IAOeIIIAEUeIA AEAAeAIIss IAOE OE?A?IE

IINOEOOO A?OAIEIAI?

AEANIA AIEIAeEIE? IAO?IAE*

OAeE 902.023 (477.75) “ 03 + 03”

AOIIEOEUeOO?II I?IOeANE A E?EIO

o III no. aei i.a. — IV no.i.a.

(ca iaoa?iaeaie eiiii? ea?aiiee)

Inoi?e/ii iaoee 07.00.04 — a?oaieiaiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa inoi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?i inoi?i? noa?iaeaaiueiai naioo i na?aaeiio
aieia Niioa?iiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo Iiiinaioe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee eaiaeeaeao inoi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

O?AIOIIA IAI? IEEIEAEIAE*,

Niioa?iiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e inoi?i? noa?iaeaaiueiai naioo

i na?aaeiio aieia

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeieoi? inoi?e/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee

COAA? AIOAEIE IEOAEEIAE*,

Iinoeooo a?oaieiai? IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?iaiaeiee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee

aiaeaeieo aioe/ii? a?oaieiai?

eaiaeeaeao inoi?e/ieo iaoe

EEI*EI ETHAIA NOAIAIIAIA,

Iocae inoi?e/ieo eiooiaiinoae Oe?a?ie —

oieiy Iaoeiiiaeueiiai iocath inoi?i? Oe?a?ie,

i?iaiaeiee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee

aiaeaeieo inoi?i? thaaei?iiai ienoaoeoaa

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa Oa?eianueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao, eaoaae?a

inoi?i? noa?iaeaaiueiai naioo i na?aaeiio aieia,

Iiiinoa?noai inaioe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny 22 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii
ciaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.234.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoeie ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a inoi?e/ieo iaoe i?e Iinoeoooi
a?oaieiai? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

254655, Ee?a-210, i?ini. Aa?i?a Noaeiia?aaeo, 12.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeiaie aiaeiioaoei Iinoeoooo
a?oaieiai? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

i. Ee?a-210, i?ini. Aa?i?a Noaeiia?aaeo, 12.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee “18” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao inoi?e/ieo iaoe Iao?aoaiei A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. E?einueeee iiaino?ia caeaaia aoa iinoeai, aea
ia?aieioaeeny iieioe/ii oa aeiiiii/ii iioa?ane ?icieo aea?aeaa, a oaeiae
aeiei aaaaoueio ieaiai i ia?iaeia noa?iaeaaiueiai naioo. Aca?iiaeiy
?iciiaoii/ieo aa?aa?ia — caiea?iaia oa ei/iaeeia, a oaeiae ?o eiioaeoe c
a?aoeueeeie eieiiinoaie i, iiciioa, c ?eieyiaie, inoioii aieeioee ia
iaoa?iaeueio oa aeooiaio eoeueoo?o ianaeaiiy e?ath, a oaeiae eiai
aoii/io inoi?ith, iaoiiaeaoe ?o neeaaeiee, neie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa?.
Aiaecia/aia neeaaeiinoue, ye i iaaeinoaoiinoue inoi?e/ieo aeaea?ae,
noai?thaaee, inioth/i e aeini, cia/ii o?oaeiiui a ?ic?iaoei aeayeeo
eiie?aoieo ieoaiue inoi?i? E?eio o ?aiiueiio caeiciiio aioei. Oea
noino?oueny i ieoaiiy i?i aoiieoeueoo?io iaeaaeiinoue ia?iaeia, ui ooo
iaoeaee, c yeei ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaii i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy /ano oa oeyoia
i?iieeiaiiy ia iiaino?ia ?icieo ieaiai, a oaeiae oa?aeoa?o ?o
aca?iiaiaeiinei c iinoeaaei ianaeaiiyi.

Aeaii ienaiii? o?aaeeoei? iinoyoue neoio, o?ea/anoo oa, iieiee,
noia?a/eeao iioi?iaoeith i?i ianaeaiiy E?eio, neeaae yeiai aoa iaeaieueo
aa?aenoei a na?iaonueeo aiioo (III no. aei i.a. — IV no.i.a.). Oiio, uia
i?inoaaeeoe ciiie a aoii/iiio neeaaei iiaino?iaa, caeo/aiiy iioeo,
aieiaiei /eiii a?oaieiai/ieo, aeaea?ae iaieio/a. Ca iiaenoieaie
aaaaoi?i/ieo ?iceiiie o iaoeiaie eioa?aoo?i c’yaeeanue cia/ia
eieueeinoue ?iaio, eiaeia c yeeo, oae /e iiaeoa, oi?ea?oueny icia/aii?
oaie. ?icaeyaeath/e aoiieoeueoo?io neooaoeith a ?icii o?iiieiai/ii
ia?iiaee, aeineiaeieee aiaeicothoue, ia?aaaaeii, naiaeioeoaa ienaiieo oa
aiia?aoi/ieo aeaea?ae, ?iciiiaiioii a?oaieiai/ii ciaoiaeee, a oaeiae
aeaii aio?iiieiai? oa iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo. I?ioa, o ia?aaaaeiie
aieueoinoi oeeo ?iaio ae?ae iacia/iith ii?ith aeei?enoaii ?acoeueoaoe
aeineiaeaeaiiy eiiii? ea?aiiee. sse iaeia c iaeaieueo ianiaeo eaoaai?ie
a?oaoaeoia, ui iioiaeyoue c ?iceiiie aa?aa?nueeeo iai’yoie Iiaii/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y, eiiia ea?aiiea aei oiai ae ? iaeiei c iaeaieueo
aoiia?aoi/ieo ?iciiaeaeia a?oaoaeoia, yei cia/iith ii?ith aiaeaeaathoue
aoii/io iaeaaeiinoue ?o ae?iaieeia.

Caaaeyee coneeeyi aaaaoueio a?oaieiaia, ca?ac o caaaeueiiio aeaeyaei
noi?ioaaeinue aeineoue aaeaeaaoia oyaeaiiy i?i neeaae ianaeaiiy, ui
caeeoeei ie?aii iai’yoee, a oaeiae iaoeaei a oeo /e iioeo ?aaiiiao E?eio
o na?iaonueeee /an. I?ioa, ii?iaiyiiy iaea?aeaieo ?icieie aaoi?aie
aeniiaeia aeaiiino?o? aeayeo ?icaiaeiinoue iiaeyaeia, ui naiae/eoue i?i
iacaaa?oaiiinoue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, ie?aii aniaeoe yei? ua caeeoathoueny
aeeneonieieie aai iac’yniaaieie cianii.

Oaeei /eiii, iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeee iioa?an iaoeiaoeia aei aoii/ii?
inoi?i? iiaino?iaa, icioth/ee noai ni?aa i?eionea ian ciiao caa?iooeny
aei aeaii? oaie. C oni?? noeoiiinoi aeaea?ae, ca iniiaia o aeena?oaoei?
ia?aii eiiio ea?aiieo (aeaei — EE). Aeai? EE aieiaiei ia’?eoii aea/aiiy
iiynith?oueny, ii-ia?oa, ?? aoiia?aoi/iinoth, a ii-ae?oaa, oei, ui
aieueoinoue inioth/eo ?iaio, i?enay/aieo EE E?eio, iaienaii ii?iaiyii
aeaaii i aenaioeththoue, ia?aaaaeii, ciaoiaeee 20-50 — ?i/ii? aeaaieie,
yei iioiaeyoue, aieiaiei /eiii, c iai’yoie iiciio neioia. O aeaeaiiyo
inoaiiio ?ieia EE, cae/aeii, niaoeiaeueii ia ?icaeyaea?oueny cianii i a
?iaeeinieo aeiaaeeao aeineoue iiaii ioaeieo?oueny o eiioaenoi caaaeueii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oi? /e iioi? iai’yoee. ?acii c oei, ?iceiieaie
inoaiiueiai /ano iaeiie/aii aaaaoi iaoa?iaeo, yeee inoioii ?icoe?th?
iaoa oyaeaiiy i?i e?einueeee ea?aii/iee eiiieaen i iio?aao? naiinoieiiai
aea/aiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei, iaaoaa? cia/aiiy nenoaiaoecaoeiy i
eiiieaeniee aiaeic noa?eo oa iiaeo ciaoiaeie. Oaeiai niaoeiaeueiiai
ocaaaeueithth/iai aeineiaeaeaiiy c EE E?eio III no. aei i.a. — IV
no.i.a., yea a?oioo?oueny ia nieiaeiie aeaea?aeueiie aaci, aeini ia
inio?. E?ii oiai, aiii aea? ciiao eiie?aoecoaaoe, aeiiiaieoe, a iiiaei i
iiaiinoth ia?aaeyiooe aeniiaee uiaei aoii/ieo iioa?i?aoaoeie, yei
neeaeeny a iaooei.

C ?iciiiaiioieo aeeiyieo i?aaeiaoia, ae?iaeaieo ?o/iei niiniaii,
i?iaiaeiciaaii iaeaieueo iieaciai a eoeueoo?iiio aiaeiioaiii — iinoae oa
aeayei ae?iae niaoeeoi/iiai i?ecia/aiiy (e?eoee, naioeeueieee oa ii.). A
iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaii iaoa?iae ic aeineoue aeia?a aea/aiiai
neionueeiai Aoeaaiaenueeiai ai?iaeeua, a oaeiae ua ia aaaaeaii aei
iaoeiaiai iaiao ciaoiaeee c iae?iiieia III-IV no.i.a. Ae?oaeia oa
Iaecaoe (?iceiiee aeniaaeeoeie Niioa?iiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oiiaa?neoaoo oa E?einueeiai aiaeaeieaiiy Iinoeoooo noiaeiciaanoaa IAI
Oe?a?ie iiae ea?iaieoeoaii I.I. O?aioiiaa), yei caa?iaathoueny o oiiaeao
E?einueeiai ?anioaeieainueeiai e?a?ciaa/iai iocath. E?ii oiai, a?aoiaaia
any iioaeieiaaia ia nueiaiaeii EE c iai’yoie iiciueineionueei? eoeueoo?e
oa iiaeeueieeia iiciuei?einueei? aeiae. Aa?o/e aei oaaae e?ae iaeo
/enaeueiinoue aeaeaii? EE III-IV no.i.a., iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
ea?aii/iee eiiieaen, yeee neeaaea?oueny c aieueo iiae 400 iinoaeei,
iiaiinoth ?iceiiaiiai iiaeeueieea Ae?oaeia, ui iaaea? eiio, iaaiith
ii?ith, cia/aiiy aoaeiiiiai.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoeiy
aeeiiaia iiae /an iaa/aiiy a anii?aioo?i, a ?aieao ieaiiai? oaie
eaoaae?e inoi?i? coa?iaeaaiueiai naioo i na?aaeiio aieia
Niioa?iiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo “Caoiaeia ?a?aciy o
noa?iaeaaiinoi oa na?aaeiueiai//i”.

Iaoa cai?iiiiiaaii? ?iaioe — aea/eoe iaeiie/aii ca inoaiii ?iee iiai
ciaoiaeee EE, ii?yae c aaea aiaeiieie, oa ia yeinii iiaiio ?iaii ciaiue
aenaioeeoe aoiieoeueoo?ii i?ioeane, ui aiaeaoaaeeny o na?aaeiaeui
aa?aa?nueeiai ianaeaiiy Iiaii/ii-Caoiaeiiai, Oeaio?aeueiiai oa
Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiiai E?eio o na?iaonueeee /an. Iniaeeao oaaao aoaea
i?eaeieaii iiaeiyi III no.i.a., yea noaei nai??iaeiei ?oaaaeai a inoi?i?
E?eio i cia/iith ii?ith aecia/eei eiai aoii/iee neeaae o ?aiiueiio
na?aaeiueiai//i. A inoi?iia?aoi? oeae ?oaiae ?icaeyaea?oueny oaeei
/eiii: oaoiaoei o aaeoci aioe/ii? oa neioi-na?iaonueei? a?oaieiai?
iaiaaeothoue nai? aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?oith iieiaeiith — na?aaeeiith III
no.i.a. — aeaoith caaeaaei E?einueei? Neioi?, a ia?iiae c ae?oai?
iieiaeie noieiooy, iia’ycaiee c ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi iae?iiieia c iioith
iaoa?iaeueiith eoeueoo?ith, ciaoiaeeoueny aaea o eiiiaoaioei?
iaaei?aenoia. E?ii oiai, ie?aii aeineiaeieee ?icoeiiththoue iae?iiiei
III-IV no.i.a. ye iiciueineionueei i iia’ycothoue oiiae inoi?i? neioia
ic aoi?aiaiiyi aoiia. A oaeie neooaoei? ieaeiy iaaea o?iiieiai/ieo ?aiie
?iaioe aecia/aia III no. aei i.a., — /anii aeieeiaiiy e?einueeiai
eieaeueiiai aa?iaioo iiciueineionueei? a?oaieiai/ii? eoeueoo?e, ui
inioaaea i a ia?oi noieiooy i.a., a aa?oiy — eiioeai IV no.i.a., —
ia?iiaeii aoinueei? iaaaee, yea nooo?ai ciiieea aoiiea?oo iiaaeiy
Noiaeii? ?a?iie i, ai?iaiaeii, ni?e/eieea i?eieiaiiy ooieoeiiioaaiiy
aaaaoueio iae?iiieia iiciuei?einueeiai /ano a E?eio. C?iaeaii oea aeey
oiai, uia i?inoaaeeoe, /e inioaaea niaaeei?iiinoue iiae aoiinaie aeaio
aiio, /e aiaeaoeanue iiaia ciiia ianaeaiiy iiaino?iao. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe aecia/aii eiie?aoii caaaeaiiy:

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee oa iiaenoaae aiaee?eoi?, caeaoii? aei ia?aai?ee
eeaneoieaoei? EE, a oaeiae noi?ioethaaoe iiiyoieiee aia?ao, ui a iie
aeei?enoiao?oueny;

— caeienieoe ii?iaiyeueii-oeiieiai/io eeaneoieaoeith EE, ui
aeineiaeaeo?oueny, iiaeia?aaoe aei ia? yeiiiaa iiaia eiei aiaeiaie,
iniaeeai na?iaonueeiai /ano;

— aecia/eoe eoeueoo?io ao?eaooeith oa ieoiio aaao ?iciieoeueoo?ii? EE, a
oaeiae c?iaeoe ?? o?iiieiai/io nenoaiaoecaoeith;

— ia iiaenoaai iaea?aeaieo niinoa?aaeaiue, caeo/eaoe iioi aeaii
a?oaieiai/iiai oa inoi?e/iiai ?iaiia, cai?iiiioaaoe iioa?i?aoaoeith
aeeiaiiee aoiieoeueoo?ii? i caaaeueiiinoi?e/ii? neooaoei? a E?eio
(anoaiiaeoe aoii/io iaeaaeiinoue ia?iaeia, ui ooo aeeee, aecia/eoe /an,
oeyoe oa iioaineaiinoue i?iieeiaiiy aei E?eio ?icieo ieaiai, a oaeiae
oa?aeoa? ?o aca?iiaiaeiinei iiae ciaith oa iinoeaaei ianaeaiiyi).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? a caaaeaiii oa aiaeici iaeaieueo iiaii? aeai?ee
e?einueei? EE, o?aoeia ciaoiaeie yei? ioaeieo?oueny aia?oa; ?ic?iaeaii
eeaneoieaoeith oei?? EE, yea nie?a?oueny ia ia’?eoeaii oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeineiaeaeaiieo ia’?eoia; ia iiaenoaai ?o aea/aiiy aeaeieaii 1 aoii/ii
iaeo?aeueio a?oio EE, a oaeiae 15 aaoa?iaaiieo a?oi, yei
niiaaiaeiinyoueny c oeie /e iioeie aoiieoeueoo?ieie eiiiiiaioaie;
aiaeoai?aii ca’ycio, iineiaeiaio ea?oeio aoii/ii? inoi?i? E?eio III no.
aei i.a. — IV no.i.a., a yeie aoee ia?aaeyiooi aai ooi/iaii ie?aii
iiia?aaeii iiceoei?, a oaeiae aeneiaeaii aeayei iiai ii?eoaaiiy uiaei
neeaaeo aa?aa?nueeiai ianaeaiiy iiaino?iaa, yea oieno?oueny
a?oaieiai/ii, /ano ia?ainii? iiyae i iiaeaeueoiai i?iieeiaiiy eiai
ie?aieo eiiiiiaioia, a oaeiae noinoieia iiae i?aaenoaaieeaie ?icieo
aoii/ieo a?oi.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy noaiooue a i?eaiaei
a?oaieiaai, yei caeiathoueny eeaneoieaoei?th EE c iai’yoie iioeo
?aaiiiia I?e/i?iiii?’y, aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii aeey aeeeaaeaiiy
inoi?i? E?eio oa iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie o na?aaeiie oeiei, i?e ?ic?iaeaiii
caaaeueieo i niaoeiaeueieo eo?nia, a oaeiae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy naiiia?ia o
aocao, i?e iiaeaioiaoei iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo aeaeaiue oa noai?aiii
iocaeieo aeniiceoeie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A noaooyo, iioaeieiaaieo o niiaaaoi?noai c
I.I. O?aioiiaei, I.A. Iieiaeoeiaei oa N.A. Ioeueaeii, a oaeiae o
naiinoieieo aeineiaeaeaiiyo, aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue ?ic?iaea ieoaiue
eiiieaeniiai aiaeico EE c eecee-eiaeinueeeo i iiciueineionueeeo
iinaeaiue, a oaeiae c iiaeeueieea iiciuei?eineiai /ano oa aeyaeaiiy
na?aae ia? aaoa?iaaiieo eoeueoo?ieo aeaiaioia, yei niiaaiaeiinyoueny c
oeie /e iioeie aoii/ieie a?oiaie.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia. Ie?aii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? ii?eethaeiaii ia
iiaeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioeiyo, ui aiaeaoaaeeny o i. Oa?eiai (1995 oa 1997
??.), a oaeiae iaaiai?aii ia caniaeaiii aiaeaeieo aioe/ii? oa
neioi-na?iaonueei? a?oaieiai? E?einueei? oiei? Iinoeoooo a?oaieiai? IAI
Oe?a?ie (1997 ?.).

Ioaeieaoei?. Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoei? aeeeaaeaii o 9-oe noaooyo,
iioaeieiaaieo o aeaeaiiyo E?einueei? oiei? Iinoeoooo a?oaieiai? oa
E?einueeiai aiaeaeieaiiy Iinoeoooo noiaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie,
Iiiinoa?noaa eoeueoo?e A? E?ei, Aao/ena?aenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
inoi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai caiiaiaeieea, Oa?eianueeiai
inoi?eei-a?oaieiai/iiai oiaa?enoaa, iocath i. ?iiiii (Ioaeiy), a oaeiae
o oacao aeiiiaiaeae caaaeaieo eiioa?aioeie o Oa?eiai i iaoa?iaeao
iiaeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioei? o i. Oe?aniieue (1994 ?.).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ic anooio, o?ueio ?icaeieia
oa aeniiaeia (180 n.), nienea aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e (310 iaeiaioaaiue,
n.181-203), nienea nei?i/aiue (n.204), a oaeiae /ioe?ueio aeiaeaoeia
(n.205-263), iaeei c yeeo iethno?aoei? (45 ?en.).

INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOeI?

O anooii iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeueiinoue oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo i
caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoei?, icia/aii aeei?enoaii aeaea?aea oa o?iiieiai/ii
?aiee ?iaioe, a oaeiae iaaaaeaii iaeyae noaio aea/aiiy EE c iai’yoie
E?eio i aeniiaee, yeeo aeieoee ?? aeineiaeieee.

?icaeie 1 Iaoiaeeea aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aieiaia caaaeaiiy oeueiai ?icaeieo —
ae?iaeaiiy iiaenoaa eeaneoieaoei? EE, ineieueee aiia ? aieiaiith
/anoeiith ia?aeiiiai aiaeico aoaeue-yei? a?oie a?oaieiai/ieo ciaoiaeie.
Iiaiioeiiia eeaneoieaoeiy ia?aaeaa/a? iaeie yeiiiaa aieueoi? eieueeinoi
eiiiiiaioia, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue ia’?eoe ui aiaeicothoueny, aea ia
i?aeoeoei aeinoaoiuei iaiaaeeoeny aeaeieaiiyi iaeaieueo nooo?aeo
oa?aeoa?enoee iniiaiiai aeaea?aea, eio?i iiaeooue noaoe ia’?eoeaiith
iiaenoaaith aeey eiai a?oioaaiiy.

O?aaeeoei? aeaioiaeaiiy EE ia?aaeaaaeeny a iniaeeainoyo oaoiiee,
oaoiieiai?, oi?ie oa i?iaiaioaoei?. Oaoiiea ae?iaieoeoaa iinoaeo o
aeaaieio aoea aeineoue i?eiioeaia, a aieiaia — iaeiiiaiioia, a
aiaeiiinoae i?i oaoiieiaith EE, ye i?i aoiiia?ei?oth/o iciaeo,
iaaeinoaoiuei i aiie ua inoaoi/ii ia c’yniaaii. Oiio, iaeaieueo
nooo?aeie i?e aoiieoeueoo?iie ao?eaooei? oeo /e iioeo ae?iaia
caeeoathoueny ?o oi?ia oa aeaei?. I?e a?oioaaiii EE aeei?enoaii
ii?oieiai/io eeaneoieaoeith, yea aaco?oueny ia iiaeiaiinoi oa
aiaeiiiiinoi oi?ie i?aaeiaoia. O?aoiaoth/e aaaaoi?iaiaainoue iiiyooy
«oi?ia», aei ii?oieiai/ieo aiaeianaii oaei eiai neeaaeiai ye
eiino?oeoeiy, aa?en oa ciaiioiinoue. Eiino?oeoeiy — ?ic/eaiaiiy
(eieueeinoue yeaiaioia) i eiioiao?aoeiy (eieueeinoue i ?iciiuaiiy oi/ie
ia?aoeiia i?ioieth) ia’?eoo, yei ? iaaeaie yeaiaioia i
aiaeie?aieththoue, noiniaii iinoaeo, i?eaeiiio /anoeio aiae iea/a, a
iea/a — aiae ai?ea. Aa?en — ia?aoeie (nooiiiue e?eaecie) eiioo?o, a
oaeiae ?icii?iinoue ?icieo aeaiaioia eiino?oeoei? ia’?eoo. Oea aeineoue
aaaeeeaa oa?aeoa?enoeea, yea eiie?aoeco? aiaeiiinoi i?i ii?oieiaith
iinoaeei, ineieueee, iath/e iaeiaeiao eiino?oeoeith, aiie iiaeooue
inoioii aiae?iciyoeny ca aa?enii.

Iienoth/e oi?ie iinoaeei, yei oiiaii noiaeyoue aei oie iaa?oaiiy
iniiaieo aaiiao?e/ieo oiao? oa ?o eiiaiiaoeie, canoiniaaii oa?iiie, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny a aaiiao?i? oa noa?aiiao?i?, ai iaoaoi?e/ii
aecia/aiiy aeeeeeathoue ?icii, iieiee noia?a/eeai anioeiaoei?. O ?iaioi
aiie iieiee ana ae oaee aeei?enoiaothoueny noiniaii oeo ae?iaia, iacaa
yeeo noieei oei?iieeany o iaoeiaiio eaeneeiii. A?oioth/e eiiiee iinoae,
ie cioeioeeny c oei, ui /ioei aeaeieyeeny eeoa e?aeii oeie, yei ?icei
aiae?iciyeeny iaeei aiae iaeiiai, aea iiae ieie ?iciiuoaaeeny iinoaeeie
iaiiaae ia?aoiaeieo oi?i. A oaeie neooaoei? aoee aaaaeaii eieueeicii
ia?aiao?e, yei aacothoueny ia aeii?i iniiaieo aeiaiao?ia i aenio
iinoaeei oa ia/eneaiii iiaeaenia, ui iaeaieueo iiaii aiaeia?aaeathoue
i?iii?oei? ?oiuei? oi?ie. Aeei?enoaii 8 ii?oiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao?ia:
aeiaiao? aeia (d1), aeiaiao? ooeoao (d2), yeee /anoi caiaa?oueny c
iaeneiaeueiei aeiaiao?ii iinoaeeie (D), aeiaiao? iniiae ai?ea (d3),
aeiaiao? ai?ea (d4), aenioa i?eaeiiii? /anoeie (h1), aenioa iea/a (h2),
aenioa ai?ea (h3) i caaaeueia aenioa iinoaeeie (I). Caeaaeii aiae
eiino?oeoei? iinoaeei eieueeinoue canoiniaaieo ia?aiao?ia iiaea aooe
iaioa. I?eeiyoi c o?aooaaiiyi aaaaeaieo ia?aiao?ia iiaeaene iaaaaeaii
ie?aii aeey eiaeii? eaoaai?i? iinoaeo, ai aiie ia caaaeaee iaeiaeiai.
I?eioeeie eeaneoieaoei? ae?iaia niaoeeoi/iiai i?ecia/aiiy ia oae
aeaoaeiciaaii. Aianeiaeie iaaeinoaoiuei? ?ic?iaeaiiinoi iiiyoieiiai
aia?aoo no/anii? a?oaieiai/ii? iaoee, aeey i?aaeeueiiai ?icoiiiiy
aeei?enoaieo o ?iaioi oa?iiiia, ui iicia/athoue neeaaeiai /anoeie
iinoaeei, iaaaaeaii ?o cia/aiiy.

