Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y Iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo OE?A?IICIAANOAA ?I. ?.e?EI’ssEAAE*A

?inoeooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa

OAeE 390 (=477/ =476.8)

ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Nia/oe

Aieiaeeie? Noaiaiiae/

Aoiieoeueoo?ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.05. — aoiieia?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Euea?a, 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aieeinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. Ean?
Oe?a?iee ia eaoaae?? aoiieia??

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: IAAETHE Noaiai Iao?iae/,

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa
IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

OEAIAeA? Ieoaeei Iao?iae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
?noi??? noa?iaeaaiueiai na?oo ? na?aaei?o a?e?a Oaeai?iaenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

N?EAOeUeEEE ?iiai A?ii?neaaiae/, eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e aoiieia?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.O?aiea

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, eaoaae?a aoiieia??, aioe/iino?, na?aaeiueia?/ii?
?noi???, i. *a?i?aoe?.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 8 “ /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 15-00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.222.01. ?c caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
i?e ?inoeooo? oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith:

290026, Euea?a-26, aoe.Eicaeueieoeueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

290026. Euea?a-26, aoe.Eicaeueieoeueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 6 “ o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe NOAAE?E O.?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioyaii aaaaoueio a?e?a
oe?a?inueeee ia?iae aoa iicaaaeaiee aeanii? aea?aeaaiino?, a eiai
aoi?/ia oa?eoi??y ia?aaoaaea a neeaae? ??cieo aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/ieo oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, ui aecia/eei aoiieoeueoo?io niaoeeo?eo
eiai ?aa?ii?a.

O ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie ?noi?eei-aoiia?ao?/ieie ?aa?iiaie, iniaeeaino?
Aa?anoaeueie coiiaeai?:

a) aaia?ao?/iith a?aeaeaeai?noth ?? oa?eoi??? a?ae oeaio?aeueieo
?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie — ai?oeaio?o aoiiaaiaoe/ieo oa aoiieiinie?aeoth/eo
i?ioean?a;

a) i?e?iaeii-eaiaeoaooiei na?aaeiaeuai, i?eoaiaiiei eeoa
cao?aeiiiie?nueeiio ?aa?iio c eiai iaoa??aeueiith oa aeooiaiith
eoeueoo?ith;

a) nai???aeiei aaiiie?oe/iei noaiiaeuai — iaaiith ?cieyoe??th a?ae ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo ?aa?ii?a ? aiaeii/an ciaoiaeaeaiiy ia noeeo aieea?a aeaio
aoi?/ieo nenoai: a?ei?onueei? oa iieuenueei?.

O ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae oe? i?iaeaie ?aii?oaaeeny, ye ? aaaaoi ?ioeo,
iia’ycaieo ?c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio oa ?o neeaaeiaeo. Oi/
aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo aeaiaio?a o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai
aoiino oa ie?aieo ?noi?eei-aoiia?ao?/ieo ?aa?ii?a ? i?iaiaeeeeny,
Aa?anoaeueia, ye ? ?yae ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a, ui ciaoiaeeeenue iica iaaeaie
O?N?, aoee caai?iiaiith oaiith. Iiae?aia neooaoe?y iaoiiaethaaeanue
io?oe?eiith ?aeaieia??th i?aaey/iai ?aaeeio, yea aeeeth/aea aoaeue-yeee
aoi?/iee ?aianain oa i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c? caa?aaeaiiyi aoiieoeueoo?ii?
naiiaooiino? ?noi?eei-aoiia?ao?/ieo ?aa?ii?a.

?c caeiaoooyi Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino? neooaoe?y ci?ieeanue.
niinoa??aa?oueny caeiiii??iee i?ioean iiaeaaaeaiiy caaaeueii? oaaae aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy aniaeo?a aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue.
I?ioa, ia iaoo aeoieo, iaaeinoaoiuei aeei?enoiaothoueny caeiaooee ?ioeo
?noi?e/ieo aeenoeeie?i: aoiieia??, a?oaieia??, ?noi???, nioe?ieia??, ui
iiaei a ni?eyoe ? aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeai, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue
aaaaoiaei??i?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio, ?o ie?aieo
i?aea?oi.

A no/ani?e aoiieia?/i?e iaooe? i?iaeai? aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo
Aa?anoaeueie i?eae?ey?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae. Aeioaia? a?aenooi?
eiiieaeni? oa aocueeiaaeocaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e
ianaeaiiy e?ath, ye ? i?aoe?, iaoith yeeo aoei a aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue
eiai aoi?/ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??. Aei oiai ae ia ?ic?iaeaia aea?aeaaia
i?ia?aia aea/aiiy noaio ? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo aoi?/ieo
oa?eoi??e, ye? a neeo ?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei ciaoiaeyoueny iica iaaeaie
Oe?a?ie, a oiio /ene? ? Aa?anoaeueie. Aeei?enoaiiy aoiia?ao?/iiai
iaoa??aeo oa oai?aoe/ieo caeiaooe?a ?ioeo noni?eueieo iaoe o i?ioean?
aea/aiiy aoiieoeueoo?ii? naiiaooiino? Aa?anoaeueie ni?eyoeia oi?ioaaiith
ia’?eoeaii? oa oe?e?nii? iaoeiai? iiceoe?? ? i?eaa?iaiith oaaae oe?ieiai
eiea aeine?aeiee?a oa a?iiaaenueeino? aei i?iaeai Aa?anoaeueie,
caaeiaieaiiy eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caieo?a ?? ianaeaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e niaoeeo?/i? ?noi?eei-iie?oe/i? ianoaaeie, ye? aeoai?eee
oaiiiai Aa?anoaeueie, aec??ea i?iaeaia aecia/aiiy ia iaoeia?e iniia?
aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino? ?? aaoiooiiiiai ianaeaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai
o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e ye iaea?eueo noaa?eueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee nooiino?
aoaeue-yei? aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe.

