaeyoueny oe?a?inuee?
oeiee, o ia?aaei?noy. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo ia aei?iao aei oeiee
aeiaiaeeoueny aeo?a/aoe aeecueei aeaio aiaeei. *anoeia n?iae noi?/ii
ia?aiineoue oeth ci?io, aea aeey aaaaoueio oaea aei?iaoaaiiy
aeyaey?oueny caiaaeoi aaaeeei ? aiie ia?aaiaeyoue aeeoeio aei
aia?eeainueei? oeiee o nai?e ieieeoe?.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a caa?aaeai? aoiieoeueoo?ii?, cie?aia, e iiaii?
niaaeueie caeia? ?ae?a?eia aeeooy. Aaaaoi i?aaenoaaiee?a noa?oiai
iieie?iiy e aeae? caa??aa? ia?io?yeuei? iiaeyaee ia ?aeaioe/i?noue, o
yeeo o?nii nie?oathoueny ?ae?a?ei? oa aoiieoeueoo?i? oyaeaiiy.
Neie?aoeci ?ae?a?eieo oa aoi?/ieo oe?iiinoae ? o?aaeeoe?e, yeee
noi?ioaaany ua ia ?noi?e/i?e aaouee?auei?, noa? a ae?anii??
a?ae/ooi?oei, i?eaiaey/e aei «inay/aiiy» aoi?/iino? e aiaeii/an
«aoi?caoe??» ?ae?a??. Ia oea?eao e aein? aeeaeyoueny ye ia aeaea?aei
i?eeo/aiiy aei a??e e aei oe?a?inueeino? aiaeii/an.

Iiaia ae?yeuei?noue a??oth/iai a?e?iaaa a eiioaeno? oea?eiaiiai aeeooy
ia? aeaa aei??e: aioo??oi? iiaeaiiy (iieeoaa, caa?oaiiy aei Iaaanieo
Nee), yea iiaea aooe a?oeeoeueiaaiei, /e iaa?oeeoeueiaaiei (?iiae?
iai?aa?oeeoeueiaaiei — iioaiee), oa ciai?oi? iiaeaiiy. sseui ia?oa
i?aaenoaaeaia aeeeth/ii i?iaeoeoeaiith ae?yeuei?noth iiaoey, oi a
ae?oaiio ia?aaaaea? ?aoeaioeaia ae?yeuei?noue — neooaiiy i?iiia?ae?,
aeooiaieo ianoaiia, o/anoue o e?oo?a??, niia?ae?, ia?yaeao o?auaiiy,
oethao oiui. ?iciaaeoaaiiy ia ciai?oi?e ? aioo??oi?e aeyae ? oiiaiei,
ine?eueee aiie ia?aaoaathoue o iino?eiiio ca’yceo. Ia?aieeaiiy eiae?a
aeey aaaaoueio iiaoe?a ? i?aai?/iei noaiii ye a?oeeoeueiaaiiai, oae ?
iaa?oeeoeueiaaiiai iiaeaiiy, aeeth/ii c iiaith iieeoae.

Ia?ao?yeueia a?iiaaea iaiaaa?oueny aieeaaoe ia aea?? iiae
aiaineoae?iiy. Ia ?ac iiaia ieoaiiy noaaaei i?e/eiith eiioe?eoo i?ae
nayuaieeii ? a?iiaaeith. Iaeaaeaeaaoi?oa ni?iiiaei? ?aaaoaaoe ia iio?aae
nai?? a?iiaaee aeaiiiai? ianoe??, ye? caeaoi? cai?iiiioaaoe /e oi
/a?aoaaiiy aiaineoae?iue oe?a?inueeith oa aiae?enueeith iiaaie a
aaaeai?e aeey ia?ao?yi i?iii?oe??, /e oi ci?oaia aiaineoae?iiy, a yeiio
iiia?ai?iii aeei?enoiaothoueny iaeaea? iiae. Eiaeia ia?ao?y iae?a? na?e
niin?a ?ica’ycaiiy iiaii? i?iaeaie: ie?ai? aiaineoae?iiy oe?a?inueeith
oa aiae?enueeith iiaith aai ni?euei? aiaineoae?iiy a aeaiiiaiiio ?aaeei?
/e ii?aeiaiiy ia?oiai e ae?oaiai i?aeoiae?a — iaeiiiiai? e ci?oai?
aiaineoae?iiy.

I?ae /an aeaiiiaii? neoaeae ia?aieeaiiy eiaeo iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny
iaeii/anii a iiai?e ia?o?? ???ay, aeeyeiia e oi?o aai o oi?i?
ni?a?nioaaiiy ??ciiiiaieo ?aaeei?a o ia?o?? ???ay e aeeyeiia, c iaeiiai
aieo, oa oi?o, c ?ioiai, iai?eeeaae:

???ae: Peace will be with all.

Oi?: ? aeooia? oai?io.

Aeeyeii: Let us love one another so that we may be of one mind in
confessing.

Oi?: Iooey, ? Neia, ? Nayoiai Aeooa, O?ieoeth ?aeeiinouio ?
ia?icae?eueio.

Aeeyeii: The doors, the doors! In wisdom let us be attentive.

Oi?: A??oth a ?aeeiiai Aiaa Iooey, anaaea?aeeoaey …

O/anieee oaeeo iacae/ieo (aeey iiiie?iaa?a) aiaineoae?iue, iinooiiai
aaeaiooth/enue aei ieo, ia?anoathoue caa?oaoe oaaao ia ??cieoeth eiae?a
ocaaae? e oiio ia caaaeaee caeaoi? a?aeiia?noe ia caieoaiiy, yeith
iiaith oa /e ?ioa o?aca cao/eoue i?ae /an e?oo?a??. Iiiiaioai «iiaii?
i?oaieie» oaea aiaineoae?iiy aeaea?oueny i?ioei?e?iaeiei ? iai?eeiyoiei.
Ii?yaeie, i?e yeiio a ??ciee /an a?aeaoaathoueny ia?aeaeuei?
aiaineoae?iiy eiaeiith c iia, oaeiae noai?th? nai? i?iaeaie: iiaia
naa?aaaoe?y ae?eeoue ia?ao?? ia «aoi?/io» e «aia?eeainueeo» /anoeie.

Ia oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ae?anii?eo?a cia/iee aieea
ni?aaey? iiiianoeeii. Oi/ a?eueo?noue ai?a?aio?a iioiaeeea ?c
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, iacae a?iiaaenueeeo, iieiae?aeieo,
ienoaoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, nii?oeaieo oiaa?enoa, caeeaae?a a?aeii/eieo
oiui a?aeaeca?eaethaaee ia?aaaaeaiiy a ?oiueiio eie? niai?ieoeueeeo
iano?i?a. Oiiii?ie Aei?i?i, Iieoaaa, Aaoo?ei, *i?ia ii?a iio?aieyee a
iaeei ?yae c ?iaiai Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, noath/e neiaieaie
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino?. Aaeeaaiiy oeeo iiiianoe/ieo ?aae?e a
?aeeiiio eiioaeno? ni?eyei ?icoe?aiith i?inoi?iaeo ?aiie iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino?, iaaaaeoth/e aeo?aeoeyi c Aieei?, Aoeiaeie, Caea?iaooy e
Aaee/eie oa ?oi?i iauaaeeai, ui ?oiy aaouee?aueia — oea aaouee?aueia
Eiaca?y ? ui oea aaeeea ii?nueea aea?aeaaa:

«21 aa?aciy a?aeaoany eiioea?o a /anoue Oa?ana Oaa/aiea a oe?a?inuee?i
*i?iiii?nuee?i Aeii?» (A?eueia ne. — Oi?iioi, 15.05.1965, n. 11).

I?a?iaaoeaa ?iaioaaiiy a?iiaaenueeeo onoaiia, ui ia?aaoaa? a ?oeao
ea??aieoeoaa, ? aaaeeeaei ?ino?oiaioii iiaii? iie?oeee. Iaa?oue
iiaa?oiaee iaeyae noia?iiai ?aia?ooa?o iaca a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e
aeyaey? eiai i?aaiaoe/io ci???ioiaai?noue ia oi?ioaaiiy na?aeiiino?
ae?anii?ii? a?iiaaee.

Ia o?eueee eiioi?eaoeaiee a?e?iaa?ci — uiaeaiia ni?eeoaaiiy c
iaoeaioeyie e?a?ie iinaeaiiy — aieeaa? ia iiaio iniaeno?noue
ae?anii?eoa. ? i?aenoaae aeey cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa?i?ia aecenoaioe?eiee
a?e?iaa?ci. Oea a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy o na?aeiiino? a?e?iaaa aeai?noi?
i?e?iaee aoiieoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua, ui ioi/o? eiai a e?a?i?
iinaeaiiy. Iii?oia ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? oeueiai na?aaeiaeua iaeaaeeoue
aeaniei iacaai oa ?iaiai:

«Ieiua “Oe?a?ia” a Eo??oea? a?ey Iai’yoieea Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, ie?oaeaia
aa?ieie caeaieie ynaiyie, aeaoe?yie, o?ii?/ieie a?ac?euenueeeie
aea?aaaie. A Eo??o?a? ? oieueeei?i? a?oie “Iieoaaa” ? “Aa?a?iie”» (Oe?.
neiai. — Ia?eae, 12.04.1992, n. 7).