Caaaeueia no?oeoo?a eeaneoieaoeieii? noaie oaea. Any EE ?icaeieaia ia
aeaa aiaeaeiee (iinoae oa ae?iae niaoeeoi/iiai i?ecia/aiiy). O
aiaeaeieao EE iiaeiey?oueny ia eaoaai?i?. Ca oi?iith aeia, o aeayeeo
eaoaai?iyo aeaeieaii aeaa ?iaee iinoaeei: e?oaeiaeiiii oa ieineiaeiiii,
a c o?aooaaiiyi eieueeinoi aeaiaioia eiino?oeoei? aiie ?icaeieaii ia
aeaee: iaeii-, aeaio- oa o?ueio/anoeiii. Aeaei iinoaeeie
?iciiaeieythoueny ca oeiaie, yei ? aieiaiith eeaneoieaoeieiith
iaeeieoeath noaie. O ?iaioi iiae oeiii ?icoii?oueny a?oia a?oaoaeoia
iaeii?? eaoaai?i?, ia’?aeiaieo ca ?o iiaeiaiinoth iiae niaith i
aiaeiiiiinoyi aiae a?oaoaeoia oei?? aai iioi? eaoaai?i?. Oeiiooai?thth/i
iciaee aeey ?icieo eaoaai?ie EE iiaeooue aooe caaaeueieie, a iiaeooue i
ia caiaaoeny, oiio oeie aeaeieaii ca iaeaieueo iiieeaeie iciaeaie, a
aa?iaioe — ca iaeaieueo noaoe/ieie. Oae, oeie ai?ueeiiiaeiaieo iinoaeei
aeaeieaii ca oi?iith ooeoaa, i?iii?oei? yeiai iiaeooue ooai?thaaoe
iiaeoeie, a ?o aa?iaioe — ca iniaeeainoyie ii?oieiai? ai?ea (a ie?aieo
eaoaai?iyo, iai?eeeaae aea/eeia, ca iciaeith aiaeiinii? aenioe ai?ea
aeiaeaoeiai aeaeieaii iiaeaa?iaioe). Aeey ienie iaeaieueo iiieeaith ?
aa?oiy /anoeia (e?a?), oiaei ye oi?ia ?o ooeoaa noiaeeoue, aieiaiei
/eiii, aei c?icaiiai eiiono i iaiianoa?e. O aeayeeo eaoaai?iyo oeie
iiaeooue ooai?thaaoe a?oie. Aeieeaaeia oa?aeoa?enoeea eaoaai?ie EE oa
i?eioeeie ?o eeaneoieaoei? iaaaaeaii o Aeiaeaoeo A.

C i?e/eie aiaenooiinoi iiaiioeiiii? iioi?iaoei? i?i oaoiieiaith
aeaioiaeaiiy iinoaeei, o?aoiaaii oieueee ?o oaeoo?o. Ca yeinoth ia?iaee
iiaa?oii aeaeieaii oaoiieiai/ii a?oie (OA): 1 OA — eiuaia EE; 2 OA —
iiaeeiuaia aai ?aoaeueii caaeaaeaeaia EE; 3 OA — neaai caaeaaeaeaia EE.
Iien aeaei?o iaaaaeaii ia?aeaeueii ic iienii ii?oieiai/ieo oeiia.

O aeoiaeiee aeey eeaneoieaoei? ianea aoee aiaeia?aii ciaoiaeee c
eoeueoo?ieo iaoa?oaaiue i eiiieaenia ai?iaeeu, naeeu oa iiaeeueieeia
Iiaii/ii-Caoiaeiiai, Oeaio?aeueiiai i Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiiai E?eio, a
oaeiae iiaeeiiiee iaoa?iae, iaeaaeiinoue yeiai aei III no. aei i.a. — IV
no.i.a. ia aeeeeea? noiiiao. Eeaneoieaoeieio noaio ?ic?iaeaii ia
iiaenoaai oeieeo aai a?oaieiai/ii oeieeo ae?iaia, a oaeiae oeaieia, ui
aeathoue oyao i?i iiaio oi?io ia’?eoa. *a?aiee, caa?aaeaiiinoue yeeo ia
caaeiaieueiy? aenoiooei aeiiaai, oa yei iathoue iiaeeaiaeoaeueii
iniaeeainoi ii?oieiai?, aeeth/aii ye aeiiiaiaiiy eeaneoieaoei?, aea
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iica ?? ?aiie i iiney oeo eaoaai?ie, aei yeeo aiie,
iaeaieueo iiiai?ii, aiaeiinyoueny. Iacia/io /anoeio iinoaeo
?aeiino?oeiaaii a?aoi/ii, i?e oeueiio iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eaeieyeany
oi/iinoi aecia/aiiy aeiaiao?o aiiaoeue (e?a?a) oa eooa aiaeoeeo
o?aaiaioia aiae ai?eciioaei aeey c’ynoaaiiy ?o ?aaeueieo i?iii?oeie.
I?ioa, c i?e/eie iieiee neeueii? aneiao?e/iinoi EE, ie?aii
?aeiino?oeoei? iiaeooue iineoe iiiai?iee oa?aeoa?.

?icaeie 2 Eeaneoieaoeiy EE iinoeoue aeania ii?iaiyeueii-oeiieiai/iee
aiaeic aieiaiiai aeaea?aea aeineiaeaeaiiy. Caaaeueia eieueeinoue
iaoa?iaeo, ui oaieoia aei eieaeoei?, iaei/o? 1499 aecaiiey?ia (100%).
Aiaeaeie “Iinoae” (1334 aec./89%) neeaaea?oueny c 14 eaoaai?ie: ienee
(21 iniiaiee oei), aethaea (2 oeie), oa?ieee (7 oeiia), neiai?iaee (1
oei), ieioee (2 oeie), aethaeoey (1 oei), nieiiee (10 oeiia), ai?ueee
(24 iniiaieo oeie), ei?/aae (7 iniiaieo oeiia), ei?/aaiiiaeiaii
cinoaeeie (3 oeie), aea/eee (15 iniiaieo oeiia), eiaoi (15 oeiia), eooei
(19 oeiia), eaeeoe (19 iniiaieo oeiia), eaioa?e (2 oeie) oa aioi?enee (1
oei). Aiaeaeie “Ae?iae niaoeeoi/iiai i?ecia/aiiy” (165 aec./11%)
?ai?acaioiaaii 5 eaoaai?iyie: e?eoee (6 oeiia), naioeeueieee (6 oeiia),
eo?eeueieoei (5 oeiia), /aoi ia iiaeeao-iiaenoaaeao (9 oeiia) oa eoai/ii
/aoi (3 oeie).

Onii eeaneoieiaaiei ia’?eoai o oe?ieiio aaia?aoi/iiio oa o?iiieiai/iiio
aeiaiaciii aoei iiaeia?aii aiaeiai?, iaeiae iaaiie /anoeii ciaoiaeie
aiaeiaia ia aeyaeaii.

O ?icaeiei 3 Ianaeaiiy ia?aaeai?nueeiai oa ai?nueeiai E?eio o III no.
aei i.a. — IV no.i.a., aeoiaey/e ic c?iaeaieo o iiia?aaeiueiio ?icaeiei
niinoa?aaeaiue, c caeo/aiiyi iioeo aeaieo a?oaieiai/iiai oa inoi?e/iiai
?iaiia, i?iiiio?oueny iioa?i?aoaoeiy aoii/ii? i caaaeueiiinoi?e/ii?
neooaoei? a E?eio. Ii?iaiyiiy eiiieaeno EE E?eio III no. aei i.a. — IV
no.i.a. c aiaeiai/iei iaoa?iaeii ic iai’yoie oa?eoi?i? aiae
Aaeoienueeiai aei *i?iiai ii?ia oa aiae Aeoiath aei Iiaaeaiiiai
I?eo?aeey, Iiaii/iiai Eaaeaco i Na?aaeiuei? Aci?, aeicaiey? aeaeieeoe a
eiai neeaaei 1 aoii/ii iaeo?aeueio i 15 aaiaoe/ii ?icii?iaeieo a?oi.
Aiaeiiaiaeii aei nai?? ieoiii? aaae, aiie ?icoaoiaaii o oaeee
iineiaeiaiinoi:

1) iiciueineionueea EE, ui neeaeany o neioia ia noaaei? inieinoi (326
aec./21,85%). Na?aae EE oei?? a?oie ? oi?ie ye niaoeeoi/ii aeey iiciio
neioia E?eio (273 aec./18,25%) aai Ieaeiueiai I?eaeiii?ia’y (19
aec./1,25%), oae i niieueii aeey ianaeaiiy aeaio ?aaiiiia (35
aec./2,35%); 2) aoii/ii iaeo?aeueia EE, ui ioiieth? oe?iei
?iciianthaeaeaii oi?ie i i?iaiaioaoeith, yei aoee aeanoeai iiniyi
aaaaoueio eoeueoo? neioi-na?iaonueei? aeiae (294 aec./19,6%); 3)
neie?aoe/ia EE, yea ii?aeio? ea?aii/ii o?aaeeoei? ?icieo
eoeueoo?ii-inoi?e/ieo niieueiinoae (143 aec./9,55%); 4) EE, yea
i?aaenoaaeaia oieueee a iai’yoeao Oeaio?aeueiiai i Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiiai
E?eio iiciuei?einueeiai /ano (130 aec./8,7%); 5) EE, ui i?iaeiaaeo?
neionueei ea?aii/ii o?aaeeoei? eiioey V-IV no. aei i.a. (89 aec./5,95%);
6) a?oia na?iaonueei? EE (89 aec./5,95%); 7) EE eaaeacueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy (85 aec./5,65%); 8) EE, yeo ia aaea?oueny iaeiicia/ii
iia’ycaoe c aoaeue-yeith ic aeaeieaieo a?oi (79 aec./5,25%); 9) EE, ui
aiaeoai?th? oi?ie aioe/iiai aii/a?iiai iinoaeo (63 aec./4,2%); 10) EE,
yea ia? ca’ycie c ?aeiiaie Ieaeiueiai Aeiio oa I?eeoaaiiy, aea iaoeaei
ciioaia, aea ia?aaaaeii iaionueea ianaeaiiy (54 aec./3,6%); 11) EE,
aeanoeaa aeey ?a?iiaenueeiai Ainii?o (51 aec./3,4%); 12) EE, yea
ciaoiaeeoue ia?aeaei o ioaai?nueeie, aaeueaa?enueeie i /a?iyoianueeie
eoeueoo?ao (35 aec./2,3%); 13) EE ca?oaeiaoeueeiai aeaeyaeo (28 aec./
1,85%); 14) EE, ui noi?ioaaeanue o Ieaeiueiio Iiaoaeaei (15 aec./1%);
15) EE, i?ioioeie yeie aiaeiii o iaoa?iaeueiie eoeueoo?i oaa?ia (14
aec./0,95%); 16) a?oia, ui iia’yco?oueny c o?aeienueeith EE (3
aec./0,2%) (Aeiaeaoie A).

EE, ui ia aieiaei? aoiiia?eoth/eie iciaeaie, aeaei a ?ic?aooiie ia
i?eeiaeanue i i?e iioa?i?aoaoei? aeaea?aea aoei i?eaeieaii oaaao oieueee
ae?iaai eoeueoo?ii cia/oueo a?oi, yei iaei/othoue 1205 aecaiiey?ia
(100%). O?iiieiai/iee ?iciiaeie EE, ui iaaeoiaeeoue aei oeeo a?oi,
aeaiiino?o? ?? ia?iaiiii?ia /aniaa inioaaiiy, oiio ianooiiei e?ieii
?iaioe noaea eoeueoo?ii-o?iiieiai/ia ei?aeyoeiy aeineiaeaeaiiiai
iaoa?iaeo, yea aoea i?iaaaeaia a iaaeao aieueo ae?iaieo i?iiiaeeia /ano.
O ?icaeoeo eiiieaeno EE i, aiaeiiaiaeii, o aoii/iie inoi?i? E?eio
aeaeieaii oinoue ia?iiaeia.

I ia?iiae (ae?oaa iieiaeia III — eiiaoeue II no. aei i.a.)
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny /anii noaiiaeaiiy e?einueeiai aa?iaioo
iiciueineionueei? eoeueoo?e, ia?aoai?aiiyi neioia c ei/iaeeia-neioa?ia
ia inieeo caiea?iaia, aeieeiaiiyi oe?iieaieo iinaeaiue oa noaoeiiia?ieo
iiaeeueieeia, a oaeiae eiinieiaeaoei?th neioia a iaaeao iiaiai
aea?aeaaiiai ia’?aeiaiiy. Aei ii/aoeiaiai aoaio inoi?i? iiciio neioia,
yeee noi?iaiaeaeoaaany aienueeiaeie eiioeieoaie c Oa?niianii i
caeii/eany ao?aoith iacaeaaeiinoi neionueei? aea?aeaae iiney ii?acee
aiae aienuee Iiioienueeiai oea?noaa oa Oa?niiano, aiaeiinyoueny 75
aecaiiey?ia (6,2%) EE.