Aoi?/ia naiiaooi?noue ianaeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? cacia?
aeaaeae? a?ae/ooi?oiai aieeao oaeoi??a oeea?e?caoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo.
Aaaeeeao ?ieue a aoi?/ieo i?ioeanao ia Aa?anoaeuei? a?ae?aea?a?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y, ui neeaeanue inoaii?i /anii a
?anioae?oe? A?ei?onue. A iaoeiaeo eieao ?iaeyoue ni?iae iaa?oiooaaoe
?aeath a?ei?oneo?eaoe?? iie?uoe?a-aa?anoaeoe?a.

C iaoith a?aeaa?iaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a iiaeeeai? anei?eyoe??
aaoiooiiiiai ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie oe?a?inueeiai
aoi?/iiai ianeao, aeieea? iio?aaa a i?eaa?iaii? oaaae aea?aeaaieo
no?oeoo?, iaoeiaeo e?e oa a?iiaaenueeino? aei i?iaeaie caa?aaeaiiy eiai
aoiieoeueoo?ii? oi?eaeueiino? oa naiiaooiino?.

Iaoa ?iaioe: aecia/eoe aoi?/io i?eiaeaaei?noue ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie ia
iniia? oaeeo aoi?/ieo iciae, ye aoii?noi??y, o?aaeeoe?eia iaoa??aeueia
oa aeooiaia eoeueoo?a, aoiina?aeii?noue.

O aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeeoe:

iniaeeaino? neio?iiiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoi?/ii? eoeueoo?e oe?a?ioe?a ?
a?ei?on?a ? a oeueiio eiioaeno? i?inoaaeeoe aoiia?ao?/io niaoeeo?eo
o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e aaoiooii?a Aa?anoaeueie;

noaa?e?coth/? eoeueoo?ii-o?aaeeoe?ei? /eiieee aoii?aeaioeo?eaoe??;

 iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? aoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie a
aeiee?anueeee /an;

– iniaeeaino? aoi?/ii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ianaeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii?
oa?eoi???;

– aoi?/io iniiao noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo ia oa?eoi??? e?ath c O
aei OO no. o eiioaeno? aiaeia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui iaee i?noea ia ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo oa a?ei?onueeeo caieyo o oeae ia??iae;

oaiie ? ??aaiue no/anieo aoi?/ieo i?ioean?a;

oaiaeaioe?? aoi?/ii? anei?eyoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie.

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaeeee aeai? iieueiaeo
a?aeiiinoae, c?a?ai? aaoi?ii i?ae /an aoiia?ao?/ieo aeniaaeeoe?e
iaoeiaoe?a oa nooaeaio?a A?anonueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo 1995 oa
1996 ?ie?a a ie?aieo ianaeaieo ioieoao Iaei?eonueeiai, ?aai?anueeiai,
Aei?iae/einueeiai, Ieinueeiai ?aeii?a A?anonueei? iaeano? ?anioae?ee
A?ei?onue, a oaeiae iiiia?ao?? oa noaoo? c i?iaeai o?aaeeoe?eii?
eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie, ?ioeo ?noi?eei-aoiia?ao?/ieo ?aeii?a
Oe?a?ie oa A?ei?on?.

Aaaeeeaei iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie noaee
iaoeia? iai?aoethaaiiy ia eiie?aoi?e aeaea?aeuei?e aac?, ui i?iaiaeeeeny
oe?a?inueeeie oa a?ei?onueeeie a/aieie a e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no.
A ?iaio? oaeiae aeei?enoai? aeai? io?oe?eieo ia?aien?a ianaeaiiy, ui
i?iaiaeeeenue c ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. ?o aiae?c aea? iiaeeea?noue
aecia/eoe nooue iie?oe/ii? eii’thieoo?e a aaeoc? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee
uiaei aaoiooiiiiai ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie.

Iaa?ae’?iiei eiiiiiaioii aeena?oaoe?eii? i?aoe? ? ?acoeueoaoe
a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa?eoi??? e?ath oa noi?aeieo oe?a?inueeeo
oa a?ei?onueeeo caiaeue. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue i?ine?aeeoaaoe ca oiaeii
aoi?/ieo i?ioean?a ia oa?eoi??? Aa?anoaeueie, aecia/eoe ?o iniaeeaino? a
?aa?iiaeueiiio ianooaa? oa aoi?/io niaaeeia?noue no/aniiai ianaeaiiy.

Aeai? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee aeicaieythoue i?iaiae?coaaoe noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?
i?ioeane, ui iaee i?noea ia oa?eoi??? ?aa?iio c /an?a oi?ioaaiiy
aea?aeaaieo oi?i noni?eueii? i?aai?caoe??, ?oith aeeiai?eo.

O i?aoe? aeei?enoai? e iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo ?
ca?oa?aeieo o/aieo, i?enay/ai? aea/aiith caeiiii??iinoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio ? ?o eoeueoo?ii? aca?iiae??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e
aoiieia?? aecia/aii aoi?/io iaeaaei?noue ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie /a?ac
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e oeyoii aecia/aiiy ?? aaiaoe/ii?
iniiae, aeie?aieaiiy aoiiaeeoa?aioe?thth/eo eiiiiiaio?a oa c?noaaeaiiy
?o c ?ciooieoe?iiaeueieie eiiiiiaioaie eoeueoo? oe?a?ioe?a oa a?ei?on?a.

Canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aeicaieeei aeena?oaioo, e??i
aoiieoeueoo?iiai aniaeoo, yeee ? iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaiae?coaaoe
niaoeeo?eo aoiina?aeiiino? ? aeyaeoe neiiaeainiaai? a ia?iaei?e oya?
aaoiooii?a Aa?anoaeueie iciaee, ca yeeie aiie a?ae??ciythoue naaa a?ae
aoi?/ieo a?ei?on?a, a oaeiae aea/eoe niaoeeo?eo i?ieeaino? oa
ianoaa?eueiino? oaeiai aoi?/iiai ia?aiao?a, yeei ? aoiina?aeii?noue.

A ?iaio? aia?oa aaiaeyoueny a iaoeiaee ia?a aeai?, c?a?ai? i?ae /an
iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia oa?eoi??? A?anonueei? iaeano? ?anioae?ee
A?ei?onue.

Ia iniia? aiae?co oaiaeaioe?e aoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo aaoiooiiiiai ianaeaiiy
Aa?anoaeueie aenoaa?oueny i?eiouaiiy i?i ?aaeueio iiaeeea?noue ?o
anei?eyoe?? oeyoii ?iei?ii?aoe?? a neeaae a?ei?onueei? iie?oe/ii? iaoe??
oa iioe?aiiy ia ?aa?ii “ianiai?” eoeueoo?e, c iaeii/aniei aeieoaaiiyi
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iioieo c Oe?a?ie.

?noi??ia?ao?y ieoaiiy. I?eiaa?aeii i?iaeaia aoi?/ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie ?ice?eaa?oueny a i?aoeyo a?oaieia?a, ?noi?ee?a oa
aoiia?ao?a. Cia/iee aianie o aea/aiiy aoi?/ii? ?noi??? e?ath c?iaeee
a?oaieiae TH.Eooa?aiei, A.?na?iei, A.N?aeia.

TH.Eooa?aiei cia/io oaaao i?eae?eea i?iaeai? ?noi?e/iiai iiae?eo Iie?nny
ia aea? ciie: Cao?aeio oa No?aeio, aeacoth/e i?e oeueiio, ui i?e/eiith
oeueiai noaa aoiieoeueoo?iee oaeoi?. Aaoi? iaaieiooaaa, ui ia iiiaio
eieii?caoe?? oa?eoi??? A?ei?on?, canaeaii? aei oiai aaeonueeeie
ieaiaiaie, ia Aa?anoaeuei? i?iaeeaaee aieeiyie, ui aacia?a/ii iaeaaeaee
aei i?aoe?a?ioe?a. Oaei? ae aeoiee aeio?eioaaany e aeine?aeiee c
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e A.Aoaeainueeee. I.A?ae/aanueeee aaaaeaa, ui
Aa?anoaeueio canaeyee ae?aaeyie, ui oaeiae ia caia?a/o? oace i?i aoi?/io
iaeaaei?noue ianaeaiiy e?ath aei i?aoe?a?ioe?a. Oea ieoaiiy, aea
aeno?aiieueiaaia aaea ia ia??iae Ee?anueei? ?on? ciaeoei nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ooiaeaiaioaeuei?e i?aoe? I.A?ooaanueeiai „?noi??y
Oe?a?ie-?one”. ?noi?ee aaaaeaa, ui oa?eoi??y e?ath aoea canaeaia
ieaiaiaie ae?aaiae/?a, aea /anoeia oeeo ieaiai, ui caeiaee
Aa?anoaenueei-Ieinueea Iie?nny, i?ci?oa a ?acoeueoao? aoi?/ieo i?a?aoe?e
aoea anei?eueiaaia i?aoe?a?inueeith ethaei?noth.

Cia/ia i?noea a aoiiiie?oe/i?e ?noi??? Aa?anoaeueie a?aeaiaeeoueny a
i?aoeyo ?noi?ee?a. A?aei?ii?noue aoi?/iiai neeaaeo ?? ianaeaiiy a?ae
ianaeaiiy ?ioeo a?ei?onueeeo ?aa?ii?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, a oi e a?aeaa?oiai i?ioenoiyiiy
i?ae Niieainueei-Iieioeueeeie caieyie oa Oo?iai-Ieinueeei eiyc?anoaii.
Oea ciaoiaeeoue a?aeia?aaeaiiy o aeuacaaaeai?e i?aoe? I.A?ae/aanueeiai
oa aeine?aeaeaii? A.Aoee?ia ? A.Aa?aeoa. A?ei?onueeee aoiia?ao
I.A??iaeao noaa?aeaeo?, ui Aa?anoaeueia ye o aoi?/iiio, oae ? a
?noi?e/iiio ieai? ceeaaeanue a ?aeeiee ianea ?c eiyc?anoaaie, ye?
?nioaaee ia oa?eoi??? a?ei?onueeeo aoi?/ieo caiaeue. Oey neooaoe?y, ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, na?ae/eoue i?i aoi?/io ?aei?noue Aa?anoaeueie c
a?ei?onueeeie aoi?/ieie caieyie. Iaeei ?c e?aueo ciaaoe?a ?noi???
oeueiai e?ath, aaoi? aeia?aeieea ia ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/o oaiaoeeo
A.Eaiithe, iaeiicia/ii aaaaea? aa?anoaeuai oe?a?ioeyie. I?iaeaia
oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iiai ei?aeiio Oe?a?ie a i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e
/anoei?, cie?aia a ia??iae Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??.
noaea ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy a no/anieo i?aoeyo A.Ai?/ea, I.Aaiae?,
A.Caoa?/oea, A.O?aia?oeueeiai oa A.Aoaeainueeiai. Ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-iie?oe/iiai ei?aeiio i?ae O?N? oa A?N? ia oa?ai?
iiaii?e?aeiaieo caiaeue o 1939 ?ioe? ?icaeyaea?oueny a aeine?aeaeaii?
?.Aeiie/aiea. Aea/ath/e i?iaeaio, aaoi?e ia?ae?/aieo i?aoeue aeoiaeyoue
?c oaeoo iaeaaeiino? Aa?anoaeueie aei oe?a?inueeeo aoi?/ieo caiaeue.