Aecenoaioe?eia ?icaeai?i?noue na?oo, a yeiio iai’yoiee Oaa/aieia?
ioi/aiee o?ii?/ieie a?aceeuenueeeie aea?aaaie, a oieueeei?i? a?oie
iinyoue iacao aeaeaei? Iieoaae oa ia iaio aecioe/iiai aa?a?ieo,
a?ae/oaa?oueny ianaiia?aae /a?ac iiao. O oeueiio na?o? aeeaooue Ae???i
Nia?a/einueeee, ·onoaai Aei?iooe, Eth?n Eaeaiee oa ?oi? oiaa?eo? c
iano?eueee ae iacae/ieie ?iaiaie. O ni?eeiyoo? ca?oa?aeieo oe?a?ioe?a
oae? ii?aeiaiiy ia ? /eiinue ea?iaaaeueiei /e aeno?aaaaaioiei. Cieaeaiee
ii??a /ooeeaino? aei iaea?ii?ci?a i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai ieaio coiiaeaiee
no?aoaa??th aeaeeaaiiy ca ?aooiie aaeaioaoe?? naaa aei na?aaeiaeua e
na?aaeiaeua aei naaa.

Iiiceoe?y na?aaeiaeuo, ni?ioea anei?eyoe??, iaaooue, i?eiee ia aoee a
ae?anii?? «/enoeie» ca nai?th i?e?iaeith. Aiie caaaeaee aoee
eiioai?iiaai? ?aea?th i?ioenoiyiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae ?io?e ia iaoa?eeo —
a Oe?a?i?. I?iaieioaiiy Oe?a?iith aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? ia o?eueee
iineeeoue i?anoeae oe?a?inueei? iiae o na?o?, aea e ii?ooeoue iaeei ?c
ia??aeieo eaiai?a iaoe?iiaeueii-iiaiiai eiye?cio a ae?anii??. Oey aeoiea
cao/eoue oe?eeii a?aeaa?oi a ?icaeoiao aaaaoueio iieooaaieo. Niiae?aaiiy
ia oa, ui oe?a?inueea iiaa iaeaaeiei /eiii ?icaeaaoeiaoueny a Oe?a?i? e
ni?aaeyoeia aeeoo?aeaeiee aieea ia ae?anii?o, — oea ?aaeoa ineoieia?/ia
?aaeoe?y ia ca?eueiaiiy a?ae oyaa?y a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?? aeieth,
i?ae ?aoe?iiaeueii ia??oioiaaiee i?iaiic, caniiaaiee ia ?aae?noe/i?e
ioe?ioe? neooaoe??.

?ano?n aoiiiiaii? a?oaeueiino? ae?anii?e ia aaciaaeiee, oe?eee ?yae
neiioii?a aeaco? iei? ia eiai ia?aaee?eciaee noai. O a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a oe?a?inueea iiaa ia /oaeei? ia? ?ao?iniaeoeaio i?iaeoe?th, ye
o ieai? aecenoaioe?eiiio (oea ianaiia?aae iiaa e?a?ie, a ye?e nai?
?aniiiaeaioe /e ?oi? i?aaeee aeeee eieenue, a ia aeeaooue oaia?), oae ?
a ieai? ooieoe?iiaeueiiio: ae?oe c ae?aeaie e aaoueeaie aiai?youe
ia?aaaaeii ii-oe?a?inueee, a i?ae niaith, a iiae?oaeae? oa c
i?aaenoaaieeaie iieiaeoiai iieie?iiy aeaaeae? a?eueoa ii-aiae?enueee.
Iiceoe?? iia?eai?a aoiiiiaiiai eiye?cio neaaoathoue. I?e?iaeiee i?ioean
iiiaeaiiy iieie?iue oa iiaeaeueoa ?ioaa?aoe?y a aeeooy e?a?ie iinaeaiiy,
eiia??ii, i?eaaaeooue iaeaeeae/ei /anii aei nooo?ai? e?aa?ae?caoe??
iiaii? iie?oeee oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe.

?icae?e 4. «Eaene/iee ia?aeae?ci ? ooieoe?iiaeueia no?aoeo?eaoe?y
iiae». Eaene/iee ia?aeae?ci noaa iianyeaeaiiei yaeuai o iiai?e i?aeoeoe?
ae?anii?e a?ae ia?oeo ?ie?a ?? ?nioaaiiy a Iiaiio Na?o?. C’yaeeany
aaeeea e?euee?noue aiaeiiiaieo caiice/aiue ia iicia/aiiy iiaeo iiiyoue
oa ?aae?e c aia?eeainueeiai aeeooy, aeaye? aia?eeai?cie eiieo?oaaee c
?nioth/eie aaea a oe?a?inuee?e iia? ieoiieie neiaaie /e aeaai?oeie
caiice/aiiyie. Ine?eueee a ae?anii?? iiaa ?icaeaaeany a ?cieyoe??
(ooieoe?iiaeuei?e, ?aeaieia?/i?e, ineoieia?/i?e), onoaeaia a Oe?a?i?
oa?i?iieia?y e iiiaieeaoo?a a?aeiia eeoa iaaaaaoueii iin?yi iiae, ? oiio
oae? neiaa a caaaeueiiio aaeeoeo a?aeoiaeyoue ia ae?oaee ieai, noathoue
iecueei/anoioieie. Iai?eeeaae, a?aei?iiino? i?ae nenoaiith i?aai?caoe??
ina?oe a Oe?a?i? e NOA iaaeathoue aia?eeainueeiai eiei?eoo iiiyooth high
school (aoeaaeueii aeniea oeiea), ui a?aeiia?aea? iaoiio «na?aaeiy
oeiea». Aiae?enueea neiainiieo/aiiy ni?eeia?oueny ye aacaea?aaeaioia
(oeueiio ni?ey? e a?aei?ii?noue i?eeiaoiee?a high :: na?aaei?e o
aioo??oi?e oi?i? oeeo ci?noiaeo aiaeia?a), oiio eiai ia?aaaaeii
aaeeaathoue o o?aine?eaiaaiiio aeaeyae? — aaeneoe. O i?ioean
o?aine?eioe?eiiai caiice/aiiy aoyaothoueny e ?io? iiiyooy c
a?aeiia?aeii? oaiaoe/ii? a?oie.

?ano?n aeania oe?a?inueeeo ae?aaeaeueieo cania?a iiaii? iaioeie cacia?
a ?ioiiiaiiio ioi/aii? iii?oiiai nei?i/aiiy /a?ac ??aeeiaaeeaai?noue /e
iaaaeeaai?noue, a a i?ioean? niiioaiiiai iiaeaiiy eiai o/anieeai
aeiaiaeeoueny aeae?aoe iaeei?ioo? oeyoe aei aca?ii?icoi?iiy. Neiaii, yea
aeyaey?oueny iaiioaao?, ? iae/ano?oa no?aeeeiaa neiai, aai i?inoi
aiae?enueea neiai, caoeiaa oi?ia yeiai iaoaeaeeo?o/ oe?a?i?co?oueny, a
oi e caeeoa?oueny a ia?a?niiio aeaeyae?. Aeiiae aei /enoioe iiae
noathoue i?e oeueiio aea?oaith eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?ioeano. I?iaeaia
ianiaeo aacao o oiio, ui aiie i???ioiaai? ia oe?iea eiei /eoa/?a, cia/ia
/anoeia yeeo o iiaoo? iineoaiao?oueny i?inoi??//yi ? aeayeeo aeania
e?oa?aoo?ieo ne?a iiaea i?inoi ia ?icoi?oe. Oiio a aeoaeeao, o eaieao /e
ia?aeaeueii a oaeno? iiaeathoueny oe?ieiaaeeaai? «i?inoiia?iaei?»
a?aeiia?aeieee e?oa?aoo?ieo ne?a (nai???aeiee ia?aeeaae ia no?aeee /e c
no?aeeeo, aae a aeiaeiiai c /eoa/?a ia caeeoeeiny noii?ao, i?i ui
eaeaoueny).

Aiae?coth/e ye?niee noai iiae a oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii??, aaaeeeai a?aoe
aei oaaae ?? ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/io no?aoeo?eaoe?th. ? i?aenoaae
aiai?eoe i?i ?nioaaiiy o?ueio ??ai?a, ui aecia/athoueny ianaiia?aae
nooiaiai iiaii? eiiiaoaioe?? iniae: 1) i?inoi??//y /e nai???aeiee
oe?a?inueei-aiae?enueeee no?aeee; 2) ?iciiaia iiaa c ie?aieie
ae?aieaiiyie aia?eeai?ci?a, ?aa?iiae?ci?a, iieii?ci?a, ?oneci?a oiui; 3)
e?oa?aoo?ia iiaa, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae e?oa?aoo?iiai noaiaea?oo
no/anii? Oe?a?ie o?eueee aeayeeie iniaeeainoyie i?aaiieno oa iacia/ieie
a?aei?iiinoyie ii?iaoeaii? eaeneee. C?icoi?ei, ui aeae?eaiiy oaeeo
??ai?a ? oiiai?noth ? ?o /?oea ?iciaaeoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? ia caaaeaee
iiaeeeaa, ine?eueee ?niothoue ii?oa?aei? ciie.

