2

I?I?NOA?NOAI EOEUeOO?E ? IENOAOeOA OE?A?IE

OA?E?ANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss EOEUeOO?E

niaoe?ae?ciaaia a/aia ?aaea Ae. 64.807.01

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

I?NTHI Aiia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 786.2 + 78.03

AAIETHOe?ss ?IAeEA?AeOAEUeIINO? A EOEUeOO?? AIOE*IINO?

(ia iaoa??ae? aooe/ii? o?aaaae??)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 17. 00. 01 —

oai??y oa ?noi??y eoeueoo?e

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy

iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa

OA?E?A 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoie/iiio oi?aa?neoao?,
ia eaoaae?? eoeueoo?ieia??.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — Aaeaio?nueeee Aiaoie?e A?eai?iae/,

aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,
i?ioani?, Iaeanueeee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Cai?iaaoeue ?iie?o Aaneeueiae/, aeieoi?
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani?, Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y
eoeueoo?e;

I?eyanueeee Ai?en Eueaiae/, eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?.
Ia/i?eiaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. ia 11-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 64. 807.01 Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e ca aae?anith: 310003, Oa?e?a,
Ao?naoeueeee oca?c, 4, aoae. Iaeee cae.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e ca aae?anith: Oa?e?a-oeaio?,
Ao?naoeueeee oca?c, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 19  eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
?.I. Ai?oiee

CAAAEUeIA OAEAOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. No/aniee ?icaeoie oai??? oa ?noi???
eoeueoo?e, ni?e/eiaiee ca?eueiaiiyi aoiai?oa?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae
?aeaieia?/ieo oaao, a?aee?eooyi oe?ieiai aeinooio aei iaoa??ae?a
aeine?aeaeaiue ca?oa?aeieo oa a?o/eciyieo (aeiae aei?noei? iie?oe/ii?
oeaico?e) a/aieo, iioe?aiiyi iia?oi?o iaoiae?a ?iaioe c
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieie a?oaoaeoaie, aeicaiey? a iiaiio aniaeo? ?iceyiooe
iaeio c iaaeno?aeueieo i?iaeai no/anii? iaoee — ?ieue oa i?noea
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a eoeueoo?? ??cieo aiio. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy
aea/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaie iaaoaa? a ia??iaee e?ece eoeueoo?ii? ia?aaeeaie,
yeith ?, iai?eeeaae, no/ania eoeueoo?ia neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? oa a ?ioeo
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo aea?aeaaao. Naia a oae? /ane ia eoeueoo?io
aaainoeaio aenooia?, aeoeaii i?i naaa cayaeyth/e, ethaenueea
iniaeno?noue, ui ooea? oa ciaoiaeeoue aeoiaee c iaeneeaaei?oeo
eaa??eio?a e?eciai? eoeueoo?e, ye? iio?i ?aoeaicothoueny oa
a?aeae?athoueny nioe?oiii, noath/e caaaeueiieoeueoo?ieie aeai?eoiaie, ca
yeeie aoaeo?oueny iiaa ea?oeia na?oo. Oei a?eueo oea aeooaeueii aeey
Oe?a?ie. Aaeaea iaei??th c ?en iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueeiai
aoiino caaaeaee aoei oyae?iiy aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oi?i naiiae?aaeaiiy
oa ?aae?caoe??, ui e aeicaieeei ia i?ioyc? noi??/ caa??aaoe naith iiao
oa eoeueoo?o a oiiaao a?aenooiino? iaoe?aeueii? aea?aeaae.

Eaoaai??y ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue ? oa?i?i, ui ?? aecia/a?, iinyoue a
no/ani?e aoiai?oa?i?e iaooe? aeeneon?eiee oa aeaui ia?a?iaeueiee
oa?aeoa?. Oi/ aei ieo /anoi aiaeththoue, na?ueeiciiai aea/aiiy oa
iaeiicia/ii? aeao?i?oe?? aiie ia io?eiaee. Eoeueoo?ieiae, ?noi?eee oa
oai?aoeee eoeueoo?e ia aecia/eee ua, /e ? oey eaoaai??y eiino?oeoii an?o
aac aeeiyoeo eoeueoo?, /e noaiiaeoue /eiiee iaaaaaoueio, aieiaiei /eiii
iiai?a?iiaenueeeo eoeueoo? oa ia ?ai?oa aeiae A?ae?iaeaeaiiy; ia?aoo?,
yea ieoiia aaaa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a eiaei?e c ieo. Ia o?e i?aenoaa?,
ui iayai?noue oa cia/oua ?ieue ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a eoeueoo?? aea?
i?aai ia i?eiaeaaei?noue aei ?a?iiaenueeiai oeea?e?caoe?eiiai i?ioeano
oa eiai oe?iiinoae, yeei ae /eiii ia o?aeooaaee inoaii?, /anoei?
eoeueoo?ieo nenoai aoei a?aeiiaeaii a i?aa? ia ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue, yea
a aaaaoueio aeine?aeaeaiiyo ye oa?i?i iineoue a?aeaa?oi ioe?iiee
oa?aeoa?.

C iiaeyaeo aeena?oaioa, ia iiaea aooe eoeueoo?e aac ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?.
Ieoaiiy iieyaa? eeoa a ieoii?e aac? oeueiai eiino?oeoo a o?e /e ?io?e
eoeueoo??. Naiee aea oaiiiai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? iineoue oioaeueiee
caaaeueiieoeueoo?iee oa?aeoa?, iath/e i?e oeueiio naith niaoeeo?eo aeey
eaaeii? eoeueoo?ii? aeiae.

Ia?a?niee, iiaeaethth/ee eoeueoo?o noai — ae?aeaeoe/io ?aei?noue oa
i?ioenoiyiiy noni?euenoaa oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? oae aaeaeaaoii, ye
oaao?, ia a?aeia?aaea? aeiaeia yaeua ienoaoeoaa ? eoeueoo?e acaaae?. Ui
aei aioe/iiai oaao?o, oi a?i yaey? niaith iniaeeaee, oi?eaeueiee oaiiiai
na?oiai? eoeueoo?e. A?i aeiee a aeiao ?iciaaeo i?oieia?/iiai oeio
na?aeiiino? ? noaa ea?ioanaioe??th eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue Noa?iaeaaiueiai
na?oo, a ?acii ?c oei — iaoai?ciii iiaeaethaaiiy eoeueoo?e iiai? ?a?iie,
ui aeieeea ia aac? ia?oi? c ?a?iiaenueeeo eoeueoo? — eoeueoo?e Aeaaiuei?
A?aoe??. Aaaaoee ia i?oieiaaie, a?oaoeie, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue eieaeoeaia
aacna?aeiia /an?a aaiace aoiino oa aea?aeaaiino? — aieiaieo /eiiee?a
?a?iiaenueeiai eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano,— aioe/iee oaao?, cie?aia aooe/ia
o?aaaae?y, i?e oeueiio aiaeththoue aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ethaeeie, ??
nia?no?, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aia?oa a na?oia?e eoeueoo?? aeaiaey/e
i?iaeaie aeai?o oa i?iaeie ye iniiai? iioieia?/i? i?iaeaie. Naia a oe?e
ianoae?e ??aiiaac? i?ae eieaeoeaiei oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei, aia?oa yaeai?e
aioe/i?noth, a oiio iniaeeai aino?i ia?aaeeo?e eoeueoo?ith /a?ac aooe/io
o?aaaae?th, iieyaa? noaea aeooaeuei?noue aioe/iiai oaao?o, a ia?ac? ?
an??? eeane/ii? aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e.

A nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? ie aacoaaeeny ia oiio, /oi aeoiee eoeueoo?ieo
aeai?eoi?a OO no., caaaeueiieoeueoo?ieo ia?aaeeai, cie?aia iie?oe/ieo,
nioe?aeueieo, iiaooiaeo, ciaoiaeyoueny a eoeueoo?? aioe/iino?. Oiio /ei
a?eueoa ie inyaa?ii naith eoeueoo?o, oei aaeaeaaoi?oa caeaoi? c?icoi?oe
eoeueoo?o Aeeaaee, a?ae yei? ie oniaaeeoaaee ia eeoa aeaeaoi? eoeueoo?i?
caeiaooee, a e iaae??oai? i?iaeaie, caoai? eoeueoo?i? noa?aioeie oiui,
oae ae iiaeoe, aaiaoe/i? iaaeie?ee . A oeueiio nain? aea/aiiy aioe/iino?
caaaeaee aeooaeueia ? a iaoeiaiio, ? a eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio, ? a
i?aeoe/iiio aniaeoao; oei a?eueo, ui c naiiai ii/aoeo iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy
eoeueoo?e (oiaoi c XVII — XVIII no.) aei aioe/iino? noaaeeenue ye aei
iaia?aaa?oaiiai c?acea (eeano) a on?o eoeueoo?ieo iiooeao — a?ae
anoaoe/ieo aei iie?oe/ieo.

Aeooaeuei?noue aea/aiiy aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e oa oaao?o coiiaeaia oaeiae
oei iaaaeyeei aeyaeaoeueeei ?ioa?anii, yeee aeeeeeaee a OO no. ye i?yi?
iinoaiiaee aioe/ii? eeaneee ia ?a?iiaenuee?e noeai? (iai?eeeaae, I.
A?oeii, I. Aiaeea?ii, E. Eo?aanii, I. ?aeioaa?aeoii, I. Ooaeiii, A.
TH?ith oa ?ioeie), oae ? /eneaii? aethc?? ia aioe/io oaiaoeeo a
?aia?ooa?? oe?a?inueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo ae?aiaoe/ieo oaao??a Oe?a?ie.

Ia?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aioe/ia eoeueoo?a eeane/ii? aeiae ?, a?eueo
niaoe?aeueii, aooe/ia o?aaaae?y ye oi?aa?naeueia iiaeaeue oe???
eoeueoo?ii? aiioe ? ye nioe?i?aaoethth/ee oa eoeueoo?i-iiaeaethth/ee
iaoai?ci inoaiiuei?. Aeena?oaio a nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? iaiieyaa? ia
oiio, ui aieiaiei ci?noii eoeueoo?e oeueiai ia??iaeo aoea iine?aeiaia
?iaeea?aeoaoe?y (oa?i?iieia?y O. I?oeoa).