Ia aoi?/io iaeaaei?noue ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie aei oe?a?ioe?a aeacoaaee
I.Ae?aaiiaiia, I.Aei?no?yinueeee. N.?oaeieoeueeee, aea/ath/e ieoaiiy
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? iaae? oe?a?inueeiai aoiino, oaeiae a?aeiineoue
Aa?anoaeueio aei oe?a?inueeeo aoi?/ieo caiaeue. Oaeo ae aeoieo 90 ?ie?a
oiio aeneiaethaaa A.E?einueeee o iieai?oe? ?c I.Aeiaia?ii-Caiieuenueeei,
yeee o i?aoe? „Aaei?onneia Iieanuea” ianoithaaa oaco i?i iaeaaei?noue
ianaeaiiy e?ath aei a?ei?on?a. Oe?a?ioeyie aaaaea? aaoiooiiia ianaeaiiy
Aa?anoaeueie O.Canoaaiee.

?ioith ? oi/ea ci?o ?aaeyinueeeo oa a?ei?onueeeo a/aieo. Oae, ia aeoieo
?in?enueeiai aoiia?aoa N.Oiea??aa, ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaenueei-Ieinueeiai
Iie?nny ? ia?ao?aeiith a?oiith i?ae oe?a?ioeyie oa a?ei?onaie, aea a
eoeueoo?iiio a?aeiioaii? oyae?? aei a?ei?on?a. Aaoi?e i?aoe? „Yoiia?aoey
ainoi/iuo neaayi” aeacothoue ia „iniaeea?noue” iiae oa aoi?/ii?
eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy e?ath, i?ioa eiai „a?ei?onuee?noue” ia aeeeeea? o
ieo noii?ao. Ia /?oeo iiceoe?th caeiathoue ? aaoi?e iaoeiai? i?aoe?
„Iieanuea. Iaoa?eaeueiay eoeueoo?a”, ui iiynith?oueny ?aaeyinueeith
?aeaieia?/iith oaiaeaioe??th. A?ei?onueeee aoiia?ao A.Aoiaea?/ee oi/ ?
neooii a?aecia/ea “cia/i? a?aei?iiino?” ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie a?ae
a?ei?on?a o iiaooiaiio oa ainiiaea?nueeiio a?aeiioaii?, iaeiae a?i
iacai?ooiee o ieoaii? eiai a?ei?onueei? iaeaaeiino?. Aaoi?e
aioeeeeiiaae?? “Yoiaa?ao?y Aaea?on?” i?eioeeiiai caia?a/othoue iiceoe?th
eeaneea a?ei?onueei? aoiia?ao??, aeaaeai?ea ?.Ea?nueeiai, yeee ia ea?o?
“Yoiaa?ao?/ia ea?oa aaea?oneaaa ieaiai?” ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie a?aei?n
aei oe?a?ioe?a.

Ony noeoii?noue i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo, a?ei?onueeeo, a /anii ?
?in?enueeeo a/aieo ia aea? iaeiicia/ii? a?aeiia?ae? uiaei aoi?/ii?
iaeaaeiino? ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie. sseui oe?a?inuee? a/ai? a on? /ane
oa /anoeia a?ei?onueeeo a/aieo aaaaeaee aaoiooiiia ianaeaiiy e?ath
oe?a?ioeyie, oi ca?ac ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue a?ei?onueeeo aoiia?ao?a,
?noi?ee?a oa iiaiciaaoe?a, noi?iiaaieo o ?aaeyinuee? /ane, caeia?
aaceiii?ii?nio iiceoe?th uiaei aeciaiiy Aa?anoaeueie ye i?aai?/ii?
neeaaeiai? a?ei?onueeiai aoi?/iiai ianeao. Uii?aaaea, aeoaea ??aeei
iiae?aia aacaiaeyoe?ei?noue i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeeie ae ia?aeiieeaeie
a?aoiaioaie.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aeei?enoaii oae? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

– ii??aiyeueii-oeiieia?/iee iaoiae, yeee canoiniaaii aeey ii??aiyiiy
aoiiaecia/aeueieo eiiiiiaio?a o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy
Aa?anoaeueie ?c aiaeia?/ieie eiiiiiaioaie ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie oa
A?ei?on?;

?ao?iniaeoeaii-aaiaoe/iee iaoiae, yeee ni?ey? aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeaie
aoiieoeueoo?ii? niaaeei?iiino? aeaaiueiai ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie ?c
no/aniei, ui i?inoaaeo?oueny a i?ioean? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?oaieia?/ieo
eoeueoo?. Oea ciaoiaeeoue i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a oaiaeaioe?? aei ia?aianaiiy
iniiaieo oei?a i?iaiaioo aii/a?iiai iinoaeo ia iaai? aeaiaioe
o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaeyao;

– ?ao?iniaeoeaii-?noi?e/iee iaoiae, yeee aea? iiaeeea?noue
aeine?aeaeoaaoe i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aoiieoeueoo?ii?
i?aenenoaie Aa?anoaenueei-Ieinueeiai Iie?nny a eiioaeno? aoi?/ieo
i?ioean?a, ui iaee i?noea ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, A?ei?on? oa /anoeiai
Iieueu?, oeae iaoiae aeei?enoaii i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioeano aaiethoe??
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo? ia oa?eoi??? Aa?anoaeueie a aea?aeaaiee
ia??iae;

– aiae?oe/ii-nioe?ieia?/iee iaoiae, yeee canoiniao?oueny i?e aiae?c?
aeaieo io?oe?eieo ia?aien?a, ui i?iaiaeeeenue a oiiaao ??cieo
aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/ieo nenoai, a oaeiae i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
aoi?/ii-iaoe?iiaeueii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie.