Aeey aaaaoueio i?inoi??//y ? aaaeeeaei caniaii iiaeieaiiy no?aoo ia?aae
iiaith. O neooaoe?yo niiioaiiiai ni?eeoaaiiy oiio, ooi ia aeineoue
oiaaiaii aieiae?? oe?a?inueeith iiaith, aeiaiaeeoueny /anoi aeae?aoe
iaeia c aeaio: aai ?iciiaeyoe no?aeeeii, aai ae ia ni?eeoaaoeny ??aeiith
iiaith cian?i, inoa??aath/enue e?eoeee ca ?? iaaeinoaoith /enoioo.
Aaeueiii iiaea aooe iaa?oue ia nai no?ao ia?aae /e?ienue e?eoe/ieie
caoaaaeaiiyie, aeneiaeaieie aaiein /e iiaeoiee, a ii/oooy ni?iio /e
i?iaeie ia?aae naiei niaith. Oae? iiaithaaiiy iiaeooue aanoe aei aoa/? a
iia/aieo /e aei ia?aoiaeo ia aiae?enueeo iiao.

Cia/ia i?noea a ?iaio? a?aeaiaeeoueny ?ioiiiaiei caiice/aiiyi —
ieoaiith, ui aeeeeea? iaea?eueoa aeeneon?e i?ae ae?anii?ith e aoi?/iei
iaoa?eeii. Oea coiiaeaii ieceith i?e/ei, na?aae yeeo ? e noa’?eoeai?, e
ia’?eoeai?. Aca?ieie oe?a?inueei? iiae c ?iicaiieie iiaaie a ae?anii??,
c iaeiiai aieo, ? a Oe?a?i?, c ?ioiai, a?ae??ciythoueny ca
?ioaineai?noth (ae?anii?a — oea uiaeaiiee eiioaeoiee a?e?iaa?ci),
aecenoaioe?eiei oeii ? iiia?aaei?i nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iei aeina?aeii. O
a?eueoino? ?ica?aeie ia oeth oaio aeaea?aeii aeaieo ? ae?oeiaai?
aeaeaiiy: ia??iaeeea, ooaeiaeiy, ioae?oeenoe/ia e iaoeiaa e?oa?aoo?a oa
neiaieee. I?ioa aeey e?euee?niiai aiae?co — aecia/aiiy i?iii?oe?eieo
ni?a?aeiioaiue i?ae eaene/ieie aa??aioaie — oeueiai iaaeinoaoiuei. Oiio
a aeena?oaoe?? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? ??ciiiiaieo aeaiaio?a
aeei?enoaii oaeiae cia/iee ianea «iieueiaiai iaoa??aeo», c?a?aiiai
oeyoii aaciina?aaeiueiai aieaooaaiiy iin??a iiae. O ?iaio? iaaaaeaii
noaoenoe/i? aeai? uiaei iaeeiaaeoeyoe aa??aioieo a?oi, eiaeia c yeeo
aeieeea aiane?aeie ia?aeeaaeo a?aeiia?aeiiai aiae?enueeiai
neiaa-noeioeo. Oea nai???aeia ciiaeoaaiiy eaene/ii? nenoaie, yea
oa?aeoa?eco? noai ? oaiaeaioe?? ?? ?icaeoeo ia ??ai? aeeaiai iiaeaiiy.

A?ae noa?oiai aei iieiaeoiai iieie?iiy iin??a iiae a?eueo?noue
ianoaaeaieo ne?a aeyaey? niaae oaeeaaiiy aeeaa?aaioieo oi?i — oeo, ui
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae e?oa?aoo?ii ii?iaoeaieo o iaoa?eeia?e Oe?a?i?.
Oeae i?ioean a?aeaoaa?oueny iacaeaaeii a?ae oa?aeoa?o iniiae:
neia’yinueea (i?aeniiiy, ae?oaeeia, caeiaa, eioee?aea, eiiaiee i’y/) /e
ianeia’yinueea (?iaac?y, ioeeaa?iee, ?inoeoooe?y). Aeiyoeii o iaoiio
ei?ion? ? o?eueee aiaei-iieii?ci aaeiiooaaoe, /anoioi?noue oaeeaaiiy
yeiai ia ciaioeeany. Iii?e c?inoath/ee aieea aiae?enueei? iiae, iniiaiee
«ae?aeia» ? eaene/ia i?ioenoiyiiy a?aeaoaathoueny ia i?ae oe?a?inueeith
e aiae?enueeith, a i?ae iiaaie, ui aoee a ieioeiio e /anoeiai
caeeoathoueny iei? aioaaii?noaie (oe?a?inueeith ? iieuenueeith oa
oe?a?inueeith ? ?in?enueeith).

?icae?e 5. «Eaa??eio i?aaiieniiai aeoae?cio». Noai iiaii? na?aeiiino? a
iie?oeciaai?e /e ?aeaieia?ciaai?e ni?eueiio? ni?aaey? cia/iee aieea ia
naio nenoaio iiae, ianaiia?aae ia ?? neiaieeiaee neeaae oa i?oia?ao?th.
Eiio?ieueiaaia aeaaeith oii?ioaaiiy i?aaiieno a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i?,
yea aoei neeaaeiaith /anoeiith anei?eyoe?eii? iie?oeee, aeeeeeaei
i?e?iaeiee ni?ioea a?eueoino? ca?oa?aeiiai oe?a?inoaa. Iiaa, cie?aia
i?aaiien, iio?aieee a noa?o iie?oe/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy. Ca aeueoa?iaoeao
eieii?caoi?nueeiio i?aaiienia? aoei aeciaii oae caaiee oa?e?anueeee
i?aaiien 1928—1929 ??. A?i oe?eeii a?aeiia?aeaa iiioey?i?e o ae?anii??
niai?ieoeuee?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e ?aeaieia??, ine?eueee iaa i?ioyaii iaaiiai
/ano io?oe?eiee noaoon ? aoa /eiiei ia an?o oe?a?inueeeo caieyo (ia
a?aei?io a?ae nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a — ?aa?iiaeueieo oa «aaoi?nueeeo»
i?aaiien?a). ?acii c oei, a?i ia iicaaaeaiee na?eicieo aaae oa
iaiine?aeiaiinoae, ui aeciathoue ? iiaiciaaoe? ae?anii?e. I?aaiienia
aia?o?y, coiiaeaia iaaeinoaoi?i ciaiyi eiai i?aaee oa aieeaii
ae?oeiaaii? i?iaeoeoe?? c aoi?/iiai iaoa?eea, aaea ia iaeia aeanyoee?ooy
aeeeeea? caiaiiei?iiy ? na?aae i?ioan?eieo o?eieia?a, ? a oe?oeo eieao
oe?a?inueei? a?iiaaee. sse cacia/a? A. Iaianoe?nueeee, aeoeaiee o/aniee
i?aaiienii? aeeneon?? a 60—70-o ?ieao, «o?aaaae?y oa?e?anueeiai
i?aaiieno a oiio, ui a?i ia? aeiaie? iai?iioe?a, aea ia ia? i?aeoee?a,
ioi/eo aea/eoe eiai ? aaeeaaoe» (No/ani?noue, 1979, ? 6, n. 12).

Aeaeaiiy, ui aoee a iiiceoe?? aei anueiai ?aaeyinueeiai, i?eioeeiiai ia
ei?enooaaeeny «?aaeyinueeei» i?aaiienii. Eiai aaeeaaee o?eueee
ia/eneaii? a ae?anii?? aacaoe i?ieiioi?noe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy. Ianaiia?aae
i?eaa?oa? oaaao aeei?enoaiiy e?oa?e ?, yea ? iaeiii?oi?oei iieacieeii
o??? /e ?ioi? i?aaiienii? ci???ioiaaiino? ae?oeiaaiiai i?aaio. I?ioa a
aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ? ia?oei, ? ae?oaei ia aaeaaaeiny aooe aei e?ioey
iine?aeiaieie. I?i?aaeyinuee? aeaeaiiy ia??aeei a??oeee noi?ioe
i?aaiienieo noaiaea?o?a O?N?, iaaeeaeath/enue o aea/iio aei nai?o
iiiiaio?a, ? iaaiaee, aioe?aaeyinuee? aeaeaiiy ?iiae? canoiniaoaaee
«i?aenia?onuee?» i?oia?ao?/i? aa??aioe, ianaiia?aae o a?aeoai?aii?
eaoeiiaeoaa?oieo g, h, iaeaoae?caoe?? [e] oiui. Ona oea, iaiaaii,
o?aieyeiny ieiiaie? ye c iaeiiai, oae ? c ?ioiai aieo. ? oi/
iaa?no?aeuei? a?aei?iiino? i?ae aeaiia i?aaiienieie i???ioaoe?yie
caaaeii caa??aaeeny (ia?aaeon?i o ?oiueiio e?euee?nii-i?iii?oe?eiiio
aeya?), ?nioaaea iaaia eiii?ii?nia ciia, ui noiyea ia caaaae? no?iaiio
i?oia?ao?/iiio naia?aoeciia?. Ia?aaeoiiae ??cieo iaiine?aeiaiinoae o
ia?aaea/? g, h, i’yeoaii? [e] oa ?yae? ?ioeo aeiaaee?a caeeaaeai? a
naiiio i?aaiieniiio eiii?ii?n? 1927—1929 ??. Ooieoe?iiaeueio ia?niaeoeao
oeueiio oaiiiaiia? iaaeaea eiaeeo?eaoe?y ia?aeaeueieo oi?i aeayeeo ne?a
o i?aaiieniiio neiaieeo A.Aieineaae/a: aaeioa ? ?aeueioa, ae?ae ? ?e?ae,
aeiaon ? ?eueia, Aieaioa ? ·iei?ioa, a?iii ? ??iii, a?oa ? aa?oa, aeei ?
aaeei, Aeeaaea ? Aaeeaaea, o?aaai ? ao?a?ai oiui.