Ia?aaaaea? iiciueineionueea EE, na?aae yei? e?einueei c?acee (36
aec./48%) aeiiiiothoue iaae caaaeueiiiiciueineionueeeie (3 aec./4%).
Ae?oaa iinoea iiniaea? a?oia EE, ui neeaeany o neioia iai?eeiioei V-IV
no. aei i.a. (16 aec./22,1%). Aeineoue iieaciai ae?iae, yei ii?aeiothoue
oaa?nueei oa iiciueineionueei o?aaeeoei? (5 aec./6,55%), oi/a
eieueeinoue aeania oaa?nueeiai iinoaeo iaaaeeea (3 aec./4%).
Ianiiaeiaaiith aeey aeaiiai ia?iiaeo noaea iayaiinoue iinoaeo, ui
ciaoiaeeoue ia?aeaei a ca?oaeiaoeueeie eoeueoo?i (3 aec./4%). Ca’ycie c
aioe/iith ea?aiieith ia aeoaea neeueiee. Aii i?icoaaeo?oueny o aea/eeao
(2 aec./2,5%), iaeei c yeeo aiaeoai?th? o eiiiie oaoiioei ainii?nueei
e?oaeaeueii iinoaeeie, a oaeiae o noai?aieo neioaie ia iniiai
aeeiinueeeo c?aceia ?iaeeiaeo naioeeueieeao, ui aiae?iciythoueny aiae
nai?o i?ioioeiia (4 aec./5,1%). I?enooiinoue ?iaeeinii? oa niaoeeoi/ii?
ienee c aiaiooeie ona?aaeeio noiieaie (1,25%), ye i eiaoa (1,25%), a
yeiio ii?aeiothoueny iniaeeainoi oi?ie caaaeaii? ienee c i?aeoeeith
aeaioiaeaiiy oeiiai iiciueineionei? eaoaai?i? iinoaeo, iaoiiaeaii
ia?anaeaiiyi aei E?eio /anoeie aeeiiiciaaiiai ianaeaiiy c Ieaeiueiai
Iiaoaeaey. Iaeei oeaiie (1,25%) ia io?eiaa iaaeieii? eoeueoo?ii?
ao?eaooei?.

Aeaii i?i eoeueoo?io iaeaaeiinoue eiiieaeno EE I ia?iiaeo, aeicaieythoue
eiinoaooaaoe ianooiia. O ae?oaie iieiaeii III — iai?eeiioei II no. aei
i.a. iaiiaiei aoii/iei eiiiiiaioii a E?eio aoee iauaaeee ei/iaeo i
iaiiaei/iaeo neioia, ui iaoeaee ?aiioa o noaiiaiio
Aeoiae-Aeiino?ianueeiio iaaee?i//i, I?eaeiii?ia’? i E?eio, oaa?e oa
ciioaiee oaa?i-neionueeee aoiin, ui c’yaeany ua a VI-V no. aei i.a., o
na?aaeiaeui yeeo o?eaaee i?ioeane iiaeaeueoi? eiinieiaeaoei? a ?aeeio
aoii/io niieueiinoue. Nii?iaeiaia neioai ianaeaiiy Ieaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey,
a oaeiae eaoaiiciaaii iini? ca?oaeiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e ia neeaee
neieueei-iaaoaeue cia/ii? a?oie i, i/aaeaeii, iiaiinoth ?ic/eieeeny a
iniiaiie iani aa?aa?ia. I?enooiinoue na?iaoia ca EE ia i?inoaaeo?oueny,
ioaea, na?iaonueeiai ianaeaiiy, yea a noaaieueii i?iaeeaaei a oeae /an a
E?eio, ia aoei.

II ia?iiae (eiiaoeue II — na?aaeeia I no. aei i.a.) ioiieth? /an
ia?aaoaaiiy neionueeiai oea?noaa o caeaaeiinoi aiae Iiioienueei?
aea?aeaae. Iani?eyoeeai ianoaaeie, aeeeeeaii “aeiioaioiaeie aieiaie”,
iaoiiaeee iaeo eieueeinoue EE oeueiai ia?iiaeo (29 aec./2,5%).

sse i ?aiioa, ia?aaaaea? iiciueineionueea EE: e?einueea (5 aec./17,25%),
caaaeueiiiiciueineionueea (2 aec./6,9%). Iaeiaeiaa niiaaiaeiioaiiy
iathoue a?oie iinoaeei, aeanoeai neioai aieueo ?aiiueiai /ano, a oaeiae
ciioaiiai oaa?i-neionueeiai aeaeyaeo (ii 5 aec./ 17,25%). A oeae ia?iiae
ia ai?iaeeuao Aoeaaiae oa Iaaiieue aia?oa c’yaeythoueny ?aaa?eoaaoi
eo?eeueieoei (3 aec./10,35%), yei iaaeieii aeieoiaioothoue iayaiinoue
na?iaoia. Eieueeinoue ea?aiiee, ui ianeiaeo? aioe/io iacia/ia (2
aec./6,9%). Iaeei c eaeeoia (3,4%) iiaea aeiaaiinooaaoe ii/aoie
i?iieeiaiiy aei E?eio iaioia, oi/a ia aeeeth/ii, ui eiai iiyaa iia’ycaia
ic na?iaoaie. A?oia iaaecia/aii? EE neeaaea? 6 aec./20,7%.

I?ioyaii II ia?iiaeo iniiaiee ianea aa?aa?nueeiai ianaeaiiy neeaaeaee
neioe, oaa?e oa ?o iauaaeee, iioaa?iaaii a ?aeeiee aoiinioeiaeueiee
i?aaiici, aei neeaaeo yeiai a Oeaio?aeueiiio E?eio oaieoei iaiaaeaia
oa?oioaaiiy na?iaoia.

III ia?iiae (ae?oaa iieiaeia I no. aei i.a. — eiiaoeue I no.i.a.), aei
yeiai aiaeiineoueny iiaoooaaiiy 377 aecaiiey?ia (31,3%) EE,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiooaeiei aeiiiii/iei iiaeeiiii oa
aienueeiai-iieioe/iith aeoeaicaoei?th iiciueineionueeiai oea?noaa.

Eiaee?oth/o iiceoeith caeiathoue a?oie neionueei? EE: iiciueineionueea
e?einueea (129 aec./34,2%), oa, ui oniaaeeoaaea ii?ie
na?aaeiueineionueeiai /ano (44 aec./11,7%) i i?eoaiaiia iaii aa?iaioai
iiciueineionueei? eoeueoo?e (21 aec./5,6%). Aiaeaoaa?oueny iiiioia
c?inoaiiy EE, ui iiioo? aii/a?io a?aoeueeo (33 aec./8,75%), a oaeiae
oi??, ui aeaiiino?o? ciioaiiy iiciueineionueeeo oa a?aoeueeeo ?en (24
aec./6,35%).

Aei ianooiii? a?oie iaeaaeeoue na?iaonueea EE (32 aec./8,5%), yea
i?aeoe/ii any iaaaaeaia iiaiinoth iiaei iaai?ii ae?iaia. Ia iiaenoaai ??
aeaooaaiiy aeaeieaii aeaa nieanee aeoeaiinoi na?iaonueei?
iioieueo?aoei?. Ia?oee, ui iaa iinoea iai?eeiioei I no. aei i.a. i ia
oaeee aiae/ooiee (10 aec./2,7%), aoa ci?yiiaaiee o Oeaio?aeueiee oa
Iiaii/ii-Caoiaeiee E?ei, a ae?oaee, aieueo ianiaee (22 aec./5,8%), yeee
i?eiaaeaa ia ia?oo iieiaeio — na?aaeeio I no.i.a., ioiiethaaa ua e
iiaaeaiii-caoiaeio /anoeio iiaino?iaa. Aei aeacaii? a?oie i?eieea? i
iaaiaeiiee ?aiioa iiaii/iieaaeacueeee i?iaiaioiaaiee eooieue (0,25%) c
eo?aaio o I?eneaaooi, yeee iia’yco?oueny c i?iieeiaiiyi aei E?eio
na?iaoia c I?eaeiii?ia’y-I?eacia’y. Caaaeii, i?eieea na?iaonueeiai
ianaeaiiy iaa aeai oaiaeaioei?. Iai?eeiioei I no. aei i.a. aiaeaoaaeiny
iiaia e ie?ia iiei?ii?oaaiiy na?iaoia aei neeaaeo aeeoaeia
iiciueineionueeeo ai?iaeeu, yea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue aeaioiaeaiiyi
niiaiicieo neioi-na?iaonueeeo i?aaeiaoia (3 aec./0,8%), a a ia?oie
iieiaeii — na?aaeeii I no.i.a. iaeii a?oie na?iaoia oei?iithaaeenue o
iiciueineionueea na?aaeiaeua, a iioi iaoeaee aiaeie?aieaii (iiaeeo?aaiii
eiiieaene aiey Oa?niiano oa a I?eneaaooi). Oea iiaea naiae/eoe ye i?i
aoii/io iaiaeii?iaeiinoue na?iaonueeeo ieaiai, oae i i?i ?o ?icii
aiaeiineie ic neioaie. Na?iaonueei ia?acoaaiiy ca/aieee e iaionueea
ianaeaiiy, /ei i iiynith?oueny i?enooiinoue o iiciio neioia EE,
niaoeeoi/ii? aeey Iiaeiiiy oa I?eeoaaiiy (17 aec./4,5%).

O I no. aei i.a. noaeiny iiiioia ciaioaiiy eecee-eiaeinueei? EE (11
aec./2,9%). Iaeii/an, niinoa?iaa?oueny “caanaiiy” aca?iiaei? oaa?nueeeo
oa iiciueineionueeeo o?aaeeoeie (8 aec./2,1%), yea iiney I no.i.a. ca
ea?aii/iei iaoa?iaeii ia i?inoaaeo?oueny. Iiiai?ii, iaianaii neioai
ii?acee oa “iiaeei?aiiy” Aeiioaioii nithcieo ?i oaa?ia iiae /an
“aeiioaioiaeo aiei”, ni?eyee iiaeaeueoiio iiaeneeaiith i?ioeano
eiinieiaeaoei? aeaio aoii/ieo ianeaia, ui ciaeoei aiaeia?aaeaiiy o iiyai
ia ceaii a? a aiia?aoi/ieo oa ienaiieo aeaea?aeao ooo/ieo aoiiiiiia
“oaa?ineioe” oa “neioioaa?e”.

C?ino aiaenioeiaiai niiaaiaeiioaiiy i ii?oieiai/ia ?iciiia?ooy EE
ca?oaeiaoeueeiai aeaeyaeo (18 aec./4,7%), i?e aiaenooiinoi aaaaoueio
oaeeo oi?i o i?eaeiii?ianueeeo neioia, aea? iiaenoaae aa/eoe a oeueiio
iioieueo?aoeith a E?ei /anoee iaoeaioeia Na?aaeiueiai Iiaeiii?ia’y.
Ianaeaiiy, ui i?eaoei, ia neeaei caieiaiiai aieeaao, a iioaa?oaaeinue a
iiciueineionueea ioi/aiiy, iethno?aoei?th /iai ? nieiiee (2 aec./0,5%),
yei aeaiiino?othoue neioac oi?ie ienie, ui cono?i/athoueny oieueee a
ca?oaeiaoeueeie eoeueoo?i, c iaaeanoeaeie aeey ieo iiiiaoth?ieie
?icii?aie.

Iioee, ii?iaiyii c I ia?iiaeii, iaai? ae?iaia a a?oii Iiaocueei? EE (5
aec./1,3%) naiae/eoue i?i iia?aoeith /anoeie ieaeiueiaocueeiai ianaeaiiy
i, iiaeeeai, ieueaiiiieioia iiney aaonueeiai ?ica?iieaiiy Ieueai?.
Ia?anaeainueea oaeey c Iiaoaeaey, ye oea aaea aoei a III-II no. aei
i.a., aeia?a aeieoiaioo?oueny iiyaith niaoeeoi/ieo aeey aeaiiai ?aaiiio
aiia?aiei?aeieo ienie. Iaeiae, oey iaoeo?a, aea iieaciaa oi?ia, iaaooue,
aianeiaeie “oai?/i? ia?a?iaee” iiciueineionueeeie ea?aiinoaie, o?ioe
oneeaaeieeanue (2 aec./0,5%). Ciaoiaeea ia ai?iaeeui Aeueia-Ea?iai
iaeii?? c oaeeo ienie aea? iiaenoaao i?eionoeoe, ui /anoeia iiaocueeeo
iia?aioia i?iieeaea oaia? i a Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiee E?ei. I/aaeaeii,
iioiae Ao?aainoe ?ic/enoea oeyo aeey ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia noiae
aeaiaioia o?aeienueei? eoeueoo?e. Iaeiae, i?i ia?aaoaaiiy o?aeieoeia a
E?eio aieueo-iaio aiaaiaii iiaeia aiai?eoe ia iniiai eeoa o?ueio
iaeii?o/ieo nieiiie (0,8%), a oaeiae o?aaiaioa neiai?iaeee (0,25%), a
yeiio ii?aeiothoueny aeineoue oiiaa?naeueia oi?ia oa oanoiiiiiaeiaii
?aeue?oii iaeiie, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ia o?aeienueeie EE. I?e oeueiio,
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia iiciueineionueeeo iinoaeeiao ie?aieo iioeaia
ieanoe/ii? i?iaiaioaoei?, yea iia’yco?oueny c o?aeieoeyie, ia caaaeaee
icia/a? i?yio aoii/io i?enooiinoue aaoi-aeaeia. Iinoaeeie c
?iciiiaiioieie iaeiiaie, oeieeii iaeaioe/ieie e?einueeei, ciaeaeaii a
Aaa?eeiaoei oa Cieioie Aaeoei, ui aea? iiaenoaao iia’ycoaaoe ?o iiyao c
ia?anaeaiiyi aei E?eio ieaeiueiaeiii?ianueeeo neioia, eio?eo oaae
oi?eioany ni?iaieiaaiee aaoaie aai (oa) na?iaoaie ia?anaeainueeee iioie,
yeee oieno?oueny e iioeie ciaoiaeeaie (2 aec./0,5%).