Aeei?enoaiiy aeuacaaaeaieo iaoiae?a aeicaiey? aiae?coaaoe aoiia?ao?/i?
iniaeeaino? ianaeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio /a?ac iniiai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, i?eoaiaii? aoaeue-ye?e aoi?/i?e ni?eueiio?: ?noi??th,
aoi?/io naiina?aeii?noue, o?aaeeoe?eio eoeueoo?o.

Oai?aoe/ii-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. niinoa?aaeaiiy oa
aeniiaee, iaea?aeai? a ?acoeueoao? aiae?co aoiia?ao?/iiai iaoa??aeo,
?noi?e/ieo oa nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? (o ii?iaoeaieo eo?nao „Aoiia?ao?y Oe?a?ie”,
„?noi??y Oe?a?ie”, oa a niaoeeo?n? „Aoiia?ao?y Cao?aeiiai Iie?nny”).
Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, c?a?aiee i?ae /an aoiia?ao?/ii? aeniaaeeoe??, iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?e ea?oia?aooaaii? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a o?aaeeoe?eii?
eoeueoo?e, ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo c aoiia?ao?? Oe?a?ie.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaee a aooe a?aoiaai? i?e
i?iaaaeai? ?yaeo caoiae?a, ye? ni?eyee a caa?aaeaiith aoiieoeueoo?ii?
naiiaooiino? ianaeaiiy oeo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ye? a neeo ?noi?e/ieo
ianoaaei iio?aieee aei neeaaeo non?aei?o aea?aeaa, a oaeiae i?e
?ic?iaoe? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai, ni?yiiaaieo ia caaeiaieaiiy ?o
eoeueoo?ieo oa iiaieo iio?aa.

Aoe?eiio i?iaeaia iaeo?ae?caoe?? anei?eyoe?eieo oaiaeaioe?e, ui
i?iyaeythoueny ia Aa?anoaeuei?, iaea a noaoe i?aaeiaoii ?icaeyaeo ia
??ai? aeaaeieo no?oeoo? Oe?a?ie oa ?anioae?ee A?ei?onue.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? e ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo:
“Iie?nny: aoi?ein, o?aaeeoe??, eoeueoo?a” (Eooeuee, 1995),
“Aa?anoaeueia: aoiieoeueoo?ia niaoeeo?ea oe?a?inueei-a?ei?onueeiai
noi?aeaey” (A?ano, 1997), “Cao?aeia Iie?nny:?noi??y oa eoeueoo?a
noa?iaeaaiueiai ianaeaiiy”, ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e aoiieia??
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ean? Oe?a?iee oa
Iie?nueei-Aieeinueeiai ia?iaeiciaa/iai oeaio?o, ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo
aoiia?ao?? ?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie. Iniiaiee ci?no
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a iyoe ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a. Aei ?iaioe aeiaeathoueny nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoee.

Ci?no ?iaioe. O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ? iaoeiaa iiaecia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny caaaeaiiy, oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?iaioe, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaea?aeueia
aaca, oi?ioeththoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ? ?icae?e? “Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ianaeaiiy
Aa?anoaeueie: ae?ao?iiiee aiae?c” aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy aoi?/iiai
?icaeoeo aeaaiueiai ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaenueei–Ieinueeiai Iie?nny,
ii/eiath/e c aiioe iacie?oo ? aei ia??iaeo ?aiiuei? ?on?, a oaeiae
i?iaeaia ?noi?e/iiai iiae?eo ciie Iie?nny ? aoi?/ii? i?eiaeaaeiino?
ianaeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? a ia??iae c VIII – ii O??? no.

1.1. Iaeaeaai?o? iinaeaiiy ia oa?eoi??? Cao?aeiiai Iie?nny a?aeiinyoueny
aei aiioe iacie?oo. A iaie?oe/io aiioo eiai oa?eoi??th canaeyee ieaiaia
a?aa?i/anoi-yiii? ea?ai?ee, ui iioe?thaaeanue iaeii/anii ia oa?eoi???
Iieueu?, A?ei?on? oa I?eaaeoeee.

I?eaeecii aei na?aaeeie ??? oen. aei i. a. Iie?nny a aoiieoeueoo?iiio
ieai? aoei ?aeeiei, ui iiaycaii ?c iioe?aiiyi iin??a aeuacaaaeaii?
a?oaieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e. Aea, ii/eiath/e ?c na?aaeeie
??? oen. aei i. a., a ?aeiiao Iie?nny ia cao?ae a?ae ssnaeueaee oa
Ai?ei? cyaeythoueny iaiyoee eoeueoo?e e?e/anoiai iinoaeo, a i?ci?oa ?
eoeynoeo aioi?. O no?aeieo ?aeiiao Iie?nny ca ssnaeueaeith oa Ai?eiith
oe? eoeueoo?e acaaae? iaa?aeii?.

1.2. A ianooii? ?noi?e/i? aiioe aei ii/aoeo cae?ciiai a?eo aeeth/ii
niinoa??aa?oueny o?aaeeoe?eia aeey Iie?nny neooaoe?y: cao?aei? ?aeiie ?
no?aeiith ie?a?iith na?aaeiuei?a?iiaenueeeo eoeueoo?, no?aei? –
ie?a?iith eoeueoo? i?eaei?i?ianueeeo.