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aaiethoe?y
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a aioe/i?e eoeueoo?? (ui a?aeia?aceeanue cie?aia ? a
aeieeiaii? oaiiiaia aooe/ii? o?aaaae??), niaoeeo?eaoe?y aioe/iiai oeio
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, aeyaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo ?en oa ae?ao?ii?/ieo
iniaeeainoae inoaiiuei?.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy — aeiaa aeaaiueia?aoeueei? eeaneee
(e?iaoeue VI — ii/aoie IV no. aei i.a.), ia??iae, ui eiai E. ssnia?n
aecia/ea oa?i?iii inueia? a?ee, a?aeiiee ye aiioa a?aoeueeiai aeeaa. Ia
oeae ia??iae i?eiaaeathoue oi?eaeueiee (ii??aiyii c neio?iiieie
eoeueoo?aie) ce?o ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino?, ?iiaaoe?? a iie?oe/i?e,
aeiiii?/i?e, ?ioaeaeooaeuei?e, ia?aoo?, iiaooia?e noa?ao ?nioaaiiy
iie?no oa eiai a?iiaaeyi, aeae?eaiiy iiaiai nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o
— i?eaaoiiai aeeooy. A aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui ca iioiaeaeaiiyi
oa eoeueoo?iei ci?noii ana oea — yaeua iaeiiai ii?yaeeo, ni?e/eiai?
e?ecith eoeueoo?ii? ia?aaeeaie oa ?iciaaeii i?oieia?/iiai oeio
na?aeiiino?. E?ecia?noue, ia?ao?aeiee oa?aeoa? aioe/ii? eeaneee ye oeio
eoeueoo?e aea? iiaeeea?noue a?aenoaaeeoe aaiaco, aeeiai?eo oa iai?yiee
eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a, ye? ia noi??//y noaiiaeoeiooue ci?no
?a?iiaenueeiai ?icaeoeo.

Nooiaiue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. I?aoe? c aioeeiciaanoaa, ca
aeeeth/aiiyi aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? oa oai??? aeaaiuei?einei?
eoeueoo?e A.N. Eiaaa (“Iaoa??aee aei eaeoe?e c caaaeueii? oai???
eoeueoo?e oa eoeueoo?e aioe/iiai ?eio”. I., 1993), aeaeae? a?ae
nenoaiiiai, eiiieaeniiai aiae?co. Iaia? ? aaeeei? iaoeiai? iiiia?ao??,
yea a ocaaaeueiaii, oe?e?nii aena?oeeea aioe/io eoeueoo?o Aeaaiuei?
A?aoe??, ieoaiiy ?? oeiieia?? oa neio?i-ae?ao?ii?/ieo iniaeeainoae. Oea
nooo?ai oneeaaeith? aaeaeaaoia ?icoi?iiy aioe/iino? a oe?eiio, ? cie?aia
oi? ?ie?, yeo a?ae?a?aaaa a oe?e eoeueoo?? oaao?.

Aei oiai ae ?yae aeine?aeiee?a, a oii /ene? ?noi?ee?a oa
ienoaoeoaiciaaoe?a aioe/iino?, i?aeaeathoue noii?ao aai naiee oaeo
?nioaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, aai nooo?a?noue ?? ?ie? a oe?e eoeueoo??
acaaae?. Oea ia?o ca ana noino?oueny ?aaeyinueeeo a/aieo. Aeineoue
iaa?aaeiei noiniaii ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a aioe/iino? aoa aeaae. I.O.
Ein?a, iaeiae caaaeueiee eiioaeno eiai ?aa?o ia aeeeth/a? ?? i?enooiino?
ye aeaiaioa oe??? eoeueoo?ii? aeiae.

Ui aei cao?aeieo a/aieo, oaeeo ye AE.-I. Aa?iai ( “I?o oa o?aaaae?y a
aeaai?e A?aoe??”. A?aeoii, 1980), ?. E?ooiai ( “A?aoeueeee Aenia?eiaio.
?iia??ae?ci oa nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo 800 — 400 ??. aei i.a.”. Aiiieoeo,
1974), O. Nieiai ( “Aan?iae oa Ano?e”. 1949), *. Noa?? ( “Aeoiee
a?aoeueei? oeea?e?caoe?? (1100-650 ??. aei i.a.). IE, 1961) oa ?i., oi
?o eiioeaioe?? ia eeoa a?aoiaothoue, aea e cia/iith i??ith aacothoueny
ia aeciaii? aaaeeeaino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeaiaioa a aioe/iiio nioe?oi?
oa eoeueoo?? acaaae?. Aea a nai?e a?eueoino? aiie ?icoi?thoue
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue ye noeo?eiee oa aeano?oeoeaiee aeaiaio, ui i?eca?a
aei ?iciaaeo ieoieia?/ii? oe?e?niino? na?oo, ?, aeoiaey/e c a?iioaoe/ii?
noeo?eiino?, ia iio?aao? niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa oeiieia??.
Oaeei /eiii, i?iaeaia aaiethoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a
aeaaiueia?aoeuee?e eoeueoo?? (ia iaoa??ae? o?aaaae?? aai aoaeue-yeiai
?ioiai aeaeo ethaenueei? oai?/ino?) ia aoea aeeaiei aeine?aeaeaia i? o
ian a e?a?i?, i? caei?aeiiii. Aea cia/ia eiai?oa aeine?aeiee?a aeecueei
i?ae?eoea aei ?icaeyaeo i?iaeai, yeeo ie oi?ea?iiny a aeena?oaoe??.

A oeueiio nain? c?aceaie aeine?aeaeaiy aeey ian i?eneoaeeeeny ?iaioe
I.O. Ein?aa, ia?o ca ana i?aenoiie anueiai eiai oai?/iai aeeooy
aaaaoioiiia ?noi??y aioe/ii? anoaoeee (o 8 o., 1963-1989), iecea
niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia i?enay/aieo aooe/i?e o?aaaae?? oa
?? ?icoi?iith Ieaoiiii oa A?enoioaeai (?icae?ee a “Ia?enao aioe/iiai
neiaie?cio oa i?oieia??”. 1993); aaea caaaeoaaia ?iaioa A.N.Eiaaa c
?noi??? oa oai??? eoeueoo?e aioe/iiai ?eio.

C i?iaeai oaao?o eeane/iiai ia??iaeo ?nio? aaeeea eiei e?oa?aoo?e. C ieo
iaea?eueo cia/oueie aeey iaoi? ?iaioe ie aaaaea?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy A.A.
Aa?iaea (“Aioe/iee oaao?”. 1919; “Aeoi?e aeaaiuei? A?aoe??”. 1919;
“?noi??y aioe/iiai oaao?o”. 1940) oa A.I. ss?oi (ia?o ca ana, “Aioe/ia
ae?aia: Oaoiieia?y iaenoa?iino?”. 1990). Oe? ?noi?eee aioe/iiai oaao?o
aa/eee aooe/io o?aaaae?th a eiioaeno? eoeueoo?e, ui ?? noai?eea, ye
aeeaa yaeua, ui iino?eii ?icaeaa?oueny, ia? naith aioo??oith eiaeeo oa
niaoeeo?eo. Oae A.A. Aa?iaea iinoaaea ieceo aaaeeeaeo aeey ?noi???
aioe/iiai oaao?o ieoaiue, ui aeo?eathoue c caaaeueii? eaiae ?icaeoeo,
a?aeiia?noe ia ye a?i ia ci?a, aeoiaey/e c i?iaeai naiiai oaao?o.
Iio??ai? aoee eoeueoo?ieia?/i? iaoiaee, uia a?aeiia?noe ia oae? nooi
oaao?aeuei? ieoaiiy ye ieoaiiy i?i i?e/eie cieaeaiiy ?ie? o?aa?/iiai
iiaoa a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aioe/iiai oaao?o, aaniethoecaoe?? iieiaeaiiy
aeoi??a i?e ae??oaii? ?aia?ooa?ieo ieoaiue oiui. Oaeee eoeueoo?ieia?/iee
aaea i?aeo?ae ae??ciy? aeaye?, iniaeeai inoaii?o ?ie?a, ?iaioe A.I.
ss?oi (cie?aia, noaoo? a AAe? ca 1995-1996 aa., ui i?enay/ai? iiaiio
inieneaiith oaeno?a Ano?ea, Nioieea oa Aa?ei?aea).

Aaeeeee aei?iaie a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aioe/iiai oaao?o oa noai?eaoi?
eiai eoeueoo?e aianee ca inoaii? i?anoie?ooy a/ai?, aeecuee? aei
Eaia?eaeaenueei? oeiee eeane/ii? oeeieia??. ?icaeaath/e ?aea? O.I?oeoa,
aeeeaaeai? a eiai i?ia?aii?e ?iaio? “Ia?iaeaeaiiy o?aaaae??, aai
aee?inoai oa ianei?ci”, aiie aaa/athoue a ?iaeea?aeoaoe?? i?e/eie e?ece
oa caaeaae? iie?nii? nenoaie ? aioe/iiai oaao?o ?acii c iath. Ia?o ca
ana oea aeoiaaioe? i?oieia?/ii? oeiee I. A?aa? (“ ?noi??y a?aoeueeiai oa
?einueeiai oaao?o”, 1964), A. Iien (“Aa?i?/iee /an: Nooae?? Nioieeiai?
o?aaaae??”. 1964), O. Nieiai (“ Aan?iae oa Ano?e”. 1949), O. Noaioi?ae
(“ A?aoeueea o?aaaae?y oa aiioe??”. 1983; “Aeaicia/i?noue a a?aoeuee?e
e?oa?aoo??: Eaeoe?? c oai??? oa i?aeoeee”. 1972), Aeae. Oiiinii
(ia?aaeiiaa oa eiiaioa?? aei aeaaeai?/iiai aeaeaiiy “I?anoa?” Ano?ea a
I?ac? 1966?.), N. O?oiai (“Aa?ei?ae oa caaa?oaiee oeeee I?oo”. 1974),
O. Oaanoa? (“O?aaaae?? Aa?ei?aea”. 1967), aeecuee? aei ieo o?aioeocnuee?
aeine?aeieee AE.-I. Aa?iai oa AE. aea ?ii?ee? (ui iaeaaeaoue aei
ciniiaaiii? E. AEa?ia oeiee ?noi?e/ii? aio?iiieia?? a aioeeiciaanoa?).

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ieo, aeena?oaio aaa/a? a ?iaeea?aeoaoe?? ia o?aa?/io
aaaeo aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e, a caeiiii??iee i?ioeann, ui aoa
aeaoa?i?iiaaiee i?e?iaei?ie ci?iaie o cania? ?nioaaiiy oa ea?oeie na?oo.
C oeueiai ia?aa eoeueoo?e ? ia?iaeeeany, ia aeoieo aeenna?oaioa, aooe/ia
o?aaaae?y.

