Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie

Iaaeie?oi?e Iao?i ?aaiiae/

OAeE 35.001.73 (477): 323.1

Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo

aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?

(oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c)

25. 00. 01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? ?eia?aiei
TH??e ?aaiiae/, ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee /eai
Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie E?aiaiue Aaneeue A?eai?iae/,
Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie, ia?iaeiee aeaiooao Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai??
i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie Ie?iiaiei Iaoae?y Ieoaee?aia, Eiinoeoooe?eiee
Noae Oe?a?ie, canooiiee ia/aeueieea oi?aae?iiy i?aaiai? aenia?oece
Nae?aoa??aoo;

aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe Oeey? Eaii?ae ?aaeieeiiae/, Aaei?i?no?aoe?y
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ naeoi?o iie?oe/iiai aiae?co Aieiaiiai
oi?aae?iiy c aiae?co oa i?iaiicoaaiiy aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo ieoaiue.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie,
eaoaae?a aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 3 a?oaeiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.810.01 a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252057,
Ee?a-57, aoe. Aaeaia Iiouea, 20, e.201.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceoaioia? Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, aoe.
Aaeaia Iiouea, 20).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 30 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.I.Eiaoiiaa

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Noai?aiiy no/anii? aoaeoeaii? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ui
iieeeeaia caaacia/eoe noaiiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ye ?icaeiooi?,
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai?, ?a?iiaenueei? aea?aeaae c aenieei ??aiai aeeooy,
iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?, eoeueoo?e oa aeaiie?ao??, iiaeeeaa ia iniia?
a?aeiia?aeii? oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? ia?aoai?aiue. Oaea iiaeaeue ia?
??oiooaaoeny ia iaeiia?oeo aeinyaiaiiyo na?oiai? oa a?o/eciyii? iaoeiai?
aeoiee, a?aoiaoaaoe anth noeoii?noue ia?aaeoiia ? oaeoi??a.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai ana ua ciaoiaeeoueny
ia?aae oeea?e?caoe?eiei aeai?ii, ia?aaeeaa? ?noi?e/iee ia?aeii,
nooi?noue yeiai iieyaa? a ia?aoiae? a?ae iaeiiai ye?niiai noaio aei
?ioiai: a?ae iiiiiie?? iaei??? oi?ie aeaniino? aei aaaaoioeeaaeiino?;
a?ae noni?eueieo ca’yce?a, caniiaaieo ia oioae?oa?eci?, ia i?eioeeiao
aaoi?eoa?ii? aea?aeaae, aei iiaeae?, ui ??oioo?oueny ia iia?e ia?aaeeai?
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo. Oeae i?ioean ia?aaeaa/a? ye iaiao?aei?noue
?icaoaeiao iiai? nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy. Iaeiae, yeui e?eciaee noai ii/aoeo
90-o ?ie?a oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ?, aiaeii/an, iaoiiaethaaany a?aenooi?noth a
Oe?a?i? aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeiai iaoai?cio, caeaoiiai caaacia/oaaoe
aeaaeiee ?aaoeyoeaiee aieea ia a?aeiia?aei? noa?e noni?eueiiai aoooy, oi
e?eca e?ioey 90-o — oaea ? ? iane?aeeii ae?? /eiii? iiaeae? a?yaeoaaiiy.

Ca ?iee iacaeaaeiino? a Oe?a?i? oaeoe/ii a?aeaoeiny a?aeoai?aiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie ?aaeyinueeiai c?acea. Nooi?nia
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue oe?e nenoai? ie?aieo iiaeo ?inoeooo?a ia aeicaiey? ?i
?ice?eoe nai? eiino?oeoeai? iiaeeeaino?. *eiaei no?oeoo? ia?aaoaathoue o
noai? aacia?a?aii? ?ai?aai?caoe??. Noa?ee aaei?i?no?aoeaiee aia?ao ia
caeaoiee caaacia/eoe aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio,
ia oeea?e?ciaaiiio ??ai? aeeiioaaoe naith iniiaio ooieoe?th — iaaeaiiy
iineoa ianaeaiith. Aei i?i?ioio caaaeaia ia o?eueee ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
caeiiioai?/iai i?ioeano, a e ae??a?noue i?eeiyoeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a.
Ia’?eoeaii cae?enith?oueny oe?ieiianooaaia aeene?aaeeoaoe?y
aea?aeaaiino?. Iinoaea ?aaeueia caa?ica o?ainoi?iaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy o aeanoaa?e?coth/ee ? aeac?ioaa?oth/ee /eiiee.

A?aeoae, i?iaaaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie iaaoaa? aeey e?a?ie
aeieaiiniiai cia/aiiy, aenooiath/e iaei??th c eeth/iaeo oiia aeoiaeo
noni?euenoaa ?c o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? e?ece. Iiaeaeueoa caa?aaeaiiy
aeeaeoe/iiai, aioo??oiuei noia?a/eeaiai aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeiai
iaoai?cio, ui neeaaeaany ia iniia? niiioaiieo, iaoeiai ia ia??oioiaaieo
??oaiue a oiiaao aino?iai iie?oe/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy, noai?th? caa?ico
i?iaaaeaiith eiino?oeoeaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ?aoi?i,
ioaea, naiiio ?nioaaiith Oe?a?ie ye iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae.

Eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee ? iai?yie aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?
ia??oioiaai? ? aeeeaaeai? a io?oe?eieo aeieoiaioao, ia?aaeon?i o
ioae?/ieo aenooiao I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, eiai Oeac? “I?i Aea?aeaaio
eii?n?th c i?iaaaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie”. Aiie
eiioeaio?iaaii a?aeia?aaeai? o Eiioeaioe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, ui
?ic?iaeaia Aea?aeaaiith eii?n??th c i?iaaaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, ? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy yei?, ca?aeii c Oeacii
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie “I?i caoiaee uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy Eiioeaioe??
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?”, iieeaaeai? a iniiao ?aoi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy.

Oaia ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i? i?eaa?oa? ana
a?eueoo oaaao a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo. I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a
i?iaaaeaii ieceo eiioa?aioe?e ? neiiic?oi?a, i?enay/aieo ieoaiiyi
?ic?iaeaiiy Eiioeaioe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, iaaiai?aiith oeyo?a
?? ?aae?caoe??. Aeaeaii ca??ieee iaoa??ae?a eiioa?aioe?e, iioae?eiaaii
?icai?ioo? ca?oe o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao.

C na?aaeeie 90-o ?ie?a (1996 ?.) aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy iaaoaa? noaoono
naiino?eii? aaeoc? iaoee. A eiai iaaeao, a oaeiae o iaaeao i?aaiaeo oa
iie?oe/ieo iaoe ?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? iniiae aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, eiinoeoooe?ei? oa
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aaia? canaaee i?aai?caoe?? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, oeyoe ?
iai?yie cae?eniaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie. Ieoaiiyi iiaea?i?caoe??
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeiai iaoai?cio, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith, ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae, i?aaiaiai ? iaoeiaiai caaacia/aiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie
i?enay/ai? i?aoe? A.Aaa?’yiiaa, O.Ao?/aea, I.Aieiaaoiai, N.Aeoaaiei,
?.Eaethaeiiai, A.Eiyc?aa, A.E?aa/aiea, E.E?aa/oea, A.Eoaiaiai,
I.Ie?iiaiei, I.Ieaeiee, I.I?c?oa, ?.Iaoiiiaa, A.?aaeaea,
I.No?aeueaeoeueeiai, A.Oea?oeiaa, A.ssoeoae oa ?i. Na?aae aaoi??a, /e?
?iaioe aieeaathoue ia i?ioean iiooeo iiaeae? a?yaeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?, ?yae
?in?enueeeo oa ?ioeo ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, cie?aia A.Aoaiai/oe, ?.Aa/eei,
A.Ao?ia, A.?aeo, ?i.

Aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aoi?ia — i?iaeaia aaaaoianiaeoia. ?? e?ioeaaith iaoith
? ethaeeia, a?iiaaeyiei Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae o eiioaeno? ?aoi?ie ethaeeia
iiee ui ?icaeyaea?oueny o?eueee ye aaoiiiiiee ?iaeea?ae c a?aeiia?aeiei
eieii niiaeea/eo ?ioa?an?a, a ia ye i?e?iiiaeaeue nioe?oio, oi?eaeueia
iniaeno?noue, iioaioe?ae yei? iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaiee eeoa o iaeaaeiiio
eoeueoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu? ?, ui iniaeeai nooo?ai, ia ye “iaaiee aoiioei,
ui caaacia/o? iioeaaoe?th aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?icaeoeo”1.
?ia?oe?y oi?o?eaoe??, yeo ia ciiaea iiaeieaoe “ai?aa/ianueea” aeieo?eia
ia?aaoaeiae, aeanoeaa oaeiae iie?oe/iiio i?ioeano a Oe?a?i? e?ioey 90-o
?ie?a.

Oei /anii oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue nai?i a?aeiiaeaiiyi ciaia’ycaia
aaeeeith, yeui ia ae??oaeueiith, i??ith aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio oaeoi?ia?.
Iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie, ui aeai?thaaeany ia?aaeon?i oe?a?inueeith
iaoe??th, aoea i?aeo?eiaia ia?aaaaeiith a?eueo?noth iaoe?a?inueeeo
aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio ?c niiae?aaiiyi ia a?eueiee ?icaeoie o iia?e
aea?aeaa?. Aeeaie? aeaiie?aoe/i? o?aaeeoe?? ni?aaeeooy ??cieo ia?iae?a
oa aoi?/ieo a?oi ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie, aeaiie?aoecaoe?y nioe?aeueii?
ae?eniino? noeioethaaee i?ioeane aoi?/ii? oa iaoe?iiaeueii?
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??, aeaee ?i iiaee iiooiao. I?ioa ? a oai???, ? a
iie?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? ua niinoa??aa?oueny iaaia iaaeiioe?iea
aoiieoeueoo?iiai iioaioe?aeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.
Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia aia?a?y ia aeeth/aia iaeaaeiei /eiii o
iiaea?i?caoe?ei? i?ioeane. ?aii?oaaiiy ae aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a ia
aoai? i?iaaaeaiiy ea?aeeiaeueieo ?aoi?i iaieio/a aoaea i?ecaiaeeoe aei
a?oaeo i?i?aooie?a ? iiieeie, ui iiaeooue iaoe aeiaaio?eaae? iaaaoeai?
iane?aeee.

Ia ona?aeiieaia aaeaeaaoii noni?euei?e iio?aa? aeooaeuei?noue
oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy oa?aeoa?o aieeao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a ia
noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? iaaiaee —
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeiai aieeao ia ?icaeoie aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
i?ioean?a. Iacaaaeath/e ia aeineoue oe?ieee ? ??ciiieaiiaee niaeo?
aoiiiie?oieia?/ieo, aoiiaea?aeaaiciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue ieoaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoeyoeaiiai aieeao ia aoiiiaoe?iiaeueio noa?o
?icaeyaeathoueny eeoa a iiiaeeiieeo aeiaaeeao.

C o?aooaaiiyi oa?aeoa?o ?icaeoeo noni?eueieo i?ioean?a, iai?aoethaaiue o
aecia/ai?e i?aaeiaoi?e aaeoc? iaoee aeooaeueiei ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy naia c iiceoe??
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iaoiiaeaiino? eiai ci?noo ? no?oeoo?e a eiioaeno?
aieeao ia o?ae aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie an??? noeoiiino? nioe?aeueieo
/eiiee?a.

A?iioaca. Aeena?oaio aeoiaeea c i?eiouaiiy, ui a?aooaaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a ? iaei??th c eeth/iaeo oiia oni?oiiai
cae?eniaiiy a Oe?a?i? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie ia aeaiie?aoe/ieo
canaaeao, ioaea, i?enei?aiiy iiaea?i?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa?, eiai eiinie?aeaoe??, caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiiai ?
iinooiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo iieiaei? aea?aeaae.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inuee? a?aeiineie o noa?? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
oa ?o noi?iie — aea?aeaai? ? iaaea?aeaai? ?inoeoooe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oea
aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii a iaaeao ieaiiaiai eiiieaeniiai
iaoeiaiai i?iaeoo Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy oa i?noeaaa
naiia?yaeoaaiiy”, o oiio /ene? oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie i?iaeai
?aa?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, ui cae?eniththoueny eaoaae?aie ? iaoeiaeie
i?ae?icae?eaie Iaeanueeiai o?e?aeo Aeaaeai??, ? ci???ioiaaia ia iaoeiaa
caaacia/aiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? aca?iica’yceo ?
aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino? i?ioean?a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ? ?icaoaeiae
iiai? nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? a eiioaeno? noaiiaeaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Caaaeaiiy:

— aecia/eoe iniiai? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co
i?ioean?a aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy;

— ooi/ieoe o?einionueei-nioe?ieia?/iee ci?no iiiyooy “aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee
oaeoi?”, a oaeiae iecee ?ioeo eeth/iaeo iiiyoue iie?oieia??
(aoiiiie?oieia??) ? iaoee c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy;

— c’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? aeyao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a ia no/aniiio
aoai? o caaaeueiioeea?e?caoe?eiiio ? eieaeueiiio eiioaenoao,
ia??oiooaaoe eiai aeaoa?i?ioth/o ?ieue o cae?eniaii? aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
?aoi?ie;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ? aoi?/ii? naiii?aai?caoe?? c
oi/ee ci?o caaaeaiue aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie;

— aeine?aeeoe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueio iaoiiaeai?noue oa?eoi??aeueieo
o?ainoi?iaoe?e ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy;

— ?ice?eoe eiie?aoi? iai?yie aieeao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a ia
oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, aeyaeoe iaoiiaeai? iei
aeiiae aei oaoiieia?? a?yaeoaaiiy;

— ?icoe?eoe aeieoiaioaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eio aaco, iiiiaieoe
?ino?oiaioaeueii-iaoiaee/iee aia?ao aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, iaoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? aoi?/ii?
naiii?aai?caoe??;

— aeie?aieoe aeooaeuei? iai?yie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
?aoi?ie a eiioaeno? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Canoiniaaiee o aeena?oaoe?? i?ciaaaeueiee
a?naiae iaoiiaeaiee iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oa?aeoa?ii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia’?eoa. A?i ia? aaaaoi??aiaaee oa?aeoa?, aeeth/a? caaaeueiiiaoeia?
iaoiaee, iaoiaee aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa, aoiiiie?oieia??, i?aaiciaanoaa,
iaoee oi?aae?iiy, a oaeiae niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee, ui
caaacia/othoue ?icaeyae i?iaeaie ye i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ii?.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy iaee ?iaioe aeaeaoieo oe?a?inueeeo o?einio?a, nioe?ieia?a,
th?eno?a, iie?oieia?a, aoiieia?a, aaia?ao?a ieioeiai ? iai?aoethaaiiy
no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo a aaeoc? iaoiaeieia?? ?
iaoiae?a aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe. Nie?ath/enue ia?aaeon?i ia a?o/eciyio
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io niaaeueio, aeena?oaio o nai?e ?iaio? aeoiaeeoue
c neia?a?eiiai na?oi?icoi?iiy ? iaoiaeieia?/iiai ?aeyoea?cio,
aeei?enoiao? iaoiaee, ui i?iiiio? neia?aaoeea (oai??y naiii?aai?caoe??),
??oioo? aiae?c ia nenoaiiiio oa ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio i?aeoiaeao ye
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iaoiaeao iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy noni?euenoaa, i?ioean?a
eiai naiii?aai?caoe??.

Canoiniaothoueny iaoiaee, aeanoea? aiaeii/an aii??e/iiio ? oai?aoe/iiio
??aiyi iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy (niinoa?aaeaiiy, aano?aaoaaiiy, ii??aiyiiy,
ia?i? ? aca?iica’ycai? iaoiaee aiae?co ? neioaco, ?iaeoeoe?? ?
aeaaeoeoe??, ?noi?e/iee ? eia?/iee iaoiaee), a oaeiae oa?aeoa?i? o?eueee
aeey oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co (noiaeaeaiiy a?ae aano?aeoiiai aei
eiie?aoiiai, oai?aoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy, aen?iiaoe/iee iaoiae oiui).
Aeei?enoiaothoueny nioe?ieia?/iee ? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee iaoiaee,
a oaeiae iaoiaee eiiiiceoe?eiiai aiae?co iiiyoue ? ii??aiyeueiiai
aiae?co iaeiieiaiieo iiiyoue.