I?eaeecii iai?ee?ioe? ?? no. aei i. a. oa?eoi??th Iie?nny caeia?
ca?oaeiaoeueea eoeueoo?a, ui ia?aeiaea ia iaaiee /an Cao?aeia oa No?aeia
Iie?nny a ?aeeio aoi?/io nenoaio. O ?? iie. VI no. i. a. ooo cyaeeenue
iaiyoee i?acueeiai oeio. Ioaii? o?nii iia’ycai? ?c neia’yinueeeie
noa?iaeeoiinoyie VIII – ?X no., a /a?ac ieo – ?c aeaaiuei?onueeeie
noa?iaeeoiinoyie ianooiieo ia??iae?a. I?acueea eoeueoo?a ia oa?eoi???
Iie?nny ?acii c iiae?aieie iai’yoeaie Aieei? neeaea no?aeio a?eeo
neia’yinoaa. A oeueiio iieyaa? aieiaia ?? a?aei?ii?noue a?ae
ca?oaeiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e, ?icaeoie yei? aoei ia?a?aaii.

I?ney aaa?nueeiai iaiaaeo ia oa?eoi??? Iie?nny ia Cao?ae a?ae ssnaeueaee
oa I?eiyo? iaiyoee i?acueeiai oeio ?iciaaeathoueny ia aea? ??ci? a?oie:
cao?aeio – aeania aeoe?anueeo oa no?aeio – ae?aaeyinueeo. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui
i? aeoe?anueea, i? ae?aaeyinueea a?oie iaiyoie, ye ? ?oiy iiia?aaeieoey
i?acueea eoeueoo?a, ia noiae? ia iioe?ththoueny aeae? ca e?i?th, ca
yeith i?iaeeaaee aaeo?enuee? ieaiaia.

1.3. Ia aeoieo oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo, oa?eoi??y Aa?anoaeueie a ia??iae
?aiiuei? ?on? aoea canaeaia ieaiaiaie aieeiyi (aeoe?a?a) oa ae?aaeyi,
ye? noaiiaeee neeaaeiao iieiaeiai oe?a?inueeiai aoiino. I?i oea
na?ae/eoue ? oie oaeo, ui ia oa?ai? e?ath cao?eniaai? iaiyoee
eoea-?aeeiaaoeueei? eoeueoo?e, i?aoe?a?inuee?noue yei? ia nueiaiaei? ia
aeeeeea? noii?ao. A?aei?ii?noue a?ae a?ei?onueeeo ?aa?ii?a oiai ia??iaeo
iieyaa? a iinooiia?e ?io?eueo?aoe?? ia aaeonueeo oa?eoi??th
neia’yinueeeo aeaiaio?a. O VIII co. i. a. oeae i?ioean iaaoaa? oi?ie
?iaac??. Aiane?aeie oeueiai ?icii/aany i?ioean ceeooy aeaio eoeueoo?,
iane?aeeii /iai ? noaei oi?ioaaiiy nai???aeieo aeaiaio?a a?ei?onueeiai
aoiino. Ia Aa?anoaeuei? aaeonueea ianaeaiiy aoei a?aenooi?, oiio ??
oa?eoi??y aoea iica i?ioeanii oaeiai oi?ioaaiiy. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai,
/anoeia ae?aaiae/?a, yea, iiaeeeai, ? caeiaea oa?eoi??th e?ath, ia iaea
aaeonueeiai aoiieoeueoo?iiai eiiiiiaioo ? aoea aoyaiooa a i?ioean
oe?a?inueeiai aoiiaaiaco. ?ioa ?o /anoeia, yea iio?aieea ia aaeonueeo
oa?eoi??th, noaea ia’?eoii anei?eyoe??, a a?aeoae ? eiiiiiaioii
a?ei?onueeiai aoiino.

O ?? ?icae?e? “Aieea aoi?/iiai oaeoi?a ia noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? i?ioeane
ia oa?eoi??? Aa?anoaeueie” ?ice?eaa?oueny i?iaeaia aca?iiae?? aoi?/iiai
oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aniaeo?a o ?icaeoeo e?ath, ?ie? ? i?noey
aea?aeaaii? i?aai?caoe?? o oeeo i?ioeanao.

I?ioyaii ia??iaeo oaiaeaeueii? ?icae?iaeaiino? Oo?iai–Ieinueea
eiyc?anoai oa Aa?anoaeueia ciaoiaeeeenue o noa?? aieeao aeaio iiooaeieo
iie?oe/ieo oeaio??a: Ee?aa oa Aieiaeeie?a. Aaeeoeueei–aieeinuee? eiyc?
i?iyaeyee iiaiee ?iaeeoa?aioeci aei aoi?/ieo a?ei?onueeeo caiaeue, ui
iaeaaeaee Iieioeueeiio eiyc?anoao, aea a oie /an ia aoee aaeaeoaeeie aei
ni?aa aa?anoaenueei–ieinueeeo oa?eoi??e.

A O??? no. oa?eoi??y Aa?anoaeueie aoea i?e?aeiaia aei neeaaeo Aaeeeiai
Eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai. Iane?aeeii caeeaeaiiy i?ae eeoianueeith oa
iieuenueeith iie?oe/ieie aa?o?aeaie noaei neanoaaiiy ?aooie iie?oe/ii?
aaoiiii?? ie?aieo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ui aeeeeeaei iiiceoe?eiee ?oo
na?aae ciao? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, a o. /. Aa?anoaeueie. Na?aae
a?ei?onueei? ciao? oeae ?oo ia ae?noaa iaeaaeii? i?aeo?eiee.