Aeena?oaoe?ei? ?iaioe c i?iaeai ?noi??? aioe/iino? ia a?aoiaothoue
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue ye aaaiiee /eiiee eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano aiioe
eeaneee ? ia aeeth/athoue aea/aiiy i?iaeai oaao?o ye iiaeae? oa
iaoai?cio aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e. Iaoii?noue aeena?oaoe?? c ?noi??? oa
oai??? aeaaiueia?aoeueeiai oaao?o iinyoue nooi ienoaoeueeiciaa/ee aai
o?eieia?/iee oa?aeoa?. Oaeei /eiii iaoa aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oith, ui
?icaeyaea? a eiiieaen? ?icaeoie aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e aiioe eeaneee oa
aaiethoe?th aooe/ii? o?aaaae??. Aeecueeith ca i?aeoiaeaie ? iacaoeuaia
aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa ?.A.
?e?ia “Oaao? o ae?aai?o a?ae?a” (1946 ?., aeaae c ia? aeae?oeiaai? a
ca??oe? noaoae ?.A. ?e?ia “?noi??y ienoaoeoaa oa anoaoeea”. — I., 1983).

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy —
aeiaaaeaiiy cia/ouino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai eiiiiiaioa a aioe/i?e
eoeueoo?? aiioe eeaneee, ?icaeyae aaiethoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, ui
aeoeaii i?ioiaeeea a oeae ia??iae, oa aeieeiaiiy ia oeueiio a?oio? iecee
eoeueoo?ieo oaiiiai?a, ia?o ca ana, aooe/ii? o?aaaae??, — iaoiiaeea oae?
caaaeaiiy, ui iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe:

· aeine?aeaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee aoiiaaiaco aee?i?a c iaoith aecia/aiiy
aeoie?a ?aoeaen?? iaae i?oii, ui ni?e/eieei oi?iioai?aiiiy ye eeane/ii?
eoeueoo?e, oae ? aioe/iiai oaao?o;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eciaino? (ia?ao?aeiiai oa?aeoa?o) aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e,
caaaeueia oeiieia?y inoaiiuei?;

· a?aeoai?aiiy iaioaeueii? ea?oeie na?oo ethaeeie aioe/iino? /a?ac
iniiai? eiino?oeoeai? eaoaai???: i?ino?? oa /an (o?iiioii), i?noea
Aaniethoo oa ethaeeie, Aeie? oa aeai?o a no?oeoo?? aioe/iiai Einiino;

· aeyaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino? oa iiaaae?iee ethaeeie a
iaaeao iaueiii-iie?nii? eoeueoo?e, aeiaaaeaiiy cia/ouino? i?ioeano
?iaeea?aeoaoe??, ui e aecia/aa ?icaeoie oe??? inoaiiuei?;

· ?icaeyae aaiethoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, aecia/aiiy niaoeeo?/ieo ?en,
ui ae?ao?ii?/ii a?ae??ciythoue aioe/iee oei ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?. Aeey
aecia/aiiy oeueiai inoaiiueiai aeena?oaio i?iiiio? oa?i?i ae?aeaeoe/ia
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue;

· aeiaaaeaiiy oace i?i oa, ui aooe/ia o?aaaae?y ? oi?aa?naeueiith
iiaeaeeth eoeueoo?e a?aoeueei? eeaneee ca nai?th aaiacith, oi?iith,
oeiii ooieoe?iioaaiiy a eoeueoo??, ia?aoo?, a iaioaeueii-aia?a?eiiio
nain?;

· ?icaeyae aioe/iiai oaao?o ye nioe?i?aaoethth/iai,
eoeueoo?i-iiaeaethth/iai oa oi?iinoai?thth/iai iaoai?cio eoeueoo?e;

· aiae?c ooieoe?iioaaiiy aioe/iiai oaao?o ye iie?aiio noai?aiiy oa
ai?aaoe?? iiaeo iiaeaeae aca?iei i?ae ethaeueie (cie?aia iie?oe/ieo,
ae?iaie/eo oa oai?/eo), ui oaeaeei iioe?ththoueny ia noni?euenoai
acaaae?;

· aeine?aeaeaiiy aooe/ii? o?aaaae?? ye iaoai?cio i?aeo?eiaiiy
aee?inueei? ?aeiino? oa ae??aithaaiiy caaaeueiiai eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy
??cieo iie?n? caaaeyee o?aineyoe?? iiaaoe?e, ciaiue, noaiaea?o?a
iiaaae?iee oa iiae, ui aoee a?aee?eo? a Ao?iao, ia anth Aeeaaeo;

· aiae?c aeeeth/ii? ?ie? aioe/iiai oaao?o a oi?ioaaii? na?aeiiino?,
iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee oa iianyeaeaiii? i?aeoeee ae?aai?o a?ae?a; aieeao ia
?io? aeaee ienoaoeoaa oa ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino?.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaio aeoiaeeoue c
iieiaeaiiy, ui eoeueoo?a yaey? niaith i?eeiyoo a aeaiiio nioe?oi?
neeaaeio ciaeiao nenoaio, ui ia? oiiaii-aioo??oith iioaioe?th aei
naii?icaeoeo ? aea? oyaeaiiy i?i na?o oa i?noea ethaeeie a oeueiio
na?o?.

Oaeee eoeueoo?ieia?/iee oa nai?ioe/iee i?aeo?ae, a?aeiaeaeaiee
i?aaenoaaieeaie o?aioeocnueei? oeiee “Aiiae?a” (I. Aeie, AE. Eaoaa?, AE.
Aetha?), aeecueeeie aei ieo ?oae?eoeyie E. A?icao?aii oa O. Aei, oe?iei
canoini- ao?oueny a no/aniiio iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii? eoeueoo? ??cieo
aiio. Eiai aoei ?icaeiaii a i?aoeyo I. Aeia?ao-?iaeaeanoaainueei?, I.
O?aeaeaiaa?a, E. AEa?ia, A. Ao?aae/a, a/aieo iineianueei-oa?oonueei?
nai?ioe/ii? oeiee (TH. Eioiaia, A. Oiii?iaa, I. Iai/aiea oa ?i.). A
oe?a?inuee?e iaooe? oaeee i?aeo?ae ?aiacaioothoueny aeeneo/eie ?iaioaie
A. A?eaoeueeiai, A. Neo?aoianueeiai, I. *ieoiaa.

Aeoiaey/e c ia?aii? iaie eiioeaioe??, aioe/i?noue iaeaaeeoue aei oeio
ia?o?aeieo, e?eciaeo eoeueoo?ieo nenoai, ui ?o oa?aeoa?eco?
?iaa??aioi?noue aaaaoueio i?ioean?a, ii?aeiaiiy aioo??oiueiai
ae?aiaoe/iiai iai?oaeaiiy c caaaeueiei iioei?noe/iei na?oini?eeiyooyi,
niieo/aiiy aenieiai aoiai?cio c ?icoi?iiyi oiai, ui Ethaeeia — eeoa
neeaaeiaa Na?oo, yeee aeeaa ca nai?ie, iai?aeaeanieie ethaeei? caeiiaie.
Oaeiio oeio eoeueoo? (oeiieia?/ii aeecuee? — ?aianain, ?a?iiaenueea
eoeueoo?a XVII no., eoeueoo?a iaae? O?O-OO aa., no/ania eoeueoo?ia
neooaoe?y) i?eoaiaii? ?oeiaoe?y eoeueoo?ii? ia?aaeeaie, ?icieo?noue
eieaeoeaieo ii?i, iaae?eni?noue nioe?aeueieo ?aaoeyoi??a, a oiio —
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?. Naia a oaeeo, e?eciaeo eoeueoo?ao
iaaecae/aeii oaeaeei ?aea eoeueoo?ia oi?iiooai?aiiy (ye aeae?a ? aeai??a
ienoaoeoaa, oae ? iie?oe/ieo oi?i, ??ciiai aeaeo ei?ii?aoe?e oiui),
ine?eueee oaeei /eiii noni?euenoai ooea? iia? oeie nioe?aeueii?
?aaoeyoe??, aaaeaii iaoi?iaeuei? (c oi/ee ci?o a?aeaeeaoeo naaa noa?eo).

Aeeneon?eiee oa?aeoa? noaaeaiiy aei oa?i?io ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue aeiaaa?
a?ae ian aeaoe ?iai/a aecia/aiiy oe??? eaoaai???. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
iniaenoino?, ui yaey? niaith oa?aeoa?enoeeo ethaeeie c oi/ee ci?o ??
o/ano? a noni?eueiiio aeeoo? oa cia/ouino? oi? ?ie?, yeo aiia a?ae?a?a?
a oeueiio aeeoo?, ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue aecia/a? aioo??oi?e na?o
ethaeeie, eiai aeooiaiee iioaioe?ae, ui ae?aaea?oueny a oi?iao, ye? ia
iathoue i?yiiai oa aaciina?aaeiueiai noni?eueiiai ci?noo.

Naia aeine?aeaeaiiy iaioaeueiino? oe?eeii iayaii aeacothoue ia
iine?aeiaio ?iaeea?aeoaoe?th, ui eoea a aioe/i?e eoeueoo?? aiioe
eeaneee, ye ia aieiaio i?e/eio an?o eie?c?e ?acaeoeo oaao?o a
Noa?iaeaai?e A?aoe??.

Iiaeaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeo?eiaia a ?one? ieth?ae?noe/ii?
iaoiaeieia?? (ca I. Oae??aaaiaeii), ui iaoiiaeaii noi?aei?noth oaie ,
iaiao?aei?noth canoinoaaiiy i?e aeine?aeaeaii? iaeii? c iniiaieo
eaoaai??e (?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?) neeaaeii? aaaaoieiiiiiaioii? nenoaie
(eoeueoo?a) iaoa??aeo, a cia/eoue iaoiae?a eiai iaoeiaiai aiae?co, c
??cieo aaeocae aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy. Iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeei?enoai? iaie, oea neio?ii?/ii-ae?ao?ii?/iee,
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, iaoiae ooaeiaeiueiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, aiae?c
ae?aiaoe/iiai oaenoo i?iaaaeeany c iiceoe?e no?oeoo?ii-nai?ioe/iiai
i?aeoiaeo. Aacith aeey aeei?enoaiiy oeeo iaoiae?a aoea iine?aeiaia
ae?aeaeoeea, ui ca oi?iith oa ii noo? iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aea? aioe/iiio
oeio ieneaiiy.