Aeieoiaioaeueio oa oaeoieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
neeaaeathoue iaoa??aee, ai?uai? o aeaeaiiyo: “Iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iua
aaoiiiiee e iauaaeeiaiey. Enoi?eia?aoey. Iieeoeea. I?aeoeea: Aioieiaey:
A 3 o.” (I., 1995); “Iaea aioeeeeiiaae?y aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa” (E.,
1996); “Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaioai?aiiy: iaaeo?aaoaaiee iioaioe?ae:
Neiaiee-aeia?aeiee” (E., 1997); “Oe?a?ia: aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iae?o?a
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo: Neiaiee-aeia?aeiee” (E., 1997); “Iaoe?iiaeuei?
i?ioeane a Oe?a?i?: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue. Aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee:
Aeia?aeiee: O 2 /.” (E., 1997); “Iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue Iaeanneee e?ae:
ia?ac e ?aaeueiinoue (Aeieoiaiou. I/a?ee. Iaoa?eaeu): A 3 o.” (I.,
1997).

Nooo?ao ?ieue uiaei aii??e/ii? aa?eo?eaoe?? oai?aoe/ieo i?eiouaiue
a?ae?a?aee eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiai? i?ae iaoeiaei
ea??aieoeoaii aeena?oaioa oa//e ca eiai aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth,
cie?aia: “Nioe?aeueia naiiii/oooy ? i???ioaoe?? aaaaocueei? iaioeie:
aioo??oiuei- ? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iee aniaeoe” (Iaeana, 1995 ?., Oeaio?
?aa?iiaeueieo aoiiiie?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa ? nioe?ieia?/iee
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeine?aeiee oeaio? “Ioeuen”, ia caiiaeaiiy I?i?noa?noaa
Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, ?ae?a?? ? i?a?aoe??); “Aoi?/iee
oaeoi? o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie” (1996-1997 ??.,
Iaeanueeee o?e?ae OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie); aenia?oia iieooaaiiy
o/aniee?a I Eiia?ano oe?a?ioe?a ?in?? (Iineaa, 23-24 aeiaoiy 1993 ?.,
Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao ?in?? o ni?aaao oaaea?aoe?? ? ?inoeooo
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?AI). Aeei?enoaii iaoa??aee ?ioeo
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aeieoiaio?a i?aai?a
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? iaoe?iiaeueieo
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, ioae?eaoe?e, a oaeiae
ocaaaeueiaiiy, cae?eniai? aeena?oaioii ia iniia? aaciina?aaei?o
niinoa?aaeaiue i?ae /an eiai ?iaioe a i?aaiao aea?aeaaii? aeaaee.

Caeo/aii iaoa??aee, io?eiai? a iaaeao i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca i?ia?aiaie Eaiaaenueeiai Ath?i
i?aeia?iaeii? ina?oe ? A?eoainueeiai i?iaeoo ?inoeoooe?eiiai ?icaeoeo
aeey Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

( Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii oe?e?nio eiioeaioe?th
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? aeaoa?i?iiaaiino? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi? iaoiiaeth? ?aaeeeaeueia
iiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeiai iaoai?cio, aecia/a?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee oei ?aeaieia?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie ?
ni?aaeyoeia nooo?aee aieea ia ?? iniiai? iai?yie. A?aeoae, a?aooaaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a ne?ae a?aeianoe aei canaaeie/eo ?aeae
Eiioeaioe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie. Noeoii?noue noi?ioeueiaaieo o
aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue uiaei aca?iica’yceo i?ioean?a
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ? iiaea?i?caoe?? nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? icia/a? caii/aoeoaaiiy iiaiai iai?yio a iaooe? c aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy.

( Cai?iiiiiaaii aeueoa?iaoeaia aecia/aiiy “aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a”
ye iaei??? c eeth/iaeo eaoaai??e aoiiiie?oieia?? ?
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa. Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi? o?aeoo?oueny ye
i?eaaaeaiee a ae?th aioo??oi?e iioaioe?ae aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei aai iiina?aaeeiaaii aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie nioe?aeueieo
i?ioean?a, iaoiiaethth/e o oie /e ?ioee niin?a ?oi?e oa?aeoa? aai ie?ai?
?ene. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia iniia? iecee ?ioeo iiiyoue ?
eaoaai??e (“iaoe?y”, “aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane”,
“oi?oa?ii-aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiee oei aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith”, “a?iiaaeyinueea
noni?euenoai”, “aoii?aa?ii”, “ia?nii?o?eaoe?y aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaeoi?a”, “aoi?/ia naiii?aai?caoe?y”) c aecia/aiiyi aai ooi/iaiiyi ?o
ci?noo.

( Canoiniaaii iia? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee. Ia??oioiaaii aeei?enoaiiy
?ino?oiaioaeueii-iaoiaee/iiai aia?aoo neia?aaoeee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
aca?iica’yceo aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Aeae?eaii iaoiae aoii?aa?iiaeueiiai aiae?co, caaaeyee
yeiio cia/ii ?icoe?aii iiaeeeaino? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?inoi?iai?
i?aai?caoe?? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy ? oa?eoi??aeueieo
o?ainoi?iaoe?e. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao noaio aoii?aa?iiaeueiiai iiae?eo
e?a?ie.

( Noi?ioeueiaaii iieiaeaiiy uiaei aioo??oiueiai aeaea?aea
naiii?aai?caoe?eii? aeeiai?ee aoi?/ieo nenoai, aeaoa?i?iiaaiiai
a?inioe?aeueiith i?e?iaeith aoiino. Aecia/aii a?aei?iiino? aoi?/ii?
nie?aea?iino? (ye iaioaeueii? no?oeoo?e, onoaiiaee, caeeaaeaii? a
iai’youe ineo?/iiai neeaaeo i?aaenoaaiee?a eiie?aoii? aoi?/ii?
ni?eueiioe, iaeiiai c iaoai?ci?a naiicaa?aaeaiiy aoiino) a?ae ?ioeo
aeae?a nie?aea?iino?, ye? iathoue neooaoeaiee oa?aeoa?. ?ic?iaeaii iiao
oeiieia?caoe?th oaiiiaia aoi?/ii? (aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?) naiii?aai?caoe??
ca?aeii c e?eoa??yie: eiai i?aaenoaaey? iaaia aoi?/ia no?oeoo?a (/eai?a
a?iiaaenueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy /e on??? ni?eueiioe) ? yeee niaeo? ?ioa?an?a
aiia ae?aaea?.

( Iaoeiai ia??oioiaaii aca?iica’ycie i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy iiai? nenoaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy c aeai?ii iiaeae? iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai
ono?ith. Iieacaii, ui a Oe?a?i? a?aenooi? ia’?eoeai? ia?aaeoiiae
oaaea?ae?caoe??. Ia?ac? oi?io?oueny oi?oa?ii-aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiee oei
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith, yeee coiiaeth? ??ciieaoaai??aeuei?noue
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaeeieoeue, aaaaoiaa??aioi?noue iiaeaeae aeeiiaa/i?
aa?oeeae? ? oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? aeaaee.

( Iaaoea iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo nenoaiia eiioeaioe?y aea?aeaaii?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee. Eiie?aoeciaaii ? noi?ioeueiaaii iia?
caaaeaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee o ??cieo noa?ao nioe?aeueii?
i?aeoeee, a oaeiae ?? i?eioeeie (aeciaiiy aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio ye
naiioe?iiino? ? ?o i?e?iaeiiai i?aaa ia naiii?aai?caoe?th, i?eioeeie
aoiai?cio ? eiiieaiaioa?iino?, aae?anii-?aa?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae,
aaaaoieoeueoo?i?noue).

( ?ice?eoi i?aai?/iee aca?iica’ycie aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee
aea?aeaae ?c ci?noii ae?yeueiino? oa no?oeoo?ith i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee. Aecia/aii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiai? aace
?aaoethaaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei ye oe?e?niiai ianeao
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ui aeeth/a? niaoe?aeuei? caeiie, ie?ai? noaoo?
a caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao c ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa, iaeao i?aecaeiiieo
ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a.

Aeyaeaii iia? oaiaeaioe?? a i?ioeanao oa?eoi??aeueii? ?
aenoa?eoi??aeueii? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? naiii?aai?caoe??. Iieacaii, ui
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi? ni?aaey? aieea ia?aaeon?i ia oi?ioaaiiy
oa?eoi??aeueieo a?iiaae ? ?o eiioiaeueieo ia’?aeiaiue, a a?aeoae
aecia/aoeia ?ici??e ? iaae? aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaeeieoeue ieae/i? ?
na?aaeiuei? eaiie. ?ioaa?aoe?y no?oeoo? aeenia?nii ?icnaeaii? /anoeie
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei (iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo aaoiiii?e) c i?aaiaie
?o oa?eoi??aeueieo a?iiaae ni?eyoeia oi?ioaaiith ?aeeieo naiia?yaeieo
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo eieaeoea?a, aecia/aoeia iaaiith i??ith oa?aeoa?
oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? a?yaeoaaiiy ? i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa.

( Ia??oioiaaii ?ioaa?aoeaiee oa?aeoa? aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo
a?aeiinei a aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e noa??, ?o i?eioeeiiao oi?eaeuei?noue,
?io? iniaeeaino?, coiiaeai? niaoeeo?eith aoi?/ieo (aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo)
no?oeoo? ye noi??i oeeo a?aeiinei. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e cae?eniaii?
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a iniaeeaiai
cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue noeioethaaiiy naii?icaeoeo aoiinenoai, aecia/aiiy
caai?ii ia iaai? no?aoaa?? aca?iiae??, ui iioaioe?eii ianooue o nia?
caa?ico caaino?aiiy, ? ?o noai?a aeio?eiaiiy, a oaeiae i?aaeeueia
oiiieia?/ia eiio?ao?aoe?y ? a?o?oaeoo?a aieeao c o?aooaaiiyi “ii?iao
/ooeeaino?”.

( ?ic?iaeaii noaio i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeoai?th? ea?oeio aca?iica’yce?a
??cieo eaiie oe?e?nii? nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy ? ia?aaeaa/a? noai?aiiy
oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaio aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee c ieoaiue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee ?c niaoe?aeueiei noaoonii. Ia??oioiaaii aoiiiaoe?iiaeueio
iaoiiaeai?noue aeai?o oae caaiiai iai?acae?eoiai oeio aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae. Aecia/aii iaoai?cie caaacia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa iniiaieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae a i?aaiao aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee
? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy o iie?aoi?/ieo ?aa?iiao.

( Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaiaaeai? iiaeeeaino? ?iia?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a
aoi?/i?e noa??, aeniea aeeiai?/i?noue aoiinioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a, ?o
aeooae?ciaai?noue coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue cae?eniaiiy a?yaeoaaiiy
ia i?eioeeiiai iia?e aiae?oe/i?e aac?. Aecia/aii
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei noai?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a ?c
canoinoaaiiyi aai?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai, ui aeeth/athoue no/ani?
eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia?? cae?aiiy, ia?iaee ? iiaeaiiy i?inoi?iai
?iciiae?eaii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ciaeoee /anoeiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e, ina?oyinuee?e ?
caeiiioai?/?e noa?ao, a oaeiae o ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee
? a?iiaaenueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e, cie?aia: i?e ?ic?iaoe?
i?ia?aie oa ?ino?oiaioa??th aeine?aeaeaiue, ui i?iaiaeyoueny a
Iaeanueeiio o?e?ae? OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie a iaaeao
eiiieaeniiai iaoeiaiai i?iaeoo Aeaaeai?? “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy oa
i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy”; a i?ioean? ?ic?iaee i?iaeoo Caeiio Oe?a?ie
“I?i aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei?
iaioeie a Oe?a?i?”; i?e i?aeaioiaoe? i?iaeo?a aeieoiaio?a o ca’yceo c
i?aeienaiiyi oaiaee i?ae Aea?aeeiiiaoei?a?aoe?? Oe?a?ie oa a?aeiia?aeiei
a?aeiinoaii ?anioae?ee Iieaeiaa i?i ni?a?ia?oieoeoai o caaacia/aii? i?aa
in?a, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei; i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
i?ia?aie ni?eueieo ae?e oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ?acii c
iaeanieie aea?aeaaieie aaei?i?no?aoe?yie Caea?iaonueei?, *a?i?aaoeueei?
oa Iaeanueei? iaeanoae uiaei caaacia/aiiy aoiiiie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? a
oeeo ?aa?iiao; i?e i?aeaioiaoe? i?ia?aie o?ainei?aeiiiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a iaaeao ?a?i?aa?iio “Ieaei?e Aeoiae”; i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iieiaeaiiy i?i i?aea?aeii/o eii?aeeiaoe?eio ?aaeo c ieoaiue
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei oa aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo a Iaeanuee?e
iaeano?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? eiioeaioe?? ?
oi?ioethaaii? iecee noaoae Oaaea?aeueiiai Caeiio ?in?? “I?i
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?io aaoiiii?th”, i?eeiyoiai o 1996 ?., a oaeiae o
Oaaea?aeueiiio Caeii? “Iniiae i?aaiaiai noaoono ei??iieo ia/eneaiieo
ia?iae?a ?in??”. Ca o/anoth aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?? i?aeaioiaeai? noaoooe ?
i?ia?aii? aeieoiaioe Anaoe?a?inueei? anioe?aoe?? iieaeaaai, Ia’?aeiaiiy
oe?a?ioe?a ?in??, Oaaea?aeueii? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii??
“Oe?a?ioe? ?in??”, Eiia?ano iaoe?iiaeueieo ia’?aeiaiue ?in?enueei?
Oaaea?aoe??.

(Aeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie: Aea?aeeiiiaoei?a?aoe?? Oe?a?ie,
?13-410/15 a?ae 05.03.1999 ?.; Ia’?aeiaiiy oe?a?ioe?a ?in??, ? 6/47 a?ae
23.06.1999 ?.; I?iiaoeiie?oeee ?O, ? 01-385 a?ae 10.02.1999 ?.;
Iaeanueea iaeania aea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?y, ?04-50-4219 a?ae 18.10.1999 ?.;
Anaoe?a?inueea anioe?aoe?y iieaeaaai, ?4/12 a?ae 9.03.1999 ?.).

Ca oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii i?i/eoaii a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa o 1995-1996 i.?. niaoeeo?n “Aoi?/iee
oaeoi? ?icaoaeiae iia?oi?o iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa”, ?ic?iaeaii ?
/eoa?oueny aeey neooa/?a Iaeanueeiai o?e?aeo OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia?
Oe?a?ie eo?n eaeoe?e “Aoiiiie?oe/i? i?ioeane a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?”.
Iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaeao ia aeiiiiiao neooa/ai iaa?noa?nueei?
i?ia?aie c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ani??aioai ? aeieoi?aioai OAAeO.