Iaea?eueoa i?eeeaae?a iaiine?aeiaiiai aeio?eiaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
i?oia?ao?/ieo i?eioeei?a aea? iiiianoeeii, ine?eueee ia an? aaia?ao?/i?
iacae oa ?iaia iaeiaeiai iioe?ai? e aeaeaei ia an? iathoue ii?iaoeaio
oi?io, cao?eniaaio neiaieeaie. I?oia?ao?/i? ?icoiaeaeaiiy ia??aeei
o?aieythoueny a oiio naiiio ae?oeiaaiiio i?aai? a aeecueeeo ca /anii
ioae?eaoe?yo, ?iiae? a oiio naiiio iiia??:

Ai?e?y (Aaai?a?ae. — A?thnnaeue, 1983, ? 6, n. 350), Aiae?y (oai naii,
n. 389); Aaeuea?y (Oe?. a?no?. — Ae?o?ieo, 03.01.1993, n. 6), Aaeue??y
(A?eueia ne. — Oi?iioi, 26.06.1965, n. 1); Ia?aaaae, O?oaaae (Iiaa ci?y.
— *?ea?i, 19.06.1988, n. 2), O?o?aae (A?eueia ne. — Oi?iioi, 26.06.1965,
n. 11), Ia?a?aae (Iieiaea Oe?. — Oi?iioi; I. E., 1990—91, ? 12—1, n.
12);

Eieoia?y (A?niee. — A?ii?ia?, 15.02.1988, n. 2), Eiethia?y (oai naii,
15.05.1988, n. 18), Eieoia?y (A?eueia ne. — Oi?iioi, 26.06.1965, n. 11),
Eiethia?y (oai naii, 05.06.1965, n. 1); Ein Aiaeaeaean (Iaoe. o?eaoia. —
I. E., 06.03. 1988, n. 5), Euein Aiaeaeaean (Aaai?a?ae. — A?thnnaeue,
1984, ? 2, n. 157); O?eyaeaeueo?y (Naiaiaea. — Aeae. N. , 29.07.1993, n.
3), Oeeaaeaeo?y (Iao Na?o. — I. E., 1962, ? 19-20, n. 20); Aeueaa?oa
(A?eueia ne. — Oi?iioi, 25.05.1965, n. 3), Aeaa?oa (oai naii,
14.08.1965, n. 3); Aai?eoii (A?niee. — A?ii?ia?, 15.01.1988, n. 19),
Aai?eueoii, (oai naii, n. 18).

Cia/ia /anoeia a?aei?iiinoae, ui aeieeathoue o i?aaiien? ?ioiiiaieo
ne?a, coiiaeaia ia oae i?oia?ao?/ii-?aeaieia?/iith i???ioaoe??th
eiie?aoiiai aeaeaiiy, ye iaiine?aeiai?noth a aeioaia??oiueiio
canoinoaaii? i?eioeei?a o?aine?eioe?? e o?aine?oa?aoe?? a iaio
i?aaiienao — ? ee?anueeiio, ? oa?e?anueeiio. Iae/ano?oa oea aeyaey?oueny
o a?aei?iiinoyo i?e a?aeoai?aii? aieinieo, iai?eeeaae:

ei?ieue Aeaeai Aaccaiaeueiee (Iia? aei?. — Oi?iioi, 1979, ? 1, n. 21),
ii?. Aeaeii Aaee? (Oe?. a?no?. — Aeao?ieo, 25.12.1994, n. 3), Aaeeeaoae
(Oe?. eicaoeoai. — *?ea?i, 1969—1970, ? 5, n. 36); ii?. Aieeeaoae
(Naiaiaea. — Aeae. N. , 11.07.1991, n. 2); Aioaei (Oe?. uiae. a?no?. —
I. E., 01.04.1947, n. 3; Aaai?a?ae. — A?thnnaeue, 1984, ? 2, n. 159),
Aiooaei (Iaoe. o?eaoia. — I. E., 07.02. 1988, n. 3; Oe?. eicaoeoai. —
*?ea?i, 1969—1970, ? 5, n. 36), ii?. Aaoaei (oai naii), Aaooaei
(Naiaiaea. — Aeae. N. , 13.03.1996, n. 3); Iaeueai?i (Aaai?a?ae. —
A?thnnaeue, 1985, ? 6, n. 398), Iaeueao?i (oai naii, 1984, ? 3—4, n.
223) oiui.

Caaaeuei? iacae, ?c c?icoi?eeo i?e/ei, aeathoue iaioee ei?ion
oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, aea oaiaeaioe??, ui aeyaeythoueny ia i?eeeaae?
aeanieo iaca oa ?iai, iii?oi? e na?aae aiaeyoea?a:

aacaoa (Iao Aiein. — O?aioii, I. Aeae, 1975, ? 9, n. 13), ii?. ?acaoa
(oai naii, n. 11); a?iiac?y (Aii?i Oe?a?ie. — Oi?iioi, 16.01.1991, n.
14), ii?. ??iiac?y (A?eueia ne. — Oi?iioi, 26.06.1965, n. 10); ea?aiaea
(A?eueia ne. — Oi?iioi, 24.04.1965, n. 11), ii?. eaaaiaea (oai naii,
31.07.1965, n. 8); aaaioe?y (Iao Na?o. — I. E., 1963, ? 3, n. 9), ii?.
a?aioe Ao-A?-Ae (Naiaiaea. — Aeae. N. , 30.03.1996, n. 1); eaeaaeae
(I?aoey. — I?oaeaioii?eue, 27.07.1954, n. 1; A?eueia ne. — Oi?iioi,
09.10.1965, n. 5), ii?. eieeaaeae (Naiaiaea. — Aeae. N. , 28.03.1996, n.
2); eaeca? (A?eueia ne. — Oi?iioi, 10.04.1965, n. 7), ii?. eaca?iee e??n
(oai naii, 04.09.1965, n. 7) oiui.

A oiiaao ae?anii?e i?iii?oe?y ?ioiiiaieo ne?a, ye? iio?aieythoue a
aeoeaiee ia?a, iac??aiyiii aeua, i?ae ia aoi?/iiio iaoa?eeo. Aeina?ae
?ioaa?oaaiiy ?o o nenoaio oe?a?inueei? iiae ia ??cieo ???a?o?/ieo ??aiyo
(oiiieia?/iiio, ii?oieia?/iiio, neiaioa??iiio) noia?a/eeaee ? aiaeii/an
iia/aeueiee. Aano?aaoth/enue a?ae iieai?ee i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie
ee?anueei? ? oa?e?anueei? i?aaiienieo i???ioaoe?e, caa?i?ii oaaao ia
i?ioenoiyiiy aeaio ?ioeo oaiaeaioe?e, a naia: (1) iaoo?ae?caoe??
?ioiiiaieo aeaiaio?a, oiaoi ?oiuei? nai???aeii? oe?a?i?caoe?? ? (2)
caa?aaeaiiy «aaoaioe/iino?» ?ioiiiaiiai i?ioioeio, ui a oya?
i?eoeeueiee?a oe??? oaiaeaioe?? ni?ey? ?a?iia?caoe?? oe?a?inueei? iiae ?
? aeyaii oeea?e?ciaaiiai iiaiaeaeaiiy c ?ioiiiaiei iaoa??aeii.
Aiane?aeie iaoo?ae?caoe?? a?eoainueeee iiia?o c aie? ?aaeaeoi?a
oi?iionueeiai «A?eueiiai neiaa» (03.07.1965, n. 1), noa? ei?ieai TH???i,
iaa?aei?ithaai? ii?ie iaaoaathoue a?aei?ieiaeo oi?i: eii?oao Iiaey a
Ine? (Iao aiein. — O?aioii, I. Aeae., 1976, ? 10, n. 6), a iai??iyo
Iioa??y (A?eueia ne. — Oi?iioi, 03.07.1965), o I?ea?a?a? (Aaai?a?ae. —
A?thnnaeue, 1984, ? 3—4, n. 215) oiui. Aeaye? aeaiaioe iaaei??ii?, ye
ia iao iiaeyae, iaoo?ae?caoe?? ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi oaiaeaioe??, caeeaaeaii?
a i?aaiien? 1929 ?. oa neiaieeo A.Aieineaae/a. Iaoo?ae?cothoueny,
iai?eeeaae, iacae i?no, aei neeaaeo yeeo aoiaeeoue aeaaiueia?aoeueea
neiai polis “i?noi”. Oaeei /eiii oi?ie Ieuea?ii?eue, Iae?oii?eue ? o. i.
neeii?oeue aoeneothoueny a oe?a?inueeo neiaioa??io ia?aaeeaio
Oa?iii?eue, ssii?eue, Ai?eni?eue (c ei?aiai -i?eue- a?ae neiaa iiea).
A.Aieineaae/ iioe?thaaa oea yaeua ia eeoa ia oae? ia’?eoe aeeaeiueiai
na?oo, ye Naaanoii?eue, Neioa?ii?eue, Iae?oii?eue, Ia??thi?eue,
Oe?ani?eue, Noaa?ii?eue, a e ia a?aeaeaeai?o? — Eiinoaioeiii?eue,
Aae??yiii?eue, ae?ii?eue.