Aii??e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c aeae?eueeio a?oi
aeaea?ae. Ia?o ca ana, oea aooaioe/i? oaenoe aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e: oai?e
oa o?aaiaioe oai??a, ui ia caa??aeenue iiai?noth, aioe/ieo
o?aaaae?ia?ao?a — Ano?ea, Nioieea, Aa?ei?aea a aeaaeai?/ieo aeaeaiiyo;
o?aeoaoe aioe/ieo oai?aoee?a oaao?o (ia?o ca ana, Iiaoeea A?enoioaey),
o?einio?a, ?noi?ee?a, eiaia?ao?a oa a?ia?ao?a; iaoa??ae ieanoe/ieo
ienoaoeoa Noa?iaeaaiuei? A?aoe??.

Ae?oao a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy c oai??? i?oo,
a?aoiaoth/e i?oieia?/iee oei ieneaiiy, c yeei o?nii iiaycaia ? yeei
iaa?oioiaaia ea?oeia na?oo aioe/ii? ethaeeie. Aeeeth/ii aaaeeeaeie iai
aeaeathoueny i?aoe? I.O. Ein?aa, A.I. Iaeaoeinueeiai, I.?.
Noaae?ia-Eai?inueeiai, A. Oiii?iaa, I.I. O?aeaeaiaa?a, I. Ae?aaea oa
?io..

Aei o?aouei? a?oie aeaea?ae iaeaaeaoue i?aoe? c nioe?aeueii?,
aeiiii?/ii? oa iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? Aeaaiuei? A?aoe??, ui aeiiiiaaathoue
aaanoe oaao? a caaaeueiieoeueoo?iee oa ?noi?e/iee eiioaeno aiioe. Oea
?iaioe c ?noi??? aioe/iiai iie?na TH.A. Aiae???aa, A.I. Eioaeaiei, I.
A?i?ia, ?. E?ooiai. Aei oeueiai ae oeio aeaea?ae ne?ae a?aeianoe ? ieceo
noaoae TH.I. Aeaaeaeiaa c ?noi?e/ii? nioe?aeia?? aioe/ii? A?aoe??.

*aoaa?oa a?oia aeaea?ae i?noeoue cia/ouee iaoa??ae, ui ?ethno?o?
noaaeaiiy ae?aai?o aei aeica?eey, i?eaaoiiai aeeooy, i?iaaaeaiiy
a?eueiiai /ano, ui ciaeoei niaoeeo?/ia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a oaao?? oa
noaaeaii? aei iueiai. Oea i?aoe? E. A?ii?/oe, Aeae. Iaa?a, Aeae. Oaio?e
oa ?io..

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeo?ea? c iiaeo aeey ?noi??? oa oai???
aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e i?aeoiae?a (eoeueoo?ieia?/i? i?aeoiaee), ui aeicaiey?
?icaeyiooe oeth eoeueoo?o ye e?eciao oa aecia/eoe cia/ouenoue
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeaiaioa a ?? nooeoo??. Oaeei /eiii iiaecio
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue:

· ni?iaa aecia/eoe «ieoiio aaao» ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a aioe/i?e
eoeueoo??, oa?aeoa?i? ?ene, ui ae?ao?ii?/ii aeae?eythoue aioe/iee oei
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? («ae?aeaeoe/ia ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue» ca
eeaneo?eaoe??th aeena?oaioa);

· aaaaeaiiy aoe/ii? o?aaaae?? a eoeueoo?iee eiioaeno aeiae, ui aeicaiey?
a?aeiia?noe ia ieceo ieoaiue, ye? iiaycai? c aaiacith oa aaiethoe??th
o?aaaae??, i?aee?aneeoe aeeaiei aeaoa?i?iiaaiee oa?aeoa? inoaii?o;

· aia?oa aioe/iee oaao? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oi?aa?naeueia iiaeaeue
aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e (ca aaiacith, oeiii ooieoe?iioaaiiy, a
iaioaeueii-?ia?a?eiiio nain? oiui);

· ?icoi?iiy oaao?o ia i?inoi ye iaeei c aeae?a ienoaoeoaa, a ye
ii?iaeaeaiee ?iaeea?aeoaoe??th nioe?i?aaoethth/ee oa
eoeueoo?i-iiaeaethth/ee iaoai?ci nai?? eoeueoo?e;

· aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeo aooe/ii? o?aaaae?? ye aeaea?aea aeey iiaoaeiae
caaaeueiieoeueoo?ieo noai, ui ?ethno?othoue aeoieo «iia/acii?
a?eueoino?» c i?eaiaeo iniiaieo ieoaiue aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iie?na oa ??
a?aeiioaiiy aei aieiaieo eaoaai??e oa oe?iiinoae eoeueoo?e; aia?oa naia
aooe/ia o?aaaae?y noa? aieiaiei iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo ieoaiue;

· i?iaaaeaiiy ?aea? i?i oa, ui naia oaao?, a ia neoeueioo?a (ye aaaaeaee
Aaaaeue, Ein?a oa ?io.), ia? aooe aeciaiei ca nai???aeiee «ia?ac»
aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e. Oaeei /eiii i?aaii??iei aoaea aiai?eoe ia i?i
«noaooa?i?noue», a i?i «oaao?aeuei?noue» aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e aiioe
eeaneee.

Oa?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a iiaeeaeaii? oa
?icoe?aii? ?nioth/eo a no/ani?e iaooe? oyaeaiue ye i?i i?noea ? cia/aiiy
a aioe/i?e eoeueoo?? aooe/ii? o?aaaae??, oae ? i?i aioe/io eoeueoo?o
aiioe eeaneee acaaae?, ?icaeyiooo ?? /a?ac i?ecio i?ioeano
?iaeea?aeoaoe??.

Aeniiaee, ui ?o ae?eoee a aeena?oaoe??, a oaeiae oe?ieee ?ethno?aoeaiee
iaoa??ae c ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocae aeeooy aioe/iiai iie?na, eiai
a?iiaaeyi, oaao?o (aaoi??a, aeoi??a, nenoaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy) iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo c i?iaeai aioe/iino?,
no/ani?e oaao?aeuei?e i?aeoeoe? (iniaeeai, i?e iinoaiiaoe? eeane/ieo
oai??a), a ??cieo oi?iao ?iaioe c aeyaea/ai. Cia/ia /anoeia iaoa??aeo
iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia i?ae /an /eoaiiy eo?n?a eaeoe?e c ?noi??? oa
oai??? eoeueoo?e, ienoaoeoaa aai oaao?o aeey nooaeaio?a ye
aoiai?oa?ieo, oae ? oaoi?/ieo aoc?a, i?e /eoaii? niaoeeo?n?a, ui
i?enay/ai? ye i?iaeaiai aioe/ii? ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e, oae ? oaao?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye ie?ai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, oae ? caaaeueia
eiioeaioe?y, iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aoee aeei?enoai? aaoi?ii i?ae /an
/eoaiiy eaeoe?eiiai eo?no «Oe?a?inueea oa na?oiaa eoeueoo?a» oa
«?ae?a??ciaanoai» ia eaoaae?? eoeueoo?ieia?? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (c 1992 ii 1998 ?.), i?e iiaoaeia?
niaoeeo?n?a «Aioe/i?noue a ?a?iiaenuee?e eoeueoo??» oa «?noi??y
o?enoeyinoaa».

Ie?ai? iaoa??aee ? i?iaeaie, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny a aeena?oaoe??,
aeeeaaeai? a aeiiia?aeyo ia i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo «Eoeueoo?a ia ii?ic? iiaiai noi??//y: i?aenoiee oa
ia?niaeoeae» (Iaeana, o?aaaiue 1994 ?.) oa «Eoeueoo?i? ia?aaeeaie
ia?ao?aeieo aiio» (Iaeana, o?aaaiue 1996 ?.), /eaiii i?aeii?oaoo,
?aaeeieaa?? oa caa?aeoth/ith naeoe??th yeeo aoea aeena?oaio, a oaeiae a
iecoe? noaoae oa ?icae?e?a i?ae?o/iee?a «Oe?a?inueea oa na?oiaa
eoeueoo?a» oa «?ae?a??ciaanoai», ni?aaaoi?ii yeeo ? aeena?oaio.

?yae aeena?oaoe?eieo i?iaeai aoee i?aaenoaaeai? a aeiiia?aeyo ia
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e eoeueoo?ieia?? IAeIO, aea
aeena?oaoe?th e iaaiai?aii.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??.

Anooi

?icae?e 1.Aooe/ia o?aaaae?y ye oi?aa?naeueia iiaeaeue aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e

1.1. Aioe/iee oaao? ye i?iaeoeo ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? i?oieia?/ii?
na?aeiiino?.

1.2. Aooe/ia o?aaaae?y ye nioe?aeueiee ?aaoeyoi? ? iaoai?ci aioe/ii?
eoeueoo?e.

1.3. O?aaaae?y ye ?io?eaa aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e.

?icae?e 2. ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ia iioeaaoe?y aeaaiueia?aoeueeiai i?oo a
ae?aiaoo?a?? (Aei i?iaeaie eaoaai??? yeino?)

2.1. I?noea aia?a a noa?? ae?aiaoe/iiai.

2.2. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeai aoooy c ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ieo iiceoe?e.

2.3. ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y i?oieia?/iiai aa?iy oa i?iaeaia «i?eaaoiiai
aeeooy».

(caaaeueiee ianya — 165 noi??iie).

Aeniiaee

Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (136 iiceoe?e).

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O Anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie, ?? aeooaeuei?noue, noa?aeoa??ciaaii
ia?eo, i?aaeiao ? o?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, nooiaiue aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy, ui ?o ae??oo? aeena?oaio,
ie?aneaii aii???/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai? iaoeiaa iiaecia,
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe; iiaeai? ?iai/? aecia/aiiy
oa?i?i?a «eoeueoo?a» oa «?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue».

Ia?oee ?icae?e «Aooe/ia o?aaaae?y ye oi?aa?naeueia iiaeaeue aioe/ii?
eoeueoo?e» i?enay/aiee aiae?co aaiace oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?aa?/iiai
oaao?o a aioe/i?e eoeueoo??, ye iiaeae? oa iaoai?cia inoaiiuei?, ye
«ia?aca» eoeueoo?e. Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui aieiaiith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith eeaneee o?aaa aaaaeaoe ia ?? «noaooa?i?noue», a
«oaao?aeuei?noue».