Aei /enea neie?aoe/iiai iinoaeo, o aeaeyaei yeiai aiaeaeoi ciiiaii
iiciiie neioaie aii/a?ii (aioe/ii aai iaionueei) c?acee, ca?aoiaaii aeaa
aea/eee (0,5%). Inoaiii 20 aecaiiey?ia (5,3%) iaeaaeaoue aei EE,
iioiaeaeaiiy yei? iaeiicia/ii aecia/eoe aaaeei.

IV ia?iiae (eiiaoeue I — na?aaeeia II no.i.a.). Iiaenoaaith aeey eiai
aeaeieaiiy noaa oaeo i?eieiaiiy inioaaiiy i?aeoe/ii onio
iiciueineionueeeo iinaeaiue Iiaii/ii-Caoiaeiiai oa aeayeeo
Oeaio?aeueiiai E?eio, a oaeiae ia aeoaea aaeeei, aea icoioii ciiie a
no?oeoo?i eiiieaeno EE, yeee neeaaea?oueny c 62 aecaiiey?ia (5,1%).

Aeie neionueei? EE caa?iaa? iaiiaia noaiiaeua. Iiciueineionueei
e?einueei c?acee ?ai?acaioiaaii 25 ae?iaaie (40%), niaaeueiith
na?aaeiueineionueeiai /ano ? 5 i?aaeiaoia (8%), a niieueii aeey iiciio
neioia — 2 iinoaeeie (3,3%).

Aei na?iaonueeeo aiaeianaii 10 aecaiiey?ia (16,1%). Aei ieo oaeiae
i?e?aeio?oueny iinoae, ui ia? iiaii/iieaaeacueea iioiaeaeaiiy (3
aec./4,9%), aea iiniyie /e ae?iaieeaie yeiai oaae aoee na?iaoe. EE iaio
a?oi aiaeia?aaeo? i?eieea aei E?eio iiaiai na?iaonueeiai, aea
aaoa?iaaiiiai ianaeaiiy. Ia?oi ei/oaaee aei oiai o noaiao Iiaieaeaey, a
/anoeia ae?oaeo — o I?eeoaaiii oa Ia?aaeeaaeacci. Aei aeeaeiieo ?aeiiia
iiaino?iaa aiie ?ooaeeny /a?ac Ainii?, ai?iaiaeii, aianeiaeie
oeieani?yiiaaieo aeie ainii?nueeeo i?aaeoaeia, yei aoee caeieniaii ieie
iiney iaiaeii?aciaeo iiaeei?aiue neioia i oaa?ia. Ca?iaoe, ui iieiyeenue
a E?eio, i?aeoe/ii iiaiinoth iiei?ii?oaaeeny o na?aaeiaeua iiciio
neioia. Aiie aeeee ia iaeieo iinaeaiiyo oa oiaaee nai?o iaaiae/eeia ia
iaeieo iiaeeueieeao. Oeieaai, ui naia a oeae ia?iiae ia ?a?iiaenueeiio
Ainii?i aia?oa c’yaey?oueny oeiiai iiciueineionueeee, a oaeiae
ca?oaeiaoeueeee iinoae. Iiaeeeai, oey, iiee ua iiiaeeiiea, EE aoea
c?iaeaia ie?aieie neioaie (oaa?ineioaie), iieiiaieie iiae /an
aienueeiaeo cioeiaiue, aea ia aeeeth/aii, ui aiia naiae/eoue i?i aieueo
?ioo/i e?iee ainii?nueei? aeaaee, eiee ii?yae c ?icnaeaiiyi o Neioi?
nithcieo Ainii?iai na?iaoia, aeayei a?oie oaa?ia oa neioia, na?aae yeeo
aoee i “ca?oaeioei”, ia?anaeyeeny ia caiei Ainii?o.

Iiyaa iaaiaeiieo aei oeueiai /ioe?ea?aiieo /ao ia aenieie iiaeoei,
iaeaieueo /enaeueieo o Cieioie Aaeoei, oae naii, ye i iioeo eaoaai?ie
iinoaeo (6 aec./9,7%), naiae/eoue i?i i?eaoooy aei E?eio
i?eaeiii?ianueeeo neioia, aaaaoi iinaeaiue yeeo a oeae /an i?eieiy? nai?
inioaaiiy. ?acii ic neioaie iiaei ia?aaoaaoe i ca?oaeiaoeueea ianaeaiiy,
ineieueee naia I — ii/aoeii II no.i.a. aeaoo?oueny ieaeiy iieiaeia
ai?ueea (1 aec./1,65%) c oaeeynoeie iaeiiaie, iiaiinoth iaeaioe/ia
oeieie iinoaeeii ic Noaioianueeiai iiaeeueieea.

Aioe/ii ianeiaeoaaiiy i?aaenoaaeaii ae?iaaie, ui neeaeeny ia iaaei a? (4
aec./6,5%). Aea, o eaoaai?i? aioi?eneia c’yaeythoueny iiai aa?iaioe, aei
oiai ae oei iinoaeeie aiaeiii oaia? ia o Iiaii/ii-Caoiaeiiio, a o
Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiiio E?eio. Nei?io ca ana, oea iia’ycaii ic caaeaaeeth
neionueeeo iinaeaiue iiaii/ii-caoiaeiiai ocaa?aaeaey oa ia?anaeaiiyi
/anoeie ?o aeeoaeia o aeieeio Aeueie i, cie?aia, ia Onoue-Aeueiiinueea
ai?iaeeua.

Inioaaiiy “/iaiiiiaeiaiiai” naioeeueieea, a oaeiae neiai?iaee c
o?aeienueeeie oanoiiiiiaeiaieie iaeiiaie (2 aec./3,3%) ia Eaein-Eiiaii,
neiae ?icoeiithaaoe ye caa?aaeaiiy i?eaianaii? ia ceaii a? i?aeoeee
aeaioiaeaiiy oaeeo ae?iaia c Iiaoaeaey.

Ciaoiaeee aia?eaeieo iinoaeei, ui ii?aeiothoue iiciueineionueei, aioe/ii
oa na?iaonueei iniaeeainoi, ia aeoaea /enaeueii (3 aec./4,9%).
Eoeueoo?io iaeaaeiinoue inoaiiuei? e?eoee (1,65%) aecia/eoe ia
aaeaeinue.

V ia?iiae (ae?oaa iieiaeia II — na?aaeeia III no.i.a.) o ?icaeoeo
eiiieaeno EE E?eio i?eiaaea? ia caeeth/iee aoai iiciueineionueei?
eoeueoo?e. Aoiieoeueoo?ia ao?eaooeiy iniiaii? iane ae?iaia oeueiai /ano
(157 aec./13%) ia aeeeeea? iniaeeaeo o?oaeiiuia.

sse i ?aiioa, ia?oa iinoea iiniaeathoue a?oie, iia’ycaii ic neioaie:
iiciueineionueea e?einueea EE (56 aec./35,6%), a?oia, yea oniaaeeiao?
ii?ie eiioey V-IV no. aei i.a. (10 aec./6,35%) oa
caaaeueiiiiciueineionueea (4 aec./2,55%).

Aeineoue aaeeea ieoiia aaaa iinoaeei, yei ia‘?aeiothoue iiciueineionueei
oa na?iaonueei aeanoeainoi (11 aec./7%). Ani aiie iioiaeyoue c
iiciueineionueeeo iai’yoie, ui naiae/eoue i?i iineeaiiy na?iaonueeiai
aieeao. Oea iiaea naiae/eoe i?i iiaeaeueoo na?iaoecaoeith
iiciueineionueeiai noniieuenoaa, aea aiaeaoaaeanue i iaaia neioicaoeiy
na?iaoia, yea i?ecaaea aei ioi?ieaiiy iiai?, aeinoaoiuei iiiieioii?
neioi-na?iaonueei? aoie/ii? niieueiinoi c ?aeeieie
?aeiaieii-iaeaieiai/ieie oyaeaiiyie.

Ia o?aoie iiceoei? ?icoaoiaaia aia?oa aeaeieaia a?oia EE, ui ia?
i?ioioeie a ioaai?nueeie, aaeueaa?enueeie oa /a?iyoianueeie eoeueoo?ao
(10 aec./6,35%). Ii?oieiai/ia iiaeiaiinoue oaeiai ?iaeeiniiai iinoaeo,
ui oieno?oueny iaeaea iaeii/anii ia aeinoaoiuei aiaeaeaeaieo oa?eoi?iyo,
iaa?yae /e ? aeiaaeeiaith. Ia iao iiaeyae, oea aeiaiaeeoue i?enooiinoue
a E?eio iini?a aiaeiiaiaeieo ea?aii/ieo o?aaeeoeie — aa?iaioeia. Ca
aeoieith aaaaoueio aeineiaeieeia, aoi?aiaiiy aionueeiai nithco, yea
aiaeaoeinue a na?aaeeii III no.i.a., ni?e/eieei caaeaaeue
iiciueineionueeeo iinaeaiue. Oeeie iiaeiyie aoei a eiai/ii iiynieoe e
iiyao a E?eio aeacaii? EE. I?ioa, aeaooaaiiy o?aaiaioiaaii? iinoaeeie c
e?aiaoei? ?34 iiaeeueieea Ae-Oiaei?, i?aaiii?iinoue aiaeianaiiy yei? aei
ae?oai? /aa?oi III no.i.a. iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny i iiaioiiie
aeineiaeaeaiiyie, a oaeiae eiai iiaeiaiinoue aei oeieiai ai?ueea ic
Oa?iai/i aeicaiey? neio?iiicoaaoe iaeaeaa oei ae?iae i, a?aoiaoth/e
i?eiouaiee /an ?ica?iio Iaaiiey i oni?? E?einueei? Neioi?, aiaeianoe aei
ae?oai? /aa?oi III no.i.a. oaanue iinoae aa?iainueeiai aeaeyaeo, ui
iioiaeeoue c iiciueineionueeeo iai’yoie.

Oaeei /eiii, aia?oa aeaeieaia a e?einueeeo iaoa?iaeao ?einueei? aeiae
a?oia EE, ui ia? aeoiee o iiaii/ii-caoiaeieo eoeueoo?ao, iiaea noaoe
iiaenoaaith aeey i?eiouaiiy i?i aieueo ?aii?, iiae oea aaaaea?oueny,
i?iieeiaiiy aa?iainueeeo ieaiai aei E?eio — i?eaeecii, o ae?oaie /aa?oi
III no.i.a., yea ia ciaeoei aiaeia?aaeaiiy o ienaiieo aeaea?aeao.
*anoeia aa?iaioeia caeiaea iaiaaeeoi ?aiioa iinoey, a /anoeia iieiyeany
ia iiciueineionueeeo iinaeaiiyo, ui e i?ecaaei aei iiyae ia ieo ie?aieo
iinoaeei ioaai?nueeiai, aaeueaa?enueeiai oa /a?iyoianueeiai aeaeyaeo. C
oeeie aa?aa?aie iiaeia iia’ycoaaoe inoaoi/ia i?eieiaiiy aeeooy ia
iinaeaiiyo neioia, aea iniothoue a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue oiai, ui oei
aiaeiineie iineee ie?iee oa?aeoa?. Iai?eeeaae, ia ai?iaeeuao
Aeueia-Ea?iai oa Iaaiieue aiaeiii eiao oa eaeeo (2 aec./1,3%), yei
iathoue aeineoue aeecueeo, oi/a i ia iiaio ii?oieiai/io iiaeiaiinoue
aeeeth/ii c /a?iyoianueeeie oa aaeueaa?enueeeie iinoaeeiaie. I?e
oeueiio, eaeeo i?ee?aoaiee oa?aeoa?ieie aeey neioia aeoaiiiaeiaieie
iaeiiaie. Iiaii? aiaaiaiinoi iaia?, aea iiaeeeai, ui oaeee iinoae iia
c’yaeoeny aianeiaeie neioaco iiciueineionueeeo oa aa?iainueeeo
o?aaeeoeie.