Ia aac? aeena?oaoe?? iiaeia ?icai?iooe eiie?aoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iecee
i?iaeai, ui iathoue nueiaiaei? aeooaeueia oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?:

( aeey ooi/iaiiy oai?aoe/ieo canaae, ?icaeoeo ? iiaeeaeaiiy Eiioeaioe??
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?, ei?eaoaaiiy i?ia?aie ??
cae?eniaiiy;

( i?e i?aeaioiaoe? i?iaeo?a ci?i aei Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie uiaei
eiie?aoecaoe?? oa ooi/iaiiy ie?aieo iieiaeaiue i?i oa?eoi??aeueiee
ono??e ? i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy, a oaeiae i?iaeo?a caeii?a “I?i
oa?eoi??aeueiee ono??e Oe?a?ie”, “I?i oa?eoi??aeuei? a?iiaaee oa ?o
ia’?aeiaiiy”, iiaeaeueiiai noaoooo oa?eoi??aeueii? a?iiaaee, ?ioeo
aeieoiaio?a, ye? iathoue neeanoe ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao iniiao
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie;

( aeey iiaoaeiae ia ?aeei?e iaoiaeieia?/i?e ? i?ia?aii?e iniia?
aea?aeaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ii? nenoaie “Aaei?i?no?aoeaia nenoaia
Oe?a?ie”;

( i?e aeiii?aoethaaii? i?iaeoo Eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaii?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ? caeiiiaeaa/iai caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa;

( a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ii ?aae?caoe?? Oeaco
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 18 aeiaoiy 1997 ?. “I?i Iniiai? iai?yie
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee ia 1997-2000 ??.”;

( i?e ?ic?iaoe? a?aeiia?aeieo i?ia?ai o i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy aea?aeaaii?
?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, cie?aia, Eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo I?eaeoiaenueeiai ?aa?iio, ui
?ic?iaey?oueny ia aeeiiaiiy aei?o/aiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 16.09.98
?. (?342/24078-01) oa aei?o/aiiy Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae
18.09.98 ?. (?17979/2);

( o i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? I?ia?aie “Oe?a?ia — 2010”.

Noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe iieeaaeai? a iniiao ?ic?iaee iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a
iaa?noa?nueeeo i?ia?ai c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, niaoeeo?n?a ? ie?aieo
oeeee?a eaeoe?e c aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa, aoiiiie?oieia?? ? i?aaa aeey
nooaeaio?a ? ani??aio?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, a oaeiae i?ia?ai
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? eaae??a nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, iaa/aiiy aeoeao iaoe?iiaeueieo a?iiaaenueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? naiino?eiith iaoeiaith
i?aoeath, yea i?noeoue io?eiai? aaoi?ii ?acoeueoaoe, ui caaacia/othoue
?ica’ycaiiy aaaeeeai? oai?aoe/ii? ? oai?aoeei-i?eeeaaeii? i?iaeaie a
iaaeao cae?enithaaieo iiaeo ?ic?iaie o aaeoc? iaoee c aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy. O aeena?oaoe?? ia aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ?aea? ? ?ic?iaee, ui
iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai A.Aiae?a?ao, E.Aioo???ao, A.Aei?ii/aieiao,
A.Eiaaeue/oeo, I.Ii?icia?e, I.Iiaiaeai?i?e, I.I?eaa??io, O.?aci?eo,
N.Naoaiaieo, I.Oeii’?ao, I.Oia??, I.sseoaianueeiio, ?acii c yeeie aoee
iaienai? iaoeia? i?aoe?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaiaai?
aaoi?ii ia 12 iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, neiiic?oiao, e?oaeeo noieao,
nai?ia?ao oa ia?aaeao a Oe?a?i? ? ca ei?aeiiii, a naia:

e?oaeee no?e “?in?enueea iaoe?y ia iaae? oeny/ie?oue” (Iineaa, 1992 ?.);
?in?enueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “Iie?oe/i? i?ioeane a ?in??:
?noi??y ? no/ani?noue” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1993 ?.); i?aeia?iaeiee nai?ia?
“Oaaea?ae?ci ? a?aaoethaaiiy i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo eiioe?eo?a:
i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ? ia?niaeoeae” (Aano??y, Caeueoeao?a, 1994 ?.);
i?aeia?iaeiee nai?ia? “I?aaa ethaeeie ? noaoon iniae” (Iineaa, 1994 ?.);
i?aeia?iaeiee nai?ia? “Ii??aiyeuei? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee: i?noeaa? ?ano?ne ? ?ieue o?yaeo” (?oae?y, O?aioi, 1994 ?.);
?aa?iiaeueia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “No/ania aoiieoeueoo?ia oa
aoiiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ? aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy” (Iaeana, 1996 ?.); ui??/i? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?
eiioa?aioe?? OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie “I?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy” (Ee?a, 1996 ?.) ?
“?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a Oe?a?i?: noai, i?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae” (Ee?a, 1998 ?.); i?aeia?iaeiee neiiic?oi “Aaei?i?no?aoeaia
?aoi?ia a Oe?a?i?” (Ee?a, 1997 ?.); i?aea?aeii/a ia?aaea-nai?ia?
“No/ania aoiiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a Caea?iaonuee?e, *a?i?aaoeuee?e ?
Iaeanuee?e iaeanoyo” (Ee?a, 1998 ?.); ui??/ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y Iaeanueeiai o?e?aeo OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie
“Aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie
i?ioeanaie a ?aa?ii? (ia i?eeeaae? i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie)” (Iaeana, 1998 ?.);
i?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “Aoiiiie?oe/i? eiioe?eoe o
iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi??” (Ee?a, 1999 ?.).

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?aia ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?
iaiaaeaeiaioo Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo iaoe ? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa i?aaa
Iaeanueeiai o?e?aeo Aeaaeai??.

Ioae?eaoe?? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii o aeaio ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iiiia?ao?yo, o 10
?icae?eao, aeaaao ? ia?aa?aoao eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?e, o a?ioo??, a
iecoe? noaoae (i’youe o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo) ? oac aeiiia?aeae — onueiai
27 ioae?eaoe?e ianyaii 45 ae?oe. a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??, iine?aeiai?noue aeeeaaeo iaoa??aeo
iaoiiaeai? eiiieaeniei, ?ioaa?aoeaiei oa?aeoa?ii ci?noo i?iaeaie,
eia?eith ?? ?ice?eooy, iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, o?ueio aeiaeaoe?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Ianya iniiaiiai oaenoo aeena?oaoe?? 366
noi?., o oiio /ene? ?ethno?aoe?? (aeaa ?enoiee) — 2 noi?., oaaeeoe?
(/ioe?e) — 2 noi?. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (430 iaeiaioaaiue) — 39
noi?. Aeiaeaoee (o?e) — 38 noi?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O “Anooi?” ia??oioiaaii aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, ?? cia/ou?noue, ca’ycie
c iai?yiaie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, noi?ioeueiaaii a?iioaco, iaoo ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii iaoeiao iiaecio iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iaaeathoueny a?aeiiino? uiaei ai?iaaoe?? oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe, iiaeeeainoae ?o oai?aoe/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a ? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy” — iiaeaii iaeyae
e?oa?aoo?e, aiae?co?oueny noai aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, aecia/athoueny
iaae??oai? ieoaiiy a iaaeao oaie aeena?oaoe??, i?iiiiothoueny iia?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?o aea/aiiy, ia??oioiao?oueny
aca?iica’ycie ? aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue i?ioean?a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo ? iiaea?i?caoe?? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1. “Eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a” cacia/a?oueny, ui i?ioyaii inoaiiueiai
aeanyoe??//y ye ca ei?aeiiii, oae ? a Oe?a?i? cia/ii c?inea oaaaa aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aoiino, i?aeaoi?/ieo ? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo
a?aeiinei, a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aioe?iea aein? iioe?aieo aoiiiie?oe/ieo
eiioeaioe?e ? oai??e.

Cao?aeia aoiiiie?oieia?y ua aeiiaaeaaia caeaa?eueoiai ia iia’ycoaaea
oaiiiai nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy aaciina?aaeiuei c aoiinii ye niaoeeo?/iei
nioe?aeueiei noa’?eoii: oaeei noa’?eoii aiia aaaaeaea aaoiiiiiiai
?iaeea?aea. Oeueiio i?aeoiaeo a?aeiia?aeaea eiioeaioe?y
“aoiieoeueoo?iiai iaeo?ae?oaoo aea?aeaae”. Ia aeoieo aeayeeo ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo, cie?aia O. E?ie?ee, oe? eiioeaioe?? ia a ciic? ia’?eoeaii
a?aeia?aceoe ia?aa?a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a ? cai?iiiioaaoe
i?aeoiaee aei ?icaoaeiae aaeaeaaoieo iaoai?ci?a ?o ?aaoethaaiiy.
Aaaeeeaa oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy iathoue aeniiaee Aioii? Ae.
Ni?oa uiaei aca?iica’yceo aeieeiaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?ieo i?inoi??a
? ie?aieo aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?aeaioe/iinoae. Ia eiai aeoieo, eoeueoo?iee
iaiiaoe?iiae?noe/iee ?oo ca noai?aiiy oe?ieiianooaaieo eiioeiaioaeueieo
?aeaioe/iinoae aiaeii/an ci?oeith? “iaoe?iiae?cie” ie?aieo aoi?/ieo a?oi
? iaoe?e o iaaeao aeaia?eiaaiiai eoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o. A?aeiia?aeii
aenoiooa ?aeay “iaoe?iiaeueii-?icaoaeia/i? aea?aeaae”, ui cae?enith?
naith iie?oeeo ca?aeii c i?eioeeiii “aoiieoeueoo?ii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?”.
I?e oeueiio eeth/iaei ieoaiiyi aoiiiie?oe/ii? oai??? iinoa?
ia??oiooaaiiy aeiionoeieo oi?i iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy a iaaeao
e?aa?aeueii? aeaiie?ao??.

Na?aae ?in?enueeeo a/aieo, ye? c iiaeo iiceoe?e i?aeoiaeyoue aei aiae?co
aoi?/ieo oa aoiiiie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, ne?ae iacaaoe ?.Aaaeoeaoeiiaa,
TH.A?oothiyia, A.Aaa?aiiaa, I.Aoaiaea, A.Aei?ii/aieiaa, A.Ae?ia?aeaao,
I.Eaaaae?ao, A.Ieoaeeiaa, A.Ia?ia, I.Nonieieiaa, A.Oeoeiaa,
A.*e/aiianueeiai, ?i.

A?o/eciyi? aoiiiie?oieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaii?i /anii oaeiae
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaaaoiaa??aioi?noth i?aeoiae?a, ia??oiooaaiiyi iiaeo
eiioeaioe?e ? aenoiaiiyi i?ea?iaeueieo a?iioac. Oae, aeieeiaiiy no/anii?
oe?a?inueei? oeiee aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa (TH. ?eia?aiei) icia/eei
nooo?aee i?i?ea o noni?eueieo iaoeao, oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueei? ia?aaeeaie noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo.
Aoiieia?/i?, aoiiiie?oieia?/i? oa iaoe?iiaeueiiaea?aeaaiciaa/? i?iaeaie
?icaeyaeathoueny o i?aoeyo ?.Aa?ca?a, I.A?a/a?eea, A.Aa?anueeiai,
A.?aoooa, A.?aiaoiaa, O.Eaiaea, I.Ea?ooiiaa, A.E?aiaiy, ?.E?an?ii?,
?.Eo?ana, I.Iaeai?iaee, I.Ie?iiaiea, A.Iai?aoaeueeanee, I.Iai/oea,
I.I??ai, A.Iiiiaa, A.?aaeaea, A.Neo?ao?anueeiai, A.Oea/aiea,
A.O?iueinueeiai, Ae.Oaeanoa, E.Oeey?a, I.Ooeueae oa ?i.

Aaaeeeai, ui oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoi?/ieo nenoai oaea
ia iaiaaeo?oueny iie?oieia?/iei aei??ii, a ?icaeyaea?oueny oaeiae o
oeea?e?caoe?eiiio, aaieoeueoo?iiio, ainiiaea?nueeiio oa ?ioeo aniaeoao.
C’ynoaaiiy nooiino? aoiino ? iaoe?? iinoa? ye ooiaeaiaioaeueia i?iaeaia
nioe?aeueii? o?einio??.

Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui i?noea ? ?ieue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a a
noni?eueieo i?ioeanao iiaeooue aooe iiyniai? ? c?icoi?e? caaaeyee
c’ynoaaiith ieoaiiy uiaei aeoie?a ? aeaea?aea aoi?/iino?, cie?aia,
caaaeyee caa?iaiith aei a?iaia?aaoe/ii? (aaia?ao?/ii?) oai??? aoiino
E.Aoi?eueiaa, ui ??oioo?oueny ia ?aeayo A.Aa?iaaenueeiai, N.Aa?aa?oa,
?ioeo aeaeaoieo iiia?aaeiee?a oeueiai a/aiiai.

Iiaa aecia/aiiy ?ie? aoiieoeueoo?ieo aeaoa?i?iaio ia?aa?ao nioe?aeueieo
i?ioean?a coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue ia?ainieneaiiy oe?ieiai niaeo?a
nioe?aeueieo oai??e, na?aae yeeo ? iaoea c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.
Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui aino?ioa iinoaiiaee i?iaeai aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaoaeiae iiai? nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy ia ? aeiaaeeiaei
ca?aii o /an?. Oea i?aai?/ii aca?iiiia’ycai? ? aca?iiiaoiiaeai?
i?iaeaie.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2. “Eaoaai??eii-iiiyo?eiee aia?ao aiae?co”
i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aeey oi?ioaaiiy iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo aoii- oa
iaoe?ieia??, iie?oieia??, aea?aeaaiciaanoaa i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy iaei
aeaeaiiy “Iaei? aioeeeeiiaae?? aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa” (E., 1996).
?ic?iaeaiee aoiiaea?aeaaiciaa/ith oeieith oa?i?iieia?/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e
cia/iith i??ith caiiaiea i?iaaeeie o iiiyo?eiiio ?yae? oeeo iaoe.

Iinooiiai aecia/athoueny iaae? aaeeaaiiy oaeeo iiiyoue, ye “aoiin” ?
“iaoe?y”. Uiaei “iaoe?iiae?cio”, oi ia oeyoo aeei?enoaiiy eiai ye
iaoeiaiai iiiyooy, oaeiai, ui iiaea iaoe ye iiceoeaia, oae ? iaaaoeaia
cia/aiiy, noi?oue oe?ii?niee i?aeo?ae, ui ooaa?aeeany ca ?aaeyinueei?
aeiae.

Aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui aaeaeaaoia ni?eeiyooy ? iiyniaiiy
i?ioean?a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa,
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai aniaeoo ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
a?yaeoaaiiy iiee ui i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaa ca aeiiiiiaith iiiyooy
“iaoe?iiae?ci”. Na?aae iiiyoue, yeeie aaea iia?othoue
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoai e aoiiiie?oieia?y, iaeaaeia i?noea ia? iin?noe
“aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi?”.

Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy a i?ioean? naiai noaiiaeaiiy aaco?oueny, aieiaiei
/eiii, ia iiiyo?eiiio aia?ao? i?aaa, iie?oieia??, oai??? nenoai, ?ioeo
iaoe. Aiaeii/an a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy ? eiai aeaniiai
oa?i?iieia?/iiai aia?aoo. Aaea ca?ac aei aaciaeo iiiyoue iiai? aaeoc?
iaoeiaiai ciaiiy iiaeia a?aeianoe oae? iiiyooy, ye “aea?aeaaia
oi?aae?iiy”, “aea?aeaaia neoaeaa”, “aea?aeaaiee neoaeaiaaoeue” oiui.
Aiie ua ia iathoue onoaeaiiai ci?noo, cao?eniaaiiai o a?aeiia?aeieo
neiaieeao, ? ? i?aaeiaoii iaoeiaiai iiooeo oa aeeneon?e.

?icaeyaeathoueny ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “aea?aeaaia
oi?aae?iiy”, ?ic?iaeai? o a?o/eciyi?e ? ca?oa?aei?e e?oa?aoo??. A
aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiao?oueny oae caaia aocueea o?aeooaaiiy
“aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy” ye i?aeoe/iiai, i?aai?coth/iai ? ?aaoethth/iai
aieeao aea?aeaae ia noni?euei? i?ioeane, cae?enithaaiiai i?aaiaie
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee. Aeey c’ynoaaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iie?oeee, i?aaa ?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaoi? nie?a?oueny ia oaco, ca?aeii c yeith
“aeeiiaa/a aeaaea — oea caeaa?eueoiai eaoaai??y iie?oeei-i?aaiaa, a oie
/an ye aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy — i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaa”1.