I?aee?aneaii, ui naia aaiaca aooe/ii? o?aaaae?? iiaoi?thaaea noaiiaeaiiy
eeanne/ii? aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e, a yeiio aieiaieie iaa?no?aeueieie
iai?yieaie (/a?ac niaoeeo?eo aoiiaaiaco aee?i?a) noathoue ?aoeaen?y iaae
i?oii oa i?ioean iine?aeiaii? ?iaeea?aeoaoe??. Ia?icaeiaii?noue
nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e ?aiiueiai a?aoeueeiai iie?no aeiae eieii?caoe??
A?aoe?? ni?e/eiy? oa, ui ooieoe?? nioe?aeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? i?eeiathoue ia
naaa, c iaeiiai aieo, eoeueoia? (aieiaiei /eiii, ae?ii?n?enueeiai
oa?aeoa?o) ?, c ae?oaiai, aaii?noe/i? i?aeoeee (an?eye? ciaaaiiy, ia?o
ca ana, Ie?ii?enuee? ?a?e). Naia c ieo, a i?ioean? iiaeaeueoi?
?iaeea?aeoaoe?? oa ?ioaeaeooae?caoe?? aioe/iiai noni?euenoaa,
ia?iaeaeo?oueny aooe/ia o?aaaae?y ye iiaeaeue ? iaoai?ci
aeaaiueia?aoeueei? eoeueoo?e.

Aeyaeaii, ui c naiiai ii/aoeo naiai ?nioaaiiy aooe/ia o?aaaae?y aeeiio?
ooieoe?? nioeeaeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? ni?eueiioe: cieaeaiiy ??aiy aa?an??
(aeineoue cia/iiai o ianeiia?i?i noni?euenoa?) /a?ac eaoa?n?n;
ai?iaaoe?y iiaeo iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee (oeyoii eieaeoeaiiai iaaiai?aiiy oa
i?enoaeaeaiiy iaai?iae ia?aiiaeoeyi); i?aeiyooy i?anoeaeiino? caiyoue
?ioaeaeooaeueiith ae?yoaeuei?noth oa oai?/?noth (/a?ac aaii ae?aiaoo?a?a
oa aeoi??a); nioe?aeueia i?eie?aiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai iie?na c
a?enoie?aoaie (/a?ac aaii oi?aa?a, ui aeeiioaaee oi?aa?th ye noni?eio
e?oo?a?th) ? oaea ?i.. *a?ac oaao?, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai a iueiio yn?aa?
iniaenoino? caeiaoee iiaeeea?noue naii?aae?caoe??. Ooo ia?iaeaeoaaany
iacae/iee aeey aeniei?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaii? A?aoe?? aeina?ae oai?/i?
ni?ai?aoe?, oiaoi iiaa iiaeaeue ?nioaaiiy oa ni?aoai?/ino?. A?iiaaeyie
?ioeo aea?aeaa (i?e?iaeii, aee?inueeeo) iaea?aeaee iiaeeea?noue
?iei?ii?oaaoenue a /oaeeo iie?nao. Iaa?oue ae?iee a aeaaiueia?aoeueeiio
oaao?? (cie?aia, a Aoo?oe?, aea ?o noaiiaeua aoei
iaei?eaiiaeai?oei)iaea?aeaee ciiao a?eueii aeneiaethaaoenue (oae eeoa a
iaaeao oaao?iio) ia aeaao/? iie?oe/i? oa iioieia?/i? oaie.

?icaeoie ae?aiaoe/ii? ae?? (ia?o ca ana, ?icaeoie ae?aeiao) ni?eya
anoaiiaeaiith a aioe/i?e eoeueoo?? ia o?eueee iaae/ee oa o?aaeeoe??
neooaiiy, a e aaiethoe?? iie?oe/ii? oa noaeiai? i?aeoeee Aeaaiuei?
A?aoe??. Niaoe?aeueii i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui naia ia?aianaiiy a aoae?aeth
oaao?o Ae?ii?na ia?iaeieo cai??a Ao?i ia o?eueee oaeineiiaethaaei
eoeueoo?o aioe/iiai ia?eaiaioa?ecio, a e cia/iith i??ith aieeaaei,
caaaeyee oa?aeoa?i?e a?aeai i?eoeeueiino? aei anoaoecaoe?? aeeooy, ia
ci?io a?oeoaeoo?iiai ainaiaeth ao?inueeiai Ae?iiiey.

Aiae?coth/e iinooiiaa neeaaeaiiy o?aa?/iiai oaao?aeueiiai ae?enoaa,
aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui a o?aaaae?? aaeaeaaoiith eoeueoo??
iiaith i?oa (eiai ia?niiaae?a, a?oaoei?a, i?oieiaai) aoee a?aeia?aaeai?
aieiai? i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo iie?na ye oi?ie ?nioaaiiy
aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e ? ethaeeie, ?iaeea?aeoaoe?y ye iniiaiee
iaa?no?aeueiee iai?yiie oeueiai ?icaeoeo, ia?ao?ae oeio ?aaoeyoe?? a?ae
i?eioeei?a shame-culture aei i?eioeei?a guilt-culture oa i?ecaaaeai?
oeei neeaaei? eie?c?? aca?iia?aeiinei eieaeoeaiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
/eiiee?a iie?nii? eoeueoo?e. Naia a o?aa?/iiio oaao?? oeyoii
naiiaeaiiino?aoe?? ia?iaeo eoia i?ioean ?aoeaen?? iie?no iaae naiei
niaith. Caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia oa, ui ia ii/aoeo V no. aei i.ae. a
?iciiae?e? aeyaeaoeueeeo i?noeue aia?oa aoea cae??ieaia a?aoeueea
nioe?aeueia no?aoeo?eaoe?y ? iniaeea? i?ea?ea? ie?aieo in?a.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny oiio, ye /a?ac ei?aeyoe?th ioae?/iiai
ia?aoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o eoeueoo?e acaaae? c aiaeia?/ieie iciaeaie
oaao?aeueiiai ae?enoaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ae?aiaoe/ii? ae??
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeineiiaeaiiy naiiai ?icoiiaiai aiia?aoo aeyaea/?a,
ni?ey? ?iciianthaeaeaiith iiaeo nioe?aeueieo, iie?oe/ieo oa iaoeiaeo
?aeae. A?aaeath/? oaiie i?ioeano o?aineyoe?? aoee iaoiiaeai? oei, ui
aaiethoe?y o?aa?/iiai oaao?o i?ioiaeeea a iniaeea?e aeey aioe/ii?
eoeueoo?e noa?? — noa?? A?e aai aeica?eey, ui iineea a Aeaai?e A?aoe??
oai?aoe/iee, oiaoi ?icoiiai-niiaeyaeaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Oea a naith /a?ao
ni?e/eiyei aeeeth/ii oaeaeea aeinyaiaiiy o?aaaae??th c??ei?, ?icaeiaii?,
a?aoo?-?aoo, aeiaa?oaii? oi?ie.

Iniaeeai aeae?ey?oueny cia/aiiy aooe/ii? o?aaaae?? ye iaoai?cio
i?aeo?eiaiiy aee?inueei? ?aeiino?. O?aaaae?y noa? caaaeueiia?aoeueeei
cia/ouei yaeuai, oi/ ?? noaiiaeaiiy oa aaiethoe?y i?ioiaeeee aeania a
Ao?iao. Aaoi?e oa aeoi?e, ui ?icaeaaee oeae aeae oai?/ino?, iioiaeeee c
naieo ??cieo a?aoeueeeo aea?aeaa-iie?n?a, a oie aea /an o?aaaae??, ui ?o
aoei iaienaii a Ao?iao, noaaeee ii an?e A?aoe??(iaa?oue a
iaea?aeaeaeai?oeo eieii?yo, ye Ieuea?y aai O??a) o cayceo c eoeueoiaeie
nayoaie a niaoe?aeueii caoaeiaaieo oaao?ao.

Aaea a aioe/iino? o?aaaae?y noaea iaeiiioey?i?oei aeaeiaeuai, a caaaeyee
nioe?i?aaoethth/iio oa ?icaeaath/iio a?iiaaeyinueeee oei iniaenoino?
cia/aiith, ua e aoea ia aeioaoe?? aea?aeaae (i?e /iio a aeaiiio ?ac?
iacaeaaeii a?ae iie?oe/ii? nenoaie — aeaiie?ao??, ieeaa?o?? aai
oe?ai??). I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui oaeo caiice/aiiy o ao?iyi o?aaeeoe??
iinoaiiaee o?aaaae?e aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui i?iaeaie, ye? a i?e
aena?oethaaeeny, aoee ia aeeeth/ii aooe/ieie, a caaaeueiia?aoeueeeie; ?,
c ?ioiai aieo, iiaa i?oa oa a?oaoei?a, niin?a ineoieia?/ii? ?aae?caoe??
aa?i?a o?aaaae?? — c?icoi?eeie an?i aee?iai, ine?eueee aiie ciaoiaeeeeny
a ni?eueiiio i?oinai?ioe/iiio i?inoi??. Aooe/ia o?aaaae?y a aiioo
?acaeiaii? eeaneee noaea oei eoeueoo?iei iaoai?ciii, ui aeicaieya
caa??aaoe aee?inueeo eoeueoo?io ?aei?noue anoia?a/ue oeaio?ia?aeiei oa
naia?aoenueeei oaiaeaioe?yi, ?, c ?ioiai aieo, ni?eya «i?aeoyaoaaiith»
aei aeayeiai caaaeueiiai ??aiy iie?n?a, ye? a?aenoaee a oaiiao
eoeueoo?iiai inieneaiiy ea?oeie na?oo.

A ?icae?e? oaeiae iiaeaiee aiae?c oiai, ye oyaeaiiy i?i o?aa?/io
i?iaeio, aea??, a?aee?eooy na?aeiiino? ye o?aaaae?? ? a oie aea /an ye
iciaee aiai??aiino? ethaeeie, ui ?o ?icaeaaa aioe/iee oaao?, ni?eyee
naeoey??caoe?? eoeueoo?e acaaae?, ia?aoiaeo a?ae i?oieia?/iiai aei
?aoeaeoeaii-eiae/iiai oeio ieneaiiy, i?e/iio ia ie?aieo ?iaeea?ae?a, a
ian iin??a eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??. A oeueiio i?ioean? ?iaeea?aeoaoe??
cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaee aaeee? o?aaaae?ia?aoe: Ano?e, Nioiee ?
Aa?ei?ae — iaeyne?aa?o? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, i?aaenoaaieee
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?ii? ae?oe.