I?ioeeaaeiee iiethn a?eueoa i?aaenoaaeaiee eaene/ieie caiice/aiiyie
na?aae aiaeyoea?a (aae neoe, aae?eiioa?, noaeo, aaeaae). A iiiianoeoe?
a?i aeyaey?oueny noeoii?noth yaeu, cie?aia, iaiieyaaiiyi ia e?oa?? ?
iaa?oue oai, aea ?? ia i?iiiio? aaeeaaoe A.Aieineaae/, iaiaaeaiei
oaeeaaiiyi aeanieo iaca o iai?yieo a?aei?ieao, iaiaaaiiyi ia?aaeaoe
iaaaeaioiaaio oi?io aiae?enueeiai aeeooiiaa (Ia?oa eaeae?, «Aao?i?oii
Iiono») oa a?aeoai?eoe iiceoe?ei? aa??aioe aiae?enueeeo oiiai, iioe?ai?
cie?aia a aia?eeainueeiio aa??aio? aiae?enueei? iiae (eaeaaeae, Aeaeai,
Aeneainei), ?i?ooaaiiyi oiiieia?/ii /oaeeo yaeu oeyoii iine?aeiaii?
o?aine?oa?aoe?? ii?i?a: Iioo?i?aai, Ia?i oiui.

Oaeoi? iaeaaeiino? iacae aei «aeeaeiueiai» /e aei «aeaeueiueiai» na?oo
iiaoey aieeaa? ia ?? i?oia?ao?/io ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th. Aeey oe?a?ioe?a
ae?anii?e Oi?iioi — oea ia’?eo aeeaeiueiai na?oo, aiie eiai i?oia?ao?/ii
«iaoo?ae?cothoue» ? ii/eiathoue a?aei?ithaaoe (iiae?aii aei oiai, ye oea
noaeiny ?c caaaeueiith iacaith iaeueoi), aeey Oe?a?ie — oea aeaeuei?e
na?o, oiio e iacaa caeeoa?oueny iainai?iith, iaci?iiith. Iaeiiaoithth/ei
oaeoi?ii iiaea noaaaoe iaaiee noee?noe/iee eiioaeno, iai?eeeaae,
iia?aeiieaiiy i?i e?oi?e ea?iaaae oe?a?inueei? iieiae?aeii? i?aai?caoe??
NOI ia? caaieiaie «Caii?iaeaoeue ca *?ea?ii» (Aaai?a?ae. — A?thnnaeue,
1985, ? 5, n. 307): ea?iaaaeueia oaia iaaoaa? ao?eaiiy a o?aaano?ei?e
a?aiaoe/i?e oi?i?. Oaeoi? aeeaeiueiai e aeaeueiueiai na?oo ia? nai?
noaoenoe/i? aei??e: /ano?oa aaeeaaia neiai, ianaiia?aae iacaa iii?oiiai
ia’?eoa, noieeoe? oiui, ca oaeeo naieo ii?oieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia?
oaine i?oia?ao?/ii iaoo?ae?coaaoeny oaeaeoa, i?ae iaeia?aeiiee oiiii?i.
Ineoie?iaa?noe/iee /eiiee (aeeaeiueiai e aeaeueiueiai na?o?a) ? ia
?aeeiei ?, iiaeeeai, ia ae??oaeueiei. Aca?iiae?th/e c o?aaeeoe??th, a?i,
c aeanoeaith iia? aneiao?e/i?noth, ?aae?co?oueny /e ia ?aae?co?oueny a
??cieo eiie?aoieo aeiaaeeao. Iii?oiee aieea ia a?aei?ithaai?noue /e
iaa?aei?ithaai?noue ?ioiiiaieo iaca ni?aaey? a ?ioiiiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?
a?aiaoe/ia ?ioa?oa?aioe?y, ui ? iaiaei?iiei noiooieeii ye aeoeaiiai, oae
? ianeaiiai a?e?iaa?cio.

Aea/aiiy iiaiiai aeeooy ae?anii?e noaiiaeoue aeey ian ia o?eueee
aeaaeai?/iee ?ioa?an oa iaoa??ae aeey iiaeaeueoiai iaaiai?aiiy
iac’yniaaieo ieoaiue. C e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a aeaye? iniaeeaino? oe???
iiaii? i?aeoeee, caaaeyee ii?aeueiiio aaoi?eoaoia? ?? iin??a, noaee
c’yaeyoeny e a Oe?a?i? ye aeueoa?iaoeaa ?nioth/ei. Caaaeii eaaeo/e,
i?oi?a?ao?/i? aieeae i?ae Oe?a?iith e ae?anii?ith aca?ii?. Oea iniaeeai
iii?oii a iaoa??aeao, ye? ae?oeothoueny a ca?oa?aeieo oe?a?inueeeo
aeaeaiiyo ca iiaeaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo aaaionoa Oe?a?ie, oa a ia?aae?oeao
c iaoi? ia??iaeeee. I?oia?ao?/ia aaeaioaoe?y aei iiae ae?anii?iiai
aeaeaiiy ia caaaeaee a?aeaoaa?oueny iine?aeiaii, aeaye? aeaiaioe oaenoo
caa??aathoueny a ia?a?niiio aeaeyae?.

C?inoath/a o/anoue iaaeaai?o aeo?aeoe?a c Oe?a?ie a ienaiiiio iiaeaii?
(ye aaoi??a oa ?aaeaeoi??a) oaeiae iii?oii aieeaa? ia iei?oith
i?aaiienio neooaoe?th. Ethaee, yeei ca iaaieo ianoaaei (aaeaea ?nio?
i?aaiieniee noaiaea?o aacaoe /e aeo?iaeo) aeiaiaeeoueny ?aioiai
ia?aoiaeeoe a ?ioo «i?oia?ao?/io a??o», ia??aeei i?eioneathoueny
ieiia?eueieo iiieeie. Iae/ano?oa oea o?aiey?oueny c oaeeaaiiyi e?oa? a ?
?, /e oi ca cae/eith, iai?eeeaae, A?thaaa (Brugge) (Oe?. neiai. —
Ia?eae, 27.12.1992, n. 1), ii?. A?th??a (Aieineaae/, n. 33), /e c
iaaei??iiai i?aaiaiiy cana?ae/eoe naith eiyeuei?noue aei ?ai?aniaaii?
i’yoi? e?oa?e — ·?eey?? ?iaeaai Ee?ioii (Hillary Rodham Clinton)
(Naiaiaea. — Aeae. N. , 03.04.1996, n. 6), Eo?aiianao?? (Johannesburg)
(oai naii, 29.04.1994, n. 1), ·ieeyiae?y (oai naii, 25.07.1995, n. 3), a
Eiiai?a?ai? (oai naii, 24.12.1991, n. 10) oiui. Oiane?aeie
«ee?anueei-oa?e?anueei?» ?ioa?oa?aioe?? aeieeathoue ? a?aiaoe/i?
«eaioaa?e», iai?eeeaae: «*eneaiia a?i?y a/eoaeuenoaa, nooaeaio?a oa
o/i?a noa?oeo eeyn?a io?eiaee i?ae?aniee iiaea?oiie» (??aeia oeiea. — I.
E., 1996, ? 6, n. 20; eo?nea iao. — A.A.). A?ae oi?ie eeyna (ca
oa?e?anueeei i?aaiienii) ?iaeiaee a?aei?iie iiiaeeie ia? aooe eeyn; ca
ee?anueeei i?aaiienii iaei ae aooe eean?a. Eo?eicii aeaeyaeathoue ia
oiaeueoao ae?anii?ieo aacao aaiaeuei? ?onecie, caienai? a?aeiia?aeii aei
oa?e?anueeiai i?aaiieno, iai?eeeaae, yaeioai?eaoe (Naiaiaea. — Aeae. N.
, 04.05.1991, n. 3) O?aieythoueny e ?io? iiae?ai? iaii?icoi?iiy.