I?iaaaeaii ?ic??ciaiiy iiiyoue “aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy”,
“aaei?i?no?aoeaiee iaiaaeaeiaio”, “aoiiiie?oe/iee iaiaaeaeiaio”.
Caoaaaeo?oueny, ui a i?ioean? iiaoaeiae niaoe?aeueiiai iiiyo?eiiai
aia?aoo iaoee c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaaeeeai oieeaoe iaoai?/iiai
ia?aianaiiy oa?i?i?a c ?ioeo aaeocae iaoeiaiai ciaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.3. “Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi? ye iaoeiaa eaoaai??y ?
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee oaiiiai” aiae?cothoueny ??ci? iiaeyaee ia
aecia/aiiy nooiino? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a. Ci?no iiiyooy
“aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi?” ?ice?eaa?oueny ia?aaeon?i /a?ac iiiyooy
“aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? iio?aae” oa “aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane”. Ca
aecia/aiiyi aeena?oaioa, aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? iio?aae — oea noeoii?noue
oiia, noai?aiiy yeeo aa?aioo? caa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie ni?eueiioe.
“Aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane” — oea ona?aeiieai? iio?aae. A?ae
aaeaeaaoiino? ona?aeiieaiiy ni?eueiioith ia’?eoeaieo iio?aa caeaaeeoue
a?aeiia?aei?noue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a noni?euei?e
aeioe?eueiino?, no/ania ? iaeaooi? naii? ni?eueiioe.

Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?ioa?an, ye ? aoaeue-yeee ?ioee ?ioa?an, yaeyth/e
niaith iieiaeaiiy, ui ?aoeaeoo? o na?aeiiino?, aenooia? iioeaii ae??.
?ioa?an, a?aeaeaath/enue o noa’?eoeai?e noi?ii? nioe?aeueiiai i?ioeano,
o?ainoi?io? aeiiae caeiiii??iinoae noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo o noeioee,
aecia/ath/e, oaeei /eiii, oaiaeaioe?? iiaaae?iee nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a.
“?ioa?an — oe?eani?yiiaaia ae?yeuei?noue — ?ioa?an” — oea oi?aa?naeueia
oi?ioea nioe?aeueieo ca’yce?a ? ?icai?oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a. Naia
ooo ie ia?ii ni?aao aaea c “oaeoi?ii” — ?ioa?anii, ui niiioea?
?iaeea?aea /e aoi?/iee eieaeoea aei ae??, aeeeeea? ?aaeoe?th
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeaeua ia na?e i?iya. Aiey, ii/oooy, ?inoeieoeaia
?aaeoe?y, ?ioo?oe?y — ana oea oa aaaaoi ?ioiai, oae caaiiai eieaeoeaiiai
iana?aeiiiai, iiina?aaeeiaaii iia’ycaiiai c ?ioa?anii, a /ano?oa ca ana
cian?i ia iia’ycaiiai c iei, oaeiae aenooia? iioeaii ae??.

Aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi? ye i?eaaaeaiee o
ae?th aioo??oi?e iioaioe?ae aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe, ui aaciina?aaeiuei aai
iiina?aaeeiaaii aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie i?ioean?a o noni?euenoa? a oe?eiio.
Oea eaoaai??y iioieia?/iiai (a?aeia?aaea? i?ioeane ?aaeueii? ae?eniino?)
? ai?noaiieia?/iiai (o?eno? i?eeiie i?ciaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a) ieai?a.
I?e/iio, iiiyooy “aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi?” ia a?aei?io a?ae
“iaoe?iiae?cio” ia ia? aeiaeiiai ?aeaieia?/iiai /e ii?aeueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi? aeeth/a? anth noeoii?noue i?iya?a aoi?/iino? o
iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo noa?ao noni?eueiiai aoooy: o aeania eoeueoo?i?e,
aeiiii?/i?e, nioe?aeuei?e, iie?oe/i?e oiui. Oiaoi ae?aiacii ?ioa?an?a
ni?eueiioe aecia/a? ? iiea i?iyao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a.

Ia?aae iaoeith ia’?eoeaii iinoaei caaaeaiiy inieneaiiy oaiiiaia
iaoe?iiaeueii? (iie?oe/ii?) ae?oe ye oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaii? a?oie, yea
aenooia? ?i?oe?aoi?ii ? ?aaoeyoi?ii nioe?aeueieo ia?aoai?aiue. Eiai
ae??oaiiy iiaeeeaa ia?aaeon?i /a?ac c’ynoaaiiy nooiino?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe, yea, c?aooith, iaoiiaeth? ??aaiue oae caaieo
noaoonieo ae?o, o oiio /ene? oi?aae?inueei?, a oaeiae oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Oe? i?ioeane aecia/athoueny o
aeena?oaoe?? ye ia?nii?o?eaoe?y aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a.
I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iayai?noue “e?eoe/ii? iane” aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?
ae?oe ? iaei??th c iaia’yceiaeo ia?aaeoiia oni?oii? ?icaoaeiae
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.4. “Aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aoi?ia a Oe?a?i?: nenoaiiee
i?aeo?ae ? neia?aaoe/ia ia?aaeeaia” ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy uiaei
aacenii? oai???, iieeaaeaii? a iniiao i?ia?aie iiaea?i?caoe?? nenoaie
a?yaeoaaiiy, iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a ?? iiaoaeiae, ?ioa?oai?aoe/iiai
iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy ? na?oiaeyaeiiai eiioaenoo inieneaiiy. Inyaiaiiy
caaaeueieo i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe?? aaiethoe?eiiai oe?eiai ia aac?
no/anieo aeinyaiaiue iaoee, a oiio /ene? neia?aaoeee, ia? aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy aeey ae?iaeaiiy i?aaeeueieo i?aeoiae?a aei oi?aae?iiy a
nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao, yeei aeanoea? ia o?eueee i?eioeeiiaa
iae?i?ei?noue, a e iniaeeaee oei aeaoa?i?i?cio — “aeaoa?i?i?ci c
?icoi?iiyi iaiaeiicia/iino? iaeaooiueiai ? iiaeeea?noth aeoiaeo ia
aaaeaia iaeaooi?”1. Oaeei /eiii, eaeaoueny i?i aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
i?aai?caoe?? o a?aee?eoeo iae?i?eieo na?aaeiaeuao, aeyaeaiiy ?o
aioo??oi?o iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae, aeanoeaeo ?i oaiaeaioe?e caaeey
noeioeyoe?? aeai?o nenoaiith iaeiiai c eiia??ieo oeyo?a ?icaeoeo, ui
icia/a? i?eioeeiiai iiaee iiai?io a i?aai?caoe?ei?e iaooe?.

A oe?eiio aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aoi?ia ci???ioiaaia ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
naiii?aai?caoe?? noni?eueii? nenoaie. A Eiioeaioe?? ?aoi?ie
cacia/a?oueny, ui aea?aeaaa oe?eani?yiiaaii i?i?i?co? nai? ao?o/aiiy a
aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyi, i?aaia aea?aaoethaaiiy, oiaoi ia?aaea/?
nai?o ooieoe?e iaoai?ciai ?eieiai? naiii?aai?caoe?? ? iaaea?aeaaiei
?inoeoooe?yi. Oei /anii, e?eciaee noai aeiiii?ee, aino?ioa
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? ia’?eoeaii i?aeooiaoothoue i?ioean
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie aei aeai?o o?aaeeoe?eii aoaoe/ii? iiaeae?, ui
aaea aeiaaea naith iani?iiiaei?noue.

Aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy a N?N? iai?ee?ioe?
80-o ?ie?a aeyaeeany iacaeaoiith aei aaeaeaaoiiai ?aaaoaaiiy ia aieea
iiaeo, iaa?aeiieo ?e oaeoi??a. Oe? ?ene iana ia nia? ?? “oeaiie”, oiaoi
/eiia a Oe?a?i? iiaeaeue o?yaeoaaiiy. ?? iacia/iee aioo??oi?e
aia?aaoe/iee iioaioe?ae aaeueio? i?ioean aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie.
I?ioeae?y ae aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio ?iiiaaoe?yi o?eueee iineeth? ae?th
e?aaoeaieo oaeoi??a ? iiaea i?ecaanoe aei eiai ia?aaoaeiae o e?eciaiio
aa??aio?, a oiio /ene? c i?ioiaeaeaiiyi noaae?? nioe?aeueii? eaoano?ioe.

Ca aeiiiiiaith oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th neia?aaoeee a
?iaio? ia??oioiao?oueny aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iaoiiaeai?noue e?aaoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, oiaoi ?aaeeeaeueiiai iiiaeaiiy
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeiai iaoai?cio, eiee noai?ththoueny no?oeoo?e ?
ooieoe?iioth/? iaeeieoe? c iaciaeiieie ?ai?oa oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Oae,
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiei no?oeoo?iei eiiiiiaioai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa,
ui iathoue aeania aeaea?aei aia?a??, aeanoeaa aeniea caeaoi?noue aei
naiiiiiaeaiiy. ?aeiino?othth/enue o i?ioean? ciai?oiuei? aca?iiae??,
aiie iaoiiaeththoue i?aai?caoe?eia oneeaaeiaiiy, ia?aaoaeiao nenoaie,
neeaaeieeaie yei? aiie ?, oi?iothoue ?? iia? yeino?. Oiaoi,
e?aaoeai?noue aieeao aoiinenoai ia i?ioean aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie
aeaoa?i?io?oueny aeeoo?aith iaiao?aei?noth ?o aioo??oiueino?oeoo?iiai
iiiaeaiiy. Iaeiae, Eiioeaioe?y aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?
aeaeaei ia iiaiith i??ith a?aoiao? oe? iiaeeeaino?.

Oai?/a aeei?enoaiiy aa?enoe/ieo iiaeeeainoae nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo,
naiaioe/iiai iioaioe?aeo neia?aaoeee a?aee?eaathoue iiaeeea?noue
iiaoaeoaaoe iiaeaeue a?yaeoaaiiy, aaeaeaaoio no/aniiio aoaio
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.

Cae?eniaiee aiae?c nooiaiy ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie coiiaea aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
iacaaaeath/e ia iayai?noue aaeeei? e?eueeino? e?oa?aoo?e c
aoiiiie?oieia??, aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa, ?icai?oaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue c
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iica oaaaith a/aieo ona ua caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia
i?aai?/iiai aca?iica’yceo aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a ? ?icaoaeiae
iiai? nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy. I?iya aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a ia aeaiiio
??ai? aea?aeaaioai?/iai i?ioeano niaoe?aeueii ia aea/aany.
Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a oiiaao aaaaoieoeueoo?iino?
ia ciaeoee iaeaaeiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiee ono??e iacaeaaeii?
Oe?a?ie oa ?? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea” — ia??oioiao?oueny
iaoiiaeai?noue ?icaoaeiae iiai? nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy aeai?ii iiaeae?
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith Oe?a?ie ? ?? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiith iie?oeeith,
aecia/athoueny eiie?aoi? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a ia oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeiai
iaoai?cio.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.1. “Aoiiaea?aeaaieoeueea oa aoiiiie?oe/ia niaaeueia”
aoiiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y ia oa?aiao N?N? ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a
ioe?ith?oueny ye oaea, ui neeaeany aiane?aeie a?oaiai aea?aeaaiiai
ao?o/aiiy a i?e?iaeiee i?ioean aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. Aiia aoea
?acoeueoaoii ?iia?nueei? iie?oeee ? iie?oeee, ui ??oiooaaeany ia oeaiiio
aecia/aii? aaeoi?a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a. Ca nai?ie ianooaaaie ?
neeaaei?noth ae??oaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie, ui iinoaee ia?aae
iiaeie iacaeaaeieie aea?aeaaaie, ii noo?, ia iathoue aiaeia?a o na?oia?e
i?aeoeoe?.

Uiaei Oe?a?ie, oi aiia ia? iiaeeea?noue nia?oeny i?e oi?ioaaii?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ? noai?aii? iaoai?ci?a ?? i?iaaaeaiiy ia
a?aeiia?aeiee a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae. Oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e o?aaeeoe?? a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ieoaii? caeaa?eueoiai i?eoaiaii? aeaiie?aoeci ?
aoiai?ci, a?aenoithaaiiy ia eeoa aeanieo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, a e
?ioa?an?a ?ioeo ia?iae?a.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo ?aaeyinueei? aeiae, aeena?oaio
a?aecia/a? iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey nueiaiaeaiiy i?aeoeee ?? aeaeea?oaaiiy
? ?aae?caoe?? iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ?ie?a. O ?one? iie?oeee “ia?aaoaeiae”
aoea cae?eniaia ni?iaa ia?aioe?iee ?? eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae,
iaiiaiaiiy iiaei ci?noii. Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy i?eeiyoi? o 1989 ?.
ieaooi?ie EI?N c oeueiai ieoaiiy ciaeoee i?aaiaa ioi?ieaiiy. Iaeiae
iie?oe/ia ea??aieoeoai N?N? ia aoei aioiaei aei aeaiie?aoe/iiai
ae??oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy. Ia i?aeoeoe? iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea
cae?enithaaeany noa?eie, a oiio /ene? neeiaeie iaoiaeaie, ui e
i?enei?eei ?iciaae N?N?. Aiaeii/an e?iaoeue 80-o ?ie?a ii?iaeea aaeee?
i/?eoaaiiy uiaei ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio i?aaa ia?iae?a ia naiiaecia/aiiy,
caaacia/aiiy aa?aio?e iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aa ia a?oiiaiio oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??aiyo, c yeeie ni?eueiioe oa?eoee a iia? aea?aeaae.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2.“O?iee noaiiaeaiiy iiaeo iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa”
?ice?eaa?oueny neeaaeiee oeyo iiooeo iiaeae? ocaiaeaeaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a o iiaeo aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiiyo, ui aeieeee
ia oa?aiao N?N?. Ia?o? naiino?ei? e?iee o noa?? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee cae?enithaaeeny iaoiaeii ni?ia ? iiieeie,
i?ecaiaeeee aei caaino?aiiy aoiiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe??, a a aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao ? aei ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a, noaaeee ia ea?oo oa?eoi??aeueio
oe?e?ni?noue oeeo aea?aeaa. I?aaiaiiy aaoiiii?e aei i?aeaeuaiiy noaoono,
ia?aaoaeiae aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith ia canaaeao oaaea?ae?cio,
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? aeeeeeaee ??ceee ii?? c aieo oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a
aeaaee. Aiae?c ia?aa?ao iiae?e ai?iaeiaae 90-o ?ie?a o ?in?enuee?e
Oaaea?aoe??, A?oc??, ?anioae?oe? Iieaeiaa iieacaa, ui neeia? iaoiaee
ae??oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy aacia?niaeoeai?. Eeoa a?aooaaiiy
aeeaeiii? iaoiiaeaiino? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a, ae?aeia
aeicaieythoue caiia?aaoe caaino?aiith neooaoe?? aai eieae?coaaoe
eiioe?eo, ui aaea aeiee.

Aoiiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? o ia?o? ?iee iacaeaaeiino? ii?iaeeea,
ii noo?, iaeei na?eiciee noaooniee eiioe?eo — i?aaiaiiy E?eio aei
aaoiiii??, yeee ana ae aoa ni?yiiaaiee o ?onei ae?aeiao. Aiae?coth/e
aoiiiie?oeeo Oe?a?ie a oeae ia??iae, aeena?oaio a?aecia/a? a oe?eiio ??
aaeaeaaoi?noue aoiiiie?oe/i?e neooaoe??, a oaeiae eia?/io
iine?aeiai?noue. Iaeiae c ae?oai? iieiaeie 90-o ?ie?a aea?aeaaia
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea ii/eia? ao?a/aoe aeeiai?ci. Iie?oe/ia
i?ioenoiyiiy c i?eioeeiiaeo ieoaiue iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie
ia’?eoeaii a?aenoaa? ?? ia ia?eoa??th noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Oei /anii,
i?ioean aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? naaiaioaoe?? ia?inoa?. O 1997 ?. aaea aoei
ca?a?no?iaaii 270 iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo ia’?aeiaiue, o oiio /ene? 23
— ?c anaoe?a?inueeei noaoonii. Aiie aeiaaathoue noai?aiiy ?aaeueieo oiia
aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?iaieioaieo aea?aeaaith iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aa. A ie?ai?
na?eici? iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie ia?a?inoathoue ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy noaoono
e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo ? i?iaoeueei? iaioeie, ?o iaoe?iiaeueiiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Aiae?c aoiiiie?oe/i? neooaoe?? ? ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo ?aaoethaaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a ia oa?aiao eieeoiueiai N?N? i?aeaiaeeoue
aei aeniiaeo, ui ?icai?oaiiy a Oe?a?i? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai iiae?eo e?a?ie ? oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
nenoaie i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, aeooae?co? iio?aao c’ynoaaiiy
a?eueo caaaeueieo oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai: uiaei nooiino? oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae, ?? ono?ith, a oaeiae canaae ? i??i?eoao?a
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ia no/aniiio aoai?.

