Yinoeooo o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Aiaiue?i Aaea??e Iiaianiae/

OAeE 316.33:05.61.21

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.03-nioe?aeueia o?einio?y ? o?einio?y ?noi???

Aaoi?aoa?ao

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe
Ee?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?inoeoooo oi?aae?iiy ? cayceo.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio-

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie, aeaaeai?e Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? iie?oe/ieo iaoe Iieeye Ieeiea
Ieeieaeiae/; ?inoeooo o?einio?? ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii nioe?aeueii? o?einio??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe —

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?E?aiaiue Aaneeue
A?eai?iae/;Aeaaeai?y iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie , i?aceaeaio aeaaeai??

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani??eia?aiei TH??e ?aaiiae/; ?inoeooo
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ia?aiaeeoey A?eai??e Ieeieaeiae/;
Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?inoeooo no?aoaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo ai?iii? iie?oeee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y-

Oeaio? aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe IAI Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a o?einio??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 25 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.161.02 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?? ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe a ?inoeooo? o?einio?? ?i.
A.N. neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:252001, i. Ee?a, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
o?einio?? ?i. A.N. neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith( Ee?a-1, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 23 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.A. Neoie/aiei

#15. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/aniee aoai ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?ioeanaie, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i iayai?noue o iueiio
aeeaieeo e?eciaeo yaeu.

?iciaae nioe?ae?noe/ii? nenoaie ? cieeiaiiy aino?iai iie?oe/iiai oa
a?enueeiaiai i?ioenoiyiiy o na?o? ia c?iaeee eiai iaio eiioe?eoiei.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oaeo ??ceiai ciaioaiiy o na?o? eeane/ieo a?ei i?ae
aea?aeaaaie, ianeeuenoaa, iia’ycaiiai c aeei?enoaiiyi ca?i?, ia na?oia?e
a?ai? ia iiiaioaei. Ai?iaeiaae 90-o ?ie?a XX noi??//y caeeoa?oueny
aeineoue aenieee ??aaiue ?ica’ycoaaiiy a?enueeiaeo eiioe?eo?a, yeee, ca
i?ae?aooieaie oao?aoe?a, noaiiaeoue 20 — 30 cia/ieo eiioe?eo?a ui??/ii.
O na?o? c’yaeeeny oe?e? ?aa?iie, ye? noaee eeaneo?eoaaoeny ye eiioe?eoii
iaaacia/i?. Neooaoe?y, ui neeaeany, oneeaaeith?oueny c?inoaiiyi oae
caaieo aeiaaeueieo i?iaeai:

aeieia?/ii?, ne?iaeiii?, i?iaeiaieue/i? oiui. Ia aeoieo aeayeeo
aeine?aeiee?a, ethaenoai iinoaei ia?aae ?aaeueiith aeueoa?iaoeaith
??oo/a ci?ieoe ia?aaeeaio ae?yeueiino? aai cieueoe naaa oa a?inoa?o.
Aeiaaeueia eaoano?ioa, ui ianoaa?oueny, aeiaaa? e?eoe/iiai ia?aaeyaeo
i?aeaaeei no/aniiai na?oiaeyaeo caaaeii ? aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo oa?i?i?a
cie?aia. Aei eaoaai??e, ui iio?aaothoue iiaiai eiiieaeniiai inieneaiiy,
iaeaaeeoue ? oa?i?i «aaciaea». O?aaeeoe?eii ai?iaeiaae cia/iiai /ano
aaciaea icia/aea oieeaiiy ia?niaeoeae noaoe aea?oaith ica?i?iiai
ianeeuenoaa cciai? ? aoea iia’ycaia c oaeith nioe?aeueiith
?inoeoooe??th, ye aea?aeaaa.

O 50-o? ?iee XX noi??//y o iaoeiao oa iie?oe/io e?oa?aoo?o aaiaeeoueny
oa?i?i «iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea», yeee ia nueiaiaei? iae/ano?oa
aaeeaa?oueny o o?einio??, iie?oieia??, nioe?ieia?? oa oai???
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. Iacaaaeath/e ia aeina?ae e?eueeio aeanyoe??/ o
aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, aaaaoi ?? aniaeo?a
aeiaaathoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy. A iaoeiaiio oa iie?oe/iiio na?o? i?ae
aieeaii no/anii? ae?eniino? iino?eii aoi/ith?oueny nai ci?no
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

A no/aniiio na?o?, iaiiaiaiiio ianeeuenoaii, i?iaeaia aaciaee ?
aeooaeueiith ia o?eueee aeey eiaeii? ethaeeie, aea?aeaae, aea e aeey
na?oo caaaeii. Oiio oni?oia ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie aaciaee a no/aniiio ??
?icoi?ii? aeiaaa? iiaeaeueoiai oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Io?eiai? i?e
oeueiio ?acoeueoaoe ae?ae iaiao?aei? aeey eiaeii? eiie?aoii? e?a?ie, ui
noai?th? aai aaeineiiaeth? aeanio nenoaio aaciaee.

Niaoeeo?ea iiaoaeiae nenoaie aaciaee coiiaeaia oe?eith ieceith
ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a. Aei oaeeo /eiiee?a, ui
ni?aaeythoue ?noioiee aieea ia aaciaeo e?a?ie (iniae, aea?aeaae,
noni?euenoaa), o?aaa a?aeianoe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee.

O no/aniiio na?o?, ca i?ae?aooieaie a/aieo, i?iaeeaa? aeecueei o?ueio
oeny/ ia?iae?a-iaoe?e oa ni?eueiio ethaeae, ui oi?iothoueny ye iaoe??.
*enaeuei?noue aoi?/ieo a?oi aeinyaa? aeanyoe oeny/. An? oe? ia?iaee
iaoeathoue o aea?aeaaao, yeeo iae?/o?oueny iiiaae 200. Oe?eeii
i?e?iaeii, ui a?eueo?noue aea?aeaa ? iie?aoi?/ieie, ca oaeeo oiia ?ieue
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea a iaoai?ci? aaciaee ? iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaith.

Aaaaoi cao?aeieo oa a?o/eciyieo o?einio?a, nioe?ieia?a, iie?oieia?a
aaaaeathoue XX noi??//y noi??//yi iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ui
aeyaey?oueny ia i?aeoeoe? a ?aae?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?. O
i?aeoe/iiio ieai? ?aae?caoe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? iia’ycaia a ia?oo
/a?ao ?c noai?aiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae. O ca’yceo c oeei aeineoue
iaa?oioiaaiith aeaeyaea? aeoiea a?aeiieo cao?aeieo niaoe?ae?no?a c
iie?oe/ii? aaia?ao?? oa aoiia?ao?? N.Eiaia, O.?aa oa ?ioeo i?i oa, ui o
XXI

noi??//? a?aeaoaeooueny na?eici? ci?ie ia iie?oe/i?e ea?o? na?oo.

O oeueiio i?ioean? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee iiaeiai a?ae?a?aoe yeui ia
ae??oaeueio, oi aeoaea aaaeeeao ?ieue.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui a iueiio
aeine?aeaeo?oueny aaciaea no/aniiai iie?aoi?/iiai noni?euenoaa oa i?noea
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea o iaoai?ci? ?? oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?thaaiiy.
Aiae?c no/anieo i?ioean?a o oeueiio yaeu? ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ? aeey
iiaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee iie?aoi?/iiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

I??a ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. sse ia oea aaea aeacoaaeiny, i?iaeaia
aaciaee caeaaia i?eaa?oaea oaaao aeine?aeiee?a, ine?eueee iaia’yceiaith
oiiaith ii?iaeueiiai ?icaeoeo aoaeue-yeiai nioe?aeueiiai i?aai?cio (a
oiio /ene? e noni?euenoaa) ? eiai no?ee?noue aei iaaaoeaieo, ciai?oi?o
aieea?a, a oaeiae aioo??oiy nioe?aeueia noaa?euei?noue.

O?einioe, nioe?ieiae, ?noi?eee, iie?oieiae c ??cieo aie?a i?aeoiaeeee
aei aea/aiiy aaciaee ye nioe?aeueiiai yaeua. O?, ooi noiya a?ey aeaea?ae
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie, a?aeii? ieneeoae? ieioeiai Ieaoii,
A??noioaeue, I.Iae?aaaee?, O.Aiaan, O.-E.Iiioane’? oa ?io? iia’ycoaaee
aaciaeo a ia?oo /a?ao c aea?aeaaith oa ciai?oiueith caa?icith. Oa aaea c
oiai /ano aoee caeeaaeai? i?aeaaeeie ia?aaeeaie, ca?aeii c yeith
aa?aio?y aaciaee a ia?oo /a?ao cae?enith?oueny a?enueeiaeie caniaaie, ?
aieiaiith ?inoeoooe??th, yea caoeua?oueny, ? aea?aeaaa. Iiae?aiee
iiaeyae neeaany i?ae aieeaii naiiai i?ioeano ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo.
Ynoi??y ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa — oea iecea a?ei, ui ia
i?eieiythoueny oa noathoue aeaaeae? e?iaii?ieeoi?oeie i??ith oiai, ye
c’yaeythoueny aeineiiae?o? cia?yaeaey cieuaiiy. Aea?aeaaa o a?ei?
a?ae?a?aaaea ae??oaeueio ?ieue.

Eia?ea a?enueeiai-neeiaiai ieneaiiy, ui neeaeany oi?iaeiaae aeiaaeo
?ie?a, ii?iaeeea oeny/? a?ei ? a?enueeiaeo eiioe?eo?a, ye? caa?aee
aeeooy i?eueeii?a ethaeae.

Aeoeaii i?iaeaia aaciaee a no/aniiio ?icoi?ii? ii/aea aeine?aeaeoaaoeny
c 50-o ?ie?a iaoiai noi??//y. Aia?oa ioi?ieai? a
eiioeaiooaeueii-oai?aoe/iiio ieai? aieiai? ?aea? no/aniiai ?icoi?iiy
aaciaee aoee noi?ioeueiaai? a/aieie ? iie?oeeaie NOA. A ianooii? ?iee
iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea ia?aoai?eeany ia iaeio c oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaieo
aaciaeo eaoaai??e, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo iaoeao.
Aaeeeee aianie o aea/aiiy i?iaeaie aaciaee c?iaeee cao?aei? aeine?aeieee
?.Aca?, A.Aoa??y, E.A?aoi, N.A?aoi, A.A?ioae?, C.Aaeac?inueeee,
A.A?iueyin, ?.Aeaeaenii, Ae.Eaoooiai, O.E?iiiai, A.Ii?aaioao, *.Io?,
E.Iii?, I.Oao oa ?io?.

O i?aoeyo oeeo a/aieo aoee aeeeaaeai? aieiai? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy
iiiyooy «iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea», c’yniaaiee ca’ycie iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee ?c nenoaiith aacenieo oe?iiinoae noni?euenoaa.

O a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? iiiyooy «iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea» ii/aei
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny eeoa ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a. Iane?eueee aeooaeueii o
cao?aei?e nioe?aeueii-o?einionuee?e iaooe? aeine?aeaeoaaeany i?iaeaia
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, iano?eueee o a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? i?eae?eyeany
oaaaa iai?iiiiio a?enueeiaiio iioaioe?aeo. O i?aoeyo A.Aiea?ueiaa,
E.Ai?iaeiaa, A.Aieoa?aa, A.Aee??ia, I.Aeieo???aa, A.Iaeueeiaa, A.Eoeaae,
TH.Iaiiioiaa, I.Ieeiaeaeiaa, ?.?eae?ia, A.Na?aa?yi?eiaa, A.Ia?o?ia,
I.Oaaoiiaa, I.Oeii?eia, N.Othoeaae/a, I.*aeaeeiiaa, A.Oe?iaia,
I.ssntheiaa oa ?ioeo aeine?aeaeoaaeeny neeaaeieee iai?iiiiai iioaioe?aeo
(aeiiii?/iee, iaoeiaee, ii?aeueii-iie?oe/iee, a?enueeiaee) oa oeyoe
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioeo e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo iieaciee?a. Nai aea iai?iiiee
iioaioe?ae ?icaeyaeaany ye noeoii?noue iaoa??aeueieo ? aeooiaieo nee
aea?aeaae, noni?euenoaa oa iiaeeea?noue ?o iia?e?caoe?? aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iaoe a?eie. Aiae?c oeeo i?aoeue iieaco?, ui oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a aoea
neiioeaio?iaaia ia ?icaeyae? i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee neeiaeo no?oeoo?
aea?aeaae oa noni?euenoaa caaaeii aei iiaeeeai? a?eie. Oaeee i?aeo?ae
aoa coiiaeaiee aeaiia aieiaieie i?e/eiaie: ii-ia?oa, aei?noeei
iie?oe/iei oa a?enueeiaei i?ioenoiyiiyi aeaio nioe?aeueieo nenoai,
ii-ae?oaa, aocueeei i?aeoiaeii aei aecia/aiiy ?aaeueieo oa iioaioe?eieo
caa?ic noni?euenoao oa aea?aeaa?, ye? ?icaeyaeaeeny ye aeeeth/ii ai?ii?.

Iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y o na?o?, ui ci?ieeany, ni?eyea ci?i? oa ei?eaoaaiith
i?aeoiae?a aeine?aeiee?a, ye? ?icaeyaeathoue i?iaeaio iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee. Aiia noaea ?icaeyaeaoeny oe?oa, anaa?/i?oa e ia oae i?e?oa?ii.

A Oe?a?i?, ye ? a ?ioeo e?a?iao — eieeoi?o ?anioae?eao ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco, a 90-o? ?iee c’yaeythoueny i?aoe?, aaoi?e yeeo, nie?ath/eny ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, ?ic?iaeythoue oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oa aeanio eiioeaiooaeueio iiaeaeue iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie (A.Aaothe, I.Aiae?oe, I.Aea?aa/ia, A.Ai?aoe?i,
I.Aii/a?aiei, A.Aei?ioeaae/, A.Ea?oaaoeaa, ?.E?aaaoeue, ?.E?n?oeei,
?.Ia?/oe, I.Iaeueiee, A.Io?aoei, A.Ii?ic, A.Iaeaia?/oe, N.Ie?iaeeia,
I.Ni??ei, A.Oaa/aiei, N.Oa?a?i oa ?io?). Aiie, cie?aia, ni?iaoaaee
aeine?aeeoe iaoe?iiaeueio aaciaeo, aecia/eoe, aeoiaey/e c yeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a oa i??i?eoao?a Oe?a?ie aiia iiaeiia
aoaeoaaoeny, i?noea oa ?ieue o i?e aeania a?enueeiai? neee, a oiio /ene?
ca?ieieo nee. O

i?aoeyo A.Aaeiethea, A.Einoaiea, A.Eioia, A.?aaeaoeueeiai oa iecee ?ioeo
aaoi??a aoee ?icaeyioo? aeania a?enueeia? aniaeoe i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie. Iaai? ?acoeueoaoe aeinyaioo? a
aeine?aeaeaii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa aeieia?/ieo aniaeo?a
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie (E.Aac/anoiee, N.A?aaianueeee,
A.Ee?eeaiei, Y.Iaeaoaiei, A.Ii?ic, A.Ioio?yi, I.Ieioieeia oa ?io?).
?acii c oei caeeoeeiny ua aaaaoi e ia?ica’ycaieo i?iaeai. Iaei??th c ieo
? aecia/aiiy aieeao iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei o iie?oe/iiio noni?euenoa?
ia eiai nioe?aeueio noaa?euei?noue oa no?ee?noue uiaei iaaaoeaieo
aieea?a cciai?.

Oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo iaoe?e oa iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei o
noni?euenoa?, i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ciaeoee nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aoeyo ?.Aaaeoeao?iiaa, AE.Aaae?eueae?ia, Y.Aiioe?ia,
?.Aaa?aiiaa, I.Aaeueeiaa, E.Aieo?ieiai?, O.Ai?ianueeiai, I.Aonaeiiai,
A.Aeaoaeai??iaa, E.Ae?ia?aeaai?, AE.Aieioa?ia, Y.A?io?aa, N.Eaeoao/aia,
I.Eoe?/aiei, Y.Eiia, A.Iai?aoaeueeanee, I.Ii?ica, ?.Oaaeaainyia,
A.Oea/aiei, N.Oai?aeiaa, I.Oieiiai?iaa oa ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a.

Iaoeiaa aeoiea inoaiiueiai aeanyoe??//y iiaa?iaia aei aea/aiiy
aoiieia?/ieo aniaeo?a aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ia?iaeaie o ??cieo ?aa?iiao
na?oo oa i?e/ei eiioe?eo?a ia aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio? (I.Aaaaiei,
O.Ao?i?no?ia, TH.A?iieae, E.Aoi?eueia, A.?aooo, I.Ei?aeai, Y.Yaai/aiei,
I.Ea?ooiia, A.Ia?aiaeeoey, I.Eaiaiaoeueeee, I.ss?iuoe oa ?io?).

E?eoe/iiio aiae?co noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo
a?aeiinei o iie?oe/ieo aea?aeaaao oa iaoe?iiae?cio ye nioe?aeueiiai
yaeua i?enay/ai? i?aoe? TH.A?eeiaa, A.?aaeieeiaiea, I.Oia?e,
I.Iaeai?iaee, A.Ooaaeiaa oa ?ioeo.

O i?aoeyo A.Aiae?ouaiea, ?.Aeno?eoeueeiai, A.Ai?iie, A.Ai?ae,
I.Aea?aa/iaa, A.Eo?ana, A.E?aiiy, A.Eoe?aaae, N.Iaea?aa, I.Iieeyea,
Y.Iaaeieueiiai, A.Inianueeiai, A.Iacaiea, I.Iai/oea, I.Iiiiae/a,
A.Iiiiaa, TH.?eia?aiea, A.Oeiea?oea, E.Oeey?a oa ?ioeo aaeeea oaaaa
i?eae?eaia nioe?aeueiei i?ioeanai, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa?, i?iaeai? noai?aiiy i?aaiai? aea?aeaae, aoi?/i?e
eiinie?aeaoe?? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa oa oi?ioaaiith oe?a?inueei?
iie?oe/ii? iaoe??.

A?aecia/aia aeua na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a aaeoc? aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee oa i?aeaoi?/ieo a?aeiinei ia aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiio oa
i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai? ? iie?oe/i? aeinyaiaiiy. ?acii c oei caeeoeeiny ua
aaaaoi ia?ica’ycaieo i?iaeai. C?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?,
iaiaaaiiy aoiin?a noai?eoe naith aea?aeaai?noue, aa?aiooaaoe ?e aaciaeo
iiaie? caoi?eo? ?ioa?ane ?ioeo ia?iae?a.

I?aeoeea no/anieo i?aeaoi?/ieo a?aeiinei iio?aao? i?iaaaeaiiy
iiaeaeueoeo aeeaieeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc? nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai
aiae?co i?iaeai aaciaee oa /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ia?.

Aeyaeaia i??a ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, aiae?c i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo oa
ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a, a oaeiae aino?a iio?aaa o
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiio inieneaii? aecia/eee ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii iaoeiaiai aiae?co aeena?oaoe?? ? iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea
no/aniiai iie?oe/iiai noni?euenoaa, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny ye nioe?aeueiee
oaiiiai.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee
/eiiee oa eiai nioe?aeueiee noaoon o oi?ioaaii? oa ooieoe?thaaii?
nenoaie aaciaee noni?euenoaa.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ca’yceo ?c cacia/aiith aeua
aeooaeuei?noth oa ??aiai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie iaoith

aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy iaoai?cio aieeao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea a
i?ioean? iiaoaeiae e ooieoe?thaaiiy nenoaie aaciaee. Cie?aia, iaoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c iaiao?aei?noth aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a nenoaie aaciaee oa ?oi?o ca’yce?a.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? ?ica’ycothoueny oae? aieiai?
caaaeaiiy:

— ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaiooaeuei? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?thaaiiy nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee nioe?oio;

— aeyaeoe nooi?noue ? ?ice?eoe no?oeoo?o iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ye
neeaaeii? nenoaie, ui ooieoe?th? ? ae?enii iia’ycaia ?c noni?euenoaii;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
no/aniiio noni?euenoa?, oa ?oi?e aieea ia eiai nioe?aeueio
noaa?euei?noue;

— ?ice?eoe nooi?noue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea ye nioe?aeueiiai
oaiiiaia ? i?inoaaeeoe eiai ?ieue o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy oa
ooieoe?thaaiiy nenoaie aaciaee;

— aeine?aeeoe aca?iica’ycie noni?eueiiai i?ioeano c yaeuaie, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e no?oeoo?? aea?aeaa, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??cieie ??aiyie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo;

— aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aaciaee oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, aeoiaey/e ?c niaoeeo?ee i?ioean?a, ui a iueiio
a?aeaoaathoueny.

Aeaea?aea oa aii??e/iee iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiiy. Canaaeiaei
noiniaii aeena?oaoe?? ? oai?aoe/ia ia?ainieneaiiy i?aoeue ca?oa?aeieo oa
a?o/eciyieo niaoe?ae?no?a c ??cieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie aaciaee, a oaeiae
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a o iie?aoi?/ieo aea?aeaaao ? na?o? caaaeii,
ye? aeeoee ae?oeii ca inoaii? aeaa aeanyoe??//y.

Iiaeeaeaiiio aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeaie ni?eyee oaeiae iaae?oeiaai? ca
inoaii? ?iee i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo A.Aaae?ia, I.A?eiai, A.?aoooa,
I.Ea?ooiiaa, Y.Eo?ana, I.Ieoaeee/aiea, I.Iieeyea, TH.?eia?aiea,
A.Oeiea?oea oa ?ioeo.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aaoi? aeei?enoiaoaaa ?acoeueoaoe
nioe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue a/aieo Yinoeoooo o?einio??
?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee, Yinoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai oa
Yinoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI

Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae iecee ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoii
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaei ia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e o?einio??
noai?aiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe?? aieeao
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea ia oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?thaaiiy nenoaie
aaciaee iie?aoi?/iiai noni?euenoaa.

Cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y aeeth/a? a naaa oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa
nioe?aeuei? i?iaiice, a yeeo ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoai?ci aca?iia?aeiinei
aoiin?a oa iaoe?e ana?aaeei? aea?aeaa oa ?o i?iyae ia i?aeia?iaeiiio
??ai?.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aecia/athoueny oae? iaea?aeai?
aeena?oaioii iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— aecia/aii, ui canaaeiaith noiniaii oi?ioaaiiy aaciaee ? aeeoo?ai
iaiao?aeia iio?aaa aoaeue-yeiai i?aai?cio a naiicaa?aaeaii?. Ia
ia?aeiiiio ??ai? iaei?ino?oa nenoaia aaciaee ?nio? o aeaeyae?
ia’?eoeaieo ca’yce?a ? a?aeiinei noa’?eoa (nioe?aeueiiai i?aai?cio) c
iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai, ye? ia aeicaieythoue eiio caaeiooe c iiiaioo
ca?iaeaeaiiy. Iaaeae? a ?acoeueoao? aecia/aiiy nai?o aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo
?ioa?an?a oa iayaiino? iaoa??aeueieo oa ?ioeo ?ano?n?a (iiaeeeainoae)
noa’?eoii oe?eani?yiiaaii noai?th?oueny nenoaia caaacia/aiiy aeanii?
aaciaee, yea i?aeneeth? aaea ?nioth/o;

— anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea yaey? niaith neeaaeio
nioe?aeueio nenoaio, ui i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny caeiiii??iinoyi
ooieoe?thaaiiy e ?icaeoeo, ye? i?eoaiaii? an?i nenoaiai. Aieiaieie
aeaiaioaie nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ?: aeiiii?/i?,
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?, eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane oa ca’ycee ethaeae;

?aea? ye ae?acieee iaaieo iio?aa oa caoe?eaaeaiue ??cieo nioe?aeueieo
a?oi;

nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe??, ui aa?aioothoue aaciaeo;

— ooi/iaii, ui aieiaia iaoa nenoaie aaciaee iieyaa? a i?aeo?eioe? noaio
iioeiaeueii? aaciaee iecee ia’?eo?a oeyoii noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo oiia
aeey ?aae?caoe?? ?oi?o aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a. Oeeie ia’?eoaie ?:
iniaa, aea?aeaaa, noni?euenoai. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, oi?iothoueny o?e
i?aenenoaie, ye? aa?aioothoue ?i aaciaeo, ui a i?ioean? ooieoe?thaaiiy
ciaoiaeyoueny a neeaaeieo, noia?a/eeaeo noinoieao i?ae niaith. Oaeeie
i?aenenoaiaie ? aaciaea iniae, aaciaea aea?aeaae ? aaciaea noni?euenoaa,
ui i?aai?/ii ?acii neeaaeathoue aaciaeo e?a?ie;

— aecia/aii, ui iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea caaaeaee iia’ycaia c
ooieoe?thaaiiyi aieiaieo no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a noni?euenoaa, aei yeeo
iaiao?aeii a?aeianoe:

an?o nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a (eeane, nioe?aeuei? a?oie, aoiine, iaoe??,
iniaeno?noue); anth nenoaio noni?eueieo a?aeiinei (iie?oe/i? a?aeiineie,
aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie, iaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie oiui); an? oi?ie
nioe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino? (aiie aaeaeaaoi? oi?iai noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei); nenoaio iio?aa, ?ioa?an?a, oe?iiinoae nioe?aeueieo
noa’?eo?a; ??aaiue eoeueoo?e (na?oiaeyae)

nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a;

— iieacaii, ui aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee i?ioean ? aeineoue aeeiai?/iei ?
?noioii aieeaa? ia ia?aa?a noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo. Iaaia oi?o?eaoe?y a
niinia? aeeooy, iaeyc? oiui ia caoi?eioea iaeaieiai?oiai —
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?, iianthaeia i?aeianaiiy yei?
niinoa??aa?oueny a?ae na?aaeeie XX noi??//y.

Iane?aeeii oeueiai ? cia/ia oneeaaeiaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy i?aeaoi?/ieo
a?aeiinei ia iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo ??aiyo. O ca’yceo c oeei ca oiia
iie?oeaio?e/iiai na?oo o XXI noi??//? c?inoaoeia eiia??i?noue
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo eiioe?eo?a;

— cai?iiiiiaaii aaoi?nueea ?icoi?iiy nooiino? oa ci?noo
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea, yeee iinoa? ye iaaia oi?ia aeyaeaiiy
?nioth/eo aoiin?a, yea ae?aaeaia a ?oiueiio i?aaiaii? c?aae?coaaoe
aeani? ?ioa?ane a ??cieo noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy ca eiie?aoieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia;

— iieacaii, ui eiaeia iie?aoi?nia e?a?ia caa??aa? a nia? niaoeeo?eo
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioe??/ ? iaoai?cie ?o ?ica’ycaiiy, ye? cia/iith
i??ith ae?aaeai? nioe?aeueiith noaa?euei?noth oa ??aiai eiinie?aeaoe??
noni?euenoaa. A

noni?euenoa? c aeinoaoiuei aenieei ??aiai eiinie?aeaoe?? ciaioo?oueny
iiaeeea?noue aoaeue-yeiai aoiino aeinyaiooe ??ceeo ci?i o a?e
i?aeaeuaiiy aeaniiai noaoono ca ?aooiie oeiaee ?ioei ia?iaeai. Oe? yaeua
a?eueo oa?aeoa?i? aeey aea?aeaa c ia?icaeiaiith nioe?aeueiith nenoaiith
oa ianoaa?eueiith nioe?aeueiith no?oeoo?ith, aeey aea?aeaa, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ye e?a?ie c ia?ao?aeiei oeiii aeiiii?ee;

— aeyaeaii aca?iicaeaaei?noue noaio aeiaaeueii? aaciaee a?ae aeoeaiino?
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a noa?? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei o
??cieo ?aa?iiao na?oo. Aa?aio?y aaciaee aoaeue-yei? aea?aeaae
(noni?euenoaa) nueiaiaei? ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny iica ?? aaiiie?oe/iei
eiioaenoii oa aac o?aooaaiiy ??ceiai c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? ia?iae?a. Iacia/i? c ia?oiai iiaeyaeo aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?
eiioe?eoe caeaoi? noai?thaaoe noai ianoaa?eueiino? a oe?eeo ?aa?iiao
(Aaeeaie, Eaaeac, Na?aaeiy Ac?y oiui). Nain?iiaoe/iei noaa oie /eiiee,
ui iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea ca no/anieo oiia ?aae?co?oueny a o?niiio
ni?a?ia?oieoeoa? oa iioeiaeueiiio ooieoe?thaaii? i?aeia?iaeieo
aea?aeaaieo oa noni?eueieo ?inoeoooe?e;

— ?ice?eoi, ui oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai ye nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia
ni?euei?noue ciaoiaeeoueny ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? nai?? eiinie?aeaoe??.
Oea aecia/a?oueny nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie ?aoi?iaie, ui a iueiio
a?aeaoaathoueny. ?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo
a Oe?a?i?, i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeeeaaeaia aeua. I?ioean eiinie?aeaoe??
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa cia/iith i??ith oneeaaeiaiee a?aenooi?noth
onoaeaieo o?aaeeoe?e oa iie?oe/iiai aeina?aeo a iiaoaeia? Oe?a?iith
nai?? aea?aeaaiino? oa noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii? nenoaie ? aea?aeaaiiai
iaoai?cio naiicaa?aaeaiiy;

— iaa?oioiaaii, ui niaoeeo?eo i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?,
aecia/a? oe?ea iecea ciai?oi?o oa aioo??oi?o /eiiee?a ia’?eoeaiiai oa
noa’?eoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Aei /eiiee?a, ye? oneeaaeiththoue noai nenoaie aaciaee Oe?a?ie, iio??aii
a?aeianoe: iani?eyoeeao aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th a e?a?i?; caaino?aiiy
nioe?aeueiiai iai?oaeaiiy a noni?euenoa?; neeaaeio aoi?/io no?oeoo?o
noni?euenoaa; iayai?noue ??ciiiai?oieo ?ae?a?eieo eiioan?e oa i?ioe??/
i?ae ieie; ??ciia?/io nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/io i???ioaoe?th ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie oa ?i.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai iaoai?cio aieeao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea
ia ooieoe?thaaiiy nenoaie aaciaee, ?ic?iaeaia a aeena?oaoe??, ?
iiaeaeueoei ooi/iaiiyi iieiaeaiue eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee.
Aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iathoue iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy aeey
?ica’ycaiiy oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c oe?ii?niei
i?aeoiaeii aei aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ye nioe?aeueiiai
oaiiiaia, a oaeiae aeey ooi/iaiiy niaoeeo?ee aieeao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
/eiieea ia ??ci? noa?e nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy.