O caei?aeiii?e oe?a?i?oe? ieoaiiyi iiaiiai ?icaeoeo naii? ae?anii?e
i?enay/ai? eeoa ie?ai? noaoo?. Ae?acii ia?aaaaea? caoe?eaaeaiiy
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeeie i?iaeaiaie: i?aaiienii, oi?ioaaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii
iaoeiai? oa?i?iieia??, nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iith neooaoe??th a Oe?a?i?. Nain
?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae a ae?anii?? aaa/athoue o oiio, uia caa?aaoe
a ianiioai?aiiio aeaeyae? ?? iaoe?iiaeueio noanoaioe?th, ?icaeiooe ??
oa, iiaa?ioaoenue ia Oe?a?io, i?euaieoe aei aeeaiai ua, aea ae?ae
caiaaeaaiiai aea?aaa oe?a?inueei? iiae. sseui a /an iiiceoe??
«i?aenia?onuee?e» oe?a?inuee?e iia? i?aenoaae aeey ?nioaaiiy
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai, aeia?iye?niiai (a i/ao eiai iin??a) aa??aioa iaee
oe?eeii i?ici?a iioeaoaaiiy, oi c ?icaoaeiaith iia?oiuei? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae a?aeiia?aei? a?aoiaioe iinooiiai ao?a/athoue naith
ia?aeiieea?noue.

Aeniiaee. Aeina?ae iiaiiai aeaeeaaiiy a e?a?iao iinaeaiiy — neeaaeiaa
/anoeia ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? iiae. Caaaeyee nai?e i?aai?ciaaiino? e
iia?e?ciaaiino? ae?anii?a aaea ia iaeia aeanyoee?ooy aea?
ni?aa?o/ecieeai c aoi?/iiai iaoa?eea o?ie a?aeaeaiino? nai?e iia? e
no?eeino? aei anei?eyoe??. Iei? aiia acyea ia naaa ?i?oe?aoeao
iiaa?iaiiy oe?a?inuee?e iia? aaaaoueio caoa?oeo ?en ?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaee//y. I?e?iaeii, ui i?ae niiae?aaieie e ?aaeueieie iane?aeeaie oaeiai
aieeao i?eiee ia noiyoeia ciae ??aiino?. I?ioa oey aca?iiae?y aea?
iiooiao aei iiaeieaiiy iiaith (aeeth/ii c ?? e?oa?aoo?iith oi?iith)
cano?eieo yaeu, aeeiai?co? ?? ?icaeoie, aea? iiaee iiaeyae ia ??
iniaeeaino? /a?ac ii??aiyiiy c ?ioeie iaoe?iiaeueieie nenoaiaie.

Aoii- ? nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oniiai e ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy,
iiaii? iiaaae?iee ? iiaii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a ae?anii?e aea?
i?aenoaae aeey oaeeo aeniiae?a:

1. ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae a?eueoino? ia?iae?a na?oo aeaco? ia eeth/iao
?ieue iiae a i?ioean? aoii-iaoe?iiaeueii? eiinie?aeaoe??. Iiaa
caaacia/o? ?aei?noue eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?inoi?o e aenooia? niaaeeiaei
neiaieii a?inioe?aeueii? ?aeiino? iaoe??. A aoi?/ii iaiaeii??aeiiio
na?aaeiaeu? aiia ? aaaeeeaei caniaii neiaie?/iiai aeii?ioaaiiy. ??
iniaeeaa ?ieue ye nioe?aeueii? ?inoeoooe?? a oiio, ui aiia caaacia/o?
aoaeaii?noue oeueiai i?ioeano, eiaeoth/e eiai ia ??ai? ye na?aeiiino?,
oae ? i?aena?aeiiino?. A oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii?? ai?ioueaa ca neiaie?/ia
aeii?ioaaiiy a iia? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia eeoa ia ??ai? i?aeiiaieo noinoie?a
(oe?a?inueei-aiae?enueeeo, oe?a?inueei-?niainueeeo oiui), aea e i?ae
??cieie ?aa?iiaeueieie i???ioaoe?yie ana?aaeei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iiae,
ianaiia?aae iaaeaei?i?yinueeith, aaeeoeueeith oa ?oneinueeith.

2. Ia?aeae? c ?ioeie iaoe?iiaeueieie iaioeiaie aeacothoue ia oa, ui naia
e?oa?aoo?iee noaiaea?o, a ia i?noeaaa aia??ea, ?ioa?ae?aeaeo /e
nioe?ieaeo aenooia? iin??i aenieiai noni?eueiiai noaoono iiae, o??th
iciaeith a?ia?aoi?/iino?, ui noaaeoue ?? ia iaeei ??aaiue c
eiieo?oth/ith iaoe?iiaeueiith iiaith e?a?ie iinaeaiiy.

3. Ae?anii?a ye oaiiiai ia?a?iaeueia ca nai?th i?e?iaeith. Oea iaeeaaea?
a?aeaeoie ia iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiae ? ia oa?aeoa? iiaii?
na?aeiiino?. O na?aaeiaeu? ae?anii?e oi?io?oueny na?e,
aaoiiiiii-ae?anii?iee nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iee na?oiaeyae. Aei aeya?a
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai «ss» a ae?anii?? oe?a?ioe? ca?oa?aeaey
i?aeoiaeyoue ia c oeie naieie i??eaie, ui e aei eiai aeya?a a Oe?a?i?.
Eiye?nonueeee ?aeyoea?ci o ae?anii?? aaco?oueny cie?aia ia oiio, ui
?nio? ?ethc?y «aoi?/ii? aaceeeino?» aiae?enueei? iiae a Niieo/aieo
Ooaoao ? Eaiaae?. Oaeo oi/eo ci?o iiae?eythoue ? aeaye? iaoeiaoe?
oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, aaaaeath/e, ui aiae?enueea iiaa a I?ai?/i?e
Aia?eoe? noaea ?ino?oiaioaeueiith, a ia neiaie?/iith, oiaoi o?eueee
caniaii eiioi?eaoe?? a ia e?eoa???i aoi?/ii? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaeaaeiino?.

4. Ia oi?ioaaiiy iiaii? na?aeiiino? a ae?anii?? aieeaa?
iaoe?iiaeueii-iiaia iie?oeea aea?aeaa iinaeaiiy. Caciaaoe nooo?ai?
e?aa?ae?caoe?? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XX no., aiia caeeoa?oueny
i???ioiaaiith ia nioe?ieoeueoo?io aiiiaai?caoe?th noni?euenoaa. O
eiioaeno? na?oiaeyaeieo ci?i iai?ee?ioe? XX no. caciaei aaiethoe?? naia
iiiyooy aoi?/iino? a ni?eeiyoo? ? iie?oe/iiai ?noaae?oiaioo, ?
aoiieoeueoo?ieo iaioei. Na?aae i?aaenoaaiee?a iiai?a?aoe?eieo iieie?iue
iaae?a? iioe?aiiy naeaeoeaia aoiicaoenia iiaeaeue, ui ii?aeio? a nia?
aia?eeainuee? oe?iiino? c ie?aieie aeaiaioaie aoi?/ii? niaaeueie:
?ae?a?eieie, iiaieie, ?ai?acaioaoe?eieie. I?aeo?eio?oueny ia o?eueee
?aeay eoeueoo?iiai ieth?ae?cio, ia i?ioeaaao eoeueoo?iiio
a?aeie?aieaiith, aea e oae caaiee aoiieoeueoo?iee a?e?iaa?ci ia
i?ioeaaao a?e?iaa?ciia? ooieoe?iiaeueiiio.

5. Ia /oaeei? ua a?eueoa, i?ae ia ?noi?e/i?e aaouee?auei?, iniiaiei
ooieoe?iiaeueiei ina?aaeeii iiae aoea e caeeoa?oueny n?i’y.
Aeaiiiai?noue ae?anii?ieo iaioei — yaeua ianoaa?eueia, e aoi?/ia iiaa
caa??aa? oaine ia aeaeeaaiiy aei oeo i??, aeiee ?niothoue eiioi?eaoeai?
neooaoe?? aeey aeneethceaii? iaeiiiiaiino? /e caa??aa?oueny iio?aaa e
iiaeeea?noue i?yiiai ca’yceo c Oe?a?iith. Oaeei /eiii, iii?ith
aeaiiiaiino? a ae?anii?? ? «aioo??oiuei» /e «ciai?oiuei» i???ioiaaia
iaeiiiiai?noue.

6. O e?a?iao iinaeaiiy oe?a?inueea iiaa ni?eeia?oueny a?eueo?noth
eiye?no?a ye oei/aniaa ainoy. Ineoieia?/ii aiia caeeoa?oueny ianaiia?aae
yaeuai ai?a?aoe?eiei, a ia aeania ae?anii?iei. sse?niee noai iiae
aaaeeeaee aeey ona?aeiieaiiy oe?a?ioeyie naii? noo? nai??
oe?a?inueeino?. Aiii caaaeaee aeaaaeiny /a?ac a?aeooiaooaaiiy a?ae
non?ae?a. Ia aeiaaeeiai ae?anii?i? ioae?eaoe??, ui iaaiai?ththoue
ieoaiiy /enoioe iiae, nea?iaai?, ye i?aaeei, i?ioe iane?aee?a ?in?euaiiy
/e i?ioe iieii?ci?a ? aeoaea ??aeei — i?ioe aia?eeai?ci?a, ?niai?ci?a
oiui. Caa?icith aeey aeieia?? oe?a?inueei? iiae aaaaeathoue ianaiia?aae
caiice/aiiy c non?aei?o neia’yinueeeo iia.