I?ae?icae?e 2.3. “Oi?oa?ii-aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiee oei aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith”
i?enay/aii aiae?co iaoiiaeaieo aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiei oaeoi?ii oaiaeaioe?e
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? o aeiaaeueiiio ? eieaeueiiio ieaiao, a oaeiae
aeyaeaiith ie?aieo nooi?nieo ?en no/aniiai aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith Oe?a?ie.
Oae, i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi aeeaeiii? iaoiiaeaiino? aoiiiie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a
? ia eeoa ?iciaae aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo oaaea?aoe?e (N?N?,
*aoi-Neiaa//eia, THaineaa?y). Iineeaiiy aoi?/ii? ia?aaeeaie a e?a?iao
cao?aeii? aeaiie?ao??, ?? ni?yiiaai?noue ia aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th
?ethno?othoue, cie?aia, ?aoa?aiaeoie a Oioeaiae?? ? Oaeuen? (1998 ?.),
ia yeeo a?eueo?noue aeeoae?a oeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo a?eoainueeeo oa?eoi??e
aeneiaeeany ca ?icoe?aiiy aaoiiiiieo i?aa. Ia aeai?ao aei Ia?eaiaioo
Oioeaiae?? ? Anaiaea? Oaeueno ia?aiiao iaea?aeaee eaeai?enoe, ca?aeii c
ia?aaeaeai?/ith i?ia?aiith yeeo i?iaiaeeeeny ?aoa?aiaeoie, a oaeiae
iaoe?iiaeueii i???ioiaai? ia?o??.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe iaea?eueo iioe?ai? o a?o/eciyi?e iie?oieia?/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith, nooiino?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae (“aea?aeaae-iaoe??” ? “iaoe??-aea?aeaae”),
aeena?oaio caoaaaeo?, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? aeioe?eueii i???iooaaoeny ia
iiaeae?, ui aeoiaeyoue ca iaae? o?aaeeoe?eieo oyaeaiue i?i oo /e ?ioo
oi?io aea?aeaaiino?. Oe?a?ia eiinoeooeiaaia ye oi?oa?ia aea?aeaaa.
Iaeiae o ?? neeaae?, e??i iaeanoae, ? Aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea E?ei, yea
nooo?ai ii?ooo? noa?aioeiio noaio i?aai?caoe?? e i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
i?aai?a aeaaee, ia? aeanio eiiiaoaioe?th o iaaiiio eie? ieoaiue, na?e
i?aaenoaaieoeueeee i?aai aeaaee ? a?aei?iio a?ae ?ioeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
iaeeieoeue nenoaio aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a.

?aea? oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? iaoe??, iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae aoaeooue
aeeoo?caeaoieie eeoa ca oiiae caaacia/aiiy i?aainoa’?eoiino? ?ioeo,
iaoeooeueieo ni?eueiio, ye? naiiaecia/eeeny. Aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?
ni?eueiioe, ca aeayeei aeiyoeii, ii?ooothoue ieoaiiy i?i o/anoue ia a
?iciiae?e? aeaaee, a a cae?eniaii? aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue, i?e/iio o
noa?? nai?o niaoeeo?/ieo ?ioa?an?a. Oaea iinoaiiaea ieoaiiy ci?ia?
i?iaeaio “iiae?eaiiai noaa?ai?oaoo” ? oe?eeii a?aeiia?aea? ?icoi?iith
noaa?ai?oaoo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ye iie?oe/ii? ni?eueiino? a?iiaaeyi
on?o iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, noa’?eoa oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Eiioeaioe?y
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ye iaeaeui? ia aeaiee /an oi?ie
nioe?aeueii? naiii?aai?caoe?? a?aee?eaa? iiaeeea?noue, e?eoe/ii
ia?ainieneeaoe ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae ? nie?ath/enue ia a?o/eciyio
aoiai?noe/io o?aaeeoe?th, aoaeoaaoe iaoe?iiaeueio aea?aeaao o?aoueiai
oeny/ie?ooy.

E?eoe/ii ioe?ith?oueny iiooe aeoie?a iniaeeai? oaaea?ae?noe/ii?
iaioaeueiino? a aeeaeiao neia’yinueei? ?noi???, iieacaii, ui ia?ac?
iaia? ia’?eoeaieo ia?aaeoiia aeey ?icaoaeiae oaaea?aoeaii? Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae. I?aaii??ii aanoe iiao i?i iiaeaeue oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae, yea a
iaeneiaeueii a?aeiia?aeaea oiiaai Oe?a?ie. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co
/eiii? Eiinoeoooe?? Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie,
ui i?ae cia/iei aieeaii aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a a Oe?a?i?
oi?io?oueny oi?oa?ii-aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiee oei aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith,
nooi?nieie iciaeaie yeiai ? ia eeoa aeaoeaio?ae?ciaai?noue, aea e
??ciieaoaai??aeuei?noue aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaeeieoeue. Oeae i?ioean ia?
noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa?, /anii aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? eiinoeoooe?eiiai iiey,
ioaea, iio?aao? na?eiciiai oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy ? aaeaeaaoiiai
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.4. “Canaaee oa i??i?eoaoe aea?aeaaii?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i? ia no/aniiio aoai?” aecia/athoueny
iaoa, caaaeaiiy ? i??i?eoaoe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae, eiie?aoecothoueny ?? i?eioeeie. Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea
iinoa?, ia?aaeon?i, ye nioe?aeueia iie?oeea. Aiia i?aai?/ii iia’ycaia c
aeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith, ia? iaeneiaeueii a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino?
aeaiia?ao?/ii? iiaaae?iee aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio, aeieia?/io neooaoe?th,
i?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane. ?? caaaeuei? caaaeaiiy ii-??ciiio
ia?aeiieththoueny noiniaii aoi?/ieo eiiiiiaio?a noni?euenoaa,
aecia/ath/e i?e oeueiio ci?no ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Aeae?eaii iniiai? iai?yie cae?eniaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee
aea?aeaae o iie?oeei-i?aaia?e, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e ? aeooiai?e
noa?ao. Noi?ioeueiaaii iia? i?eioeeie, ia yeeo aiia ia? ??oiooaaoeny,
aeoiaey/e c oace, ui yae?ii ae?aeaeoeee i?aeaoi?/ieo a?aeiinei ? ia
c?oeiaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a ye i?ioeeaaeieo nooiinoae, a
i?eioeei eiiieaiaioa?iino? (aca?iiaeiiiaiaiiy). Aiae?coth/e aeina?ae
cae?eniaiiy iie?oeee aaaaoieoeueoo?iino? a Eaiaae? ? i?aee?anethth/e
niaoeeo?eo eiai ?aae?caoe?? a Oe?a?i? (ia?aaeon?i ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio
??ai?), aaoi? caoaaaeo?, ui eiioeaioe?y aaaaoieoeueoo?iino? ua ia ia?
“aea?aeaaiiai noaoono”. Cacia/a?oueny, ui i???ioaoe?y iie?oeee eeoa ia
oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeo a?eoeueoo?i?noue ia neoaoaaoeia eiinie?aeaoe??
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. Aea?aeaaia aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea ca
nai?th noooth aae?ania ? ia? ocaiaeaeoaaoeny ia oaeeo ??aiyo:
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio (Aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea E?ei,
iaeano?), i?noeaaiio (?aeiie, i?noa), i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiio ?
noa?aa?iiaeueiiio (a?aaee ?icnaeaiiy aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio).

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co, i?iaaaeaiiai o ia?oiio oa ae?oaiio ?icae?eao,
aecia/aii /ioe?e eiie?aoi? iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie: a) aoii?aa?iiaeueia iaoiiaeai?noue cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith; a) aieea
aoi?/ii? naiii?aai?caoe?? ia i?ioean oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe??
aeaaee, noaiiaeaiiy i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy; a) ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy o eiioaeno? no/anieo aoiiiie?oe/ieo ?
aoiieoeueoo?ieo ?aae?e; a) ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoethaaiiy
aoiinioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ? i?aeaoi?/ieo a?aeiinei.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Aoii?aa?iiaeueia iaoiiaeai?noue oa?eoi??aeueieo
o?ainoi?iaoe?e ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy” — aeena?oaio aecia/a?
iniiai? iai?yiee aieeao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a ia i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo ooai?aiue ?
noaiiaeaiiy i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy a iie?aoi?/ieo ?aa?iiao.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1. “Oaiiiai aoii?aa?iio ? aoii?aa?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a
Oe?a?ie” ?ice?eaathoueny nooi?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee oaiiiaia aoii?aa?iio ?
iaoiaeieia?/ia ooieoe?y iiiyooy “aoii?aa?ii”. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
aoiia?ao?/iiai (aoiiaaia?ao?/iiai) ?aa?iio, aea iniiaiith iciaeith
iinoa? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae ianaeaiiy, i?e aecia/aii? aoii?aa?iio
a?aoiao?oueny, ia?aaeon?i, ?ioaineai?noue i?aeaoi?/ieo a?aeiinei,
aoiieoeueoo?ieo ? aoiiiie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a (??aaiue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?
naiii?aai?caoe?? ? aoiieoeueoo?ii? iia?e?ciaaiino?, aeaiia?ao?/ia
iiaaae?iea aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?oi, nooi?iue i?aeaoi?/ii? oiea?aioiino?
oiui). Aoii?aa?ii — oea a?aeiia?aeia oa?eoi??y, yea ca noeoii?noth
aca?iiiia’ycaieo aoi?/ieo aeaiaio?a, oa?aeoa?ii aoi?/ieo i?ioean?a
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo oa?eoi??e ? aenooia? ye ie?aiee (naiino?eiee)
ia’?eo aea?aeaaii? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee. Aoii?aa?iiaeueiee aiae?c
? aoaeoeaiei ?ino?oiaioii aeyaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee oa?eoi???
e?a?ie.

Aaaeeeai oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee aeeth/aiee o
aaii?inoi?ia? i?ioeane, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue o oe?eiio aeeiai?eo
aioo??oiueiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. A?i aieeaa? ia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th
(?icaeoie ie?aieo /anoei oa?eoi???), ?ioaa?aoe?th (ia’?aeiaiiy oeeo
/anoei a oe?ea), nenoaiioi?ioaaiiy (aeieeiaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo
nioe?aeueieo, ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/ieo, ?ae?aaoe?eieo oa ?ioeo nenoai), a
oaeiae ? iaeiei ?c oaeoi??a caaaeueii? ?aa?iiae?caoe??. O iaaieo
aeiaaeeao eiai aaaa na?aae ?ioeo /eiiee?a iiaea aooe aecia/aeueiith.
Iaeiae, caaaeii, eaeaoueny i?i a?aooaaiiy aoiieoeueoo?ii? nai???aeiino?
aeiiii?/ieo ?aeii?a, aeeth/aiiy a i?ioeane iiaea?i?caoe??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio, ?o iaaeaaiue o
noa?? aeooiaii? ? iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e.

Ia iniia? aecia/aieo i?aeoiae?a i?iiiio?oueny aeueoa?iaoeaia
aoii?aa?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a Oe?a?ie, aecia/athoueny eeth/ia? i?iaeaie
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy ? i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie aea?aeaaii?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee a eiioaeno? aoii?aa?iiaeueii?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2. “O?ainoi?iaoe?y aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo
iaeeieoeue aeui? eaiee c iie?aoi?/iei neeaaeii ianaeaiiy”
?ice?eaathoueny eiia??i? iai?yie aieeao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a ia
oa?eoi??aeuei? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iie?aoi?/ieo iaeanieo (?anioae?eainueeiai)
?aa?ii?a.

Eiioeaioe?y aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie ia?aaeaa/a? o?ainoi?iaoe?th
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith oa nenoaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy i?e iii??
ia a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae, a oaeiae ia na?oiao, ianaiia?aae ?a?iiaenueeo
i?aeoeeo. I?e oeueiio iathoue a?aoiaoaaoeny no/ani? oaiaeaioe??
?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a c iaeyaeo ia iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy
iie?oeee ia’?aeiaiiy iaaaeeeeo oa?eoi??aeueieo a?iiaae, oe?oiiaiiy
naiia?yaeieo iaeeieoeue, ooai?aiiy aaeiia?aoe?e ianaeaieo ioieo?a,
aeiiii?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy. A e?oa?aoo?? i?iiiiothoueny ??ci? i?aeoiaee
aei cae?eniaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e, ye? caaaeii iiaeia
caanoe aei aeaio: a) ?icoe?oiiaiiy iaeanoae, a iio?i aeae?eaiiy (ca
i?eeeaaeii O?aioe??) nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aeii?a, ui aeeth/aee a
oa?eoi??th e?eueeio i?i?-iaeanoae, ? ye? aoee a iieeaaeai? a iniiao
?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae, ia?ao?ae a?ae o?ueioeaieiaiai aei
aeaieaieiaiai aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith; a) a?aeiiaeoeny
a?ae aeaio c iieiaeiith aeanyoe?a iaeanoae ? eiinoeoothaaoe ?aaeueii
neeaaeai? (aeiiii?/ii, aeaiia?ao?/ii, eoeueoo?ieia?/ii oiui) 4-6
?aa?ii?a.

I?iaaaeaiee a iaaeao Oe?a?inueeiai I?e/i?iiii?’y aoii?aa?iiaeueiee
aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui o?ainoi?iaoe?y aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo
iaeeieoeue aeui? eaiee iaiiaeeeaa ca iaei??th (o??th /e ?ioith) noaiith.
?? iaeaaeeoue cae?enithaaoe, a?aoiaoth/e aoiieoeueoo?i? oa aoiiiie?oe/i?
?aae??, ia ii?oooth/e oe?e?ni?noue aoiinioe?aeueieo nenoai, ui neeaeeny,
? iaoai?ci?a ?o naii?aaoeyoe??. Aiaeii/an aaaeeeai caaacia/eoe
a?aeiia?aeio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io, aeaiia?ao?/io, eoeueoo?io,
i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeo oa ?ioo naiiaeinoaoi?noue iiaeo
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo ooai?aiue.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.3. “Oa?eoi??aeueia aoi?/ia (aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia)
naiii?aai?caoe?y ? i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy” i?inoaaeothoueny i?ioeane
oi?ioaaiiy “iaoe?iiaeueieo” oa?eoi??aeueieo a?iiaae. I?ioean
oa?eoi??aeueii? naiii?aai?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei,
e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo aeoea?coaaany ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ?
a?aeaeaaa oaiaeaioe?? e?aa?ae?caoe?? on?o noa? aeeooy e?a?ie. Eiai
ia’?eoeaio iniiao neeaaeaee aec??e? aino?? i?iaeaie aoiinioe?aeueiiai oa
aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ni?eueiio, ii?iaeaeai? ?o ?aii?oaaiiyi c aieo
aea?aeaae ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio aeanyoee?oue, cei/eiieie ae?yie
iie?oe/ieo ?aaeei?a, a oaeiae no/anieie e?eciaeie yaeuaie. Iaee i?noea
ni?iae ooai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo
iaeeieoeue.