Iecea i?iiiceoe?e, aeniiae?a, noi?ioeueiaaieo o aeena?oaoe??, iathoue
cia/aiiy aeey iiaeaeueoiai iiaeeaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a noa?? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei a oe?a?inuee?e
aea?aeaa?, a ?ica’ycaii? i?iaeaie ci?oeiaiiy ?? iacaeaaeiino?.

Aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aaciina?aaeiuei
aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeuei?e ?iaio? a i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy ie?aieo oai c
o?einio??, i?ae /an /eoaiiy eaeoe?e ?c niaoeeo?no ii iie?oieia?? «Iniiae
ai?iii? iie?oieia??», a oiae? aeeeaaeaiiy io?oea?ai-neooa/ai iaa/aeueieo
aeenoeeie?i «O?einio?y ? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ai?iii? oai??? oa
i?aeoeee», «Oai??y ? i?aeoeea nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo a?aeiinei» oiui.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. An? i?eioeeiia? ?aea? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi caeiaoaa/aa?. Aieiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeeeaaeai? a
iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo caaaeueiei ianyaii iiiaae 30 ae?.a?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiee ci?no ? aeniiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o iiiia?ao?yo «Nioe?aeueiee i?ia?an.
Aaciaea.

Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee» (1997 ?.), «Nioe?aeueii-o?einionuee? i?iaeaie
ie?o, a?eie oa a?i??» (1996 ?.). Ie?ai? aaaeeea? aniaeoe aeena?oaoe??
ai?iaiaai? aaoi?ii o iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao oa ca??ieeao «Iniiae
iie?oieia??» (1992

?.), «Neiaiee-aeia?aeiee c iie?oieia??» (1993 ?.), «A?enueeiaa iie?oeea
Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie, iiooee, ??oaiiy» (1993 ?.), «Iniiae ai?iii?
iie?oieia??»

(1996 ?.), «Noni?euenoai. Aaciaea. A?i?y» (1998 ?.) oa ?i.

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? caneooiaoaaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo nai?ia?ao eaoaae? aoiai?oa?iiai i?io?eth
Ee?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?inoeoooo oi?aae?iiy oa ca’yceo, ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo Ee?anueeiai i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oeea?eueii?
aa?aoe?? (1991 — 1998 ??.), ia can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii?
o?einio?? Yinoeoooo o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ie?ai? aniaeoe aeena?oaoe?? aeaieioai? ia i?aeia?iaeieo, anaoe?a?inueeeo
oa ?aa?iiaeueieo neiiic?oiao, iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao, ye? ai?iaeiaae inoaii?o naie ?ie?a
i?iaiaeeeeny a Ee?a?, I?inueeo, Eooeueeo, Naaanoiiie?,
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeiio (caaaeii a?n?i eiioa?aioe?e), ci?no
a?eueoino? c ieo ciaeoia nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iioae?eiaaieo oacao
aeiiia?aeae oa aenooi?a. E??i oeueiai, aeena?oaoe?eia i?iaeaiaoeea
iaaiai?thaaeany ia can?aeaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ee?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai
?inoeoooo oi?aae?iiy oa ca’yceo.

Iane?aeee i?iaaaeaii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe iaiaeii?aciai
ai?iaoaaeeny a iaa/aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino? aaoi?a, i?e
?ic?iaoe? oa aeeeaaeaii? eo?naioai, io?oea?ai-neooa/ai oa aae’thieoai
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a «O?einio?y oa iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ai?iii?
oai??? oa i?aeoeee», «Oai??y ? i?aeoeea nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo
a?aeiinei», «Ai?iia iie?oieia?y».

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?iei aeei?enoai? aeena?oaioii i?ae /an
iaa/aeueieo caiyoue c aoiai?oa?ii? i?aeaioiaee iniaiaiai neeaaeo
Oi?aae?iiy ca’yceo I?i?noa?noaa iai?iie Oe?a?ie, Ee?anueeiai
a?enueeiaiai ?inoeoooo oi?aae?iiy oa ca’yceo. Ie?ai? ?aea? aeena?oaoe??
aeei?enoiaothoueny aae’thieoaie, io?oea?aie-neooa/aie oa eo?naioaie
oeueiai ?inoeoooo aeey i?aeaioiaee ?aoa?ao?a.

Aieiai? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny o
a?aeae?e? nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? Yinoeoooo o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee
IAI Oe?a?ie oa ia eaoaae?? nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe Ee?anueeiai
a?enueeiaiai ?inoeoooo oi?aae?iiy oa ca’yceo.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeany ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe Ee?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?inoeoooo
oi?aae?iiy oa ca’yceo oa o a?aeae?e? nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? Yinoeoooo
o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie, io?eiaea iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ?
?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Aeena?oaoe?y aoea aeeiiaia o eiioaeno? ieaiiai? oaie eaoaae?e
nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe Ee?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?inoeoooo
oi?aae?iiy oa ca’yceo «Aaciaea», oeo? 09705, oa ieaiiai? oaie a?aeae?eo
nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? Yinoeoooo o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie
«Iaoe?iiaeueia aoooy a noa?? iie?oeee, ?aeaieia??, aeooiaiino?».

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy
aecia/eee eiai eia?eo oa no?oeoo?o. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue OOO

noi??iie, c ieo OOO noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo ? OOO noi??iie nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, yeee iae?/o? OOO iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CIYNO AeENA?OAOeY?

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iiaea?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoeea i??e ?? ?ic?iaeaiino?, aecia/athoueny iaoa, caaaeaiiy,
ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneththoueny eiai oai?aoe/i? oa
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee, aeeeaaeathoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe, a oaeiae oi?ie ai?iaaoe?? ?? ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy»
?icaeyaeathoueny ??aaiue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee oa ?ieue iaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea a iaoai?ci? ?? ooieoe?thaaiiy,
aiae?cothoueny aieiai? aeaea?aea aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? oa iica ?? iaaeaie. Aaoi? iieaco?, ui i?iaeaia
aaciaee ia? nai? a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy a i?aoeyo aioe/ieo o?einio?a.
I?aeaaeeie ?icoi?iiy aaciaee ye caoenoo aeeeth/ii i?ioe ica?i?iiai
ianeeuenoaa, ye? ?ic?iaeee aioe/i? aaoi?e, io?eiaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
o i?aoeyo A.?iooa?aeainueeiai, ss.A.Eiiainueeiai, I.Iae?aaaee?,
O.Aiaana, O.-E.Iiioane’?, A.Nai-Neiiia oa ?ioeo ieneeoae?a ieioeiai.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciaee ye nioe?aeueii?
nenoaie oa nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo neeaaeathoue oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy,
cai?iiiiiaai? a i?aoeyo a?aeiieo niaoe?ae?no?a o aaeoc? caaaeueii?
oai??? nenoai oa nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo A.Aoaianue?aa, Y.Aeaoaa?aa,
A.Naaeianueeiai, I.Oneiaa oa ?ioeo.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? aaoi? ?icaeyaea? aeine?aeieoeuee? i?aeoiaee aaeeei?
a?oie o?einio?a (Ae.Aieeiaiiiaa, A.Ai?iaoeiaa, A.Aeieo???aa,
A.Eiiaanueeiai, Y.Eeeiiaa, A.Ieeiaeaeiaa, A.O?ioeiaiea, A.Oaeaaa oa
?ioeo) aei i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee e?a?ie. A?aecia/a?oueny
?icoi?iiy ieie aaciaee o ia?aaaaeii aocueeiio, aeeeth/ii ai?iiiio
aniaeo?. Aiae?cothoueny i?e/eie oaeiai ?icaeyaeo aaciaee.

Ie?aio, iniaeeao a?oio aeaea?ae aeey cae?eniaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy
neeaaeathoue i?aoe? a/aieo, iie?oee?a (I.Ai?aa/iaa, O.Ao?eaoeueeiai,
N.Aeaniaa, A.?annaea, A.Naoa?iaa, A.Aeiooaeia, E.Oeaaieiaa, N.Oic?ia oa
?ioeo) c i?iaeai iiaiai iie?oe/iiai ieneaiiy. ?oi? i?aoe? oa ii/aoie
?aae?caoe?? a i?aeoeoe? iiaiai aa/aiiy aca?iia?aeiinei o na?o? i?ecaaee
aei ?aaeeeaeueieo ci?i o ?icoi?ii? nooiino? aaciaee, aianee
ea?aeeiaeuei? c?ooaiiy a iiaeae? ?? iiaoaeiae.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie, ui oe?eaaeoue aaoi?a, oaeiae
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?aoe? ?ioeo a/aieo, ye aeaeaeiai, oae ? aeecueeiai
ca?oa?aeaey oa oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeiee?a.

O ?icae?e? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?aoe? aaeeei? a?oie aeine?aeiee?a
?aaeyinueeiai /ano (?.Aaaeoeao?iiaa, ?.Aaa?aiiaa, Y.A?ioaaa, I.Aoaiaei,
TH.A?iieay, O.Ao?i?no?iai?, I.Aaeia?ia, A.Eiceiaa, I.Oieiiai?iaa oa
?ioeo), a yeeo ?icaeyaeathoueny i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie,
ia?niaeoeae ?o ?icaeoeo oa aieea ia nioe?aeueio noaa?euei?noue
noni?euenoaa.

Ie?aiee ianea o aeine?aeaeaii? ?ai?acaioo? e?oa?aoo?a, i?enay/aia
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiei i?ioeanai, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ca oiia ia?ao?aeiiai
noaio oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa (i?aoe? ?.Aeno?eoeueeiai, I.A?a/a?eea,
I.Aii/a?aiea, O.Ai?ianueeiai, ss.Aeaoeaae/a, A.?aoooa, A.E?aiiy,
Y.Eo?ana, I.Ea?ooiiaa, Y.E?an?ii?, I.Iaeai?iaee, A.I?e?o?ia, A.Iiiiaa,
A.I?aeaeoaiiai, N.Ie?iaeeiaa, TH.?eia?aiea, A.Oeiea?oea, E.Oeey?a,
N.Noai?ea oa ?ioeo).

Oaeoieia?/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue iaae?oeiaai? aeieoiaioe
caeiiiaeaa/eo oa aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a aeaaee, i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e,
aenooie ea??aiee?a Oe?a?ie oa a?aeiieo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a oa a/aieo
iecee ?inoeooo?a IAI

Oe?a?ie: o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee, iie?oe/ieo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, nioe?ieia??, aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai, a
oaeiae iecee iaaea?aeaaieo i?aai?caoe?e oa oeaio??a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c noni?eueiiai
oaiiiaia aaciaee» aecia/athoueny aeo?aei? iaoiaeieia?/i? iineeaiiy
uiaei aiae?co nooiino? oa no?oeoo?e oaiiiaia aaciaee. A caaaeueiiio
oai?aoe/iiio ieai? i?inoaaeothoueny aaiaca oa ?icaeoie oeueiai yaeua a
noni?eueii-?noi?e/iiio i?ioean?.

I?iaeaia aaciaee ia iiaea ia aeieeiooe a na?o?, ia?aiiaiaiiio
ianeeuenoaii, a yeiio eiio iiaeia i?ioenoiyoe o?eueee ca aeiiiiiae
ianeeuenoaa ae. Neea ? canaaeiaith noiniaii nenoaie aaciaee, yeo
?ic?iaeei ethaenoai ai?iaeiaae oaea aaaaoueio noi??/.

?icaeyaeath/e ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy «iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee», aaoi? i?aee?aneth? eiai o?niee ca’ycie c aea?aeaaith oa ??
neeiaeie no?oeoo?aie a eiioeaioe?yo ye ?iicaiieo, oae ? a?o/eciyieo
aaoi??a.

A?aeaeath/e i??i?eoao o ?ic?iaoe? eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee
cao?aeiei aeine?aeieeai, ?acii c oei ia ne?ae caaoaaoe, ui e o
a?o/eciyi?e o?einionueei-nioe?ieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oey i?iaeaia ciaeoea
nai? a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy o aeaeyae? eiioeaioe?? iai?iiiiai iioaioe?aeo
e?a?ie. Aei oeueiai iaiao?aeii aeiaeaoe, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia
a?aei?iiino? o canoinoaaii? iiiyoue, ? cao?aei?, ? a?o/eciyi?
aeine?aeieee ai?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano a?aeaeaaaee i??i?eoao o nai?o
eiioeaioe?yo aeeeth/ii neeiaei no?oeoo?ai oa neeiaei caniaai. A?eueo
oe?iei aaciaea ye eiiieaenia yaeua, ui ioiieth? an? noa?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie (ca ia?aaaaeaiiy ana ae oaee a?enueeiaiai
eiiiiiaioa), ii/aea ?icaeyaeaoeny ia Caoiae? o?eueee c 60-o ?ie?a XX
noi??//y.

Aiae?coth/e ??ci? i?aeoiaee a/aieo aei aecia/aiiy eaoaai??? «aaciaea»,
aaoi? i?aoe? aaaaea? a?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei ?icaeyae aaciaee ye iaaiiai
??aiy caoeuaiino? a?ae aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o caa?ic iniae,
noni?euenoaa, aea?aeaae, yea aeicaiey? ?i ?nioaaoe oa onoaeaii
?icaeaaoeny.