Iane?aeeii ?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a aeaio aea?aeaa noaea Ethae?inueea
oi?y, a ?acoeueoao? yei? iniiaiee oe?a?inueeee aoi?/iee ianea a?aeoiaeea
aei neeaaeo Iieuenueei? Ei?iie, a Aa?anoaeueia caeeoaeanue a neeaae?
Aaeeeiai Eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aaei?i?no?aoeaii-iie?oe/ia ?ic/eaioaaiiy, ia ?oaaae? XVI
– OVII no. niinoa??aathoueny aeineoue o?ni? eoeueoo?i? caycee
Aa?anoaeueie c Aieeiith oa Aaee/eiith. Aei i?iaeai ?ae?a?eiiai
i?ioenoiyiiy ia Aa?anoaeuei? ia aoei aaeaeoaeei ? caii?icueea eicaoeoai,
oiae? ye aei ?ae?a?eieo noia?a/ie, ui iaee i?noea a a?ei?onueeeo caieyo,
aiii ia i?iyaeyei iniaeeaiai ?ioa?ano.

A ?iee Aaeeeiai Iianoaiiy i?ae i?iaiaeii A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai ia oa?eoi???
Aa?anoaeueie a?aeaoaaeeny ca?iei? nooe/ee i?ae eicaoeueei-iianoainueeeie
caaiiaie oa o?yaeiaeie a?enueeaie. Iai?aeeia?ieie iiae?yie a ?noi???
e?ath aoee aeia?ia?euei? aoiaeaeaiiy ieinueei? oeyooe c oe?eei iia?oii
aei neeaaeo eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae o 1657 ?. oa noai?aiiy
Ieinueei–Oo??anueeiai eica/iai iieeo. I?ioa aiane?aeie ii?acee
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue Aa?anoaeueia ? iaaeae? caeeoeeanue a
neeaae? Aaeeeiai Eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai.

I?ney o?aoueiai iiae?eo ?a/? Iiniieeoi? oa?eoi??y Aa?anoaeueie iio?aieea
a i?a?oo aieea?a a?ei?onueeeo caiaeue, a ia?oo /a?ao a aeiiii?/iiio
ieai?.

1917 ??e iciaiaioaaa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??? ii/aoie aoae?aieoeoaa
aea?aeaae. Ca oiiaaie A?ano–Eeoianueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o Aa?anoaeueio
aoei i?e?aeiaii aei OI?. Ca /an?a Aaoueiaiaoo ?? oa?eoi??y aoea
ia?aeiaia ?acii c ?ioeie cao?aeiiiie?nueeeie caieyie a ie?aia Iie?nueea
noa?inoai. C 1919 ?. aiia aoea ieoiiaaia Iieueuath. Iacaaaeath/e ia
ieoiaoe?th, i?ioean iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?iaeiaaeoaaany.

I?ney eai?ooeyoe?? Iieueu? o 1939 ?. i?ae /an ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai iiae?eo i?ae A?N? ? O?N? Aa?anoaeueia aoea i?e?aeiaia
aei ia?oi?.

Iaeaoaeoeai?oa i?aaeyoe?y aoi?/ieo iniaeeainoae ?aa?iio cae?enithaaeanue
a ?iee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, ui iiaycoaaeinue ?c iaaiei ni?yioaaiiyi
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa eaae?iai? iie?oeee.

O ??? ?icae?e? “Aoiina?aeii?noue oa ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ianaeaiiy
Aa?anoaeueie” ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie aaiethoe?? iacae
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? oa naiiiacae ?? ianaeaiiy, eiai aoi?/ii?
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??, a oaeiae aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea ?acoeueoao?a
ia?aien?a ianaeaiiy.

3.1. O XVII–XVIII no. ia oa?ai? Cao?aeiiai Iie?nny iioe?th?oueny
naiiiacaa ianaeaiiy “iie?uoee” oa ?? aa??aioe. I/aaeaeii, aiia ?nioaaea
? a a?eueo ?aii? /ane, ia?aeaeueii ?c aoi?/iith oi?iith “?onue”. I?ioa
?aeeii? naiiiacae aeey anueiai ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie ia ?nioaaei, aoee
iioe?ai? eieaeuei? aa??aioe naiiiaca: “caai?iaeoe?”, “aa?anothee”,
“iei/oee” oa ?i.

A /ane na?aaeiueia?//y ia oa?eoi??? Aa?anoaeueie iioe?ththoueny aoi?/i?
naiiiacae: iieyee, eeoaeie, ?in?yie. Iaea i?noea oaeiae ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y
ca ?ae?a?eii-eiioan?eiith iciaeith: i?aaineaai?, oi?aoe, eaoieeee.

3.2. Ia no/aniiio aoai? na?aae ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie ii?yae ?c
o?aaeeoe?eieie aa??aioaie iioe?aia naiiiacaa “a?ei?one”, ui noaea
iane?aeeii a?ei?oneo?eaoe?? e?ath. I?ioa iaoeaioe? Aa?anoaeueie ia
ioioiaeiththoue naaa ?c aoi?/iei a?ei?onueeei ianaeaiiyi, iaceaath/e
inoaii?o “eeoaeiaie” aai, iaaiaee, naaa ?aeaioeo?eothoue ye iie?uoe?a oa
“oooaeoeo”, a aoi?/ieo a?ei?on?a aiaeii/an aaaaeathoue a?ei?onaie.
A?eueo?noue iieoaieo iaoeaioe?a e?ath aeacothoue ia a?aei?iiino? i?ae
ieie oa aoi?/ieie a?ei?onaie, ui iieyaathoue a iniaeeainoyo
o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e, iiae, aoi?/ii? ineoieia??. Oaeei /eiii,
naiiiacaa “a?ei?one” ia Aa?anoaeuei? ? iie?oii?iii, ui ia a?aeia?aaea?
aoi?/iiai ci?noo.

3.3. Oe?iio ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei aoi?/iiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie
i?noyoue ?acoeueoaoe io?oe?eieo ia?aien?a. Oi/a aiie aeathoue
iaiaeii??aeio ?ioi?iaoe?th, oa ana-oaee a?aeia?aaeathoue aaeoi?e
iie?oeee i?aaey/eo ?aaeei?a uiaei aaoiooiiiiai ianaeaiiy e?ath.