Ia oi?ioaaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo a?iiaae ? ?o eiioiaeueieo ia’?aeiaiue
ia?ac? ni?aaey? aaciina?aaei?e aieea eiiiaeoia i?iaeeaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei ? ?icnaeaiiy a?iiaaeyi, ye? iiaa?oathoueny c
i?noeue aeaii?oaoe?e. Ii noo?, iinoaei ieoaiiy uiaei aecia/aiiy
no?oeoo?e ? i?aaiaiai noaoono i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei, e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo, aa?aiooaaiiy i?aa ?ioiaoi?/ieo
a?oi, ye? i?iaeeaathoue ia eiai oa?eoi???. O oeueiio ieai? caneoaiao? ia
oaaao Caeii Oai?nueei? ?anioae?ee “I?i i?aaa iaoe?iiaeueieo ? aoi?/ieo
iaioei”, i?eeiyoee 7 eeiiy 1993 ?., a yeiio aecia/aii i?eioeeie ?
ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei o
??ciiaoi?/iiio na?aaeiaeu?, eiei ?o caaaeaiue ? iiaiiaaaeaiue.

A?aeoae, aoi?/iee neeaae ianaeaiiy ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie, iniaeeaino?
?icnaeaiiy ni?eueiio, aeeiai?ci i?ioean?a aoi?/ii? naiii?aai?caoe??
aaciina?aaeiuei ? iiina?aaeeiaaii aieeaaoeiooue ia aea?? iiaeae?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai iiae?eo e?a?ie, ia aecia/aiiy iaae
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaeeieoeue, iaoiiaethaaoeiooue ??ciinooi?i/anoo eiai
no?oeoo?o. Iiaeia i/?eoaaoe, ui a oiae? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie
c’yno?oueny ia’?eoeaii iaoiiaeaia iio?aaa ooai?aiiy ie?aieo naiia?yaeieo
oa?eoi??e (?aeiiiiai, ie?oaeiiai ??aiy) ?c caeiiiaeaa/i aecia/aiei
niaoe?aeueiei (aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiei) noaoonii.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — “Aenoa?eoi??aeueia naiii?aai?caoe?y
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei: oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ? aca?iiae?y c i?aaiaie
a?yaeoaaiiy” — ?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeaia iie?oe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?aea?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii?? (IEA), aecia/athoueny iaoai?cie
aca?iiae?? iaoe?iiaeueieo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e c i?aaiaie
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.1. “Iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia aaoiiii?y a ?noi?e/i?e
?ao?iniaeoea?” aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?noi??y oa i?aeoeea ?icaeoeo ?aea?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii??, ?? iioe?aiiy ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie ?
?in?? i?ney iiaaeaiiy oea?ecio. Aea? aeecuee? iiaeae?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii?? ciaeoee i?aaiaa ioi?ieaiiy a
“Iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo i?i iaoe?iiaeueio aaoiiii?th ionoeueiai
oth?ei-oaoa? Aioo??oiuei? ?in?? ? Nea??o” (1917 ?.) ? Caeii? OI? “I?i
iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueio aaoiiii?th” (1918 ?.). Iaeiae eeania? oa
iaoe?iiaeuei? ciaaaiiy, ui ?icai?ioeeny ia ?oaaae? 20-o ?ie?a a Oe?a?i?
? ?in??, ia aeaee ciiae iiaiith i??ith ia?aa??eoe ?o nioe?aeueiith
i?aeoeeith. I?ci?oa ni?iae ?aae?caoe?? aenoa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? iaee
i?noea a Aeaeaeino?aei?e ?anioae?oe? e Anoii??. ?o aiae?c aea?
iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe ieceo aeniiae?a, aeooaeueieo aeey nueiaiaeaiiy.

Ii-ia?oa, ?aae?caoe?y ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii?? iiaeeeaa
eeoa a aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa? ca oiiae e?aa?ae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, i?e aenieiio ??ai? naiii?aai?caoe?? aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio.
Ii-ae?oaa, ia ne?ae aaniethoecoaaoe iiaeaeue iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii?
aaoiiii?? ca Caeiiii OI?, ?icaeyaeaoe ?? ye ?aeeii aei?aaaeaiee can?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei ia no/aniiio aoai?.
?noi?e/iee aeina?ae iieaco? iaiiaeeea?noue ?ica’ycaiiy aaaaoueio
i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai, ui aeieeaaee ?c caeiiiaeaa/iai cae??ieaiiy
“oa?eoi??aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o th?eaee/iiai aoooy” oeooeueii? iaoe?? ?
“ia?niiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o th?eaee/iiai aoooy” (E. Eaca?nii) on?o ?ioeo
ni?eueiio. Ii-o?ao?, aaea c naiiai ii/aoeo i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? ?aea?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii?? i?iyaeeany oaiaeaioe?y aei
ii?aeiaiiy ia?niiaeueiiai ? oa?eoi??aeueiiai i?eioeei?a, ui
a?aeiia?aeaei oa?aeoa?o ?icnaeaiiy a?eueoino? iaioei.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.2. “Caeiiiaeaanoai e?a?i aeecueeiai ca?oa?aeaey i?i
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?io aaoiiii?th” cacia/a?oueny, ui ni?iae iie?oe/ii?
?aeiino?oeoe?? ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii?? ia oa?aiao
eieeoiueiai N?N? iaoiiaeai? aeaiia aeiaaeueieie i?iaeaiaie, c yeeie
c?oeioeeny iia? iacaeaaei? aea?aeaae, a naia: a) iio?aaith i?eaaaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith, oi/i?oa ono?ith iaoe?iiaeueiiai,
aoi?/iiai aeeooy e?a?i, o a?aeiia?aei?noue c ??aiai aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino?, aac /iai aoei iaiiaeeeai caa?aaoe oa?eoi??aeueio
oe?e?ni?noue; a) iaiao?aei?noth caaacia/eoe o iiaiiio ianyc? i?aaa
ethaeeie (? a?iiaaeyieia) c o?aooaaiiyi ?? iaoe?iiaeueii? (aoi?/ii?)
i?eiaeaaeiino? aaca?aeiinii aei i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy ia oa?eoi??? e?a?ie.
Oe? /eiieee a?ae?a?aaaee aaaeeeao ?ieue, ia?aaeon?i, o eieeoi?o
i?eaaeo?enueeeo ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?eao, a ?in?? ? a Oe?a?i?.

Aeena?oaio aiae?co? a?aeiia?aei? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe Eaoa?enueei?
?anioae?ee, Anoii?? ? ?in??, aeie?aiethth/e iieiaeaiiy ? ii?ie, ia ye?
aa?oi i???iooaaoeny i?e oi?ioaaii? a?o/eciyii? i?aaiai? aace IEA.
Iaea?eueo ??oioiaii e aaeaeaaoii noni?euei?e iio?aa? ?aeay IEA ae?noaea
i?aaiaa ioi?ieaiiy o Oaaea?aeueiiio Caeii? ?in?? “I?i
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?io aaoiiii?th”. Ii?ie oeueiai Caeiio
?aae?cothoueny, cie?aia, a ae?yeueiino? ?aa?iiaeueieo oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo aaoiiii?e, a oaeiae Oaaea?aeueii?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii?? “Oe?a?ioe? ?in??”, ca?a?no?iaaii?
I?ithnoii ?O 15 o?aaiy 1998 ?. I?ioa, ia an? aniaeoe aeaii? i?iaeaie
iiaeooue aooe oii?iiaai? iaeiei caeiiii. Aiae?c ?aae?caoe??
Oaaea?aeueiiai Caeiio ?in?? “I?i iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?io aaoiiii?th”
iieacaa, ui aaaaeaiiy eiai a ae?th coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aianaiiy
nooo?aeo ci?i caaaeii a /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai, i?eeiyooy iiaeo
caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a c ??cieo aaeocae i?aaa.

I?ae?icae?e 4.3. ”I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaa ioi?ieaiiy aenoa?eoi??aeueii?
naiii?aai?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a Oe?a?i?” i?enay/aiee aiae?co
i?ioeano naiii?aai?caoe?? aeenia?nii ?icnaeaieo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei,
eiai aa?iica’yceo c oa?eoi??aeueiith i?aai?caoe??th aeaaee ? i?noeaaei
naiia?yaeoaaiiyi.

Iath/e ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae oai?aiiy i?aaiaeo canaae
iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueii? aaoiiii??, Oe?a?ia iaei??th c ia?oeo
i?iaieineea i?aai ia eoeueoo?io aaoiiii?th aeey iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.
I?eeiyoee 25 /a?aiy 1992 ?. Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie a
Oe?a?i?” aoa iaeiei c iaea?eueo ??oioiaieo ? aeaiie?aoe/ieo
caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a o iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi??, ye? aecia/aee
noaiiaeua iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. Iaeiae c ieeiii /ano eiai ii?i noaei
iaaeinoaoiuei aeey ?aaoethaaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a o iiaiiio
ianyc? ? a?aeiia?aeii aei oa?aeoa?o ?o ?icaeoeo.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a ? aiae?co ae?yeueiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo
a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue iieacaii i?eioeeiiao a?aei?ii?noue oe??? oi?ie
naiii?aai?caoe?? a?ae a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, i?aaa yeeo
?aaeaiaioothoueny Caeiiii Oe?a?ie “I?i ia’?aeiaiiy a?iiaaeyi”. *a?ac
a?aenooi?noue iaeaaeii? i?aaiai? aace oaeoe/ii a?aeaoaa?oueny
caeiiiaeaa/i ia oii?iiaaiee i?ioean aenoa?eoi??aeueii? aoi?/ii?
naiii?aai?caoe??.

Aoii-eoeueoo?ia (iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia) naiii?aai?caoe?y a Oe?a?i?
a?aecia/aoeiaoueny ??ciiiai?oi?noth oi?i, a a?aeoae ca’yce?a ?
aca?iiae?? c i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.
Oea aoaeooue: a) iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? oa eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeuee?
oiaa?enoaa, caieyoeoaa, ye? aeaaoeiooue i?i ?ioa?ane o?eueee nai?o
/eai?a; a) aaaaoi??aiaa? — iaeani?, i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?, anaoe?a?inuee? —
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? ia’?aeiaiiy (aeania iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i?
aaoiiii??), ye? aenooiaoeiooue a?ae ?iai? iaaii? ni?eueiioe caaaeii;

a) iaoe?iiaeuei? a?iiaaenuee? ia’?aeiaiiy, eio?? ?icoe?thaaoeiooue
ae?aiacii nai?? ae?? ia aanue niaeo? i?iaeai (aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo,
eoeueoo?ieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo, aeieia?/ieo, ?i.), ae??oaiiy yeeo iiaeiii
aa?aiooaaoe caa?aaeaiiy naiiaooiino? aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe, ?? aeaeeaaiiy
? ?icaeoie.

Oea icia/a?, cie?aia, ui a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia
aaoiiii?y iaoeia ci?oaiee oa?aeoa?, ioiiethaaoeia oaeiae eiiiaeoii
?icnaeai? /anoeie ni?eueiioe ia canaaeao eieaeoeaiiai /eainoaa
oa?eoi??aeueieo a?iiaae ? ?o eiioiaeueieo ia’?aeiaiue aai ia aeiaia??ieo
canaaeao. Iaaieioo?oueny, ui o iaeao? caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a c ?aaoethaaiiy
noa?e aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo /?eueia i?noea ia? iin?noe caeii,
yeee aecia/aa ae i?aaia? canaaee aenoa?eoi??aeueii? naiii?aai?caoe??
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? — “I?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a eiioaeno?
no/anieo aoiiiie?oe/ieo oa aoiieoeueoo?ieo ?aae?e” — ia??oioiao?oueny
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iaoiiaeai?noue ?icaoaeiae iiai? nenoaie i?aai?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, noaiiaeaiiy ?inoeoooo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae,
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/iiai caaacia/aiiy a?yaeoaaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.1. “Iniaeeaino? aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei a
oe?a?inueeiio aaaaoiaoi?/iiio noni?euenoa?” ?ice?eoi niaoeeo?eo
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei o i?ioean? ?aaoethaaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ?? aieea ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeeo a?aeiinei
a ?ioeo noa?ao nioe?aeueii? i?aeoeee.

Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy a aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e noa?? a?aecia/a?oueny oe?ieei
ae?aiaciiii i?iaeaiaoeee, ui a?aeaeaa? noeoii?noue aaaaoia?aiieo
?ioa?an?a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio (eieaeoea?a). Aea?aeaaa anooia? o
a?aeiineie c i?aaiaie aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? naiii?aai?caoe??,
aii?yaeeiaoth/e ?o aca?iica’ycee, caaacia/oth/e aeio?eiaiiy anoaiiaeaieo
caeiiiaeaanoaii ii?i ? ii?i, aecia/aieo onoaiia/eie aeieoiaioaie oeeo
i?aai?a. A?aeiineie “i?aaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy — aoi?/i? no?oeoo?e”
iaeaaeeoue eaae?o?eoaaoe ye noai?aeeiaoe?eii-eii?aeeiaoe?ei?
(noai?aeeiaoe?ei? — iai?yiiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy, eii?aeeiaoe?ei? —
ocaiaeaeaiiy). Naiiaooi?noue ? iaiiaoi?i?noue aoi?/ieo nenoai
iaoiiaeththoue i?eioeeiiao oi?eaeuei?noue aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo
a?aeiinei i?e ?aaoethaaii? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a.

Ca aeniiaeii aaoi?a, aeooaeueiith oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith i?iaeaiith
iaoee c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? aecia/aiiy i?aainoa’?eoiino? ??cieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ?o noa’?eoeaieo i?aa oa
th?eaee/ieo iaia’yce?a ye o/aniee?a aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei,
?aaeaiaiooaaiiy oi?i ?o aeoeaii? o/ano? o oi?ioaaii? oa?aeoa?o oa
iai?yie?a ea?oth/i? ae??, ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.
I?aee?aneth?oueny aaaeeea?noue i???ioaoe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie ia
o?aaeeoe?ei? oe?iiino? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, cia/aiiy a?aooaaiiy a
i?aai?caoe?? a?yaeoaaiiy o?aaeeoe?e e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo,
ia/eneaiieo ei??iieo ia?iae?a, iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.2. “Ooieoe?iiaeueiee oa i?aai?caoe?eii-no?oeoo?iee
aei??e aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueei? nenoaie a eiioaeno? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee” cacia/a?oueny, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? iaiao?aeia aa/aiiy
nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy o eiioaeno? a?aeoai?aiiy caaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?eii?
iiaeae? oe?a?inueeiai iie?aoi?/iiai noni?euenoaa.

Nenoaia i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee aein? ia a?aeiia?aeaea oa?aeoa?o ?
ianooaaai aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a. Iiaeaeue o?yaeo, ui
i?iiiio?oueny o Eiioeaioe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, ia?aaeaa/a? iaaio
noeoii?noue ooieoe?e, o ci?noiaiio iaiiaiaii? yeeo aaaeeeaa i?noea
iiaeiia iin?noe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea aea?aeaae. Aaaeeeao ?ieue o
ae??oaii? ieoaiue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo iiaea a?ae?a?aoe
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaei? iiai? oi?ie ?iaioe Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a ye o?yaeiaee
eii?oao. Ia??oioiao?oueny aeioe?euei?noue ooai?aiiy oeaio?aeueiiai
i?aaio aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee (OeIAA) c ieoaiue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee
?c niaoe?aeueiei noaoonii, noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
eiinoeueoaoeaii-aei?aae/eo i?aai?a c /enea i?aaenoaaiee?a iaoe?iiaeueieo
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. ?icaeyaeathoueny oi?ie o/ano? oeaio?aeueieo
i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa o ae??oaii? i?iaeai aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy
noni?euenoaa c o?aooaaiiyi ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo, cie?aia, iaaooiai a
NOA, a oaeiae ieoaiiy aca?iiae?? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee
c i?aaiaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? aoi?/ii? naiii?aai?caoe??,
ooai?aiiy i?io?eueieo no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a a iaeanieo ? ?aeiiieo
aaei?i?no?aoe?yo, oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a i?aeiaeaniiai ?
o?ainei?aeiiiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o noa?? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Iieacaii, ui ia’?eoeaii oi?io?oueny i?aai?caoe?eii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee
iaoai?ci ?aaoethaaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a ?c neeaaeiith
??cii??aiaaith ???a?o?/iith no?oeoo?ith ye i?aenenoaia oe?e?nii? nenoaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Oeae i?ioean ?ethno?o? iaaiith i??ith
oaiaeaioe?th aei caia?a/aiiy noa’?eoii-ia’?eoiiai i?aeoiaeo a oi?aae?ii?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiei ?icaeoeii: i?aai?caoe?y iinoa? ye naiii?aai?caoe?y,
?aaoethaaiiy — ye naii?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueii? nenoaie. Caaaeyee
ocaiaeaeaiino? ae?e i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? i?aai?a aoi?/ii? naiii?aai?caoe?? ia on?o ??aiyo
iiaeooue aooe noai?ai? ia?aaeoiiae aeey aaeaeaaoiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
iie?oeoe? aea?aeaae aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a oa ?o a?aooaaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.3. “Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae” ?ice?eaa?oueny cia/aiiy noaiiaeaiiy ?inoeoooo aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae aeey ?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, ioi?iie
eiinoeoooe?eiiai ono?ith, eaa?oeiaoe?? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee. Aiae?coth/e
ca?oa?aeio e a?o/eciyio i?aeoeeo, aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui
aea?aeaaia neoaeaa a Oe?a?i?, yea oi?io?oueny, ia? iciaee oae caaiiai
iai?acae?eoiai oeio. Oey oaiaeaioe?y, caaaeii, oa?aeoa?ia aeey e?a?i,
ye? uieii caeiaoee iacaeaaei?noue ? ooaa?aeaeothoue iaoe?iiaeueio
aea?aeaai?noue.