Noni?euenoai ye nenoaia, ui ae?iaey?, ?acii c oaeeie nioe?aeueieie
?inoeoooe?yie, ye n?i’y, ?ae?a?y, aea?aeaaa oiui, noai?th? nenoaio nai??
aeanii? aaciaee. Yiaeoa aiia aoaea i?inoi nioe?aeueii ia
aeeoo?caeaoiith. C oe??? oi/ee ci?o nenoaia aaciaee ? i?iaeoeo
noni?euenoaa, a yeiio a?aeaeaathoueny eiai niaoeeo?/i? ?ene. I?ae /an
aiae?co aaciaee ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui aeiaeia nioe?aeueia nenoaia ia
aeieea? ia ii?iaeiueiio i?noe?. Aiia aeei?enoiao? aeey naiai noaiiaeaiiy
iaoa??ae c iiia?aaei?o nenoai aai nenoai, ui ?niothoue ii?yae c iath.
Oea cae?enith?oueny oeyoii iineeaiiy ie?aieo ?? aeaiaio?a (nioe?aeueieo
?inoeoooe?e, nioe?aeueieo ca’yce?a oiui) aai oeyoii noai?aiiy aeaiaio?a
iiaeo.

Oae, ca oiia aecia/aiiy a ia?niaeoea? c?inoaiiy i?aai?ciaaii?
cei/eiiino?, oa?i?ecio, ia?eiiai?? oa ?ioeo nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo aeey
e?a?ie yaeu iiaea aaeineiiaethaaoeny caeiiiaeaanoai, noai?thaaoeny
niaoe?aeuei? i?ae?icae?ee a neeaae? neeiaeo oa niaoe?aeueieo a?aeiinoa,
ca aeiiiiiae cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oi?ioaaoeny iaaia a?iiaaenueea
aeoiea. Aca?iiae?y nenoaie aaciaee ?c nioe?aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai yaey?
niaith i?ioean iai?io ?ioi?iaoe??th, yea ia? ci?iiee oa?aeoa?.
I?ioe??//y (ai?ioueaa) /a?aothoueny ia??iaee/ii ?c ni?a?ia?oieoeoaii
(ni?eyiiyi). sseui ciai?oi? i?ioe??//y iathoue i?noea i?ae nenoaiith
aaciaee oa na?aaeiaeuai, oi aioo??oi? — i?ae aeaiaioaie naii? nenoaie.

A oeeo i?ioeanao aaaeeeaa ?ieue a?aeaaaeaia ?ioa?anai. O ?icae?e?
iieacaii, ui canaaeiaei o eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ?
aecia/aiiy aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo aeiaaioa?i?iiaeo ?ioa?an?a ia’?eo?a
caoenoo oa aeo?aeieo iai?yie?a iioi/ieo oa iioaioe?eieo caa?ic aeey ieo.

Cae?eniaia a ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a aeicaiey? a?aecia/eoe, c
iaeiiai aieo, ?o ?icia?ooy oa niaoeeo?/i?noue, a c ?ioiai —
?aaeuei?noue ?nioaaiiy caaaeueiiethaenueeeo ?ioa?an?a, i?ia?aeia i?noea
na?aae yeeo iin?aea? aaciaea.

Aiae?c oa?aeoa?o aca?iiae?? ?ioa?an?a ??cieo noa’?eo?a na?ae/eoue, ui ia
i?aeoeoe? aiie /anoi ca?aathoueny o?eueee /anoeiai aai ia ca?aathoueny
cian?i. Ca oaeeo oiia aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue oae caai?
caaaeueiiethaenuee? ?ioa?ane, neioacoth/e a nia? e?eueea caii/aoeoaaiue,
a naia: ioiieththoue i?aeoe/ii an? noa?e; iinoathoue ye ei??ii? ca
nai?th caouai?noth oa aeiaaeuei? ca ianooaaii;

ye nii??aeiai? ?ioa?ane an?o ethaeae, ui aeeaooue ia ieaiao? Caiey.

Ona?aeiieaiiy cia/ouino? oeeo ?ioa?an?a o aeie? ia?iae?a aecia/a?
oaiaeaioe?th aei noai?aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii?, a o ia?niaeoea? e aeiaaeueii?
nenoai aaciaee.

A?aeiia?aeii aei eeaneo?eaoe?? caa?ic ca?aeii c ia’?eoaie oa iai?yieaie
?ic??ciythoue noa?e ae?yeueiino? caaacia/aiiy aaciaee, ye?
aecia/athoueny ye ??ciiaeaee aaciaee.

O ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny aieiai? ??ciiaeaee aaciaee (aeiiii?/ia,
aeieia?/ia, iie?oe/ia, ?ioi?iaoe?eia, a?enueeiaa), oi?ioeththoueny
aecia/aiiy, ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiaeiiai ??ciiaeaeo oa ?ice?eaathoueny
ca’ycee i?ae ieie.

Iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea ye nioe?aeueiee oaiiiai oi?io?oueny e ooieoe?th?
i?ae aieeaii ia ia? iecee /eiiee?a c ??cieie ??aiyie noaa?eueiino?:
aaiiie?oe/iei, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iei, aeiiii?/iei oa
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiei.

I?ae /an aiae?co aieeao ia aaciaeo e?a?ie aeyaeaii, ui no?ee?noue oa
i??a aieeao oeeo /eiiee?a ? ??cieie. Iaea?eueo noaa?eueiei c oeo, ui
?icaeyaeathoueny o oeueiio ?icae?e?, ? aaiiie?oe/iee /eiiee,
?ai?acaioiaaiee ye noeoii?noue aaia?ao?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo ia?aiao??a, ui
aecia/athoue a?aeiia?aeio iie?oeeo e?a?ie uiaei ?aae?caoe?? oa caoenoo
?? aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a ia eiie?aoiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo.

Aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy e?a?ie, aeiaaeeia ?? ei?aeii?a, ?ici??e
oa?eoi???, ee?iaoe/iee iiyn, ?aeue?o i?noeaaino?, i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne,
oei?a, oaoia oiui ?noioii aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ?ioa?an?a
noni?euenoaa oa ethaeae, ui a iueiio aeeaooue, /anii ?o iaiaaeoth/e.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ca oeeo oiia iathoue aca?iia?aeiineie c iaaeieeoi?ie
e?a?iaie.

Ui noino?oueny aeiiii?/iiai /eiieea, oi noai aeiiii?ee e?a?ie,
caeaaei?noue a?ae ?iicaiieo aeaea?ae iinoa/aiiy, caa?ica aeiaaeueiiai
i?ioaeoe?ii?cio, ai?ae oiui iii?oii aieeaathoue ia aaciaeo.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e /eiieee, aaoi? iieaco?, ui nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee /eiiee
a?aeaeaa? aino?ioo i?ioiaeaeaiiy iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o noni?euenoa?,
??aaiue eiai noaa?eueiino?. Aeoaea aaaeeeaeie oiiaaie
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? noni?euenoaa ? noaa?eueia
aeiiii?ea, a?iiaaeyinueea caiaea oa ??aiiaaaa i?ae a?eeaie aeaaee, ui
ooieoe?ththoue. Iie?oe/ia noaa?euei?noue noni?euenoaa —

aaaeeeaee eiai ?ano?n, yeee ?noioii iineeth? nenoaio eiai aaciaee.

Oni?oia aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiiiaia aaciaee aeiaaa? eiai ?icaeyaeo ye
neeaaeii? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, yea aeeth/a? a naaa iia’ycai? a iaaiiio
noai?aeeiaoe?eiiio a?aeiioaii? aeaiaioe. Ia i?aenoaa? nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciaee ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui aaciaeie
aeaiaioaie aaciaee ye nenoaie ne?ae aaaaeaoe:

aeiiii?/i?, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?, eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane oa ca’ycee a
noni?euenoa?; nioe?aeuei? a?oie ethaeae; ?aea? ye iin?? iaaieo iio?aa oa
?ioa?an?a ??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi; nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe??, ui
caaacia/othoue aaciaeo. C ia?ae?/aieo aeua aeaiaio?a ae?oaee ?
iaeaaaeeea?oei, ine?eueee caaaeii nenoaia aaciaee noai?th?oueny aeey
caoenoo ?ioa?an?a nioe?aeueieo a?oi.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia caeaoi?noue aaciaee, ye
? aoaeue-yei? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, aei naiii?aai?caoe?? oa
naii?aaoethaaiiy, i?ioa oea ia aa?aioo? caeaoiino? nenoaie aaciaee
caaacia/eoe a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue caoenoo. No/ani? ianoaaeie aeiaaathoue
a?ae nenoaie aaciaee ia o?eueee aeinoaoiuei? aio/eino? oa iia?eueiino?,
aea e aeinoaoiuei aenieiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo ?inoeoooe?e caoenoo. ?acii c
oei ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui a?ia?o?io?/iee ?icaeoie yei?-iaaoaeue c ieo ia
oeiaeo ?ioei ia o?eueee ia caaacia/o? caoenoo, aea e caeaoiee i?ecaanoe
aei iineaaeaiiy nenoaie caaaeii.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iineeai? a inoaii? ?iee aeoiee a/aieo uiaei
iaiao?aeiino? ??ceiai iineaaeaiiy a?enueeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a o nenoai?
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee o ca’yceo ?c ciaioaiiyi iiaeeeainoae aeieeiaiiy
«eeane/ieo a?ei», o ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i
iaiao?aei?noue ?nioaaiiy iiooaeieo neeiaeo no?oeoo?. Ca?iei? neee, ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, ua aeiaai aoaeooue aaaiiei aa?aioii aaciaee. ?acii c oei
iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ?o ?ai?aai?caoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi ci?i
neooaoe?? o na?o?.

sse no?oeoo?ia ooai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea ?icaeyaea?oueny o neeaae?
o?ueio i?aenenoai: aaciaee iniae, aaciaee noni?euenoaa, aaciaee
aea?aeaae. A nai?e ?aeiino? aiie neeaaeathoue iaoe?iiaeueio aaciaeo
e?a?ie. Cia/ou?noue eiaeii? c i?aenenoai aaciaee aecia/a?oueny
oa?aeoa?ii noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, iie?oe/iei ono?i?i noni?euenoaa oa
i??ith ?nioth/eo ?aaeueieo (iioaioe?eieo) caa?ic.

O ae?eniino?, ye i?aaeei, iaeia c i?aenenoai aaciaee iin?aea? /?eueia
i?noea, iineethth/eny ca ?aooiie aeaio ?ioeo. I?ioe??//y, ui i?e oeueiio
caaino?ththoueny, ca oiia, eiee iineaaeaiee eiio?ieue ca ieie, iiaeooue
i?ecaanoe iaa?oue aei nioe?aeueiiai aeaooo. Oaeee noai noa? iiaeeeaei o
noni?euenoa? oioae?oa?iiai (aaoi?eoa?iiai) ?aaeeio.

O?aaeeoe?eii aaea ai?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano a iniaeeaiio noaiiaeu?
iieiy?oueny aaciaea aea?aeaae, ui /anoi a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie
aaciaee iniae oa noni?euenoaa. I??i?eoao aaciaee iniae a caaaeuei?e
nenoai? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee — iaeia c aieiaieo oiia iiaoaeiae
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa oa i?aaiai? aea?aeaae.

O?ao?e ?icae?e «Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa ye
nioe?aeueiee i?ioean» yaey? niaith aiae?oe/iee iiooe a?aeiia?aeae ia
ieoaiiy i?i i?e/eie i?iyao oaiiiaia «aoi?/iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy», yeee
?nio? a e?a?iao iacaeaaeii a?ae oa?aeoa?o ?oiueiai iie?oe/iiai ono?ith,
??aiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa aaia?ao?/iiai
i?noeaiieiaeaiiy.

Aeath/e caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai i?ioeano, aaoi?
a?aecia/a? oaeo oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaae a?ae naiiai ii/aoeo, ia?aaaaeii ye
iie?aoi?/ieo ooai?aiue. Oeueiio ni?eyea oe?ea iecea /eiiee?a: a?eie,
i?a?aoe?? oiui.

Aieiaieie neeaie, ye? ia’?aeioaaee ia?iaee a aea?aeaae, a?ae naiiai
ii/aoeo aoee aeaaea (ei?ieue, ?iia?aoi?) oa ?ae?a?y.

Aaoi? iieaco?, ui a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa
a?aeaeca?eaeththoueny ?noioi? ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a aoiinao
(iaoe?yo) i?ae /an ?o ?nioaaiiy.

I?aea?oioy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo noaiiaeyoue aoi?/i? i?ioeane,
ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iae??ciiiai?oi?oeie ca ni?yioaaiiyi oa aino?ioith
ia?aa?ao yaeuaie (anei?eyoe?y, aeenia?necaoe?y, ?ioaa?aoe?y oiui).
Ia?aaaaeaiiy iaaieo aoi?/ieo yaeu i?ecaiaeeoue aei na?eicieo ci?i o
oe?eeo ?aeiiao na?oo.

??cea i?enei?aiiy o 50 — 70-o? ?iee XX noi??//y na?oiaiai
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia ?aaiethoe?y, aeiiii?/ia
?ioaa?aoe?y oa ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?y an?o noa? noni?eueiiai aeeooy a
e?a?iao ii?iaeeee oaiaeaioe?th aei i?aaethaaiiy iaoa??aeueii? oa
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. I?eioneaeiny, ui iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an noai?th?
aeey an?o ia?iae?a ?aeeiee noaiaea?o aeeooy. Aea, ye iieacaea i?aeoeea,
i?ioean oi?o?eaoe?? ia caoi?eioa aieiaiiai — iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino?.

C?inoaiiy aoi?/ii? naiina?aeiiino? ia caaaeueiiio oe? i?ioeano
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? ? ia?aaeienii no/aniino?.

Aaoi? iieaco?, ui a no/aniiio na?o? ?noioiei eiiiiiaioii o nenoai?
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei ? a?aeiineie i?ae ??cieie aoi?/ieie
ia’?aeiaiiyie.

I?ae /an noai?aiiy aea?aeaa aeaeici?ithaaeeny oa oneeaaeithaaeeny
aoi?/i? aca?iia?aeiineie o ca’yceo c ?iciaaeii iaeieo iie?aoi?/ieo
ni?eueiio oa noai?thaaiiyi ?ioeo. Aoi?/ia i?ioenoiyiiy coiiaethaaeiny ye
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith oa iie?oe/iith no?oeoo?aie, oae ? i?ioe??//yie,
ui aeieeaee i?ae ieie.

A ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny oie oaeo, ui ethaenoai aei e?ioey ae?oaiai
oeny/ie?ooy i?ae?eoei a ia?aaee?eciaiio noai?. O?oaeiiu? a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e noa?? ia?aaeeaa? aaaaoi e?a?i iacaeaaeii a?ae
?oiueiai nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ono?ith oa ??aiy aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.
Cia/ia /anoeia e?a?i na?oo ciaoiaeeoueny o ia?aaeia?ao?aeiiio noai?, ui
?iaeoue ?oi? caaaeueia noaiiaeua aeoaea ianoaa?eueiei.