Naia ?i aaeaeinue c?iaeoe ci?noii o?aaaae?? ethaenueea aeeooy acaaae?,
ca?io?eaoaaoe aeyaea/a ?? ia?eiao?yie, ia?aoai?eoe a eoeueoo?iee
a?oaoaeo oaeo ia?iaeaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino? oa i?eeiyooy
??oaiiy ie?aiith ethaeeiith. A?aee?eooy na?aeiiino?, i?ina?oeaiiy, ui
aei ieo aoei ?eooaeueiei ooa?iie/aiei aeoii aeey iaaaaaoueio, noaei
?io?eaoth/ei ianiaiai aeyaea/a caaaeueiieoeueoo?iei iaaeaaiiyi.

Ai?ciaaaiiy ye iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi???, oae ? aeeaei ethaenueei? aeoo?,
oi?ciaiiy oa i?ciaiiy ye aecenoaioe?aeueiee aeo noa? ia eeoa neeaaeiaith
aioo??oiuei aeai?iai? ?io?eae o?aaaae??, a e iaei??th c iniia aioe/ii?
eoeueoo?ii? ia?aaeeaie. Oaeei /eiii cae?enithaaeanue aiain?iaoe?y
aa?enoe/iiai ? iiciaaaeueiiai eiino?oeo?a eoeueoo?e a?ae
ae?aoeueei-nae?aeueii? aei iie?nii-a?iiaaeyi- nueei? oi?ie. Aeeeth/iee
aianie, ui eiai c?iaeee oe? aaoi?e a ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e oa noni?eueii?
aeoiee, ? cia/aiiy, yea aeey no/aniee?a oa iauaaee?a iaea ?o oai?/?noue,
a?aeia?aceeenue, ia?o ca ana, a oiio oaeo?, ui caa?aaeeny naia ?o
oai?e, iacaaaeath/e ia eaoaee?cie, ye? ni?oeaee aioe/io eoeueoo?o. I?ney
ieo aie?a? ienoaoeoai iaienaiiy o?aaaae?? acaaae?. Ea??aia ?ieue a
aioe/iiio oaao?? (aei ?einueeiai /ano) oe?eeii ia?aoiaeeoue aei aeoi??a,
ye? noaaeee, a iniiaiiio, oaenoe Ano?ea, Nioieea oa Aa?ei?aea.

Iai?ee?ioe? ?icae?eo c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui o?aaaae?y noaea oi?aa?naeue-
iith iiaeaeeth eeane/ii? aioe/iino?, ? oea aeicaiey? ?noi?eeo oa
oai?aoeeo eoeueoo?e aeine?aeaeoaaoe aeeiai?eo oa iai?yiee ?icaeoeo oe???
inoaiiuei?, nie?ath/enue ia iaoa??ae aooe/ii? o?aaaae??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ia iioeaaoe?y aeaaiueia?aoeueeiai
i?oo a ae?aiaoo?a?? (Aei i?iaeaie eaoaai??? yeino?)», nie?ath/enue ia?o
ca ana ia oaeno oa o?aaeeoe?th ooieoe?iioaaiiy aioe/ii? o?aaaae??,
?icaeyiooee ye naiee i?ioean ?iaeea?aeoaoe??, oae ? ae?ao?ii?/i? eiai
iniaeeaino? aeey oe??? eoeueoo?e.

Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui i?ioean ?iaeea?aeoaoe?? (ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa naia
a?i neeaaeaa aieiaiee eoeueoo?iee ci?no aeiae a oe?eiio) a?aeia?aceany a
o?aaaae?? /a?ac: iine?aeiaio ?aoeaen?th iaae na?oii-i?oii; ia?aaeyae
iioeaaoe?? a/eiea (?oo a?ae nae?aeueii-eoeueoiai? aei
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aecenoaioe?aeueii? iioeaaoe?? oaeo?a aoooy, ?noi??? oa
ie?aiiai ethaenueeiai aeeooy); ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?th oyaeaiue i?i
i?e?iaeo, i?ino?? oa /an (a?ae a/aiiy i?i anana?o ? eiai no?oeoo?o o
Ano?ea /a?ac noi??i?noue c ethaenueeei /anii o Nioieea aei oyaeaiiy i?i
iane?i/aii?noue oa a?/i?noue, ui a i?e caaoaeaia Ethaeeia, o Aa?ei?aea).
Iieaciai, ui aioo??oiueith ?io?eaith o?aa?/iiai ae?enoaa noa?
?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ia iioeaaoe?y (ia?o ca ana aaoi?ii o?aaaae??)
aeaaiueia?aoeueeiai i?oo, iaaeaaiiy oeei inoaii?i eaoaai??? yeino?,
i?e/iio yeino? aoe/ii? oa anoaoe/ii?, iaae?eaiiy i?oieia?/iiai aa?iy
?iaeea?aeoaeueieie ?enaie, a eiai ae?e — ii?aeueiith ioe?ieith.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? ia iaoa??ae?, ia?o ca ana, aooe/ii? o?aaaae?? ie
a?aeoai- ?th?ii iaioaeueio ea?oeio na?oo, aiae?co?ii o? no??ie? ci?ie a
iai?yieo ?iaeea?- aeoaoe?? on?o aieiaieo eaoaai??e, ye? eaeooue a i?e
i?ioyaii ia??iaeo eeaneee: i?inoi?o oa /ano, aoooy, aa?iy eoeueoo?e,
e?ane, aeiaeano?, oe?iiinoae ? o. ?i.. A ?icae?e? aeyaeaii, ui ia i?noea
a?oa?/ii? aa?iii?? a na?oini?eiyoo? aioe/iino? i?eeoia ii?aeueiee na?o,
aea iaeaaaeeea?oo ?ieue ii/eia? a?ae?a?aaaoe ie?aiee ?iaeea?ae, Ethaeeia
ye i??a an?o ?a/ae.

Aooe/ia o?aaaae?y aeieea? ye eoeueoiaa yaeua, ? naia aiia ia?oith
a?aeia?aaea? ci?ie a iai?yieo ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? oa ?ioaeaeooae?caoe??
noinoie?a ethaeeie oa Aaniethoa. Ia i?ineai?ii? oaao?o Ae?ii?na
a?aeia?aceeanue any aaiethoe?y nae?aeueiiai: i?noeei-i?oaai?aenueea
aano?aaoaaiiy aia?a o Ano?ea (aa?oeia i?oieia?ce?oth/i? aeoiee) oa
ia?iaeaeaiiy c ?ineieo aiaeanoaaieo no?oeoo? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
na?aeiiino?; aaniethoecaoe?y ethaenueei? aie? oa aeai?o, ui iiaeai?
/a?ac ?iaeea?aeoaeueio aeieth, ye a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeui? Aie? o Nioieea;
ca?iaeaeaiiy ?aea? iaae- ? iicaia?niiaeueiiai Aiaa, ui iai?enooiiee
ethaenueeiio ?icoio, a oiio yaey? naaa /a?ac Aeiaaeie oa Aeeai, o
Aa?ei?aea.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui a noa?? ae?aiaoe/iiai aia?oa c aeeeth/iith yni?noth
?ai?acaioiaaia e?eca i?oieia?/ii? eoeueoo?ii? ia?aaeeaie, yea aoea
iiaoaeiaaia ia eieaeoeaieo (iie?nieo) aca?ieiao ?c na?oii aiaeanoaaieo
noeo?e, ? ni?iaa a?aeiaeoe aeo?ae c ia? /a?ac ?aeath ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
nian?iiy, noai?aiiy iniaenoeo noinoie?a ethaeeie c Aiaii (iniaeeai, a
oai?/ino? Aa?ei?aea). Aiae?co?oueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aianie eiaeiiai c
aaoi??a a ?icaeoie ?ae?a?eii? eiioeaioe?? aioe/iiai na?oo. Ano?e,
oai?/?noue yeiai aoea nai???aeiei i?aenoieii aeiae ?icea?oo iie?no,
anai?o o?aaaae?yo noai?th? oe?e?nia a/aiiy i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy na?oo
aia?a oa na?oo ethaenueeiai aeeooy, aiineoue a o?aaaae?th aeoo i?noa???,
ui a i?e ia?iaeaeo?oueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueia na?aeii?noue ethaeeie ? aea
aiia cono??/a?oueny ?c na?oii aia?a ? nai?? aeie?. A oai?/ino? Nioieea
aia?oa a aioe/i?e ?a?iiaenuee?e eoeueoo?? ca?iaeaeo?oueny ?aeay nayoino?
ethaeeie ? ?? ae?yiiy, ye aea?oae niieooe a??o?a na?oo, eiee
?iaeea?aeoaeueia aeiey aei?inoa? aei ??aiy Aeie? aeieue (i?e?a/aiiy), ui
iio?i ae?noaia ?icaeoie a i?aeoeoe? o?enoeyinoaa. Aa?ei?ae, a naith
/a?ao ?icaeaath/e ?oo a iai?yieo iiaoaeiae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo noinoie?a
ethaeeie ? Aiaa, a iao?ae eieaeoeaiiai eoeueoo, aia?oa a aioe/i?e
?noi??? aeaiaeeoue ?aeath ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai nian?iiy cai?noue iie?niiai
aeaaiaeainoaa oa i?aeo?eiaiiy iie?niiai ae anana?oo.

Aiae?coth/e i?e/eie iaae?iiy i?ney Aa?ei?aea ?ie? ae?aiaoo?aa a
aioe/iiio oaao??, aeena?oaio iai?ee?ioe? oe??? /anoeie aeioiaeeoue
aeniiaeo, ui a iaaeao iai?aeoeueoiaiai yaeua a oai?/ino? o?ueio aaeeeeo
o?aaaae?ia?ao?a aooe/ia o?aaaae?y iiai?noth «aeneiaeeanue» c i?eaiaeo
noinoie?a ethaeeie ? Aaniethoo. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oeeo noinoie?a eoia
a aioe/i?e eoeueoo?? ia /a?ac eieeaeoeaiee iie?niee eoeueo, a /a?ac
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aeooiai? i?aeoeee.

Oie oaeo, ui iaiaaeaia ? a?aeiinia, aea ana ae naiaiaea, iaaeaia iie?nii
ethaeei? a noa?? eoeueoiai? i?aeoeee, aeicaieeea o?aaaae?ia?aoai
?ioa?i?aooaaoe i?iaeaie einiiaaiaco, a??oa oa eiai niieooe, iaae?? oa
nian?iiy, ?iaeoue ?o ?aea? oa oai?/?noue a?eueo aaaiieie, i?ae i?inoee
aeo naii?aae?caoe??, aeicaiey? ?icoe?ieoe ?o ye iiaeyaee iaaieo aa?noa ?
noni?euenoaa caaaeii, ye aiein iia/acii? a?eueoino?, ui ae?eoia aei
ian, oei a?eueoa, ui iai a?aeiia ioe?iea no/anieeaie ye ie?aieo oai??a
ae?aiaoo?a?a, oae ? ?o oai?/ino? a oe?eiio.