Caa?aaeaiiy noaa?eueiiai a?yaeoaaiiy i?yii iia’ycaii c oei, iane?eueee
aea?aeaaia neoaeaa caaacia/oaaoeia ?aae?caoe?th ?icia?oeo
aoiinioe?aeueieo oa aoiieiioan?eieo ?ioa?an?a. Oei /anii, ?acoeueoaoe
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui i?noeaa? i?aaie aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee eeoa /anoeiai a?aoiaothoue aoiieoeueoo?io niaoeeo?eo ?aa?iio i?e
ooaaeaii? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. Eiaeai ae?oaee aenia?o c /enea
aeoea?no?a iaoe?iiaeueieo a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue cacia/ea, ui
i?aaenoaaiee?a eiai ni?eueiioe iaia? a i?aaiao aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee. *eiaei
aenia?o?a — aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a — aeacaee ia a?aenooi?noue o ieo
iaeaaeieo ciaiue c ieoaiue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ? i?aeaoi?/ieo
a?aeiinei, a oaeiae cayaeee, ui ia aieiae?thoue ia aeinoaoiueiio ??ai?
aea?aeaaiith iiaith.

C iaeyaeo ia aoi?/io naaiaioaoe?th oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ia
noi?iiaai? aoi?/i? no?oeoo?e, ye? noaaeyoue ca iaoo o/anoue o
caeiiioai?/iio i?ioean?, o ?ic?iaoe? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ? ??
?aae?caoe??, i?eioeei aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa
(“i?aaenoaaieoeueei? ath?ie?ao??”) iaa ae noaoe iaeiei ?c canaaeie/eo o
i?ioean? i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae. O ca’yceo c oeei o
iie?aoi?/ieo ?aa?iiao aeioe?eueii ?ic?iaeoe niaoe?aeuei? i?ia?aie
eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? oi?ioaaiiy o aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueeiai na?oiaeyaeo ? aeniei?
aoiiiie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e.

I?ae?icae?e 5.4. “?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ia caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aoiinioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a oa i?aeaoi?/ieo a?aeiinei”
i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi canoinoaaiiy iiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e o noa??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Aecia/aiiy oe?eae aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, aea?? oeyo?a, oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?o
aeinyaiaiiy c a?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee ia?aa?ao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
i?ioean?a iio?aaothoue iii?e ia iaoeiaee aiae?c, eaae?o?eiaai? i?iaiice,
ioe?ieo aeueoa?iaoea iie?oe/iiai eo?no ? i?ia?aie ae?e. Oe?e iio?aa?
a?aeiia?aea? i?aai?caoe?y aacia?a?aiiai a?aene?aeeiaoaaiiy aeeiai?ee
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? noa?e ia ??cieo oa?eoi??aeueieo
??aiyo. Oaeee iii?oi?eia iiaeiai iaoe aeaio’y?onio no?oeoo?o
(oa?aeoa?enoeee noaio aoi?/ieo nenoai ? ?o ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua),
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaa?? iieaciee?a-?iaeeeaoi??a, ye? aeathoue oyaeaiiy i?i
nai? aoi?/i? ni?eueiioe, ?o aca?iiae?th i?ae niaith, aieea ia ?o noai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, aeieia?/ieo, aaiiie?oe/ieo, ?ioeo /eiee?a.
Aecia/aii aeaea?aea ?ioi?iaoe??, ia??oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue aianaiiy
nooo?aeo ei?aeoea aei ?nioth/eo ii?iaoea?a cae?aiiy noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo
?aa?iiaeueieie OeNO.

I?eeiyooy Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? a?aee?eaa?
iiaeeea?noue oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aai?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai (A?N), ui aeeth/athoue no/ani? eiii’thoa?i?
oaoiieia?? cae?aiiy, ia?iaee ? iiaeaiiy i?inoi?iai ?iciiae?eaii?
?ioi?iaoe??. Ioaea, eaeaoueny i?i noai?aiiy no?oeoo?iaaii? nenoaie
aoiinioe?aeueiiai ? aoiiiie?oe/iiai iii?oi?eiao (i?iaiicoaaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ioe?iee ?eceeo aoiiiie?oe/ieo oa
i?aeaoi?/ieo eiioe?eo?a oiui) ia aac? A?N-oaoiieia?e o iaaeao iiaoaeiae
ia ?aeei?e iaoiaeieia?/i?e ? i?ia?aii?e iniia? aea?aeaaii?
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ii? nenoaie, ia?aaeaa/aii? Eiioeaioe??th
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie.

sse iieacaa aiae?c, na?oiaa i?aeoeea aeaiiino?o? ??ci? iiaeae?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, eiaeia c yeeo aoaeoeaii ooieoe?iio? eeoa o
a?aeiia?aeiiio eoeueoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu?. Ine?eueee aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee
oaeoi? ? iaeiei c aecia/aeueieo i?aeoe/ii a on?o noa?ao nioe?aeueii?
i?aeoeee, ia ?aae?caoe?th aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ia? aooe
ci???ioiaaia nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a oe?eiio.
Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi? iaoiiaeth? iiaiiaaaeaiiy ? ooieoe?? i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ??cieo ??ai?a, ?o no?oeoo?o, iaoai?cie aca?iiae?? c
i?aaiaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? aoi?/ii? naiii?aai?caoe??, oi?ie ?
iaoiaee a?yaeoaaiiy, i?aeoiaee aei oi?ioaaiiy ?inoeoooo aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae.

Aeniiaee

O “Aeniiaeao” i?aeaeoi i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii ieceo
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo iieiaeaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ui
caneoaiaothoue ia i??i?eoaoio oaaao, aecia/aii i?aeoiaee uiaei
iiaeaeueoiai iiaeeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo Eiioeaioe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
?aoi?ie, eiie?aoecaoe?? i?ia?aie ?? ?aae?caoe??, aeie?aieaii aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie, ia aea/aii? yeeo aeioe?eueii cina?aaeeoe coneeey oao?aoe?a
??cieo aaeocae iaoeiaiai ciaiiy. Iniiai? c ieo:

1. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeei iieeaaeaio a eiai iniiao
a?iioaco. Ci?no aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei,
i?aai?caoe?eii-ooieoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeiai
iaoai?cio, oaoiieia?y a?yaeoaaiiy aecia/athoueny aaeeeith i??ith
i?ioeanii ?icaoaeiae Oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae ? ??
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiith iie?oeeith. Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi? ni?aaeyoeia
nooo?aee aieea ia?aaeon?i ia oae? iai?yie aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie:
o?ainoi?iaoe?y ooieoe?e ? no?oeoo?e i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee; iiaoaeiaa
aeeiiaa/i? aa?oeeae?; cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith; noaiiaeaiiy i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy; i?aai?caoe?y ia iiaeo canaaeao aea?aeaaii? oa
ioi?oeeiaeueii? neoaeae.

2. Oni?o iiaea?i?caoe?? nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy aaeeeith, yeui ia
ae??oaeueiith, i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae aeeth/aiiy an??? noeoiiino?
naiii?aai?caoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a noni?euenoaa. A?aooaaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?a — oea ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aeei?enoaiiy
e?aaoeaieo iiaeeeainoae neia?a?eieo aoaeo?a oe?a?inueeiai iie?aoi?/iiai
noni?euenoaa, caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai aeeiai?cio i?ia?aneaieo
ia?aoai?aiue. Neeaaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia iniia?
aeioe?eueiiai aaeaino i?ae o?aaeeoe?yie oa ?iiiaaoe?yie, ye?
caaacia/aoue i?ia?an ? oe?e?ni?noue oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa o eiai
eoeueoo?iiio ?icia?oo?, i?inoaaiiy ii oeyoo aei a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa, iiaeia aecia/eoe ye iaeia c iaaecaaaeaiue
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie.

3. Iniaeeaino? aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei a aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e
noa?? iaoiiaeththoueny nai???aei?noth aca?iinoaiiaeua ?o noi??i,
niaoeeo?eith aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a ye ia’?eo?a ?aaoethaaiiy.
Iaoai?cie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iathoue aoaeoeaii ooieoe?iioaaoe ca
oiia iaaeoaeaeeiai ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a o nioe?aeueieo, a oiio /ene?
aoi?/ieo, nenoaiao, a?aoiaoaaoe aeiiae “aaiethoe?eieo caai?ii” ? caeiie
eiaaiethoe??. ?o caaaeaiiy — ni?eyoe ia’?aeiaiith a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio, eiaeia c yeeo ia? naith
?noi??th, naith nenoaio oe?iiinoae, a oaeiae i?aai?/i?e ?ioaa?aoe?? a
Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao ?aa?ii?a, ui ?noi?e/ii neeaeeny.

4. Ianooaai?noue ? aeeiai?ci naiii?aai?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a a
aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e noa?? aeeooy noni?euenoaa iiaeii? aooe a?aoiaai?,
cie?aia, i?e ?ic?iaoe? ? cae?eniaii? caoiae?a uiaei a) iiiaeaiiy
i?aaiai? aace, yea ?aaoeth? caaaeaiiy, ooieoe?? ? i?aai?caoe?th i?aai?a
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ?o aca?iiae?th c i?aaiaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy
? iaoe?iiaeueieie a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie, a) ?ioaa?aoe??
oa?eoi??aeueieo a?iiaae a iie?aoi?/ieo ?aa?iiao, oi?ioaaiiy
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo canaae ?o eiioiaeueieo ia’?aeiaiue, a) eaae?iaiai
caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaii? ? ioi?oeeiaeueii? neoaeae. Aaaeeeai i?enei?eoe
i?eeiyooy Eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaii? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, Caeiio
Oe?a?ie “I?i oa?eoi??aeueiee ono??e Oe?a?ie”, ia?aaeaa/eaoe a iueiio
eiie?aoecaoe?th iieiaeaiiy no. 132 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie uiaei a?aooaaiiy
aoi?/ieo ? eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e ?aa?ii?a, cai?iaaaeeoe a iie?aoi?/ieo
?aa?iiao ?ic?iaeo ? ?aae?caoe?th eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai ?o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo.

5. I?iaeaia aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? aeaoa?i?iiaaiino? iiaea?i?caoe?? nenoaie
a?yaeoaaiiy a?aecia/a?oueny i?eioeeiiaith iiaeciith, ciaoiaeeoueny ia
ia?aoei? i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a iaoee c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa, iie?oieia??, i?aaiciaanoaa, nioe?ieia??, aeayeeo
?ioeo aeenoeeie?i, ui iaoiiaeth? iio?aao iao?aaeeoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a aei
?? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aecia/aiiy nooiino? ? aeoie?a aoi?/iino? c iiceoe??
neia?a?eiiai na?oi?icoi?iiy, a?inioe?aeueii? eiioeaioe?? aoiino noai?th?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeey c’ynoaaiiy ieoaiue uiaei
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia’?eoeaiiai ? noa’?eoeaiiai a i?ioean? aoi?/iiai
no?oeoo?oaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, aioo??oiueiai aeaea?aea
naiii?aai?caoe?eii? aeeiai?ee aoi?/ieo nenoai, aaeoi?a
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a, iaae ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a aoi?/ia aeeooy.
Iiaeeeaino? nenoaiiiai aiae?co iiaea?i?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a o
iie?aoi?/iiio noni?euenoa?, oai?aoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo ? naiia?yaeieo iaoai?ci?a cia/ii ?icoe?aii
caaaeyee canoinoaaiith ?ino?oiaioaeueii-iaoiaee/iiai aia?aoo neia?aaoeee
? iaoiaeo aoii?aa?iiaeueiiai aiae?co.

6. O i?ioean? iiaeaeueoiai oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
?aoi?ie a oeaio?? oaaae iaoeiaoe?a iathoue aooe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei, iae?i?eiino? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo
nenoai ye ia’?eo?a aea?aeaaii-?aaoeyoeaiiai aieeao, aeyaeaiiy aeaea?ae
naiii?aai?caoe?eii? aeeiai?ee, ca’yce?a oi?aae?inueei? i?aenenoaie c
ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai, aecia/aiiy ci?noo ? no?oeoo?e ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
iioie?a. Iaaoaathoue aeooaeueiino? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia oaeeo iai?yiao
iaoee c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy: ?ieue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino?
o oi?ioaaii? caaaeueii? eoeueoo?e aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy;
a?aeiia?aei?noue no?oeoo? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iei o?aaeeoe?yi e?a?ie, ?? ?aa?ii?a,
no/aniei iio?aaai iiaea?i?caoe??; aoii?aa?iiaeueia iaoiiaeai?noue
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai
ono?ith; aeyaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee oa ia??oiooaaiiy no?aoaa??, iaoiae?a ?
cania?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a. Aei
/enea o/aniee?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee iiaeaeae iiaiai
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith ? oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe??
a?yaeoaaiiy iaiao?aeii aeeth/eoe ?aa?iie c iie?aoi?/iei neeaaeii
ianaeaiiy.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iiiia?ao??

1. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie
a Oe?a?i?: i?iaeaie oai???, iaoiaeieia??, i?aeoeee: Iiiia?. — E.:
Aeae-ai OAAeO, 1998. — 264 n. (15,84 ae?oe. a?e.)

? a oe a i c ? y: Oaeano Ae.N. ?aa?iiae?ci a aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e
iie?oeoe? ? aea?aeaaiiio oi?aae?ii? // A?/a. — 1999. — ?7. — N. 149-152.

2. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. ?icaoaeiaa iiai? nenoaie a?yaeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?:
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo. (Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c): Iiiia?. —
E.; Iaeana: Aeae-ai OAAeO; Ano?iI?eio, 1999. — 304 n. (18,69 ae?oe.
a?e.)

Eieaeoeai? iiiia?ao??

3. Iaaeieeoiee I.E. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey
eaeaeii-ainieoaoaeueiui i?ioeannii a iaeanoiii caaia // Eaeaieiae/aeay
?aaioa e nioeeaeueiia oai?/anoai iann: (oaiaeaioeee e caaea/e
ia?ano?ieee ianniaiai niciaiey): Iiiia?. / Aeaae. iauanoa. iaoe i?e OeE
EINN; Iiae ?aae. A.N. Eiia?ianeiai e A.A. Ei?iaaeieeiaa. — I., Iuneue,
1989. — ?acae. ?V. — N. 194-207.