E?eca iecee aea?aeaaieo ? iie?oe/ieo ?inoeoooe?e, a oaeiae i?aai?/ii
iia’ycaiee c ieie ?iceaae aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae, ciooo? ethaeae ooeaoe
iia?oy a ?ioeo oe?iiinoyo; iai?eeeaae, aoi?/ia nii??aeiai?noue, iaio
caeaaeia a?ae iio?aa nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy, ia’?aeio? ethaeeio c ??
i?aea?oioyi, aoi?/ii nii??aeiaiith ianith ianaeaiiy.

Aaoi? aiae?co? i?e/eie, ye? ni?eythoue i?aeneeaiith aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
i?ioean?a o na?o? o XX noi??//?. Aieiaieie c ieo ?: a) ia?oa na?oiaa
a?eia oa ?? iane?aeee; a) ae?oaa na?oiaa a?eia ? i?aeianaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Ac?? oa Ao?eoe?; a) ?iciaae aaeeeeo
iie?oe/ieo e?a?i (N?N?, NO?TH), yeee i?eca?a aei caaino?aiiy aoi?/ieo
a?aeiinei o iinonioe?ae?noe/iiio i?inoi?? ? aeeeeeaa aoi?/ia
«iiaeaaaeaiiy» a oeueiio na?o?.

A?ae na?aaeeie XX noi??//y a aea?aeaaao iacaeaaeii a?ae iie?oe/iiai
ono?ith niinoa??aa?oueny iianthaeia c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? ia?iae?a, ia?aaeon?i iaeeo, yea a iie?aoi?/ieo e?a?iao
/anoi noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ??ceei caaino?aiiyi aoi?/ieo i?iaeai.

Aeae? a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?co?oueny i?ioean iiooeo aoi?/ieie a?iiaaeaie
aeueoa?iaoeae o?aaeeoe?ei?e iie?aoi?/i?e aea?aeaa?. Oea ciaoiaeeoue
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aaiaii? ciaeoe ooai?aiiy, ye? c o?aooaaiiyi ?oiueiai
?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo a?eueo i?aeoiaeeee a aeey ?oiueiai ?icaeoeo.

sse iieacothoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, oe? oaiaeaioe??
iaa?iiaaeaeothoueny ? ni?aaeythoue aeaaeae? a?eueoee aieea ia an?e
ieaiao?.

A ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui a i?ioean? naiai ?icaeoeo aoiine aeinyaathoue
aeaaeae? aeineiiae?oeo oi?i, iaeaeuith c yeeo ? iaoe?y. Aeey iaoe??
iaea?eueo aeia?aeiith ? oaea oi?ia iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe??, ye
iaoe?iiaeueia aea?aeaaa.

?aae?caoe?y ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? ii/aea
ai?iaaaeaeoaaoeny a aeeooy eeoaiue o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX oa ia ii/aoeo
XX

noi??//y ca oiia, eiee aeaiie?aoe/iee i?eioeei naiiaecia/aiiy aa?a ai?o
iaae iiia?o?/iith ?aea?th. Aeaiie?aoecaoe?y noni?euenoaa ni?ey?
oi?ioaaiith iaoe?? ia i?aenoaa? e?eueeio aoiin?a. I?e oaaaeiiio
?icaeyae? an? cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? iaoe?? ? iie?aoi?/ieie e
aaaaoiiiaieie a?ae iiiaioo ooai?aiiy.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, nioe?aeueia ?aei?noue iie?aoi?/ii? aea?aeaae
a?oioo?oueny ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-eieaeoeai?e nii??aeiaiino?, ni?eueieo
?ioa?anao ? caaeiaieaii? iio?aa on?o /eai?a noni?euenoaa iacaeaaeii a?ae
?oiueiai aoi?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

I?aaiaiiy yeiai-iaaoaeue aoiino ci?ieoe oea noaiiaeua ia naith ei?enoue
i?ecaiaeeoue aei nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?.

Ca oiia i?aaiaiiy aoiin?a aei noai?aiiy nai?o aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aea?aeaa e?euee?noue ? aino?ioa eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e o na?o? aoaeooue
aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeie. Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny aeineoue /anoi, ine?eueee
aea?aeaaa yaey? niaith aeeiai?/ia, aioo??oiuei noia?a/eeaa, /anoi
aoi?/ii ia iaeii??aeia ni?a?nioaaiiy a?iiaaeyi. Ia iio??aii aeeeth/aoe
iiaeeea?noue ?iciaaeo iaoe?e /e a?aeae?eaiiy a?ae ieo yeeo-iaaoaeue
aoiin?a. Oea, ye i?aaeei, a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao? aeieeiaiiy
i?ioe??/ a ?noi?e/ieo ?ioa?anao. Iaoai?ci aioo??oiueiaoi?/ieo ?
i?aeaoi?/ieo i?ioe??/ i?eiee ia coieiy?oueny. Oeei cia/iith i??ith
coiiaeth?oueny iaiao?aei?noue iino?eiiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?aeaoi?/ieo
a?aeiinei o noni?euenoa?, ia i?eaiaey/e ?o aei eiioe?eoiiai noaio.
Iniaeeai oea iaiao?aeii o aeiaaeeo ?nioaaiiy a?ae/oaeaieo iaeei a?ae
iaeiiai aoiin?a. Oaea iie?aoi?/ia aea?aeaaa iniaeeai ianoaa?eueia.

Iaoe?iiaeueia aea?aeaaa a ?aeaae? a?aenoith? caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei?
?ioa?ane (?ioa?ane aoi?/ieo a?oi aea?aeaae), ye? iiaeeea? eeoa ca
iayaiino? ni?eueii? iaoe. Aaaeeeao ?ieue o ci?oeiaii? iaoe?iiaeueieo
ca’yce?a a?ae?a?athoue iie?oe/i? /eiieee.

Ci?oeiaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ca’yce?a, oa?eoi??aeueia cao?ooaaiiy
ianaeaiiy aeoeaii aieeioee ia oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ai?aeino?,
aeaaeeeaiai noaaeaiiy aei iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?iiinoae, iaaeaaiue
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e.

Noiniaii oeueiai ona?aeiieaiiy ethaeueie nai?? i?eiaeaaeiino? aei iaaii?
iaoe?? ? ia iaio i?oeiei ii?aeioaaeueiei /eiieeii, i?ae ni?euei?noue
aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a, oa?eoi???, iiae oiui. A?eueo oiai, oe? i?ioeane ?
aca?iiiia’ycaieie, ia?aieaoaieie, ine?eueee, ye i?aee?aneaia a ?iaio?,
nioe?aeuei? ca’ycee ia iiaeooue c’yaeyoeny ii-?ioiio, i?ae ye i?eoiaeeoe
/a?ac na?aeii?noue ? i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae.

I?iaaaeaia oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? i?aenoaao aeneiaeoe aeoieo i?i
oa, ui ?noi?e/iee i?ioean eaea o iai?yieo noai?aiiy a?eueoino?
iiiiaoi?/ieo aea?aeaa.

Aeinyaiaiiy iie?oe/iith aea?aeaaith aecia/iiai ??aiy nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo ni?ey? aeieeiaiith oiia aeey eiai ?iciaaeo.

Ca oiia aeii?ioaaiiy a na?o? iie?aoi?/ieo aea?aeaa i?ioean ooai?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa ni?ey? aeieeiaiith eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e o
na?o?, ui oneeaaeith? i?aeo?eieo aaciaee ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio,
?aa?iiaeueiiio oa aeiaaeueiiio ??aiyo.

C?inoaiiy ?ie? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a o no/aniiio na?o? iia’ycaia c
?aii?oaaiiyi iio?aa oa ?ioa?an?a aoi?/ieo a?oi, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aeieeiaiiy eiioe?eo?a. Ioaea, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa oa
?ioa?an?a eiaeiiai aoiino o a?eueiiio ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e, iiae,
o?aaeeoe?e, niaoeeo?/ii? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ni?eyoeia
oi?ioaaiith i?aeaaeei iaeaooiueiai na?oiaiai ii?yaeeo, a yeiio
caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino? aeooiaii iaaeecyoue on? ia?iaee.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee: eiai noaoon ? ?ieue
o iaoai?ci? aaciaee nioe?oio» aeine?aeaeothoueny nioe?aeueia cia/aiiy
oa ?ieue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea a ?ica’ycaii? i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee ??ciiiai?oieo noa’?eo?a nioe?oio.

A ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui iiiyooy «aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee (aoi?/iee) /eiiee»,
yea /anoi aeei?enoiao?oueny o o?einionuee?e iaooe?, aeiaaa? ooi/iaiiy.

Aaoi? ?icaeyaea? /eiiee ia ye aoiiooai?thth/o oiiao oi?ioaaiiy iaoe??
(aoiino), a ye noni?eueiee oaiiiai, yeee iaaiei /eiii aieeaa? ia
nioe?aeueia aeeooy noni?euenoaa, ? a ia?oo /a?ao ia eiai aaciaeo.

Ui noino?oueny aeine?aeaeoaaii? a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeaie, oi
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee ?ai?acaioiaaiee ye iaaia oi?ia i?iyao
?nioth/eo aoiin?a (iaoe?e), aeneiaeaia a ?oiueiio i?aaiaii? c?aae?coaaoe
nai? ?ioa?ane o ??ciiiai?oieo noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy ca eiie?aoieo
nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ieo oiia.

Aeae? a ?iaio? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui yeui aeoiaeeoe c oeueiai aecia/aiiy
(yea aaoi? aaaaea? a?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei o oeueiio aeiaaeeo), oi
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee iinoa? ia?aaeon?i ye ae?yeuei?noue oaei?
nioe?aeueii? a?oie, ye aoiin, ui i?aaia c?aae?coaaoe nai? ?ioa?ane o
nioe?oi?. Ine?eueee o?aaeeoe?eii aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia a?aeaeaa?oueny a
??cieo noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy ii-??ciiio — iaioith i??ith a
aeiiii?/i?e, aeaui a?eueoith — a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?e, cia/ii a?eueoa
— o na?aeiiino?, a aeooiaiiio aeeoo? noni?euenoaa, iniaeeai a
eoeueoo??, iiaoo?, o?aaeeoe?yo, — oi e i??a i?iyao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
/eiieea a noa?ao ? ??ciiiai?oiith.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aaoi? iieaco?, ui cia/ou?noue
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea a nioe?oi? coiiaeth?oueny oaeeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie:

aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiith no?oeoo?ith ianaeaiiy e?a?ie; /enaeuei?noth oa
ye?niei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi iaea?eueo aaeeeeo aoi?/ieo a?oi; ??aiai
aoi?/ii? naiina?aeiiino?; iayai?noth (a?aenooi?noth) oa ?icoaooaaiiyi
i?noeue eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy aoiin?a ia oa?eoi??? aea?aeaae, caeiaiei
i?noeai ? ?ieeth, ui a?ae?a?a?oueny aoiinaie a nioe?aeueiiio aeeoo?
noni?euenoaa; i??ith caa?aaeaiiy oa i?iyao aoiieoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e;
i??ith nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? eiioi?oiino? aoiin?a; ??aiai aieeao
ae?anii?e ia iie?oe/ia oa eoeueoo?ia aeeooy noni?euenoaa; iayai?noth oa
oa?aeoa?ii aca?iia?aeiinei ??ciiiai?oieo eiioan?e, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a
e?a?i?, oiui.

Na?aae aeine?aeaeoaaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea
/anoeia (aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a, /enaeuei?noue eiaeii? aoi?/ii?
a?oie, iayai?noue /e a?aenooi?noue ? ?icoaooaaiiy i?noeue eiiiaeoiiai
i?iaeeaaiiy oiui) iathoue ia’?eoeaiee oa?aeoa?. Aiie a?eueo noaa?euei? ?
aeey ?o ?noioii? ci?ie iaiao?aei? ?aaeeeaeuei? i?ioeane a nioe?aeueiiio
aeeoo? noni?euenoaa. sse?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee noa’?eoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o
(??aaiue aoi?/ii? naiina?aeiiino?, i??a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
eiioi?oiino? oiui) a?eueo ?ooii? oa ci?ithaai? i?ae aieeaii i?ioean?a oa
yaeu noni?eueiiai aeeooy. O ca’yceo c oeei naia ?oiy ci?ia na?eicii
a?aeaeaa?oueny ia ?ie? oa noaoon? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea a
noni?euenoa?.

A ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui iie?aoi?/ia noni?euenoai ye no?oeoo?ia
ooai?aiiy, ye i?aaeei, aeeth/a? a naaa ??ci? ni?eueiioe: oeooeueio
iaoe?th, ei??ii? ia?iaee (aai?eaai?a), iaoe?iiaeuei? oa aoi?/i? iaioeie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?nioth/eo i?ae ieie ca’yce?a oa a?aeiinei ? i?ioe??/, ui
aeieeathoue i?e oeueiio, i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui o aoaeue-yeiio
iie?aoi?/iiio noni?euenoa? iayai? neee ye aeioeaio?iaiai, oae ?
a?aeoeaio?iaiai ni?yioaaiiy. Ia?aaaaeaiiy o??? /e o??? neee cia/iith
i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei.

O ca’yceo c oeei o ?icae?e? caa?oa?oueny iniaeeaa oaaaa ia aiae?c
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a oa ?oiueiai cia/aiiy a iaoai?ci? iiaoaeiae
aaciaee nioe?oio. Noni?euenoai, ui neeaaea?oueny c aoiin?a, ye? ia
iathoue ni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a, ? iaaeeoo?caeaoiei ? ?iciaaea?oueny i?e
iaeia?oeo aea na?eicieo aei?iaoaaiiyo. Ioaea, iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith
noai?aiiy aeinoaoiuei aeeoo?caeaoiiai iie?aoi?/iiai noni?euenoaa oa
aoaeoeaii? nenoaie eiai aaciaee ? aecia/aiiy (oi?ioaaiiy) e iino?eia
ci?oeiaiiy caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioa?ano (?ioa?an?a).

Ui noino?oueny aoi?/ii iaeii??aeieo aea?aeaa, yeeo, ia aeoieo oao?aoe?a,
o na?o? iae?/o?oueny aeecueei aeanyoe a?aenioe?a, oi e ?oiy
iaeii??aei?noue ? oiiaiith o ca’yceo c ?icoe?aiiyi i?a?aoe?eieo
i?ioean?a. C oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui ?ieue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea o
caaacia/aii? nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino? iie?aoi?/iiai noni?euenoaa
c?inoaoeia.