Aiae?c, i?iaaaeaiee a ianooii?e /anoei? ?icae?eo, aaiethoe?? iiaeyae?a
ia i?e?iaeo ethaenueeiai aeeooy, ?icaeoie ea?oeie na?oo, ui aiie iiaeai?
a aooe/i?e o?aaaae?? a?ae Ano?ea aei Aa?ei?aea, aeaiiino?othoue ?oo
aioe/ii? eeane/ii? eoeueoo?e a iai?yieo iiaeeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
?iaeea?aeoaoe?? ciaioaiiy ?ie? oa cia/aiiy eieaeoeaenonueeeo (iaueiieo)
anoaiiaeaiue ? aea?aeaaieo (iie?nieo) caeii?a aeey ie?aii? ethaeeie,
aenoaaiiy ia ia?oa i?noea i?iaeai iniaenoiai, i?eaaoiiai aeeooy ?, a
naith /a?ao, oneeaaeiaiiy inoaiiueiai. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui an? oe?
i?ioeane ?icoi?eeny aioe/iith ethaeeiith ye o?aaaae?y, ine?eueee ia
i?noea aeai?eoi?ciaaiiai, a aaaaoueio a?aeiioaiiyo c?o/iiai
i?oieia?/iiai ?nioaaiiy i?eoiaeeei inieneaia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia aeeooy,
aea ca iniaenoee, nai?th na?aeii?noth iaa?oioiaaiee aea?? ethaeeia
ciooaia aoea naiino?eii ae ? ?iciea/oaaoenue, ianoe oyaa? iniaenoi?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca nai? aeeooy.

Iinooiiai, a?ae Ano?ea aei Aa?ei?aea, eaea aaiethoe?y oe?iiinoae a?ae
caaaeueiiiie?nieo aei i?eaaoieo, ui a?aeaeaaei ?oo a?ae eoeueoo?e ni?iio
aei eoeueoo?e i?iaeie. Noai?ththoueny aioo??oi?, ?ioa??i??ciaai?
noaiaea?oe, ui ?i iaiaaathoueny a?aeiia?aeaoe aa?i? o?aaaae?? oa aa?i?
eoeueoo?e. Ia i?noea ?aeeiiai noi?ioeueiaaiiai ?aeaaeo a?oa?/ii?
ni?eueiioe — aa?i?/iiai a?enoie?aoe/iiai noaiaea?oo i?eoiaeeoue
?icia?ooy iniaenoeo noaiaea?o?a, ca yeeie ?iaeea?aeoaeueia ethaeeia
aoaeo? nai? aeeooy oa nai? a?aeiineie ?c na?oii.

sseui aeey Ano?ea — iie?n iaae ona, ? aoaeue-yea ethaenueea ae?yiiy,
aoaeue-yeee aea?? ?icaeyaea?oueny c oi/ee ci?o eiai i?eeiyoiino? aeey
iie?na, oi aaea Nioiee aaa/a? ca iiaeeeaa ?iaeoe aea??, ui a?i
i?ioenoi?oue iie?niei ii?iai. Iaeiae eiai ni?aaaei?e aa?ie ioneoue aai
i?eie?eoeny c iie?nii, aai aia?oe a?eueiei a?ae eiai Caeii?a, uia
caa?aaoe naith iniaenoo nooue. Ui ae aei aa?i?a Aa?ei?aea, oi aiie
caaaeaee iae?athoue nai? ?aeeia, iaiiaoi?ia aeeooy ? nai? aaaeaiiy,
iaa?oue yeui aeey oeueiai o?aaa c?oeioaaoe iie?niee na?o, eiai ii?aeue
aai i?aeaeaoe noii?ao ni?aaaeea?noue eiai aia?a. A?eia, yea aeey Ano?ea
aoea caniaii ianoithaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? Iie?na oa eiai aia?a, a
aeey Nioieea — ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? aa?iy-a?enoie?aoa, oeiii eiai a?/iiai
oiiei?iiy a iaiyo? iauaaee?a, aeey Aa?ei?aea noa? o?aaaae??th ethaenoaa,
ine?eueee ?oeio? na?oe ye ia?aiiaeaieo, oae ? ia?aiiaeoe?a, a?aei?ia?
?oi? ?aeei? oa iaiiaoi?i? aeeooy, ui aei??aiththoue na?oai. Oiio
Aa?ei?ae c ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ie iiceoe?e ?aa?co? iane?aeee nae?aeueii?
ia?aiiae aee?i?a a O?iyinuee?e a?ei?, iieaco? ?? aeeeth/io aei?noie?noue
oa aano?aei?noue, a?aoiaoth/e oie i?ca?iee i?ea?ae oa a?aiae?ici?
aea?oae, ui c iath iiaycai?.

A inoaii?e /anoei? ?icae?eo aiae?co?oueny ae?aeaeoe/iee oa?aeoa?
aioe/iiai oeio ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, yeee i?iyaeany a oiio, ui
ia?aieao?iiy noni?eueiiai cao/aiiy eiaeii? ethaenueei? ae?? c ?icoi?iiyi
iaeeie/iino? aoaeue-yei? ethaenueei? ?noioe ?iaeee a?ae/oooy iniaenoi?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? iaaecae/aeii o?aa?/iei, ca?aeee ? aeieeaei
ianei?noe/ia na?oini?eeiyooy oe??? aiioe. A yeino? ?en, ui ae?ao?ii?/ii
aeae?eythoue ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue aioe/iiai oeio, aeena?oaio iicia/a?,
ia?o ca ana, ianoaeo ??aiiaaao i?ae aeaiia noi?iiaie ethaenueei?
i?e?iaee: ci???ioiaai?noth aciai?, ia aeeooy eieaeoeao, ? aioo??oi?i
ona?aeiieaiiyi naaa, ye iiaeae? Einiino. Ia?inoath/a e?enoae?caoe?y
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? o a?ae?a anooia? a eiioe?eo ?c ?o «iniaeno?noth»,
i?eiee, iaeiae, ia ia?anooiath/e iaae? inoaiiuei? — aacith ioe?iee oa
naiiioe?iee ethaeeie /ano?oa ca ana caeeoathoueny eiai noni?euei?
i?iyae.

Iaeiae aeena?oaioii aeiaaaeaii, ui a i?a??iae aioe/ii? eeaneee cia/ii
iioe?th?oueny i?ino?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? naiaiaee, ia aeaoa?i?iiaaii?
eoeueoo?ieie ii?iaie oa noa?aioeiaie iioeaaoe?? nai?o a/eie?a oa ioe?iee
ae?e ? iniaenoinoae ?ioeo ethaeae, ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ?aaeoe?? ia ieo, ui
/ano?oa ca ana ni?e/eoaia ia noni?eueieie noaiaea?oaie, a iniaenoeie
?ici??eiaoaaiiyie oa i?eoeeueiinoyie. I?e oeueiio aoaeue-ye? aeai?e oa
?o iioeaaoe?y iaaoaathoue eaoaai??th yeino?.

Oa?aeoa??coth/e niaoeeo?/i? ?ene aioe/ii?, ca aecia/aiiyi aeena?oaioa
ae?aeaeoe/ii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, aeae?eythoueny: i?eoeeuei?noue ia aei
iiaaoi?noaa a iiaeaeyo iiaaae?iee oa naii?aae?caoe??, ye o
iiai?a?iiaenueei? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, a ?aaeoa aioo??oith aioiai?noue
?aoeaenoaaoe oa ?iaeoe aeai?e i?ae ??cieie aaea ?nioth/eie a eoeueoo??
ii?iaie, noa?aioeiaie (iaaeaaiiy eaoaai??? yeino?); a?aenoithaaiiy, c
iaeiiai aieo, nai?? naiino?, iaiiaoi?iino?, iacia/ouiai aeey iie?no
«caeeoea» a?ae on?o noni?eueieo iai?oanoaoe?e, a c ae?oaiai —
i?eno?anoia, iaeaea oai?iaeeaa aaaeaiiy aooe ioe?iaiiei ? iaa?oue
ethaeiei (aeoaea iniaenoa aeey iie?na a?aeiioaiiy) naia ca oeae
«caeeoie» a?ae nioe?aeueii? ?ie?. Naia a aioe/iee ia??iae ca ?aooiie
?icoe?aiy i?inoi?o iniaenoi? naiaiaee ooai?th?oueny iiaa noa?a ?nioaaiiy
ethaeeie — «i?eaaoia aeeooy». A i?e aeeeth/io ?ieue a?athoue oae?
eaoaai??? ye ae?oaeaa (?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ia o?e?y, cai?noue iie?nii?
eieiii??) ? ethaia, aiae?co aaiethoe?? yeeo a aooe/i?e o?aaaae?? oa
eoeueoo?? ? i?enay/aia inoaiiy /anoeia ?icae?eo.

Aeniiaee.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaio iaaieioo? ia oiio, ui a aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa o
a?o/eciyiiio ienoaoeoaiciaanoa? cae?eniaii ni?iao aeiaanoe, ui neeaaeiee
iie?naiaioe/iee ? neioaoe/iee oaiiiai, yeei aoa aeaaiueia?aoeueeee oaao?
? aooe/ia o?aaaae?y cie?aia, yaeythoue niaith oi?aa?naeueio iiaeaeue
aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio. Aac ona?aeiieaiiy oeueiai oaeoo iaiiaeeeai
?icaeyaeaoe ye aaiethoe?th oeueiai aeaeo ethaenueei? oai?/ino?, oae ?
aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aeieeiaiiy oaao?o, ui
i?ineaaea ienoaoeoai Aeaaiuei? A?aoe??, aoei iaoiiaeaia iniaeeaith
?ieeth oa i?noeai, yea a aioe/i?e eoeueoo?i?e nenoai? iin?aeaea
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue.

Iniaeeai i?aee?aneaii, ui aeae?eaiy iniaenoino? c eieaeoeao ? oi?ioaaiiy
ia iniia? oeueiai i?ioeano (?iaeea?aeoaoe?y) noni?euenoaa ye a?oie
?iaeea?aeoaeueiinoae ye i?eioeeiiaa yaeua iaei i?noea eeoa iaeei ?ac ? a
iaeiiio i?no?: a i?ioean? niaoeeo?/iiai aoiiaaiaco aee?i?a oa
noaiiaeaiiy aioe/iiai iie?no. *a?ac oeae i?ioean ? ?icoi?? aeena?oaio
oaiiiai «inueiaeo a?e?a» aai «a?aoeueeiai aeeaa».