7. Aaeeea e?euee?noue eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo, i?oia?ao?/ieo, a?aiaoe/ieo
aeoaeao?a ? aa??aio?a caeeoa?oueny oa?aeoa?iith ?enith oniiai e
ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a ae?anii?e. Iaiaaaiiy ie?aieo iiaiciaaoe?a
aeenoeeie?ioaaoe aa??aioiee neiaiaaeeoie, oaanoe eiai a ?aiee
e?oa?aoo?ii? ii?ie noeeathoueny c aeoeaiei ni?ioeaii i?eoeeueiee?a
eaene/iiai ieth?ae?cio. Na?oiaeyaeiaith ia?aaeoiiaith oaeeo ia?aeiiaiue
? iiaeyae ia iiaiciaa/? i?iaeaie /a?ac i?ecio caaaeueiiiie?oe/ieo,
cie?aia a eiioaeno? i?ioenoiyiiy cao?aeiiai ieth?ae?cio no?aeiiio
oioae?oa?eciia?. Ia’?eoeaii oaeee ?icaeoie ni?ey? ?aaeoa e?iaa?noe/iiio
naia?aoeciia?, i?ae oeaio?ae?ciia?. Noaa?eueiee ?icaeoie iiae iio?aao?
caaeainiaaiino? aeeiai?/iiai e noaoe/iiai iieaciee?a. E?aee ooee ia in?
iie?aa??aioi?noue — ii?iaoeai?noue caeaoiee nooo?ai iia??oeoe ??
aeeoo?caeao?noue.

8. Iii?e ?nioaaiiy iaaieo ineoie?iaa?noe/ieo oa ?noi?eei-aoiieia?/ieo
ia?aaeoiia aeey aeeaa?aaioiiai ?icaeoeo iiae, na?aeiiee, aeaeea?iaaiee
naia?aoeci o iiaiiio aeeoo? ae?anii?e ia iin?aea? yeiainue iii?oiai
i?noey. I?i iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy ie?aiiai «eieii?aeueiiai» aa??aioa
oe?a?inueei? iiae ?niothoue eeoa iiiaeeiie? caaaeoaaiiy, ye? ia
aeoiaeyoue ca iaae? nooi iaoeiai? iinoaiiaee i?iaeaie e ia noaee oaiith
ioae?/iiai iaaiai?aiiy /e oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee.

9. I?aaiienia i?aeoeea ae?anii?e aca?iiae?? c i?ioeanii ii?iioai?aiiy a
iia? Oe?a?ie. Caei?aeiiia ae?oeiaaia i?iaeoeoe?y, cie?aia i?ana,
aaiaey/e a iao ia?a oe?iea eiei ?ioiiiaieo ?aae?e, noeioeth? i?ioean
ae?iaeaiiy iiaeo ? aii?yaeeoaaiiy ?nioth/eo i?aaee ?oiuei? ia?aaea/?
oe?a?inueeith iiaith. Oea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny a?ae/ooiith
aeanoaa?e?caoe??th i?aaiienii? neooaoe??. A oiiaao oeaio?ae?ciaaii?
nenoaie ii?iioai?aiiy e aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth iaae ia?aaeath ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a, /anoeiith aeaeaaieoeoa oa ae?oeiaaieo i?aai?a a Oe?a?i?
iiaeia i?iaiicoaaoe iinooiiaa aeinyaiaiiy aaeaino i?ae i?aaiienieie
ii?iaie e i?aeoeeith. Aeaiaioe iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?aaiieniiai noaiaea?oo
aeaaeae? a?eueoa i?iieeaoeiooue o ienaiia iiaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a ae?anii?e.

10. Iiaia na?aeii?noue o?iaeaeaioe?a e?a?ie iinaeaiiy aaiethoe?iio? a?ae
aioaaii?noe/ieo noa?aioei?a aei eiii?ii?nii? iiaeae? ni?eeiyooy
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo ? i?aeiiaieo noinoie?a. Na?aae iieiaeeo oe?a?ioe?a
aeaaeae? a?eueoa c?inoa? caoe?eaaeaiiy iiaioaaiiyi iiae c i?aaiaoe/ieo
iioea?a. O ca’yceo c oeei, ?iia??ii, caciaaaoeia ci?i ? naia iiaa, c
yeith ?aeaioeo?eo? naaa caei?aeiiia oe?a?inoai. Ia?aaaaa ana a?eueoa
iaaeaaaoeiaoueny aeaiaioai e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae iaoa?eeiai? Oe?a?ie, aaeaea
ianaiia?aae c iath iia’ycoaaoeiooueny ye neiaieuei?, oae ? i?aaiaoe/i?
aniaeoe eiioi?eaoe??. Iinooiiai a?aeoiaeeoeia a ?noi??th i?ioenoaaeaiiy
ae?anii?ii? iiaii? i?aeoeee e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? aoi?/iiai iaoa?eea.
Oe?a?inueea iiaa a e?a?iao iinaeaiiy aeaaeae? a?eueoa iaaoaaoeia iciae
ae?anii?ii? iiae aea?aeaaii? iaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iiaia ?aei?noue iaoe??: ae?anii?a e Oe?a?ia. — E.: ??aeia iiaa, 1999.
— 450 n.

2. Iiaia eiyeuei?noue ? aia?eeai?caoe?y a oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii?? // Iiae
?a?iiaenueeiai eoeueoo?iiai a?aaeo: ?icaeoie ? aca?iiae?y. E.: Aeia??a,
1995. — N. 179—188.

3. Nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ia aaeaioaoe?y oe?a?ioe?a ae?anii?e a e?a?iao
iinaeaiiy (NOA ? Eaiaaea) // ?ioaa?aoe?y Oe?a?ie o na?oiaa
ni?aoiaa?enoai. — E, 1999. — N. 227—235.

4. Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeaioe/i?noue ? iiaa a oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii?? //
No/ani?noue. — 1999. — ? 3. — N. 128—140.

5. Oe?a?inueea neiai a I?eii?nueeiio e?a? // No/ani?noue. — 1994. — ?
7—8. — N. 156—162.

6. Oe?a?inueea iiaa ia Caeaiiio Eeei? // Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a. — 1995.
— ? 7. — N. 49—56.

7. ?ioa?ae?aeaeo ye oi?ia iaoe?iiaeueii? iiae: Ooaoeue I. Oe?a?inueea
iiaa a Neiaa//ei?. — I?yo?a, 1996 // Iiaiciaanoai. 1997. — ? 6. — C.
79—81.

8. ?aoeaic?y: AEeoeoaiei TH.I. Oe?a?inueea iiaa ia e?iaa?noe/i?e ea?o?
Eaiaaee. — E., 1990. // Oe?. iiaa ? e?oa?. a oeie?. — 1991. — ? 10. — N.
93—95.

9. Neia’yinuee? e ianeia’yinuee? caiice/aiiy a iia? oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e // Iiaiciaanoai. 1998. — ? 2—3. — N. 145—160.

10. Oe?a?inuee? aeani? iacae (aio?iiii?ie e oiiii?ie) a aiae?enueeiio
iaienaii? // Iiaiciaanoai. — 1993. — ? 1. — N. 3—15.

11. ?ioiiiai? neiaa a i?oia?ao?/i?e i?aeoeoe? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e //
Oe?a?inueeee i?aaiien: ca ? i?ioe. — E., 1997. — N. 47—67.

12. Oe?a?inueeee i?aaiien a iiiaeaiiio aeaeaii? // Oe?. iiaa ? e?oa?. a
oeie?. — 1990. — ? 2. — N. 74-75.

13. Oe?a?inuee? ?iaia c ?ioiiiaiei aeoeaioii: i?iaeaie o?aine?oa?aoe??
// Eoeueoo?a neiaa. — 1995. — ? 46—47. — N. 31—36.

14. I?eioeeie a?aeoai?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo ii?i?a o eaoeiiaeoaa?oieo iiaao
A?aeoai?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo aeanieo iaca (aio?iiii?i?a ? oiiii?i?a)
?iicaiieie iiaaie. — E. 1995. — N. 21—30.

15. Ia?ica’ycai? ieoaiiy aiaei-oe?a?inueei? o?aine?oa?aoe?? // Ae?oaee
i?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an oe?a?i?no?a. Iiaiciaanoai. — Euea?a, 1993. — N.
202—207.

16. Aeaiiiai?noue o ae?anii??: eiioe?eo /e neia?ic eiyeueiinoae //
O?ao?e i?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an oe?a?i?no?a. Iiaiciaanoai. — Oa?e?a, 1996.
— N. 3—13.

17. Iiaa?oath/enue aei aeaea?ae: OAI ? oe?a?inueea iiaa // A?niee AI
O?N?. — 1991. — ? 8. — N. 56—59.

18. Iiai? yaeua ye aoiieoeueoo?ia oe?e?ni?noue // I.I.Iioaaiy ? i?iaeaie
no/anii? o?eieia??. — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1992. — N. 26—43.