I’yoee ?icae?e «I?aeia?iaeia aaciaea oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?
aeaoa?i?iaioe noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo» yaey? niaith aiae?oe/iee iiooe
a?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy i?i oeyoe oa iaoai?cie i?aeo?eiee aaciaee a na?o?
ca oiia c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ia?iae?a, yea ae?ae
noia?a/eeai aieeaa? ia an? aiee ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa.

?icaeyaeath/e /eiieee iiae?e, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a na?o?, aaoi?
i?aee?aneth?, ui ianeeuenoai (a oiio /ene? ca?ieia) ye ? ?ai?oa
caeeoa?oueny caniaii, yeee oe?iei canoiniao?oueny aeey ?ica’ycaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo noia?a/ie.

A?eueo oiai, aeinyaiaiiy iaoee oa oaoi?ee, iineeai? ?ioaa?aoe?ei?
i?ioeane aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeiiiaieoe o?aaeeoe?ei? ??ciiaeaee
ianeeuenoaa (aeiiii?/ia, a?enueeiaa oiui) iiaeie (?ioi?iaoe?eia oiui).
Ia a?aei?io a?ae ieioeiai ianeeuenoai canoiniao?oueny o a?eueo aeooeaieo
? caianeiaaieo oi?iao. Oae, iai?eeeaae, o a?enueeia?e noa?? «eeane/i?»
i?aeaea?aeaai? a?eie cai?iththoueny aaaaoioeny/ieie eiioe?eoaie a
aea?aeaaao, ui aeanoaa?e?coth/a aieeaathoue ia oe?e? ?aa?iie.

Ynioth/a ia nueiaiaei? nenoaia caaacia/aiiy aaciaee a?oioo?oueny ia
aea?aeaaieo canaaeao ? yaey? niaith noeoii?noue aaciae iaoe?iiaeueieo
aea?aeaa. Aaniethoia a?eueo?noue oeeo aea?aeaa ca nai?i neeaaeii ?
iie?aoi?/ieie. Aiane?aeie oeueiai iaia’yceiaeie ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?
i?ioe??//y ia aeaio ??aiyo: ia?oee — o naieo aea?aeaaao o ca’yceo c
iaca?aii ?ioa?an?a aoiin?a, ui iaoeathoue o ieo;

ae?oaee — i?ae iaoe?iiaeueieie aea?aeaaaie, ye? a?aenoiththoue nai?
?ioa?ane ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?. O iayaiino? c?inoaiiy ?ie?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea ia an?o ??aiyo nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei.

Ia?ao?ae ia ae?oaee ieai ?aeaieia?/ieo i?ioe??/ cia/iith i??ith
i?aeneeea aoi?/i? oa ?ae?a?ei? i?ioe??//y a naieo aea?aeaaao oa a na?o?
caaaeii. Naia aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?ae?a?eiiai caaa?aeaiiy iaaoaa?
a?eueo?noue eiioe?eo?a, ui aeieeathoue o noni?euenoa?. Cia/iith i??ith
aiie i?eoaiaii? e?a?iai c ianoi?iiaaieie aioo??oi?ie nioe?aeueieie
ca’yceaie oa no?oeoo?aie. Oea noino?oueny a?eueoino? aea?aeaa Ac?? oa
Ao?eee. Neooaoe?th a na?o? oneeaaeieee i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
e?a?iao, ooai?aieo aiane?aeie ?oeioaaiiy N?N? oa Aa?oaanueeiai
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai nithco.

Ana oea, ye i?aeoaa?aeaeaii o aeine?aeaeaii?, aeiionea? iayai?noue
caa?ice aaiiie?oe/i?e noaa?eueiino? o aoaeue-yeeo, iaa?oue c ia?oiai
iiaeyaeo aaa?acae?eeo noiniaii oeueiai, ?aeiiao na?oo.

Aeina?ae ?ica’ycaiiy eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e oeyoii canoinoaaiiy
a?enueeiai? neee aai aeiiii?/ieo naieoe?e, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny
ai?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano «cao?aeiei na?oii», a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y
caaacia/o? aeaaeae? a??o? ?acoeueoaoe. O aeine?aeaeaii? iieacaii, ui
e?a?ie eiioe?eoieo ?aa?ii?a iei? iathoue aeinoaoiuei no/ania ica?i?iiy,
yea caa?iaeo? «ie?ioai?oeyi» cia/ieie ao?aoaie. Y iaeaea caaaeaee
ia?aoai?th? oe? eiioe?eoe ia o?eaae? ca /anii ? oae?, ui
aeanoaa?e?cothoue oe?e? ?aa?iie.

Aiae?c nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a no/aniiio na?o?,
aeicaieea aecia/eoe aea? ae?aeaeoe/ii i?ioeeaaei? oaiaeaioe??. C iaeiiai
aieo, c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ? i?aaiaiiy noai?eoe aeanio
iaoe?iiaeueio (oi/i?oa, aoi?/io) aea?aeaao, a c ?ioiai — aeaaeae? oe?o?
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeuei? oa ?ioaa?aoe?ei? ca’ycee.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui iaiaaaiiy aoiino
c?aae?coaaoe naaa o aeani?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e aea?aeaa? iaeaea caaaeaee
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeeo iane?aee?a. Ii-ia?oa, noai?aiiy iiai? aea?aeaae ?
iane?aeeii ia?ae?ithaaiiy iie?oe/ii? ea?oe na?oo, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
eiioe?eo?a.

Ii-ae?oaa, noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae a aaniethoi?e a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a icia/a? noai?aiiy iie?aoi?/ii? aea?aeaae c i?iaeaiaie
?aaoethaaiiy a i?e i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei. Y o ia?oiio, ? o
ae?oaiio aeiaaeeao aeieeathoue i?ioe??//y, ye? ni?eythoue aeieeiaiith
eiioe?eo?a ??cii? aino?ioe oa o?eaaeino?. Ni?aaaaeeea? ii noo? iaiaaaiiy
ia?iae?a noai?eoe o? /e o? oi?ie aeaniiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith aeoaea /anoi oneeaaeiththoue i?ioean
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ca oiia aaaaoiiiey?iiai na?oo, ui
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?aeianaiiyi aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?,
i?aeo?eioaaoe i?aeia?iaeio aaciaeo iiaeeeai eeoa ca oiiae noai?aiiy ??
aaaaoi??aiaai? nenoaie caaacia/aiiy. Aei ia? iio??aii aeeth/eoe
eieaeoeaio, ?aa?iiaeueio, aeiaaeueio nenoaie aaciaee.

Aaoi? aiae?co? cia/aiiy eiaeiiai ?c cacia/aieo ??ai?a aaciaee, ca’ycee
oa i?ioe??//y, ui aeieeathoue o i?ioean? ?o iiaoaeiae oa ooieoe?thaaiiy,
?oi? ia?niaeoeae o iaeaooiueiio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano iiaoaeiae nenoaie i?aeia?iaeii? aaciaee
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiei ca no/anieo oiia
? caaacia/aiiy aaciaee ia i?aenoaa? aeainoi?iii?o oa aaaaoinoi?iii?o
aeiaiai??a uiaei caa?aaeaiiy noaa?eueiino? oa niieith a ie?aieo
?aa?iiao. ?aa?iiaeuei? nenoaie aaciaee, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ? iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaieie. Na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai iiaeiia eoe a?ae ?aa?iiaeueieo
nenoai aaciaee aei aeiaaeueii?, a ia iaaiaee. Iaiaaaiiy aeayeeo
iie?oee?a oa a/aieo, ui iaa?oioiaothoue i??i?eoaoia noaiiaeua o
caa?aaeaii? aaciaee oaeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ye III ? iniaeeai IAOI, ? aeaui
ia?aae/aniei. I?aai?caoe?yi oaeiai ??aiy iaeaaeaoeia i?ia?aeia ?ieue ? o
iaeaooiueiio, aea o?eueee ca oiiae ?o o?niiai ca’yceo ?c nenoaiaie
aaciaee, ui aoaeoeaii ooieoe?ththoue.

O caeeth/iiio oinoiio ?icae?e? «Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
aaciaee oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa» i?iaeiaaeaii aiae?c nioe?aeueieo
i?ioean?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia aaciaeo iie?aoi?/iiai noni?euenoaa uiaei
Oe?a?ie.

?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai caaacia/aiiy aeanii? aaciaee noaei iaaecae/aeii
aeooaeueiei aeey Oe?a?ie c iiiaioo io?eiaiiy iath noaa?ai?oaoo ?
coiiaeaia ieceith oiia, na?aae yeeo: ye?nii ci?iaiee noaoon Oe?a?ie
(a?ae nithcii? ?anioae?ee aei noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae) aeiaaa? a?ae
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae naiino?eii ?ica’ycoaaoe i?iaeaio aeanii? aaciaee;
neeaaeia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa;
c?inoaiiy caa?ic aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o; ?aaeeeaeueii ci?iaiee oa?aeoa?
aaiiie?oe/iiai i?noeaiieiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa ?i.

Aaiiie?oe/i? ci?ie, ui iathoue i?noea a inoaii? ?iee a ?a?ii?, na?eicii
aieeioee ia a?aeiineie i?ae aaaaoueia e?a?iaie. O No?aei?e ?a?ii?
a?eueo?noue aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a ia ca?aathoueny c oa?eoi??yie
?icnaeaiiy aoiin?a. Ca oiia ianoaa?eueiino? a *ao??, Iieaeia?,
Neiaa//ei?, Iieueu?, ?in??, THaineaa?? oiui a?ae/oaa?oueny c?inoaiiy
?aaeeeaeueiiai iaoe?iiae?cio. Oea i?ecaaei aei aeieeiaiiy
oa?eoi??aeueieo i?aoaic?e oa noia?a/eeaeo ieoaiue i?ae aea?aeaaaie.

Neooaoe?y, ui neeaeany, ciooo? aiai?eoe i?i iaiao?aei?noue iiaoaeiae
aoaeoeaii? nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ye iaeaaaeeea?oi? oiiae
aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa oa eiai aea?aeaaiino? ca
no/anieo oiia.

A ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui iaiao?aei?noue ?ica’ycaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ca
oiia, ui neeaeeny, i?ecaaea aei i?aaiaiiy ?ica’ycoaaoe ?? iaeii/anii o
aeaio ieiueiao.

C iaeiiai aieo, nei?enoaaoeny aeinyaiaiiyie ca?oa?aeii? iaoee, ?ic?iaeee
oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? noi?ioethaaee
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?? eiioeaioe?? a Oe?a?i?. C ?ioiai aieo,
nei?enoaaoeny ca?oa?aeiei aeina?aeii, nioe?aeuei? no?oeoo?e oa
?inoeoooe??, ui caeeoeeeny a?ae noa?i? nenoaie aaciaee, ni?iaoaaee
noai?eoe iiao, yea oei/aniai oi/a a i?i?iaeueii caaacia/eea aaciaeo.

Aaoi? aiae?co? oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee nenoaie aaciaee Oe?a?ie, ui aoee
cai?iiiiiaai? oe?a?inueeeie a/aieie N.Ie?iaeeiaei, A.Io?aoeiei,
?.E?aaoeai oa ?ioeie. Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai aiae?co eiinoaoo?oueny oaeo
?nioaaiiy na?eicieo ?ica?aeiinoae a ioe?ieao aeaea?ae oa ci?noo iia?ic
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie. I?e oeueiio iaa?oioiao?oueny
oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ui iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea Oe?a?ie o?nii iia’ycaia c
aecia/aiiyi ?? ?aaeueieo (a ia oyaieo)

iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, ye? iiaeii? a?aeaeca?eaethaaoe iaeaeu?
?ioa?ane anueiai noni?euenoaa.

O iiaeaeueoiio a aeine?aeaeaii? iaa?oioiao?oueny oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
?ic?iaea oe??? eiioeaioe?? aeiaaa? ia o?eueee aecia/aiiy oa aea/aiiy
aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo oa ?ioeo ?ioa?an?a Oe?a?ie, a e anaa?/iiai aiae?co
caa?ic ye ciai?oiueiai, oae ? aioo??oiueiai oa?aeoa?o. Aei aioo??oi?o
aeaea?ae caa?ice aaciaoe? iio??aii a?aeianoe: nioe?aeuei? neee
noni?euenoaa (ia?o??, i?aai?caoe??, a?iiaaeyie oiui), ye? iaiaaathoueny
aeinyaiooe nai?? iie?oe/ii? iaoe ianeeueieoeueeeie caniaaie;

aeaci?aai?caoe?th aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee oa iaaeinoaoi?e
?icaeoie iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?; caaino?aiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai,
c?inoaiiy cei/eiiino? oa aac?ia?ooy; caaino?aiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ii?
i?iaeaie; aeniaaeaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a oa iianthaeia iia??oaiiy
aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??; ia?aioe?ieo oa ci?uaiiy iaaiein?a o aaeoc?
eoeueoo?iiai, ii?aeueiiai oa aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa oa ?io?.

Aei ciai?oi?o aeaea?ae caa?ice a?aeiinyoueny aea?aeaae, iie?oe/i? neee
oiui, ae?? yeeo iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue Oe?a?ie ye
noa’?eoa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui ia i?ioean
iiaoaeiae nenoaie aaciaee oa ia ?? ooieoe?thaaiiy cia/ii aieeaa? ye?niee
noai oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. Oe?a?ia ? iie?aoi?/iith aea?aeaaith, a ye?e
iaoeathoue aeecueei 120

iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

Aiae?coth/e noai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe oie
oaeo, ui a Oe?a?i? (ye ? a e?a?iao — eieeoi?o nithcieo ?anioae?eao
N?N?) i?ioean noai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaaiino? aeia?aaeea i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? ye nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? ni?eueiioe.
Neeaaei?noue neooaoe?? ia no?eueee a aoiiiica?/iino? Oe?a?ie, ne?eueee a
oiio, ui aaaaoi aoiin?a, a oiio /ene? e /anoeia oe?a?inueeiai aoiino, c
aaeeeeie o?oaeiiuaie ona?aeiiethaaee naaa a?iiaaeyiaie iiai? aeey naaa
Aaouee?aueie — Oe?a?ie a ia?o? ?iee ?? ?nioaaiiy ye noaa?aiii?
aea?aeaae.

Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny i?iaaaeaieie a 1991 — 1994 ?ieao
aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ye? iieacaee, ui aeineoue /?oea aoi?/ia
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?y aoiin?a aoea aeecueea aei iineaaeaiiy aai iiaii?
a?aenooiino? a?iiaaeyinueeiai iao??ioecio. Eeoa 60

a?aenioe?a oe?a?inueeiai aoiino aoee ci???ioiaai? ia ?aeeia oe?a?inueea
a?iiaaeyinoai. A?eueoa iieiaeie aieaa?, oai?oe?a, ?a?a?a, i?ioe?a,
iieye?a, ?in?yi, ui iaoeathoue a Oe?a?i?, iiaaaeaee iiaea?eiiai
a?iiaaeyinoaa, a oiio /ene? e a?iiaaeyinoaa nai?? i?aaaouee?aueie. C
oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui a Oe?a?i? ua iaia? ?aeeii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
iaioaeueiino?, ?aeeiiai nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai i???ioe?o, ?aeeieo
iiaeyae?a ia aaciaeo e?a?ie.

Ianeiinie?aeiaai?noue noni?euenoaa ?iaeoue iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiei
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. Eiioeaioe?? aaciaee, ui
?ic?iaeythoueny ca oaeeo oiia, cia/iith i??ith ? aano?aeoieie, ui
oneeaaeith? ?o ?aae?caoe?th ia i?aeoeoe?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui
iaiaeii??aei?noue oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ca eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iei oa
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iei noano?aoii ni?eyoeia caa?aaeaiith iioaioe?aeo
a?aeoeaio?iaeo oaiaeaioe?e. Aiie iaaiith i??ith iineeththoueny naiei
aaiiie?oe/iei ?icoaooaaiiyi Oe?a?ie, ia yeo iaea?eueo neeueii aieeaa?
?in?enueeee /eiiee. I?iaeaia eiinie?aeaoe?? ia?iae?a, ui iaoeathoue a
Oe?a?i?, ia nueiaiaei? ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo, ine?eueee aiia
coiiaeth? oni?oia ?ica’ycaiiy oe?ei? iecee caaaeaiue, o oiio /ene? e
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee iniaenoino?, aea?aeaae, noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Aiae?c cai?iiiiiaaieo a/aieie oa iie?oeeaie eiinie?aeoth/eo ?aeae, ui
ni?eyee a a?eueo ?ioaineaiiio i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iie?oe/ii? iaoe??, na?ae/eoue, ui iaea?eueo aaeaeith aeey no/aniiai
aoaio ? ?aeay oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Aiia icia/a? iiaoaeiao ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae oa a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa ca aeoeaii? o/ano? an?o aoiin?a, ui iaoeathoue ia
oe?a?inuee?e caie?. Oey ?aeay nueiaiaei?, i?aee?aneth? aaoi?, iaea?eueo
a?aeiia?aea? aeooiaiei iio?aaai oa ni?yioaaiiyi cia/ii? /anoeie ia?iae?a
Oe?a?ie, iacaaaeath/e ia ?oith ae?aaeaio aoi?/io i?eiaeaaei?noue oa
iie?oe/io i???ioaoe?th.

Ui noino?oueny oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? (aeineoue
?iciianthaeaeaii? na?aae iie?oee?a oa a/aieo), oi ?e iaeaaeaoeia
i?ia?aeia ?ieue o iaeaooiueiio, eiee aeinoaoiueith i??ith noi?io?oueny
oe?a?inueea iie?oe/ia iaoe?y.

Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai ia? aeinoaoiuei neeaaeio aoiiiaoe?iiaeueio
no?oeoo?o, ooai?aio aoiinaie, ui o?aaeeoe?eii iaoeaee ia oa?eoi???, yea
aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo oaia??oiuei? Oe?a?ie, ? iin?aeathoue ?noioia
i?noea a noni?eueii-ainiiaea?nueeiio aeeoo? aea?aeaae. Oei a?eueoa a
iei?oiueiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, yea aaaaoueia aeine?aeieeaie
a?aeiineoueny aei ia?ao?aeiiai ? a yeiio a?aeaoaa?oueny noaiiaeaiiy
iiai? nioe?aeueii-a?oiiai? no?oeoo?e.

Ca oaeeo oiia, ?iaeoue aeniiaie aaoi?, aoiine ? iaea?eueo no?eeith
nioe?aeueiith ?inoeoooe??th, ia yeo iiaeooue nie?aoeny aea?aeaai? oa
iie?oe/i? no?oeoo?e. Aea c?iaeoe oea iiaeeeai o?eueee ca oiiae
i?aeaoi?/iiai eiinainono, iaa?oioiaaiiai caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/ieie
oe?iiinoyie oa iie?oe/iei ieth?ae?ciii.

Iio??aii iai’yoaoe, ui a iie?aoi?/i?e aea?aeaa? aoi?/ia ii/oooy
aeyaey?oueny a ia?oo /a?ao oai, aea noai?th?oueny aeeneiioi?o ia
aoi?/iiio i?aea?oio?. Na?aae aieiaieo /eiiee?a a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aoi?/ii?
naiina?aeiiino? iei? oa ?? i?iyao o aino??e oi?i? ? aoi?/ia
ia??aiii??i?noue a aeiiii?/i?e, iie?oe/i?e oa eoeueoo?i?e noa?ao
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aoiin?a.

Aeae? a ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy ciai?oiuei?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie, ui aaciina?aaeiuei iia’yco?oueny ?c noaiii
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo ca’yce?a oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Iacaaaeath/e ia
iaai? aeinyaiaiiy ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?, oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa ua ia
iaaoea /?oeeo oa?aeoa?enoee noa’?eoa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei.

Oea iiynith?oueny iia?eueiei cae?eniaiiyi aeeaieeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e a Oe?a?i?, aiane?aeie /iai
?a?iiaenueea ni?eueiioa iiee ui ia ?icaeyaea? ?? ye iiaiioe?iiiai
ia?oia?a i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co aeaea?ae ??ciiiai?oieo caa?ic iaoe?iiaeueiei
?ioa?anai Oe?a?ie aaoi? o aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea? i?iaeaio caaacia/aiiy
a?enueeiai? aaciaee.

A nenoai? a?enueeiai? aaciaee oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, ui noai?th?oueny,
aecia/aii aeaa iai?yiee: ciai?oiy oa aioo??oiy a?enueeiaa aaciaea.
Caaaeaiiyie uiaei caaacia/aiiy ye ciai?oiuei?, oae ? aioo??oiuei?
a?enueeiai? aaciaee aeey Oe?a?ie ?: ii-ia?oa, iiaoaeiaa aoaeoeaii?
a?enueeiai? i?aai?caoe?? (a ia?oo /a?ao ca?ieieo nee), caeaoii?
caaacia/eoe aaciaeo e?a?ie; ii-ae?oaa, noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia (o
ia?oo /a?ao aeiiii?/ieo) o noni?euenoa? aeey caaacia/aiiy neeiaeo
no?oeoo? on?i iaiao?aeiei aeey ?oiuei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?;

ii-o?ao?, i?aeaioiaea aea?aeaae aei iiaeeeai? a?eie.

Ioe?ithth/e aianie o ?ic?iaeo a?enueeiai? aaciaee I.Aiae?oea,
A.Einoaiea, A.Eioia, ?.E?n?oeeia, A.?aaeaoeueeiai oa ?ioeo, aaoi?
aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo i?i iaiao?aei?noue caa?aaeaiiy iiooaeiiai
a?enueeiaiai eiiiiiaioa a caaaeuei?e nenoai? aaciaee. Oea coiiaeaii
aeinoaoiuei aenieei ??aiai eiioe?eoiaaiiino? no/aniiai na?oo oa aaeeeith
e?euee?noth i?eeeaae?a aeei?enoaiiy ca?ieieo nee o ?ica’ycaii? i?ioe??/.

Yioeie aeaea?aeaie a?enueeiai? caa?ice ? aacia?a?aia c?inoaiiy yeino? oa
e?eueeino? noai?thaaieo nenoai ica?i?iiy. Ethaenoai aa?eoei a aiioo
aenieioaoi?/ieo a?ei (a?ei oinoi? aaia?aoe??), a yeeo aeei?enoiao?oueny
aenieioi/ia ca?iy, ca?iy, ui a?oioo?oueny ia iiaeo oaoi?/ieo iiooeao
oiui.

AENIIAEE

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii ieceo
aaaeeeaeo aeey i?aeoeee noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo aeniiae?a:

— i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy oa ?nioaaiiy nenoaie aaciaee ? ia’?eoeaia
iio?aaa aoaeue-yeiai nioe?aeueiiai i?aai?cio a naiicaa?aaeaii? ca oiia
ie?o, iaiiaiaiiai ianeeuenoaii. O i?ioean? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai
noni?euenoaa ci?no iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ?icoe?eany a?ae ?icoi?iiy ??
ye caeaoiino? noa’?eoa caoenoeoeny a?ae ca?ieiiai ianeeey cciai? aei
oeoia/aiiy ?? ye iaeo?ae?caoe?? eiiieaeno caa?ic e?a?i? (a oiio /ene?
iniaenoino?, aea?aeaa?, noni?euenoao), ye? aeieeathoue o ??ciiiai?oieo
noa?ao ?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?;

— i?e noai?aii? nenoaie aaciaee e?a?ie iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe oe?eo ieceo
/eiiee?a, iaeaaaeeea?oeie na?aae yeeo ? aaiiie?oe/iee,
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee, aeiiii?/iee oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee. I?e oeueiio
aieiaiei o iiaoaeia? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? aecia/aiiy aeeoo?ai
aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a ia’?eo?a caoenoo oa iiaeeeaeo iai?yie?a iioaioe?eieo
? ?aaeueieo caa?ic;

— ci?ia oa?aeoa?o caa?ic o ca’yceo c aaaaoiieaiiaeie ci?iaie o
no/aniiio na?o? aeiaaa? ei?eaoaaiiy ?nioth/i? nenoaie aaciaee caaaeii oa
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeoooe?e, ui ?? caaacia/othoue, cie?aia. Ne?ae
ona?aeiieoe, ui no/aniee na?o ia a?aeiiaeany a?ae iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy ca?ieii? neee o ?ica’ycaii? eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e. Ioaea,
nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe?? neeiaiai oa?aeoa?o (ci?iai? c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia
/ano) iiaeii? ye ? ?ai?oa iin?aeaoe aaaeeeaa i?noea a nenoai? aaciaee;

— ?ioaa?aoe?ei? i?ioeane, ui iineeththoueny a na?o?, ia i?eaaee aei
i/?eoaaiiai noe?aiiy aoi?/ieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aei?iiinoae oa
iineaaeaiiy i?ioe??/ a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiineiao. Ii/oooy
iacaaeiaieaiiy nai?o iio?aa o naii?icaeoeo o aoi?/ieo a?oi aeieea? o
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaaao iacaeaaeii a?ae ?oi?o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo nenoai oa oi?i iie?oe/iiai i?aae?iiy;

— a?ae 60-o ?ie?a XX noi??//y aoi?/i? a?oie aiane?aeie ?o iie?oecaoe??
ia?aoai?eeeny ia noa’?eo?a ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. Oea ni?eyei c?inoaiith
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ca noai?aiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa (aai
i?eiaeii? eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueieo aaoiiii?e c ?icoe?aieie iie?oe/ieie
i?aaaie). Oaea oaiaeaioe?y no/aniiai noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo ni?eyea
c?inoaiith e?eueeino? aoi?/ieo eiioe?eo?a o na?o?, ui iineeth?
iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo nenoai aaciaee ??ciiai ??aiy
(iaoe?iiaeueiiai, ?aa?iiaeueiiai, aeiaaeueiiai);

— i?ioeane iaoe?iiaeueii? (aoi?/ii?) eiinie?aeaoe?? iaieio/a ia ia?oiio
?noi?e/iiio aoai? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?iciaaeo iie?aoi?/ieo no?oeoo?. Aea
noai?aiiy aea?aeaae ca iaoe?iiaeueiith (aoi?/iith) iciaeith ia i?aeoeoe?
o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei iie?aoi?/iino?;

— c aiae?co i?ioeano ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa aeieeaa?, ui
aeieeiaiiy oa c?inoaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea ? iane?aeeii
aoi?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ethaenoaa. Aoi?/ia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y,
iioaioe?eii iath/e a nia? aea?aeaaia ia/aei, ni?eyea i?ioeano ooai?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa, nii/aoeo a ?a?ii?, a iio?i ? a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao
na?oo;

— canaaeiaeie noiniaii noaoono aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea ? ?ioa?ane
aoi?/ieo (iaoe?iiaeueieo) a?oi, ye? i?iaeeaathoue o eiie?aoi?e e?a?i?.
Oe? ?ioa?ane o??th /e o??th i??ith ioiieththoue on? noa?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa, o ca’yceo c /ei iaaoaathoue
aoiiiie?oe/ieo, aoiiaeiiii?/ieo oa ?ioeo oi?i i?iyao. Caeaaeii a?ae
iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, yea cae?enith?oueny a noni?euenoa?,
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee ca nai?th ni?yiiaai?noth iiaea a?ae?a?aaaoe
eiinie?aeoth/o aai aeanoaa?e?coth/o ?ieue;

— ye iieaco? ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae, ia an? iie?aoi?/i? aea?aeaae
ni?aaeythoueny ?c caaaeaiiyi caaacia/aiiy nai?? oa?eoi??aeueii?
oe?e?niino?. Oiio iaa?yae /e aoaea ianiiae?aaieith, yeui iecea no/anieo
aea?aeaa o iaeaooiueiio ?iciaaeaoueny i?ae aieeaii aeac?ioaa?aoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, ye oea a?aeaoeiny, iai?eeeaae, c Aano?i-Oai?ueiith,
Iniainueeith ?iia???th, N?N? oa ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie ieioeiai.

Iaiaaaiiy oeaio?aeueii? aeaaee iie?aoi?/ieo e?a?i ianeeueieoeueeei
oeyoii aeiaeoeny iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioaa?aoe?? oa?oiaeeoue o i?ioe??//y c
eia?eith ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo, aoyaoth/e oe? e?a?ie o iane?i/aii? a?eie,
noaaiaoe?th oa aeaa?aaeaoe?th noni?euenoaa;

— i?ioean noai?aiiy oa ooieoe?thaaiiy nenoaie aaciaee Oe?a?ie
a?aeaoaa?oueny aeineoue neeaaeii. Ia nueiaiaei? ? an? i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?aoe?iiaeueii iiaoaeiaaii? oa aoaeoeaii ae?th/i?
nenoaie aaciaee Oe?a?ie iiee ui iaia?.

Oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aaciaee, aoaeoeai?noue ?? ooieoe?thaaiiy aaaaoi a
/iio, yeui ia iiai?noth, caeaaeaoue a?ae nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino?
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui ia
nueiaiaei? aeinoaoiuei aino?? i?ioe??//y ?niothoue o an?o noa?ao
noni?euenoaa;

— niaoeeo?ea i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?, aecia/a?oueny
oe?eith ieceith /eiiee?a, aei yeeo o ia?oo /a?ao ne?ae a?aeianoe:
aeineoue neeaaeio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th a e?a?i? ?, ye
iane?aeie, caaino?aiiy nioe?aeueiiai iai?oaeaiiy a noni?euenoa?;
iie?aoi?/i?noue; iayai?noue ??cieo eiioan?e; a?aenooi?noue
eiinie?aeoth/i? ?aea?, yea i?aeo?eioaaeany a on?ia aa?noaaie
noni?euenoaa, ? o ca’yceo c oeei noia?a/eea?noue nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
i???ioaoe?? ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie.