O aeniiaeao iiaeathoueny iniiai? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene ae?aeaeoe/ii?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? (ye aioe/iiai oeio ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?) ?
ie?aneththoueny iniaeeaino? ?? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a oai?/ino? aeaeaoieo
ieooe?a aioe/ii? eeaneee: Ano?ea, Nioieea oa Aa?ei?aea. Ae?noa?
ina?oeaiiy ei?ioeee ia?en aaiethoe?? noaaeaiiy a eoeueoo?? aei
iniaenoino?, caaaa/aiiy inoaiiuei? ana a?eueo iaiiaoi?ieie ?enaie, ui ia
iathoue i?yiiai nioe?aeueiiai cia/aiiy («caeeoeaie» a?ae ciai?oi?o
nioe?aeueieo iai?oanoaoe?e).

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iiai?a?iiaenueea eoeueoo?a, ye ? iiai?a?iiaenueea
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue aaaaoi oniaaeeoaaee a?ae aioe/iino?. Oea e oyae?iiy
aei oai?/ino?, yeo ua ethaee eeane/ii? A?aoe?? ni?eeiaee ye i?iya
aiai??aiino? ethaeeie, ui aoea aee?ieaia c iii?eo oeoai?a oa iiaeeiaiiai
?ie Ae?ii?na; e i?aaiaiiy naii?aae?caoe?? ? a oie aea /an nioe?aeueii?
cia/ouino? oa ei?eniino?; e a?aee?eooy na?aeiiino?, yeei a na?oiao
?noi??th oa eoeueoo?o oa?eoea aooe/ia o?aaaae?y — oi?aa?naeueia iiaeaeue
nai?? eoeueoo?e. O?aa?/ii ia?aaeeoa aioe/i?noth a?aee?eooy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? niiioea? ciiao caa?oaoeny aei oe??? aiioe a iiooeao
?aoeaio?a aeoiaeo c iaeneeaaei?oeo eaae?eio?a no/anii? eoeueoo?ii?
neooaoe?? iinoiiaea?i?cio, a nai?ioe/iiio iie? yei? aaaeeeaee /eiiee
noaiiaeyoue aioe/i? aethc?? oa ?ai?i?noeaioe??, a i?yi? iinoaiiaee
aioe/ii? o?aaaae?? noathoue «o?oaie» oaao?aeueiiai ?aia?ooa?o.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue caeiaoaa/a, a yeeo aeeeaaeai? iniiai?
oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??:

1. Ienthi A.A. Aioe/iay o?aaaaeey a eiioaenoa eoeueoo?u OO a. (E
iinoaiiaeai Nioieea ia oe?aeineie noeaia) // Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia
eaoaae?u eoeueoo?ieiaee IAIO, 1997, aui. 3. — N. 69 — 77.

2. Ienthi A.A. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue eae o?aaaaeey (E i?iaeaia eoeueoo?u
eeanne/aneie A?aoeee) // Eoeueoo?iua ia?aaeeaiu ia?aoiaeiuo
yiio/Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. — Oac. aunooi. —
Iaeanna, 1996. — N.68-71.

3. Ienthi A.A. ?iaeaeaiea o?aaaaeee ec aeooa eiaeeaeaeoaeecia //
Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia eaoaae?u eoeueoo?ieiaee IAIO, 1996, aui. 1. — N.
80 — 85.

4. Ienthi A.A. ?ieue e ooieoeee i?aeoe/aneeo caiyoee a i?ioeanna
eco/aiey eo?na «Enoi?ey ie?iaie e ioa/anoaaiiie eoeueoo?u»// Iaoa?eaeu
ii eo?no «Enoi?ey ie?iaie e ioa/anoaaiiie eoeueoo?u». — Oe?aniieue: ?EI
IAEO, 1996. — N. 119-122.

5. Ienthi A.A. «*aeiaae anoue ia?a anao aauae…»(Aioe/iua
?aieienoeaioeee a yecenoaioeeaeecia)// Eoeueoo?a ia ii?iaa iiaiai aaea:
eoiae e ia?niaeoeau: Iaaeaeoia?. Iao/ii-oai?aoe/. Eiioa?aioeey. — Oac.
auno. — Iaeanna, 1994. — N. 34-35.

6. Ienthi A.A. Yaeei eae ia?niieoeeaoeey eiaeiaa?iiaeneiai a?oaoeia
neaioea // O?oaeu Iaeanneiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa, 1996, aui.
2. — N. 66-68.

7. I?nthi A.A. Anooiia eaeoe?y // ?aeeaeiaaaeaiea. O/aaiia iiniaea aeey
nooaeaioia anao oi?i iao/aiey /Iiae ?aae. A.A. Aaeaio?neiai. — Iaeanna:
IOIIE «Iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao», 1996. — N. 3 — 5.

8. I?nthi A.A. Oa?i?iieia?/iee neiaiee // ?aeeaeiaaaeaiea. — N. 54 —
55.

9. Ienthi A.A. Aeaaa 3. Eoeueoo?a aioe/iiai ie?a // Ie?iaay e
oe?aeineay eoeueoo?a. O/aaiia iiniaea aeey anao oi?i iao/aiey / Iiae
?aae. A.A. Aaeaio?neiai e E.E. Naoeaiei. — Iaeanna: IOIIE «Iieeoao
oi-o», 1997. — 0,5 ae.a.

10. Ienthi A.A. Aeaaa 6. Eoeueoo?a yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey // Ie?iaay e
oe?aeineay eoeueoo?a. — Iaeanna, 1997. — 0,5 ae.a.

11. Ienthi A.A. Aeaaa 3. Eoeueoo?a aioe/iiai ie?a // Ie?iaay e
oe?aeineay eoeueoo?a. O/aaiia iiniaea aeey anao oi?i iao/aiey / Iiae
?aae. A.A. Aaeaio?neiai e E.E. Naoeaiei. — Ecaeaiea ???, ?anoe?. e
aeii.. — Iaeanna: IOIIE «Iieeoao oi-o», 1998. — 0,6 ae.a.

12. Ienthi A.A. Aeaaa 6. Eoeueoo?a yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey // Ie?iaay e
oe?aeineay eoeueoo?a. — Iaeanna, 1998. — 0,6 ae.a.

I?nthi A. A. Aaiethoe?y ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a eoeueoo?? aioe/iino? (ia
iaoa??ae? aooe/ii? o?aaaae??). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 17.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y
eoeueoo?e. — Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y eoeueoo?e, Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e aiioe eeaneee
?, a?eueo niaoe?aeueii, aooe/i?e o?aaaae?? ye oi?aa?naeuei?e iiaeae?
eoeueoo?e oe??? aiioe oa nioe?i?aaoethth/iai ? eoeueo?iiiaeaethth/iai
iaoai?cio inoaiiuei?. A ?iaio? ?icaeaa?oueny ?aeay i?i oa, ui aieiaiei
ci?noii oeueiai ia??iaeo noaea iine?aeiaia ?iaeea?aeoaoe?y.

Aeine?aeaeai? i?iaeaie aaiethoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a aioe/i?e
eoeueoo??, ui a?aeia?aceeiny a aeieeiaii? oaiiiaio aooe/ii? o?aaaae??;
i?iaeaie niaoeeo?eaoe?? aioe/iiai oeio ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, aeyaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?ieo ?en oa ae?ao?ii?/ieo iniaeeainoae inoaiiuei?. Cai?iiiiiaai?
iia? i?aeoiaee aei aeine?aeaeaiiy aioe/iiai oeio eoeueoo?e oa aooe/iiai
oaao?o.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?aeaeoe/ia ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue, iniaeno?noue,
?iaeea?aeoaoe?y, ?ioa??i??caoe?y, ea?oeia na?oo, aooe/ia o?aaaae?y,
eoeueoo?i? iaoai?cie, ?aoeaen?y, i?oinai?ioe/iee i?ino??.

Ienthi A.A. Yaiethoeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe a eoeueoo?a aioe/iinoe (ia
iaoa?eaea aooe/aneie o?aaaaeee). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa eneonnoaiaaaeaiey
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 17.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey eoeueoo?u. — Oa?ueeianeay
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey eoeueoo?u, Oa?ueeia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aioe/iie eoeueoo?u e,
niaoeeaeueiae, aooe/aneie o?aaaaeee eae oieaa?naeueiie iiaeaee yoie
eoeueoo?iie yiioe e nioeei?aaoee?othuaai, eoeueoo?i-iiaeaee?othuaai
iaoaiecia iineaaeiae. A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony eaeay i oii, /oi iniiaiui
niaea?aeaieai yoiai ia?eiaea noaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiay eiaeeaeaeoaoeey.

Enneaaeiaaiu i?iaeaiu yaiethoeee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe a aioe/iie
eoeueoo?a, /oi i?iyaeeinue a aicieeiiaaiee oaiiiaia aooe/aneie
o?aaaaeee; i?iaeaiu niaoeeoeeaoeee aioe/iiai oeia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe,
auyaeaiey oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o e aeeao?iie/aneeo iniaaiiinoae iineaaeiae.
I?aaeeiaeaiu iiaua iiaeoiaeu e enneaaeiaaieth aioe/iiai oeia eoeueoo?u e
aioe/iiai oaao?a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeaeaeoe/aneay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, ee/iinoue,
eiaeeaeaeoaoeey, eioa?ei?ecaoeey, ea?oeia ie?a, aooe/aneay o?aaaaeey,
eoeueoo?iua iaoaieciu, ?aoeaeney, ieoinaieioe/aneia i?ino?ainoai.

Misiun A.V. The Evolution of Individuality in the Antiquity Culture (on
the material of Attic tragedy). — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidates degree by specialty 17.00.01 — Culture theory
and history. — Kharkiv State Academia of Culture, Kharkiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devote to the investigation of the ancient culture
of the classical epoch, and, in particular, to attic tragedy as a
universal model and socio-regulating and culture-simulating mechanism of
the latter. The idea that the main countent of that period of time
became the consecutive individualization is developed in the given work.

The problem of individuality evolution in the ancient culture has been
investigated which became apparent in coming into existence the attic
tragedy phenomenon; the one of the ancient type individuality
specification, determination of the characteristic features and the
diachronical peculiarities of the latter/ The new approaches to the
investigation of the ancient type culture and ancient theater are
offered.

Key words: dialectical individuality, personality, individuation,
interiorization, worlds picture, attic tragedy, cultural mechanisms,
reflexion, mythosemiotic space

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