*aoaa?oa iinoea iiaeieythoue ?iaii ca /enaeueiinoth a?oie na?iaonueei?
oa ieaeiueiaeiinueei-i?eeoaainueei? EE (ii 8 aec./5,1%). C /enea
na?iaonueeeo oni iinoaeeie, ca aeiyoeii iaeii??, c’yaeythoueny aia?oa.
Aeoiaeieie ?aeiiaie ?o ?iciianthaeaeaiiy aoee Ieaeiie, Na?aaeiie oa
Aa?oiie Aeii, a oaeiae Iiaii/ii-Caoiaeia I?e/i?iiii?’y, caiaeee /anoeia
na?iaoia, iiaeeeai, i?eeoea ?acii c aa?iaioeyie. Na?aae iaionueei? EE
caa?iaathoueny eeoa aeayei noa?i oi?ie, oiaei ye oaanue iioee iinoae —
iiaee. C oeueiai aeoiaeeoue, ui /anoeia EE aeaii? a?oie iiaea aooe
aeaioiaeaia a E?eio iaioaie, yei i?eaoee nthaee ?aiioa, aea iiyaa ?aooe
ae?iaia coiiaeaia /a?aiaith oaeeath ianaeaiiy c Ieaeiueiai Iiaeiiiy oa
I?eeoaaiiy. Ianooiia — a?oia iiaii/iieaaeacueei? EE (7 aec./4,45%). E?ii
iaeiiai eooey, oaanue iinoae i?aaenoaaeaii aia?oa. A 50% aeiaaeeia aii
iaaeieaiee iecueeiiinaaeaeaieie ?o/eaie, yei aeacothoue, ui eiai
ae?iaieee iathoue aiaeiioaiiy aei na?iaonueeiai naioo.

Aei ioa?aeoa?eciaaieo aeua a?oi i?eieea? ia aeoaea aaaiia, aea
aaia?aoi/ii aeecueea EE ?a?iiaenueeiai Ainii?o (2 aec./1,3%). Ii?yae c
oei, niinoa?iaa?oueny i cai?ioiy ea?oeia. Caoaaaeaia aeey eiioey I —
ii/aoeo II no.i.a. neaaea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia Ainii?i iiciueineionueei?
EE a aeaiee ia?iiae iaaoei aeoaea oe?ieiai ianooaao. Ie?ii ?iciiiaiioieo
ienie c ?o/eaie-oii?aie, ia ainii?nueeeo iinaeaiiyo oa iiaeeueieeao
oienoth-oueny iaaiaeiii aei oiai ai?ueee, eiaoi oa eooei, a oaei
aeanoeai aeey neioia ia oieueee E?eio, aea e Ieaeiueiai Aeiii?a ae?iae
ye /aoi ia aenieie iiaeoei c’yaeythoueny iaaioue a Oaiaini oa Ai?aiiii?.
Ii?yae c EE, c II no.i.a. ia ?a?iiaenueeie, a c III no.i.a. ia
aciaonueeie /anoeiao Ainii?o iioe?eeeny iiai ia?yaee oa eoeueoe, ui
oaeiae iia’ycothoueny c e?einueeeie oa i?eaeiii?ianueeeie neioaie. Ani
iaaaaeaii oaeoe iethno?othoue ianiaa i?iieeiaiiy o na?aaeiaeua ainii?yi
iiaeo a?oi ianaeaiiy, iniiao yeeo neeaaeaee iicii neioe. Iiiai?ii, oea
noaeiny aianeiaeie aeeth/aiiy E?einueei? Neioi? aei neeaaeo
Ainii?nueeiai oea?noaa i?e Naa?iiaoi II oa ?aneoii?eaei III.

O?ioe cieceany aiaenioie EE ca?oaeiaoeueeiai aeaeyaeo (6 aec./3,85%).
Oaanue oeae iinoae aiaeiiee a E?eio c ?oaaaeo a?, aea ia iioeo
iai’yoeao. Oea aea? iiaeeeainoue niinoa?iaaoe eieaeueii iia?aoei?
ianaeaiiy, ui iieeaeaei oi iinaeaiiy, yei i?eieieee inioaaiiy
iai?eeiioei I — ii/aoeo II no.i.a. Iaaaaaoi iinooiathoueny iiia?aaeiie
a?oie ieaeiueiaocueei? oa i?eaeiii?ianueei? iiciueineionueei? EE (ii 4
aec./2,55%). Iiaocueei aiia?aiei?aeii ienee c’yaeeeny aae?oaa iiney
400-?i/ii? ia?a?ae (Iaaiieue, Aeueia-Ea?iai), a aea/ee caoieniaaii
aia?oa, aei oiai ae ia iiaiio iiaeeueieeo (Iaecaoe), aea ii?aeiothoueny
na?iaonueei oa aa?iainueei ?ene i ia?oi iioiaaiiy yeiai aoee caeieniaii
iai?eeiioei II — ii/aoeo III no.i.a. AEiaeiiai c ae?iaia iiciio neioia
Ieaeiueiai I?eaeiii?ia’y (Iaaiieue, Aeueia-Ea?iai) ?aiioa aiaeiii ia
aoei, oiio iiyaa EE iaio ?icaeyiooeo a?oi aeaco? ia /a?aiaee i?eieea
iia?aioia c aiaeiiaiaeieo ?aeiiia. Nei?io ca ana, c oeeie ae
ia?anaeaioeyie iia’ycaia i ciaoiaeea aeai?o/iiai eaeeoa (0,65%) c iiaeee
eiioey II — ii/aoeo III no.i.a. caaaeaiiai iae?iiiey Iaecaoe, yeee ia
ia? niai aiaeiaie.

Ca’ycie c a?aoeueeith ea?aiieith o aeaiee ia?iiae ae?aaeaiee iaeneaaeioa
(2 aec./1,3%). Oae naii oea noino?oueny i iinoaeei neioi-aioe/iiai
aeaeyaeo (3 aec./1,9%). Eoeueoo?io iaeaaeiinoue ?aooe ae?iaia iaaeieii
ao?eaoooaaoe ia iiaeeeai (19 aec./12,1%).

Aoiieoeueoo?ia neooaoeiy ia?iiaeo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiaeaeueoith
?ano?oeoo?icaoei?th ianaeaiiy E?einueei? Neioi?. Noaeiny aeayea
ciaioaiiy neionueeiai eiiiiiaioo, yeee, iacaaaeath/e ia oea, caeeoaany
ia?aaaaeath/ei. Aei eiai neeaaeo aoee iioaa?iaaii iini? ca?oaeiaoeueei?
eoeueoo?e, yei i?iieeee ua c ?oaaaeo a?. Ae?oao iiceoeith oo?eioaaee
i?aaenoaaieee na?iaonueeiai oa iaionueeiai naioo, yei c’yaeeenue o E?eio
?aiioa, a oaeiae i?iieeaee i?ioyaii aeaiiai ia?iiaeo. Oei eieaeoeae,
ia?aaaaeii, aeeaaeeny aei ianeao iiciio neioia, aea aeayei ieaiaia,
eeaie aai a?iiaaee na?iaoia inaeyeeny ie?aii. Caoaaaeeii, ui na?iaoaie,
/anoeia yeeo i?eeoea ia iaaei II — III no.i.a. c Iiaii/ii-Caoiaeiiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y, aoee caeeaaeaii aeayei iae?iiiei o Oeaio?aeueiiio
(Ae?oaeia, Iaecaoe, Ia?aaaeueia) oa Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiiio (Ica?ia III,
Noai?iai) E?eio, ui ooieoeiiioaaee i iiciioa. Iniaeeainoth ?o ?aiiio
iioiaaiue ? i?aeoe/ii iiaia aiaenooiinoue EE. Iiaeeeai, aei iioieo
na?iaoia, ui ia?acoaaeeny ic noiaeieo iaeanoae I?e/i?iiii?’y, aoee
caeo/aii ie?aii i?aaenoaaieee ainii?yi. *anoeia na?iaoia, i/aaeaeii,
i?iieeea a E?ei o noi?iaiaei aa?iaioeia. I?ioa, na?aae iia?aioia aoee i
aeania aa?iainueei eiioiiaaioe, a oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui iaeaieueo ?aii?
iioiaaiiy o iiaeei ?34 Ae-Oiaei?a aeienii aeaoo?oueny ae?oaith /aa?oth
III no.i.a.

VI ia?iiae (ae?oaa iieiaeia III — eiiaoeue IV no.i.a.). Aiey na?aaeeie
III no.i.a. a E?eio i?eieiythoue inioaaiiy iai’yoee iiciueineionueei?
eoeueoo?e i iioe?ththoueny iae?iiiei c iioeie, iiae o iiciio neioia,
iioiaaeueieie nii?oaeaie, ia?yaeii oa iiaaioa?ai. Aiaecia/aii ciiie
aiaeaeeeny i ia ea?aii/iiio eiiieaeni, /enaeueiinoue yeiai aeey oeueiai
ia?iiaeo ? iaeaieueoith (505 aec./41,9%). Ony EE oeueiai /ano iioiaeeoue
c iiaeeueieeia, ia?aaaaeii, Oeaio?aeueiiai i, iaioith ii?ith,
Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiiai E?eio.

Iaeaieueoa a?oia ioiieth? iinoae, yeee ia ciaoiaeeoue niai aiaeiaie (129
aec./25,6%). Ae?oaa iinoea iiniaea? EE iiaii/iieaaeacueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy
(74 aec./14,7%). Ua aieueo ?ai?acaioaoeaii, ii?iaiyii c ieioeei
ia?iiaeii, iiaeaii a?oio EE, ui noi?ioaaeany ia ?a?iiaenueeiio Ainii?i
(49 aec./9,7%).

Neionueea EE ao?a/a? eiaee?oth/a noaiiaeua, aea ia cieea? cianii:
iiciueineionueeee e?einueeee iinoae (24 aec./4,75%), iinoaeeie, ui
c’yaeeenue o neioia iai?eeiioei V-IV no. aei i.a. (9 aec./1,8%), ae?iae,
i?eaianaii iiciiie neioaie Ieaeiueiai Aeiii?a (7 aec./1,35%) oa
caaaeueiiiiciueineionueei (3 aec./0,6%). Iniiaio iano oei?? EE
cono?iiooi a iioiaaiiyo ae?oai? iieiaeie III no.i.a. i ?o iayaiinoue a
iiciuei?einueeee /an, a oaeiae a ?aiiueina?aaeiueiai/io aiioo naiae/eoue
i?i caa?aaeaiiy neionueeiai aoii/iiai eiiiiiaioa, o anyeiio ?aci, ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoaii ooieoeiiioaaiiy iiaeeueieeia.

A?oio na?iaonueei? EE oa?aeoa?ecothoue 36 aecaiiey?ia (7,1%). Ca?iaoe,
ui ?o ae?iaeyee, i?iieeaee aei E?eio c Iiaieaeaey oa Aieai-Aeiiiy /a?ac
Ainii?, a oaeiae c Iiaii/ii-Caoiaeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y i ?aeiio
I?eaeiii?ia’y-I?eacia’y /a?ac Ia?aeiinueeee ia?aoeeie. O?ioe
caieueoeeeny ani?oeiaio oa eieueeinoue iinoaeo, aeanoeaiai iaoeaioeyi
?aeiiia Ieaeiueiai Iiaeiiiy oa I?eeoaaiiy (28 aec./5,5%).

O aiae/ooiie eieueeiniie oa no?oeoo?iie ciiii eiiieaeno EE, ui
niiaaiaeiineoueny c aa?iaioeyie (25 aec./5%), ii?yae c iiyaith iiaeo
iae?iiieia c e?aiaoeiyie oa iioe?aiiyi aaaaoueio iioeo aa?iainueeeo
?a/ae, iiaeia aa/eoe ae?oao oaeeth aa?iainueeiai i?iieeiaiiy, yea iaea
iinoea o na?aaeeii — ia ii/aoeo ae?oai? iieiaeie III no.i.a. Naia aei
oeueiai /ano iaeaaeaoue iiaiaeiieaiiy ienaiieo aeaea?ae i?i iiyao ia
Ainii?i ai?aiia, aioia oa aa?oeia, a oaeiae i?eoiaoaaiiy nea?aia ia
oa?eoi?i? Ainii?nueeiai oea?noaa i o Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiiio E?eio.

A aeaiee ia?iiae ae?iaeyeinue ii?iaiyii aaaaoi EE, yea aeineoue oi/ii
iiaoi?thaaea oi?ie aioe/iiai /a?aiiieaeiaiai noieiaiai iinoaeo (20
aec./4%).

A?oio Iiaocueei? EE (4 aec./0,8%) oa?aeoa?ecothoue aiia?aiei?aeii ienee,
i?enooiinoue yeeo o?aaa iia’ycoaaoe c ianaeaiiyi, ui i?eaoei aei E?eio o
II-III no.i.a.

A a?oii EE ciioaiiai oa?aeoa?o (66 aec./13%) iniaeeai aeaeiey?oueny
ienea c o?ueiia ai?eciioaeueieie ?o/eaie-oii?aie. Aiia iethno?o?
aca?iiaeith iiciueineionueeeo ea?aii/ieo o?aaeeoeie (iniaeeainoi oi?ie
iinoaeeie oa ?? ?o/ie) i i?eaianaii? aa?iaioeyie i?aeoeee aeaioiaeaiiy
o?e?o/iiai iinoaeo. ?aooa ae?iaia i?aaii/ii ii?aeiaea a niai ?ene
e?einueei?, na?iaonueei?, ieaeiueiaeiinueei-i?eeoaainueei?, eaaeacueei?,
aa?iainueei? oa aioe/ii? a?oi EE iiciuei?einueeiai /ano. Aei inoaiiuei?
a?oie oaieoea EE, yea iiaea aooe cinoaaeaia c aeaeieueeiia c aeaeieaieo
aeua a?oi (31 aec./6,1%).