19. I?aaiieni? o?iee ae?anii?e // Oace iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai
no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai i?aaiieno ? oa?i?iieia??. — E., 1997. — N.
16—19.

20. Oa?i?iieia?/i? aeueoa?iaoeae ae?anii?e. — Oe?a?inueea oa?i?iieia?y ?
no/ani?noue: Iaoa??aee ae?oai? anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe??. — E., 1997.
— N. 139—143.

21. Iiaia na?aeii?noue ye oaeoi? iaoe?iiaeueii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? //
Oe?a?inueea iiaa a i?ioean? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie. Ca.iaoe. i?aoe. — E.: EAeI?, 1993. — N. 3—5.

Aiioaoe?y

Aaeithe A.I. Aaiethoe?y oe?a?inueei? iiae a ae?anii?? (aoii- ?
nioe?ie?iaa?noe/i? aniaeoe). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeueiinoae 10.02.01 — oe?a?inueea iiaa, 10.02.15 — caaaeueia
iiaiciaanoai. — ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny aaiethoe?ei? i?ioeane a aoiiiiai?e
na?aeiiino? ai?a?aio?a ? ?oi?o iauaaee?a o e?a?iao iinaeaiiy, i?iaeaie
iiae e iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino?, iniaeeaino? iiaii? iiaaae?iee e
iiaii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a ae?anii?e. I?iiiiothoueny e?euee?ni? ?
ye?ni? ioe?iee aeeoocieo yaeu o aeaiiiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?. ?iaioa
aaiaeeoue o iaoeiaee ia?a oe?ieee ianea nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iiai iieueiaiai
iaoa??aeo, ui i?aaenoaaey? ??ci? a?eia? a?oie oa iieie?iiy ae?anii?e.

O eiioaeno? nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ieo aaiethoe?eieo i?ioean?a iiaeaii
??ciia?/iee aiae?c i?aaiienieo oaiaeaioe?e; i?iiiio?oueny iiaee iiaeyae
ia aeei?enoaiiy oe??? /anoeie iiaiiai aeina?aeo ae?anii?e o ae?iaeaii?
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?oia?ao?/ieo ii?i, ianaiia?aae i?e aaeaioaoe??
iia?oi?o ?ioiiiaieo caiice/aiue; aea?oueny nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iee i?iaiic
?icaeoeo iiaii? neooaoe?? a oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii?? oa iiaeaeueoeo
aca?iei iiaii? i?aeoeee oe?a?ioe?a ca?oa?aeaey c ii?iaie aoi?/iiai
iaoa?eea.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiaia na?aeii?noue, iiaia iiaaae?iea, ?aeaioe/i?noue ?
iiaa, iiaiee aa??aio, iiaia iie?oeea, aeaiiiai?noue, ?iaeeiia aeeaein?y,
aeeaa?aaioia eaeneea, i?aaiien ?ioiiiaieo ne?a.

Aiiioaoeey

Aaeithe A.I. Yaiethoeey oe?aeineiai ycuea a aeeanii?a (yoii- e
nioeeieeiaaenoe/aneea aniaeou). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoyi 10.02.01 — oe?aeineee ycue, 10.02.15 — iauaa
ycueiciaiea. — Einoeooo oe?aeineiai ycuea IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony yaiethoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a
yoiieeiaaenoe/aneii niciaiee yiea?aioia e eo iioieia a no?aiao
iinaeaiey, i?iaeaiu ycuea e iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeaioe/iinoe, iniaaiiinoe
ycueiaiai iiaaaeaiey e ycueiaiai niciaiey oe?aeioeaa aeeanii?u.
I?aaeeaaathony eiee/anoaaiiua e ea/anoaaiiua ioeaiee aeeooociuo yaeaiee
a aeaoycu/iie n?aaea. ?aaioa aaiaeeo a iao/iue iaeoiae oe?ieee iannea
nioeeieeiaaenoe/aneiai iieaaiai iaoa?eaea, i?aaenoaaeythuaai ?acee/iua
aic?anoiua a?oiiu e iieieaiey aeeanii?u.

A eiioaenoa nioeeieeiaaenoe/aneeo yaiethoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia i?iecaaaeai
?aciinoi?iiiee aiaeec i?aaiieniuo oaiaeaioeee; i?aaeeaaaaony iiaue
acaeyae ia eniieueciaaiea yoie /anoe ycueiaiai iiuoa aeeanii?u a
au?aaioea iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo i?oia?aoe/aneeo ii?i, i?aaeaea anaai i?e
aaeaioaoeee iiauo eiiycu/iuo caeinoaiaaiee; aeaaony
nioeeieeiaaenoe/aneee i?iaiic ?acaeoey ycueiaie neooaoeee a oe?aeineie
aeeanii?a e iineaaeothueo acaeiiioiioaiee ycueiaie i?aeoeee oe?aeioeaa
ca?oaaaeuey n ii?iaie yoie/aneiai iaoa?eea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ycueiaia niciaiea, ycueiaia iiaaaeaiea, eaeaioe/iinoue
e ycue, ycueiaie aa?eaio, ycueiaay iieeoeea, aeaoycu/ea, naiaeiay
aeeaeinney, aeeaa?aaioiay eaeneea, i?aaiienaiea eiiycu/ieo neia.

Summary

B.M.Azhniuk. Evolution of the Ukrainian Language in Diaspora (Ethno-
and Sociolinguistic Aspects). — Manuscript.

Dissertation submitted for Doctor of Sciences (Philology) Degree in
specialities 10.02.01 — the Ukrainian language and 10.02.15 — general
linguistics. — Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences Institute of the
Ukrainian Language, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation deals with the evolution of ethnolinguistic conscience
of the Ukrainian immigrants and their descendants in the host countries
and diachronic and synchronic aspects of the language and identity
issues. It offers the analysis of various types of linguistic behaviour
and the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the diffuse phenomena
in the bilingual milieu. A considerable amount of the field data raised
from the representatives of various demographic groups and diaspora
generations is being submitted for sociolinguistic consideration.

The use of the Ukrainian language in the diaspora milieu is very much
determined by the marginal nature of diaspora itself. This is clearly
seen on all levels of language structure. From the very beginning of the
Ukrainian press in North America (late 19-th century) its language was
characteristic of the lexical borrowings from the English language
environment parallelled by the native Ukrainian words that were often
used as parenthetical explanations (iaeia/eiiaeueiy/oaooa,
aeaeaa/i?aoey, n?o?cai/ai?iaeaiei) to avoid possible misunderstandings
from either one part of the readers audience or the other. Although the
repertoir of loan-words in the postwar diaspora usage changed, the
phenomenon itself survived. Alongside of the diaspora coinages produced
of the authentic Ukrainian substance one can come across a range of
americanisms, russianisms, polonisms, germanisms etc.

Functional stratification of the modern diaspora usage suggests the
following classification: 1) vernacular or low colloquial speech heavily
loaded with anglicized lexical and grammatical forms, vulgarisms and
dialect elements, 2) colloquial Ukrainian with occasional vernacular and
loan-word impregnations, 3) literary language with only minor differnces
from the standard Ukrainian of the ethnic mainland (mostly in
orthography and normative wordstock).

Linguistic awareness of an ideologically mobilized community exerts
much influence on the system of the language. Ideological alienation of
diaspora from the ethnic mainland during the years of the communist
russification of Ukraine accounts for its adherence to the so-called
Kharkiv (1928) orthography, forbidden by the Soviet officials in the
early 1930-s. This 70-years old orthography requires modernization to
meet the needs of contemporary practice; now its application in various
diaspora publications depends mostly on the editors’ intuition, all the
institutionalized attempts to produce a unified diaspora version of the
“truly Ukrainian” orthography being a failure. Many periodicals practice
a blend of Kyiv and Kharkiv orthographies with an admixture of selfmade
innovations. For a number of reasons orthographic situation in diaspora
today very much resembles anarchy. Some periodicals started practicing
modern Kyiv orthography after 1991, other publish contributions in both
Kharkiv and Kyiv orthograpies, still other insist on orthographic
conservatism and adherence to the 1928 spelling system.

The research includes a multidimensional analysis of orthographic
phenomena in diaspora printed matter in the context of its
sociolinuistic evolution. The proportion of foreign words, especially of
proper names, that come into circulation in diaspora is much higher than
in Ukraine. Therefore the experience (both positive and negative) of
their adoption by the language is an asset that should be taken into
account when specifying and updating the national orthographic norms
acceptable both in Ukraine and diapora. Most of the diaspora Ukrainians
recognize that their native language abroad will only last for a few
generations and they are willing to take part in the all-Ukrainian
process of language construction. The dissertation offers a
sociolinguistic forecast of the development of the language situation in
the Ukrainian diaspora and of the forthcoming relations between the
linguistic practices of the Ukrainians abroad and the norms of the
ethnic mainland.

Keywords: linguisic conscience, language behavior, language and
identity, language variant, language policy, bilingualism, family
diglossia, divergent lexemes, orthography of the loanwords.

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