NIENIE IIOAEYEIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOeY?

1. Aiaiue?i A.I. O?einionueei-nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie ie?o, a?eie oa
a?i??.

— Ee?a: EAYOC, 1996. — 112 n.

2. Aiaiueei A.A. Nioeeaeueiue i?ia?ann. Aaciianiinoue.
Yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiue oaeoi? (Nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneee aiaeec). — Eeaa:
EAEON, 1997. — 180 n.

3. Aiaiue?i A.I., Aae??a A.A. Noni?euenoai. Aaciaea. A?i?y. —
Ee?a:

EAYOC, 1998. — 78 n.

4. Aiaiueei A.A. Iiaaaea niaaoneiai ia?iaea e iiaeuai
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueau // O?iee aieiu e nia?aiaiiinoue.
— Eeaa:

EAEAeEON, 1985. — N.108 — 115.

5. Aiaiueei A.A. Eiia?eaeenoe/aneea eieaeueiua aieiu eae i?oaeea
yenii?oa eiio??aaiethoeee // Iiaue «e?anoiaue iioiae» i?ioea
nioeeaeecia. —

Eeaa: EAEAeEON, 1985. — N.42 — 49.

6. Aiaiueei A.A. Aii?inu aii?oaeaiiie caueou ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
caaiaaaiee a no?aiao nioeeaeenoe/aneie i?eaioaoeee. — Eeaa: EAEEAeON,
1986. — 28 n.

7. Aiaiueei A.A. Yenii?o eiio??aaiethoeee a iieeoe/aneie no?aoaaee
eiia?eaeecia. — Eeaa: EAEEAeON, 1986. — 26 n.

8. Aiaiueei A.A. Iiaia iieeoe/aneia iuoeaiea e i?iaeaiu caueou
nioeeaeecia a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. — Eeaa: EAEEAeON, 1990. — 24 n.

9. Aiaiueei A.A. Iaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey e eo ?acaeoea ia
nia?aiaiiii yoaia // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee nia?aiaiiiai
nioeeaeecia. —

Eeaa: Einoeooo iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee ?oeiaiaeyueo ?aaioieeia Ieio?aina
ONN?, 1990. — N.136 — 157.

10. Aiaiueei A.A. Aiaiiay i?aaiecaoeey. Aiaiiay iieeoeea. Aieia.

Aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu. Ie?iia ninouanoaiaaiea. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in.

Iaoeeiiaeueiay iieeoeea. Iaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey. Iaua/aeiaa/aneea
eioa?anu.

?anoeaao iaoeee. Nioeeaeueiay caueuaiiinoue. Yoiin // Iniiaiua iiiyoey
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie oai?ee nioeeaeecia. — Eeaa: EAEEAeON, 1991. —
N.4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 16.

11. Aiaiueei A.A. I?ia?ann // Aiaeec iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee
nia?aiaiiie oeeinioee. — Eeaa: EEEAA, 1992. — N.57 — 62.

12. Aiaiueei A.A. Iaoeee e iaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey a iieeoe/aneie
aeecie nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa // Iniiau iieeoieiaee. — Eeaa: EAEEAeON,
1992. —

N.149 — 158.

13. Aiaiueei A.A. Iaua/aeiaa/aneea eioa?anu eae iauaeoeaiay
?aaeueiinoue e i?iaeaiu eo i?ei?eoaoa // Iniiau iieeoieiaee. — Eeaa:
EAEEAeON, 1992. —

N.159 — 171.

14. Aiaiueei A.A. Aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiinoe e iieeoeea //

Iniiau iieeoieiaee. — Eeaa: EAEEAeON, 1992. — N.172 — 186.

15. Aiaiueei A.A. Eiioeaioeey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe e
aiaiiay aeieo?eia // Iniiau iieeoieiaee. — Eeaa: EAEEAeON, 1992. —
N.187 — 196.

16. Aiaiueei A.A. Iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue eae nenoaia
iaania/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaa?aieoaoa Oe?aeiu // A?enueeiaa
iie?oeea Oe?a?ie:

i?iaeaie, iiooee, ??oaiiy. — Ee?a: EAYOC, 1993. — N.21 — 28.

17. Aiaiueei A.A. Aaoiiiiey eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiay. Aa?anney.

Aiiaeney. Aaaeaioeu. Aaciianiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiay. Aaiiieeoeea.
Aaiioeeae.

Aeaii?oaoeey. Aeeanii?a. Aeieo?eia aiaiiay. Einoeooou iieeoe/aneea.

Eiioaaea?aoeey. Eiioeeeo. Einiiiieeoeci. Iaioaeeoao. Iea?aoeey.

Iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiinoue. Ia?iaeiinoue. Iaoeeiiaeueiay a?oiia.
Iaoeeiiaeueiay iieeoeea. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in. Iaoeeiiaeeci.
Iai?eiaiaiea neeu eee oa?icu neeie. Iai?iiiay aeinoaoi/iinoue.
Iaua/aeiaa/aneea oeaiiinoe. Ia?eoao aiaiiue.

Iieeoe/aneea einoeooou. Niai?iinoue. Noaa?aieoao. O?aeaieeci.
Oaaea?aoeey.

Oiaeieci. Yoie/aneea a?oiiu. Yoiiaaiac // Neiaa?ue-ni?aai/iee ii
iieeoieiaee. — Eeaa: EAEON, 1993. — N.4, 6, 8, 12, 13, 18, 19, 25, 27,
29

— 30, 35, 41, 41 — 42, 44, 49, 50, 52, 55, 56, 57 — 58, 59, 60, 62 —

63, 64 — 65, 67, 69 — 70, 79, 90, 94, 97, 100, 105, 108.

18. Aiaiueei A.A. Aieia eae nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneia yaeaiea //
Iniiae ai?iii? iie?oieia??. — Ee?a: EAYOC, 1996. — N.11 — 12.

19. Aiaiueei A.A. Iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue Oe?aeiu // Iniiae
ai?iii? iie?oieia??. — Ee?a: EAYOC, 1996. — N.69 — 79.

20. Aiaiueei A.A. Iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiniciaiea e ia?aciaaiea «Iiaie
Aa?iiu» // *aeiaae, auoea, eoeueoo?a. — Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeeee, 1991.

*.2. — N.23 — 24.

21. Aiaiueei A.A. Nioeeaeueiay yeieiaey eae ao?eaoo yoiiiieeoeee
//

I?e?iaea. Ethaeeia. Aoiin. — Eooeuee, 1992. — *.1. — N.7.

22. Aiaiueei A.A. Eoeueoo?a Oe?aeiu a eiioaenoa ?onnei-oe?aeineiai
i?ino?ainoaa // ?onneay eoeueoo?a a eiioaenoa nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneeo
?aaeee Oe?aeiu (Eiiaoe XX noieaoey). — Eeaa: Oe?aeineia iauanoai
?onneie eoeueoo?u, 1994. — N.63 — 65.

23. Aiaiueei A.A. Yoie/aneee oaeoi? e aaciianiinoue Oe?aeiu //
*aeiaae e yoiin: enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue. — Eeaa; Naaanoiiieue:
Einoeooo oeeinioee IAI Oe?aeiu; Naaanoiiieueneee i?eai?ino?ieoaeueiue
einoeooo, 1994. — N.57 —

59.

24. Aiaiue?i A.I. ?aa?iiaeueia aaciaea. ?a?iiaenueeee Nithc (?N).
Aoi?/ia oa?eoi??y // I?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane o no/aniiio na?o?: na?oiaee,
?aa?iiaeueiee oa iaoe?iiaeueiee aei??e (Iiiyo?eiee aia?ao,
eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee, oai??y oa i?aeoeea): Aioeeeeiiaae?y /
Oii?yaeiee TH.Y.?eia?aiei. — Ee?a: Aeia??a, 1998.

— N.173, 201, 729.

25. Aiaiue?i A.I. A?i?y ye ?inoeooo aaciaee aea?aeaae //
Noni?euenoai.

Aea?aeaaa. A?i?y: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — Ee?a: EAYOC, 1998. —
Aei.1. —

N.19 — 26.

26. Aiaiue?i A.I. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy aaciaee oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa // Noni?euenoai. Aea?aeaaa. A?i?y: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. —

Ee?a: EAYOC, 1998. — Aei.1. — N.82 — 89.

27. Aiaiueei A.A., Iyneuaa A.I. Iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey:

i?ioeai?a/ey e i?iaeaiu // Oacenu iao/iie eiioa?aioeee. — Eeaa: EEEAA,
1991. — N.71 — 72.

28. Aiaiueei A.A., Eanueyiia A.A. Yoiiiieeoe/aneee oaeoi? a
«no?ieoaeuenoaa iiaie Aa?iiu» // Oacenu iao/iie eiioa?aioeee. — Eeaa:
EEEAA, 1992. — N.78.

29. Aiaiueei A.A., Aaneeaae/ A.E. Aaiiieeoe/aneee oaeoi? a
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe Oe?aeiu // Oacenu iao/iie eiioa?aioeee. —
Eeaa:

EEEAA, 1993. — N.93.

30. Aiaiueei A.A., ?oaeaiei N.A. Aaciianiinoue Oe?aeiu a oneiaeyo
iiaie aaiiieeoe/aneie neooaoeee // Oacenu iao/iie eiioa?aioeee. — Eeaa:
EEEAA, 1994. — N.64 — 65.

31. Aiaiueei A.A., Ae?eaaio ?.E. Aaciianiinoue eae
ooieoeeiiaeueiay nenoaia iauanoaa // Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/iie
eiioa?aioeee. — Eeaa: EIOAA, 1995. — N.67.

AIIOAOeY?

Aiaiue?i A.A. Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee aaciaee no/aniiai
iie?aoi?/iiai noni?euenoaa (nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c).
Aeena?oaoe?y, iiaeaia ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
o?einionueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.03 —

nioe?aeueia o?einio?y ? o?einio?y ?noi???. Yinoeooo o?einio??
?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1998. — ?oeiien.

A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeo?oueny oaiiiai aaciaee ye neeaaeii? nioe?aeueii?
nenoaie, a ye?e aaaeeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio /eiieeo.
Ia i?aenoaa? oai?aoe/iiai aecia/ai? aieiai? aeaiaioe nenoaie
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, aeiiii?/i?, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?, eoeueoo?i?
i?ioeane ? ca’ycee a noni?euenoa?;

nioe?aeuei? a?oie ethaeae; ?aea? ye ae?acieee iaaieo iio?aa oa ?ioa?an?a
??ciiiai?oieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi; nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe??, ui
caaacia/othoue aaciaeo. Aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?ieue yoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
/eiieea a nenoai? aaciaee.

Cai?iiiiiaaia aaoi?ii aecia/aiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai /eiieea aeicaiey?
aeine?aeeoe eiai ye aeeiai?/ia yaeua, ui a?ae?a?a? ye noaa?e?coth/o, oae
? aeanoaa?e?coth/o ?ieue o noni?euenoa?.

Aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?eaia oaeiae aiae?co aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai i?ioeano a
Oe?a?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaciaea, iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea, ??ciiaeaee
aaciaee, caa?ica, nenoaia, /eiiee, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee, aoiin,
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee i?ioean, iaoe?y, iio?aaa, iaoe?iiaeueiee ?ioa?an,
nioe?aeueiee iaoai?ci, aea?aeaaa, noni?euenoai, iniaeno?noue,
iaoe?iiaeueia aea?aeaaa, iie?aoi?/ia aea?aeaaa.

Aiaiueei A.A. Yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiue oaeoi? aaciianiinoe nia?aiaiiiai
iieeyoie/aneiai iauanoaa (nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneee aiaeec).
Aeenna?oaoeey, i?aaenoaaeaiiay ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a
oeeinioneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.03 — nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey e
oeeinioey enoi?ee.

Einoeooo oeeinioee ei.A.N.Neiai?iaeu IAI Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1998. —
?oeiienue.

A ?aaioa enneaaeoaony oaiiiai aaciianiinoe eae neiaeiie nioeeaeueiie
nenoaiu, a eioi?ie aaaeiia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiiio
oaeoi?o. Ia iniiaa oai?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua yeaiaiou
nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe: yeiiiie/aneea,
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea, eoeueoo?iua i?ioeannu e nayce a iauanoaa;
nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu ethaeae; eaeae eae au?aceoaee ii?aaeaeaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae e eioa?ania ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii; nioeeaeueiua
einoeooou, iaania/eaathuea aaciianiinoue. Enneaaeoaony ?ieue
yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiiai oaeoi?a a nenoaia aaciianiinoe. I?aaeeiaeaiiia
aaoi?ii ii?aaeaeaiea yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiiai oaeoi?a iicaieyao enneaaeiaaoue
aai eae aeeiaie/iia yaeaiea, ea?athuaa eae noaaeeece?othuoth, oae e
aeanoaaeeece?othuoth ?ieue a iauanoaa.

Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeaii oaeaea aiaeeco yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiiai i?ioeanna
a Oe?aeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaciianiinoue, iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue,
aeaeu aaciianiinoe, oa?ica, nenoaia, oaeoi?, yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiue oaeoi?,
yoiin, yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiue i?ioeann, iaoeey, iio?aaiinoue, iaoeeiiaeueiue
eioa?an, nioeeaeueiue iaoaieci, ainoaea?noai, iauanoai, ee/iinoue,
iaoeeiiaeueiia ainoaea?noai, iieeyoie/aneia ainoaea?noai.

Ananyin V.O. Ethnonational security factor of contemporary
poliethnical society (socio-philosophical analisys). A dissertation for
a doctor’s degree of philosophy in speciality 09.00.03 — social
philosophy and the philosophy of history.

Author developed the concept of security as complex social system in
which the main factor is ethnonational. On the base of theoretical
analysis is determined the main elements of national security system:
economic, socio-political, cultural process and connections in the
society, social groups of individuals, ideas which express the definite
institutions which garantee security. It is researched the role of
ethnonational factor in the system of security. Author offered the
definition of ethnonational factor, which permint to research it as
dynamic phenomena to stabilixe the society.

The great attention in the work is paid to stabilization and
destabilization processes of the ethnonational factor in Ukraine.

The key words: security, national security, the kinds of security,
ethnonational factor, ethnos, ethnonational process, nation, national
interests and needs, social mechanism, state, society, person, national
state, poliethnic state.

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