Aiaeic EE VI ia?iiaeo iieaco?, ui a neeaaei i no?oeoo?i ianaeaiiy E?eio
aiaeaoeeny aeiei?iiii ciiie. O ae?oaie iieiaeii III-IV no.i.a. eiai
iniiao neeaaeaee ieaiaia, ui iaoeaee ia Iiaii/iiio Eaaeaci i yeeo
ioioiaeiththoue c aeaiaie. O aeeaeiii ?aeiie iiaino?iaa aeaie i?eeoee c
oa?eoi?i? Ainii?nueeiai oea?noaa, aea aiie i?iaoee aeayeee, aea ia
aeoaea o?eaaeee /an. ?acii c ieie i?iieeee i iaoeaioei
ieaeiueiaeiinueeeo oa i?eeoaainueeeo iinaeaiue, a oaeiae /anoeia
ainii?yi. Ia?anaeaioei caeiaee oi ae naii iinoey, ia yeeo iai?eeiioei II
— ia?oie iieiaeii III no.i.a. oeaoooaaeeny ie?aii na?iaonueei eieaeoeae.
Aiaeii/an c aeaiaie c iiaii/i aei E?eio aaea?eeny iiai na?iaonueei oa
aa?iainueei ieaiaia, yei ia?aaoaaee aei oiai iiae Aeoia?i oa Aeiii?ii.
C’?aeiaaoenue c aeaiaie, aiie noaee iaeaieueo iiiai?ieie aeioaaooeyie
caaeaaei iiciueineionueeeo iinaeaiue. Aeayei oa?oiiaaiiy neioia, ye i
?aiioa, ciia iia?oaaee ia Ainii?. Ie?aii ?o i?aaenoaaieee i?iieeee aei
Oa?niiano, a neionueea ianaeaiiy, ui caeeoeeinue, aoei iiaeeiooi nai?ie
ia?aiiaeoeyie, yei neiioeaio?oaaeeny o ia?aaeai?nueeie oa ai?nueeie
/anoeiao iiaino?iaa.

O iiaeaeueoiio aiaeaoaaeiny caie?aiiy caaaeueii? ianoaiiaee, yea
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue iioaineaieie aoiiiioaa?aoeieieie i?ioeanaie iiae
aeaiaie, na?iaoaie i aa?iaioeyie, ui i?eaoee, oa iinoeaaei
neioi-na?iaonueeei ianaeaiiyi. Oea i?ecaiaeeei aei aiaeiiniiai
iiaaethaaiiy iaoa?eaeueii? oa aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e iieiaoii/ieo aa?aa?ia,
yeiio ni?eya aieea iiciueiaioe/ii? oeeaieicaoei?. ssce?aaith
iethno?aoei?th oiio ? caa?aaeaiiy i iaoii?yaeeiaaiia aeei?enoaiiy
iiciueiaioe/ieie oa na?aaeiueiai/ieie aaoi?aie aoiiiiiia “oaa?e”,
“neioe”, “neioioaa?e”, “aioe”, “aeaie” i “aioaeaie” aeey iicia/aiiy
iaoeaioeia Oaa?eee, a oaeiae a?oie neie?aoe/ii? oa iaeaieueo /enaeueii?,
yea noaea niaoeeoi/iith aeeeth/ii aeey E?eio — EE iiciuei?einueeiai
/ano. O ca’yceo c oeei aiaecia/eii, ui ii?iaiyiiy EE ic ?icieo iai’yoie
ae?oai? iieiaeie III-IV no.i.a. aeaiiino?o?, c iaeiiai aieo, ??
caaaeueio noiaeinoue, a c ae?oaiai — iaaii aiaeiiie a ii?oieiai? oa
i?iaiaioaoei?, ui aeicaiey? oaa/aoe a oeueiio ?icio ?iaei-ieaiiiio
iaeaaeiinoue ?? ae?iaieeia i, aiaeiiaiaeii, eieaeoeaia, yei caeeoeee oi
/e iioi iiaeeueieee.

Iai?eeiioei IV no.i.a., iiaeeeai, o ca’yceo ic caa?icith iaaaee aoiia
ianaeaiiy Oeaio?aeueiiai E?eio iioei ci nai?o iinoeue, i?eieieaoe
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iae?iiiei Ae?oaeia, Iaecaoe oa Ia?aaaeueia. Aiii
aeaoooaaeiny a aieueo aacia/ieo ?aeiiao Aieiaii? a?yaee E?einueeeo ai?,
aea aeieeee iiai iiaeeueieee c oaeith ae naiith EE i iioiaaeueieie
nii?oaeaie. Eiioeaio?aoeiy o Iiaaeaiiiio i Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiiio E?eio
aaaaoieiiiiiaioiiai aa?aa?nueeiai ianeao ni?eyea eiai iiaeaeueoie
eiinieiaeaoei?, aianeiaeie /iai ooo neeaaeaeanue aiaeiinii aiiiaaiia
eoeueoo?ii-inoi?e/ia niieueiinoue, yea aecia/eea aoii/iee neeaae E?eio o
?aiiueiio na?aaeiueiai//i.

AENIIAEE

Iiaeaiaey/e iiaenoiie aeineiaeaeaiith EE E?eio III no. aei i.a. — IV
no.i.a., iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui ia?aia aeaea?aei aeienii iinoeoue o
niai iioi?iaoeith, yea aea? ciiao c aeineoue aenieei nooiaiai
ai?iaiaeiinoi aeyaeyoe ?icii aoii/ii eiiiiiaioe, ui iaaeoiaeeee aei
neeaaeo iaoeaioeia iiaino?iaa o ?icaeyiooee /an, a oaeiae aecia/aoe
aiaeiinio ieoiio aaao eiaeiiai c ieo a ie?aii o?iiieiai/ii ia?iiaee.
I?ioa, io?eiaoe oeth iioi?iaoeith iiaeia oieueee ca oiiae aiaeiiaiaeiiai
iaoiaee/iiai iiaeoiaeo aei iaoa?iaeo, ui aeineiaeaeo?oueny. Canoinoaaiiy
iiooioeaii-aicoaeueieo iaoiaeia, aac /ioei noi?ioeueiaaieo iiaenoaa
eeaneoieaoei? oa iciae oeiiooai?aiiy, i?eoaiaiii aieueoinoi iiia?aaeiio
?iaio, /anoi i?ecaiaeeoue aei aee?eaeaieo, iiiaei, iiieeeiaeo aeniiaeia
i?e ae?ioaiii ieoaiue iioiaeaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo oa oeyoia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ie?aieo oi?i /e ?iciiaeaeia i?iaiaioaoei? EE, a aiaeiiaiaeii, i ?o
aoiieoeueoo?ii? iaeaaeiinoi. Uia oieeiooe aiaecia/aieo iaaaoeaieo yaeu,
o aeena?oaoei? aoei ?ic?iaeaii eeaneoieaoeith, yea nie?a?oueny ia
ia’?eoeaii oa?aeoa?enoeee EE, c aaaaeaiiyi ?? eieueeinieo ia?aiao?ia.
Aianeiaeie oeueiai, aaeaeiny noai?eoe aiaee?eoo, ni?iiiaeio ia?aai?yoe
io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe noaio, ui nooo?ai iiaeaeuo? ?o aeinoiai?iinoue.
Eeaneoieoaaiiy EE, ?? aeaooaaiiy, ?aoaeueiee iiaeai? aiaeiaie oa
cai?iaaaeaeaia ia ?o iiaenoaai eoeueoo?ii-o?iiieiai/ia a?oioaaiiy
iaoa?iaeo aeaei ciiao cai?iiiioaaoe oeieinio ea?oeio aoii/ii? inoi?i?
iiaino?iaa.

C ae?oai? iieiaeie III no. aei i.a. aei na?aaeeie III no.i.a. iaiiaiei
ianaeaiiyi aoee oae caaii iicii neioe, aei neeaaeo yeeo iaaeoiaeeee ia
oieueee iauaaeee noaiiaeo neioia, a e iioi ia?iaee. Ca aeeiiinoe/ieo
/ania oea aoee oaa?e, iaoeaioei Ieaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey, a?aee, oa
eaoaiiciaaia ianaeaiiy ca?oaeiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e. Iai?eeiioei II —
ii/aoeo I no. aei i.a. a E?eio c’yaeythoueny na?iaoe, oa?oiiaaiiy yeeo
oaeeaiiaeiaii i?iieeaee o eiioei I no. aei i.a., ia?oie iieiaeii I
no.i.a., iniaeeai ianiai o eiioei I — ii/aoeo II no.i.a., a oaeiae ia
?oaaaei II-III oa a III-IV no.i.a. ?acii c ieie o iiciueineionueea
na?aaeiaeua iiiaaeaee e iaioe. Ia ceaii a? aiaeaoaa?oueny cia/ia
aeoeaicaoeiy aoiieoeueoo?ieo i?ioeania, iaoiiaeaia aeiyeueiinoth aaoia
oa na?iaoia. Aianeiaeie oeueiai, a E?eio oieno?oueny i?eaoooy
“ca?oaeioeia” i neioia c I?eaeiii?ia’y, a oaeiae iiaoaeoeia oa
o?aeieoeia c Iiaii/ii-Caoiaeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y. C eiioey I-II i,
iniaeeai o II-III no.i.a. /anoeia iiciio neioia ia?anaey?oueny aei
Ainii?o. Aiaeii/an, ie?aii a?oie ainii?yi iieieeenue o aeeaeiieo ?aeiiao
iiaino?iao. Aeanue o ae?oaie /aa?oi III no.i.a. aei E?eio iia?oaaee
aa?iaioei. C ae?oai? iieiaeie III no.i.a., iiney caaeaaei E?einueei?
Neioi?, yeo ni?e/eieei aoi?aiaiiy iieiaoii/ieo aa?aa?ia, iaiiaiei
aoiinii iiaino?iaa noaee aeaie. Aiie oaia?aee a naaa eieaeoeae
aa?iaioeia, na?iaoia, iaioia, ainii?yi oa caeeoee noa?iai
iiciueineionueeiai ianaeaiiy i oeae aa?aenoee ianea neeaa iniiao
na?aaeiueiai/ii? e?einueei? ia?iaeiinoi.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii 9 noaoae, iniiaii c ieo oaei:

1. Iicaeianeeoneia iinaeaiea Cieioia ss?ii // I?iaeaiu enoi?ee e
a?oaieiaee E?uia.- Neioa?iiieue: Oaa?ey, 1994.- N.88-113. (o
niiaaaoi?noai c I.I. O?aioiiaei, I.A. Iieiaeoeiaei oa N.A. Ioeueaeii).

2. ?aneiiee eecee-eiaeineiai iinaeaiey Oieeue // A?oaieiae/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey a E?uio. 1993 aiae.- Neioa?iiieue: Oaa?ey, 1994.-
N.251-254. (o niiaaaoi?noai c I.I. O?aioiiaei).

3. Eecee-eiaeineia iinaeaiea Oieeue // I?iaeaiu a?oaieiaee ae?aaiaai e
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai E?uia.- Neioa?iiieue: Oaa?ey, 1995.- N.3-31. (o
niiaaaoi?noai c I.I. O?aioiiaei).

4. I o?iiieiae/aneeo ?aieao eecee-eiaeineie (oaa?neie) eoeueoo?u //
Oa?ueeianeee enoi?eei-a?oaieiae/aneee aaeaaiaeiee “Ae?aaiinoe” — 1996.-
Oa?ueeia, 1997.- N.15-22.

5. Eaiiay ea?aieea iicaeianeeoneiai Aoeaaiaeneiai ai?iaeeua //
Aao/ena?aeneee enoi?eei-a?oaieiae/aneee nai?iee.- Neioa?iiieue: Oaa?ey,
1997.- Aui.I.- N.204-303.

6. Iiaeaieiay iiaeea n iiiaie?aoiuie iia?aaaieyie ec iiaeeueieea
Ae?oaeiia // Iaoa?eaeu ii a?oaieiaee, enoi?ee e yoiia?aoee Oaa?ee.-
Neioa?iiieue, 1998.- Aui.VI.- N.239-255. (o niiaaaoi?noai c I.I.
O?aioiiaei).