4. Iaaeieeoiee I.E. Yoie/aneea ?inneyia a nii?aaeaeueiuo no?aiao //
?acaeaeeo ee ?inney o/anoue Nithca NN?? (E?ecen iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo
ioiioaiee e oaaea?aeueiay iaoeeiiaeueiay iieeoeea): Iiiia?. / Y.A.
Aaa?aiia (?oe. aao. eieeaeoeaa), AE.A. Aieioaei, A.N. Ao?aae/ e ae?.;
?aaeeie.: Y.A. Aaa?aiia, A.E. Aei?ii/aieia, I.I. Ii?iciaa, I.E.
Iaaeieeoiee. — I., 1993. — Ae. 7. [§] 7.1. — N. 150-157.

5. Iaaeieeoiee I.E. Iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua eiioeeeou a aeeaeiai ca?oaaaeuea
e ?inney. — Oai aea. — Ae. 7. [§] 7.2. — N. 158-163.

6. Iaaeieeoiee I.E. I?iaeaia a?aieoe e oa??eoi?ee a eiioaenoa
aaiiieeoeee. — Oai aea. — Ae. 7. [§] 7.4. — N. 167-171.

7. Iaaeieeoiee I.E. Eoi oi?ie?oao e ?aaeecoao oaaea?aeueioth
iaoeeiiaeueioth iieeoeeo. — Oai aea. — Ae. 9. — N. 211-234.

8. Ii?iciaa I.I., Iaaeieeoiee I.E. Iieeoeea a ioiioaiee iaei/eneaiiuo
ia?iaeia e iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?oii (iaiueoeinoa). — Oai aea. — Ae. 4.
[Anooi.] — N. 87-89.

9. Ii?iciaa I.I., Iaaeieeoiee I.E. Iaoeeiiaeueiua iaiueoeinoaa a
?inneeneeo ianooaaao. — Oai aea. — Ae. 4. [§] 4.2. — N. 98-104.

10. Ii?iciaa I.I., Iaaeieeoiee I.E. Ono?aiaiea iineaaenoaee aeaii?oaoeee
eae iaioeiaeiay caaea/a. — Oai aea. — Ae. 5. [§] 5.2. — N. 113-121.

11. Iaaeieeoiee I.E., Oia?a I.E. Aaaeaioeu. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ecia?aiea
/aeiaa/aneie ae?aiu. — Oai aea. — Ae. 7. [§] 7.3. — N. 163-167.

12. Iaaeieeoiee I.E. Aaoiiiiey, aac eioi?ie a ?innee ia iiaeao auoue
iiaeeeiiiai oaaea?aeecia // ?inney ia ii?iaa OOI aaea. (Nia?aiaiiua
i?iaeaiu iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa ?O): Iiiia?. /
A.A. Aeaenaaa, E.A. Aooaiacyi, Y.A. Aaa?aiia e ae?.; Iiae iau. ?aae.
A.I. Eiaeaiyeeia, A.E. Iiaeaa?aceeia. — I., 1996. — Ae. III. [§] 6. — N.
104-110.

Ca??iee, a?ioo?a

13. Iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue Iaeanneee e?ae: ia?ac e ?aaeueiinoue.
(Aeieoiaiou. I/a?ee. Iaoa?eaeu): A 3 o. / Ei-o yoiieiaee e aio?iiieiaee
ei. I.I. Ieeeooi-Iaeeay ?AI; Iaean. oee. OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu;
Iaean. ain. oi-o ei. E.E. Ia/ieeiaa; Aao.-nino.: E.A. Aioo?eaa, A.I.
Eiaaeue/oe, I.E. Iaaeieeoiee, O.A. ?aciee, A.I. sseoaianeee; Ioa. ?aae.
I.E. Iaaeieeoiee; Iiae iau. ?aae. I.I. Aoaiaei, A.I. sseoaianeiai. — I.,
1997. — (“Iaoeeiiaeueiua aeaeaeaiey a NNN? e a iinoniaaoneii
i?ino?ainoaa”). — O. 1: Yoiiiieeoe/aneay iiaea?iecaoeey. — 316 n.; O. 2:
Yoiiiieeoe/aneay no?aoeoeeaoeey. — 282 n.; O. 3: Yoiiiieeoe/aneay
iiaeeecaoeey. — 275 n.

14. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?., I?eaa??i I.A., Naoaiaiei N.?. Aoi?/ia ea?oa
i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie (nioe?ieoeueoo?iee oa aoiiiie?oe/iee aniaeoe): Aei.2.
Oa?niinueea iaeanoue: ?ioi?i.-iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee / Iaean. oie. OAAeO
i?e I?aceaeaioiai Oe?a?ie; Ca caa. ?aae. I.?.Iaaeie?oiueiai. — Iaeana:
Ano?iI?eio, 1998. — 48 n.

Noaoo?, oace aeiiia?aeae

15. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. I?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a
eiioaeno? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue Oe?. Aeaae.
aea?ae. oi?. i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie / Ca caa. ?aae. A.?. Eoaiaiai,
A.I. Eiyc?aa. — E.: Aeae-ai OAAeO, 1998. — Aei. 1. — N. 176-182.

16. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. Aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aoi?ia: neia?aaoe/ia ia?aaeeaia
(aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo) // A?ni. Oe?. Aeaae. aea?ae. oi?. i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ?2. — N. 288-296.

17. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. Aenoa?eoi??aeueia naiii?aai?caoe?y iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei o eiioaeno? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie // A?/a. — 1999. — ?5. — N.
70-84.

18. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. Nenoaiieia?/ia eiioeaioe?y aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?
iaoiiaeaiino? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? // A?ni. Oe?. Aeaae.
aea?ae. oi?. i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ?3. — N. 212-220.

19. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iaoiiaeai?noue ?icaoaeiae iiaiai
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeiai iaoai?cio // Eiiaiaei?. — 1999. — ?3. — N.
4-7.

20. Aei?ii/aieia A.E., Iaaeieeoiee I.E. Iieeoe/aneee oeaio?eci e
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey (e iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu) // Eaioaa?. — 1992.
— ?1-2. — N. 20-31 [Iineaa].

21. Iaaeieeoiee I.E. ?onneee aii?in e nia?aiaiiua iieeoe/aneea ia?oee //
Eaioaa?. — 1993. — ?2. — N. 26-29 [Iineaa].

22. Aiae?aaa Y.I., Ii?iciaa I.I., Iaaeieeoiee I.E., Iiaiaeaieia I.I.,
Oeiiueaa A.O. Oe?aeioeu ?innee: iiaiey, i?eaioaoeee, aeeciaiiua
i?iaeaiu: Ii iaoa?eaeai yenia?oiiai ii?ina ia ? Eiia?anna oe?aeioeaa a
?innee // Iu — a?aaeaeaia ?innee: Iaoa?eaeu ? Eiia?anna oe?aeioeaa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee / Iiae iau. ?aae. A. ?oaeaiei-Aeaniyea. — I.,
1994. — N. 84-98.

23. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?., ?aci?e O.A. Oeae iaeaaeee oeyo a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
(i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeeo aaaaoc?a: (ca iaoa??aeaie eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy) //
Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a: Iaoe. aeae. / ?i-o nioe?ie. IAI Oe?a?ie; ?aae.
Aioeeee. Oe?. Ae?anii?e i?e IOO: *enei 10. — E.; *eeaai, 1997. — N.
157-170.

24. Eiaaeue/oe A.I., Iaaeieeoiee I.E., ?aciee O.A. Iaeanneay iaeanoue a
eiioaenoa yoiiiieeoe/aneie neooaoeee Oe?aeiu // Iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue
Iaeanneee e?ae: ia?ac e ?aaeueiinoue. (Aeieoiaiou. I/a?ee. Iaoa?eaeu). —
I., 1997. — O. 1. — N. 17-28.

25. Iaaeieeoiee I.E. Yoiiiieeoe/aneay no?aoeoeeaoeey e ono?ienoai
iaoeeiiaeueiie aeecie iauanoaa // Iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue Iaeanneee e?ae:
ia?ac e ?aaeueiinoue (Aeieoiaiou. I/a?ee. Iaoa?eaeu). — I., 1997. — O.2.
— N. 11-23.

26. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. I?iaeaie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai iiae?eo ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy o
i?eci? aoi?/ii? naiii?aai?caoe?? // Aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa iie?oe/ieie i?ioeanaie a ?aa?ii?
(ia i?eeeaae? i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie): Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue Iaean. o?e. OAAeO i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. — Iaeana: IOeIOA?, 1998. — N. 147-153.

27. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. Aoiiiie?oe/i? oa i?aeaoi?/i? eiioe?eoe o
iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi??: o?iee aeey Oe?a?ie // Aoiiiie?oe/i?
eiioe?eoe o iinooioae?oa?iiio i?inoi?? / Aiaei. ?aae.: TH. ?eia?aiei, ?.
Oeiioaiei, A. Noaiaiia. — E., 1999. — N. 59-61.

28. Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. ?aa?iiaeueia iie?oeea ? eaae?e oi?aae?ioe?a //
I?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy: Iaoa??aee ui??/. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio.
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa neooa/?a Oe?. Aeaae. aea?ae.
oi?. i?e I?aceaeaioiai Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a, 31 o?aa. 1996 ?. — E.: Aeae-ai
OAAeO, 1996. — N. 179-182.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaaeie?oi?e I.?. Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a
oe?a?i? (oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 25.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy. — Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii nenoaiieia?/io eiioeaioe?th aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?
iaoiiaeaiino? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?, ui icia/a?
caii/aoeoaaiiy iiaiai iai?yio a iaooe? c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia iniia? iiaeo iaoeiaeo eaoaai??e, cie?aia
oaeeo, ye aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi?, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia naiii?aai?caoe?y,
aoii?aa?ii, oi?oa?ii-aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiee oei aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith, ?i.
Canoiniaaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee, ui ?icoe?ththoue
iiaeeeaino? aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo i?ioean?a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo ? iiaea?i?caoe?? iaoai?ci?a a?yaeoaaiiy c a?aooaaiiyi
caeiiii??iinoae noni?eueii? naiii?aai?caoe?eii? aeeiai?ee. Cai?iiiiiaaii
oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy Eiioeaioe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie.
Aeae?eaii aeooaeuei? iai?yie aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a iaaeao
iaoeiaiai caaacia/aiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aoi?ia, aaaaoieoeueoo?i?noue,
aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
?aoi?ie, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oaeoi?, aoi?/ia (aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia)
naiii?aai?caoe?y, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea, aoii?aa?ii,
aoiinioe?aeueiee iii?oi?eia, oi?oa?ii-aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiee oei
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith.

SUMMARY

Nadolishniy, P.I. The Ethno-National Aspect of Administrative Reform in
Ukraine (Theoretical and Methodological Analysis). — Manuscript.

Thesis for a Doctorate Degree of Public Administration by specialty
25.00.01 — Theory and History of Public Administration. — Ukrainian
Academy of Public Administration, Office of the President of Ukraine,
Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation deals with questions regarding the realization of
administrative reform in Ukraine. In the dissertation, the author has
developed a systematic concept concerning ethnic-national conditions
under the formation of a public administrative system in the context of
national state construction and civil society building. This is the base
for new direction in theory of public administration/management.

It was thoroughly analyzed and proven that ethnic-national factors
influence the national and democratic ideology of administrative reform
in almost all aspects. This paper proves that the formation of a new
public administration system is determined by a certain
national-government system as well as public ethnic-national policy. The
role which ethnic-national factors play in the process of territorial
transformation, the assessment of the dimensions and frontiers of
administrative units, and the creation of a system of territorial
organization of power and local self-government are investigated. In
addition, it is determined that there are some trends concerning the
self-organization of scattered national minorities and the mechanisms of
interaction of national-cultural autonomies with authorities and bodies
of self-government.

The author demonstrates the peculiarities of governmental-managerial
relations dealing with the ethno-national sphere, which are caused by
the uniqueness of the involved sides as well as by the specifics of
ethnic-national processes as subjects needing regulation. An idea is
proposed for a new interethnic relation regulation and ethno-national
development system in the context of the re-creation of a general
organization model of a multi-ethnic civil society. It is substantiated
that the need exists for the creation of a so called «semi closed»
public service system in Ukraine. Some theoretical and methodological
approaches are determined to create a structured system of ethnic-social
and ethnic-political monitoring using GIS technologies.

In the dissertation some theoretical principles and methods are
formulated which would allow for an increase in the possibilities to
investigate the interconnection between the processes of ethno-national
revival and the modernization of the public administration system.
Administrative reform is considered to be a main problem from the point
of national state building and the coordinating of a managerial
sub-system of social system requirements for reaching a new level of
integrity. It is shown that the application of the instrument and
methodical apparatus of synergetics significantly increases the
possibilities to systematically analyze modernization processes in
multi-ethnic societies and to theoretically design public administration
mechanisms. Revealed are the heuristic horizons of the ethnic-regional
analyses method and the role of the latter in distinguishing the
regional structure of a country as well as determining approaches for
dealing with territorial organizations of power.

Phenomena of the ethnic-national factor, including the way it acts in a
modern global and local environment, is investigated to a much less
degree. Given is an alternative definition of the «ethnic-national
factor» as a key category of ethnic-policy study and statehood building
science. Meanings of some other terms (ethnic-national
self-organization, ethno-region, unitary-decentralized state
organization, etc.), by means of which analyses is carried out, are made
more clearly defined.

Some concrete ways for further improving both the Administrative Reform
Conception and the program of its realization are proposed. Highlighted
are some actual directions of investigative activities with the aim of
ensuring scientificaly the administrative reform. It is argued that it
is important to experimentally verify new models of public
administration and local self-government and include as participants of
these experiments regions with multi-ethnic populations (ethno-regions).

The processes of decentralization that are caused by ethno-political
fragmentation, various elements of administrative systems, and the
attempts to solve ethno-national problems, are compared in post-Soviet
countries, east and west European countries, and then the Canada and
USA.

The basic results of the research work were practically applied in
scientific and educational spheres during drafting of legislative acts,
documents of executive power bodies and national social units and
others.

Key words: administrative reform, multiculture, public administration,
ethnic-national aspect of administrative reform, ethnic
(ethnic-national) self-organization, ethnic-national factor,
ethno-national policy, ethno-social monitoring, ethno-region,
unitary-decentralized state organization.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaaeieeoiee I.E. Yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiue aniaeo aaeieieno?aoeaiie ?aoi?iu a
Oe?aeia (oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneee aiaeec). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 25.00.01 — oai?ey e
enoi?ey ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. — Oe?aeineay Aeaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaii nenoaiieiae/aneoth eiioeaioeeth
yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiie iaoneiaeaiiinoe aaeieieno?aoeaiie ?aoi?iu a Oe?aeia,
/ai iieiaeaii ia/aei iiaiio iai?aaeaieth a iaoea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey. Enneaaeiaaiea i?iaaaeaii ia iniiaa iiauo iao/iuo eaoaai?ee,
a /anoiinoe oaeeo, eae yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiue oaeoi?, yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiay
naiii?aaiecaoeey, yoii?aaeii, oieoa?ii-aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiue oei
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, ae?. I?eiaiaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea
iiaeoiaeu, eioi?ua ?anoe?ytho aiciiaeiinoe enneaaeiaaiey acaeiinayce
i?ioeannia yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey e iiaea?iecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiii-oi?aaeai/aneeo iaoaieciia n o/aoii caeiiiia?iinoae
iauanoaaiiie naiii?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeeiaieee. I?aaeeiaeaii iooe
aeaeueiaeoaai niaa?oainoaiaaiey Eiioeaioeee aaeieieno?aoeaiie ?aoi?iu.
Auaeaeaii aeooaeueiua iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a
?aieao iao/iiai iaania/aiey aaeieieno?aoeaiie ?aoi?iu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaeieieno?aoeaiay ?aoi?ia, ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea,
iieeeoeueoo?iinoue, oieoa?ii-aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiue oei ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa, yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiue aniaeo aaeieieno?aoeaiie ?aoi?iu,
yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiue oaeoi?, yoie/aneay (yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiay)
naiii?aaiecaoeey, yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiay iieeoeea, yoii?aaeii,
yoiinioeeaeueiue iiieoi?eia.

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