Aeania A.I. Aoiieoeueoo?ii i?ioeane a E?eio o III no. aei i.a. — IV
no.i.a. (ca iaoa?iaeaie eiiii? ea?aiiee).- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa inoi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 07.00.04 — a?oaieiaiy.- Iinoeooo a?oaieiai? IAI
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoei?, ia iiaenoaai aea/aiiy cia/iiai ianeao eiiii? ea?aiiee,
ic caeo/aiiyi onio aeaeaieo, a oaeiae ua iaiioaeieiaaieo ciaoiaeie,
aenaioeththoueny aoiieoeueoo?ii i?ioeane, ui aiaeaoaaeeny o
Iiaii/ii-Caoiaeiiio, Oeaio?aeueiiio oa Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiiio E?eio
i?ioyaii III no. aei i.a. — IV no.i.a. Ii?iaiyeueii-oeiieiai/iee aiaeic
oa eoeueoo?ii-o?iiieiai/ia nenoaiaoecaoeiy eiiieaeno eiiii? ea?aiiee
E?eio iieacothoue, ui aii neeaaea?oueny c iaeii?? aoii/ii iaeo?aeueii?
a?oie oa 15 ?icii?iaeieo ca iioiaeaeaiiyi a?oi, yei niiaaiaeiinyoueny c
oeie /e iioeie aoii/ieie eiiiiiaioaie, ui aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo
iaoeaioeia iiaino?iaa. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a E?eio a ?icii /ane aeeee neioe,
oaa?e, na?iaoe, iaioe, iini? ca?oaeiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e, o?aeieoei,
aa?iaioei oa aeaie, a oaeiae ianaeaiiy, ui c’yaeeinue aianeiaeie
iienaoei? oeeo ia?iaeia. A iaaeao ie?aieo o?iiieiai/ieo ia?iiaeia
i?inoaaeaii ciiie a aoii/iiio neeaaei E?eio, aecia/aii /an, aeeiaiieo oa
oeyoe i?iieeiaiiy ?icieo ieaiai, a oaeiae oa?aeoa? aca?iiaiaeiinei
iia?aioia c iinoeaaei ianaeaiiyi.

Eeth/iai neiaa: eiiia ea?aiiea, aoiieoeueoo?ii i?ioeane, E?ei, aoii/ii
eiiiiiaioe.

Vlasov V.P. The Ethnocultural Processes in the Crimea from the Third
Century B.C. to the Fourth Century A.D. (on the materials of hand-made
ceramics).- Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidat’s degree by speciality 07.00.04 — archaeology.-
The Institute of Archaeology of National Academy of Science of Ukraine,
Kyiv, 1999.

The ethnocultural processes in the North-Western, central and
South-Western part of the Crimea from the third century B.C. to the
fourth century A.D. are reconstructed in the dissertation by reasons of
studying hand-made ceramics. Using comparative and typological analysis,
cultural and chronological systematization of the crimean hand-made
ceramics assemblage one may assume that it consists of one ethnically
neutral and 15 heterogeneous on its origin groups that corresspond with
one or another ethnical component having been a part of the population
of the peninsula. It is ascertained that the Scythians, the Tavres, the
Sarmatians, the Meots, bearers of the Zarubinetsk-Culture, the Frakians,
the Germans, the Alans, and mixed population that appeared as a result
of interaction of peoples mentioned above were living in the Crimea. The
changes in the ethnical look of the peninsula are traced in the frames
of separate chronological periods; the time, the dynamics, the ways of
different tribes’ penetration, and also the nature of relations between
newly arrived population and local one are determined.

Key words: hand-made ceramics, ethnocultural processes, the Crimea,
ethnical components.

Aeania A.I. Yoiieoeueoo?iua i?ioeannu a E?uio a III a. aei i.y. — IV
a.i.y. (ii iaoa?eaeai eaiiie ea?aieee).- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.04 — a?oaieiaey.- Einoeooo a?oaieiaee IAI
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee, ia iniiaaiee eco/aiey anao ecaeaiiuo, a oaeaea aua
iaiioaeeeiaaiiuo iaoiaeie eaiiie ea?aieee inaauathony yoiieoeueoo?iua
i?ioeannu, i?ioaeaaoea a Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii, Oeaio?aeueiii e
THai-Caiaaeiii E?uio n III a. aei i.y. ii IV a.i.y. Eeanneoeeaoeey,
iie?athuayny ia iauaeoeaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee EE, aa aeaoe?iaea, iiene
aiaeiaee ia ae?oaeo oa??eoi?eyo e i?iaaaeaiiia ia eo iniiaa
eoeueoo?ii-o?iiieiae/aneia a?oiie?iaaiea iaoa?eaea iicaieytho auaeaeeoue
a ?acaeoee eiiieaena EE E?uia e, niioaaonoaaiii, a yoie/aneie enoi?ee
iieoino?iaa oanoue ia?eiaeia.

A oa/aiea I ia?eiaea (aoi?ay iieiaeia III — eiiaoe II a. aei i.y.)
ainiiaenoaothuei yoie/aneei eiiiiiaioii auee ia?aoiaeeaoea e inaaeeinoe
iioiiee ei/aauo e iieoei/aauo neeoia, oaa?u e niaoaiiue oaa?ineeoneee
yoiin, a n?aaea eioi?uo i?ienoiaeeea eiinieeaeaoeey a aaeeioth
yoie/aneoth iauiinoue. ?iaenoaaiiia neeoai yeeeiece?iaaiiia ianaeaiea
Ieaeiaai Iiaoaeuey, a oaeaea eaoaiece?iaaiiua iineoaee ca?oaeiaoeeie
eoeueoo?u ia ninoaaeee neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiie a?oiiu,
?anoai?eaoenue a iniiaiie ianna aa?aa?ia. I i?iaeeaaiee a noieeoea
neeoneiai ainoaea?noaa a?aeia-ieueaeiiieeoia, a oaeaea ia yieciaee/aneii
iiyaeaiee a yoi a?aiy na?iaoia ecaanoii eeoue ii aeaiiui yiea?aoe/aneeo,
ienueiaiiuo e ae?oaeo a?oaieiae/aneeo enoi/ieeia.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee II ia?eiaea (eiiaoe II — na?aaeeia I a. aei i.y.)
iniiaiie iannea ianaeaiey oaeaea ninoaaeyee neeou, oaa?u e eo iioiiee,
eioaa?e?iaaiiua a aaeeiue yoiinioeeaeueiue i?aaieci, a ninoaa eioi?iai
aioea ia?aie/aiiay a?oiie?iaea na?iaoia.

III ia?eiae (aoi?ay iieiaeia I a. aei i.y. — eiiaoe I a.i.y.)
iciaiaiiaai i?aiaeaaeaieai neeoia, anneieee?iaaaoeo iniiaioth /anoue
ianoiiai ianaeaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai, a E?uio neiaeeeanue
neie?aoe/iay, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a yeeeiece?iaaiiay yoiieoeueoo?iay
iauiinoue, aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee eioi?ie eniieueciaaeenue yoiiieiu “neeou”
eee “oaa?ineeou” (“neeoioaa?u”), ?aaea — “oaa?u”. A iaa i?ienoiaeeea
eioeeueo?aoeey na?iaoia e iaioia, ninoaaeyaoeo iniiaioth ianno
iea?aioia, a oaeaea ?ac?iciaiiiai neeoneiai, ca?oaeiaoeeiai e
o?aeeeneiai ianaeaiey ec I?eaeiai?iauey e Ieaeiaai Iiaoaeuey. Yoio
i?ioeann nii?iaiaeaeaeny eioaineaiie iaaeyoie/aneie eioaa?aoeeae,
iaeiaei, /anoue na?iaoia i?iaeeaaea iainiaeaii.

A eiioea I — ia?aie iieiaeia II a.i.y. (IV ia?eiae), i?e nio?aiaiee
aeiieie?othuaai iieiaeaiey iicaeieo neeoia, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
oeene?oaony eo iooie ec Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai E?uia a Oeaio?aeueiue e
THai-Caiaaeiue, a oaeaea ia Ainii?, a n ae?oaie — i?ienoiaeeo aanueia
iuooeiia oaaee/aiea na?iaoneiai yoiieoeueoo?iiai eiiiiiaioa a
i?aaeai?iie e, iniaaiii, a ai?iie /anoyo iieoino?iaa. Ioia/aiiua
i?ioeannu nii?iaiaeaeaeenue oaniui acaeiiaeaenoaeai i?eauaaaoaai iiaiai
e i?aaeiaai ianaeaiey, i?e ieaaee?othuai aicaeaenoaee aioe/iie
eoeueoo?u.

Yoiieoeueoo?iay neooaoeey V ia?eiaea (aoi?ay iieiaeia II — ia?aay
iieiaeia III a.i.y.) oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaeueiaeoae ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeeae
ianaeaiey E?uineie Neeoee e iacia/eoaeueiui oaaee/aieai ninoaaeythueo
aai eiiiiiaioia. Aeiaieueii aieueoay /anoue oaa?ineeoia aianoa n aiiaue
i?eauaoeie neeoaie Ieaeiaai I?eaeiai?iauey ia?anaeeeanue ia Aa?iiaeneee
e Aceaoneee Ainii?, aneaaenoaea /aai, i?iecioei iaeioi?ia oiaiueoaiea
neeoneiai yoie/aneiai eiiiiiaioa, eioi?ue, oai ia iaiaa, ii-i?aaeiaio
inoaaaeny i?aiaeaaeathuei. A iaai auee eioaa?e?iaaiu i?iieeoea aua ia
?oaaaea y? iineoaee ca?oaeiaoeeie eoeueoo?u. Aoi?oth iiceoeeth i?i/ii
oaea?aeeaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee na?iaoneiai e iaioneiai ie?a, iiyaeaoeany a
E?uio a i?aaeoanoaothuaa a?aiy, a oaeaea i?eauaaaoea ia ?oaaaea II-III
a.i.y. A iniiaiii, yoe eieeaeoeau aeeaaeenue a iannea iicaeieo neeoia
niinianoaoy ioi?ieaieth iiaie neeoi-na?iaoneie yoie/aneie iauiinoe, ii
eaeea-oi ieaiaia, eeaiu eee iaueiu na?iaoia i?aaeii/eoaee naeeoueny
ioaeaeueii. Aiciiaeii, a iioie ia?aiauaaoeony ec ainoi/iuo iaeanoae
I?e/a?iiii?uey na?iaoia auee aiaea/aiu ioaeaeueiua i?aaenoaaeoaee
ainii?yi. *anoue na?iaoia ec Naaa?iiai e Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai
I?e/a?iiii?uey i?iieeea a E?ui a nii?iaiaeaeaiee aa?iaioeaa. A iniiaiii,
iie caieiaee ionoothuea oa??eoi?ee, ii ioaeaeueiua auoiaeoeu ec aeaoo
iacaaiiuo eiioeiaaioia iiiieiyee /enei aeeoaeae iicaeianeeoneeo
ai?iaeeu.

Ca a?aiy VI ia?eiaea (aoi?ay iieiaeia III-IV a.i.y.) a ninoaaa e
no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey E?uia i?iecioee ea?aeeiaeueiua eciaiaiey. Oaia?ue
aai iniiao ninoaaeyee aeaiu, iaeoaaoea aei na?aaeeiu III a.i.y. ia
Naaa?iii Eaaeaca. A E?ui iie i?eoee n oa??eoi?ee Ainii?neiai oea?noaa,
aianoa n iaioaie e /anoueth ainii?yi. Ianeieueei ?aiueoa eee a yoi aea
naiia a?aiy n naaa?a a E?ui aoi?aeenue na?iaoneea e aa?iaineea ieaiaia.
Niaaeeieaoenue n aeaiaie iie iineoaeeee iaeaieaa aa?iyoiuie aeiiaieeaie
aeaaee neeoneeo iinaeaiee. Iaeioi?ua neeou, eae e ?aiueoa, iea?e?iaaee
ia Ainii?, ioaeaeueiua eo i?aaenoaaeoaee i?iieeee a Oa?niian, a
inoaaoaany ianaeaiea neiioeaio?e?iaaeinue a oeaio?aeueiii e
thai-caiaaeiii ?aeiia iieoino?iaa.

A aeaeueiaeoai, i?ienoiaeeea iinoaiaiiay ii?iaeecaoeey iauae ianoaiiaee,
nii?iaiaeaeaaoayny eioaineaiuie yoiieioaa?aoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie iaaeaeo
i?eauaoei e ianoiui neeoi-na?iaoneei ianaeaieai. Yoi i?eaiaeeei e
ieaaee?iaea iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u iieeyoie/iuo aa?aa?ia,
/aio niinianoaiaaei aeeyiea iicaeiaaioe/iie oeeaeeecaoeee. Aa?iyoii, a
nayce n oa?icie aoiineiai iaoanoaey ianaeaiea Oeaio?aeueiiai E?uia a
eiioea IV a.i.y. iieeioei naie ianoa iaeoaiey e iainiiaaeinue a aieaa
aaciianiuo ?aeiiao Aoi?ie a?yaeu E?uineeo ai? e yoio iieeyoie/iue
aa?aa?neee iannea, nin?aaeioi/eaoeeny a THaeiii e THai-Caiaaeiii E?uio,
iineoaeee iniiaie neeaaeuaathuaeny caeanue n?aaeiaaaeiaie e?uineie
ia?iaeiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eaiiay ea?aieea, yoiieoeueoo?iua i?ioeannu, E?ui,
yoie/aneea eiiiiiaiou.

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