?acoeueoaoe oeeo ia?aien?a, ui i?iaiaeeeenue a oiiaao ??cieo iie?oe/ieo
?aaeei?a, aeoaea noia?a/eea?. Aeey i?eeeaaeo, ia?aien 1897 ?. iaoeaioe?a
/anoeie Aa?anoaeueie, ui ciaoiaeeeanue a neeaae? A?iaeiainueei?
aoaa?i??, aaaaeaa oe?a?ioeyie, ? a oie aea /an aa?anoaeoe?a I?inueei?
aoaa?i?? ca?aoiaoaaa aei a?ei?on?a.

Ca aeaieie ia?aien?a, ui i?iaiaeeeenue a oiiaao iieuenueei? ieoiaoe??,
a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy e?ath noaiiaeee a?ei?one oa iieyee. E?euee?noue
oe?a?ioe?a aoea caaaeaia aei i?i?ioio. A oeeo ia?aienao caaaeo?oueny
ianaeaiiy, yea ?aeaioeo?eo? naaa ?c “oooaeoeie”. Ia?aien 1931 ?.
aecia/a? ?o ye iaea?eueoo aoi?/io a?oio.

Ia?aiene, ui i?iaiaeeeenue a ?iee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, aaoiooiiia
ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie iaeiicia/ii ca?aoiaoaaee aei a?ei?on?a.

O IV ?icae?e? “O?aaeeoe?eia eoeueoo?a ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie a eiioaeno?
aoii?aeaioeo?eaoe??” ?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeaia aoi?/ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
o?aaeeoe?eii? iaoa??aeueii? oa aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy
Aa?anoaeueie oeyoii ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ?? aoiiaecia/aeueieo
aeaiaio?a ?c aiaeia?/ieie eiiiiiaioaie eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeeo oa
a?ei?onueeeo ?aa?ii?a.

4.1. Eiiiiiaioe o?aaeeoe?eiiai aoae?aieoeoaa noi?ioaaeenue ia iniia?
i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo, ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/ieo oiia oa aoi?/ieo
o?aaeeoe?e. Iaeaaei?noue aei ?aeeii? aaeoi-neiayinueei? a?oie ni?eyea
iayaiino? aaaaoueio ni?eueieo iciae ye a oe?a?ioe?a, oae ? a a?ei?on?a,
i?ioa ia aeeeth/aea iayaiino? iciae aoii?aa?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee.

Ia oa?ai? Cao?aeiiai Iie?nny o O?O no iaea?eueo iioe?aieie aoee
aaaaoiaea??i? iinaeaiiy oa iiaiiiee oei aeai?o. A i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao
A?ei?on? ia?aaaaeathoue iaeiaea??i? iinaeaiiy oa “a?ieiaee” oei aeai?o.
Oeaio?aeueia A?ei?onue noaiiaeoue ia?ao?aeio ciio i?ae Aa?anoaeueiith oa
A?oaaueiith, oiio ooo cono??/athoueny aeaiaioe iaio ?aa?ii?a.

Ia oei iinaeaiiy oa naaeeae cia/iith i??ith aieeioee
i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/i? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae. ?o aoi?/ia
niaoeeo?ea aoea oaeoe/ii ci?aaeueiaaia o XVI–XVII no.
Aoiiaeeoa?aioe?thth/? iciaee c oiai /ano cieeee.

Oeiieia?/ii aeeoei ia Aa?anoaeuei? oaeiae a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aeeoea
aoiia?ao?/ieo a?ei?onueeeo ?aa?ii?a. Iciaeaie, ye? caeeaeothoue eiai c
oe?a?inueeei, iiaeia aaaaeaoe: /ioe?ueionoee?noue aeaoo, eiai iie?eooy
caycaieie niiiaie eieinii aiec, no??oe ia e?ieaao, aeei?enoaiiy ineee oa
a?eueoe aeey aoae?aieoeoaa o oi?i? aeee?a. A?aei?ii?noue aoi?/ii?
a?ei?onueei? o?aaeeoe?? iieyaa? o iayaiino? a i?e a?eueo a?oa?/ieo
aeaiaio?a (aeei?enoaiiy iaiaoanaieo eieiae ninie oa yeeie, aoaeoaaiiy
no??oe “iaeioii”) oa ni?eueieo aeaiaio?a c aoi?/ieie eoeueoo?aie
eeoiaoe?a, iieye?a oa ?in?yi (aeaionoee?noue, iie?eooy ?icnoaeaieie
niiiaie noaaeii aiec).

Neeaaeia? o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaeyao ia oa?eoi??? Aa?anoaeueie, ye ? a
aoiia?ao?/ieo a?ei?onueeeo ?aa?iiao, caa?aaee aeaai? aeaiaioe iie?ith,
i?iaiaiooaaiiy oa niiniao iin?iiy.

Aiaeii/an i?inoaaeothoueny a?aei?ii? ?ene, ye? iiaeia aaaaeaoe
aoiiaeeoa?aioe?thth/eie. Ia Aa?anoaeuei?, ye ? a Oe?a?i?, iioe?ai?
ni?i/ee ?c iea/iaeie anoaaeaie, ae?ii/? ni?aeieoe? ao?ee oa e?oieee,
aa?oi?e iaeya ?c eeeiiiiae?aieie anoaaeaie. A?ei?onuee?e aoi?/i?e
o?aaeeoe?? aeanoeaa iayai?noue ooi?eiiiae?aii? ni?i/ee, ae?ii/eo aeae?a
iiyniiai iaeyao: “aiaea?ae?a”, “iiiueia”, a oaeiae aa?oiueiai iaeyao
oaeaoiiiae?aiiai oeio oa c i?ec?a?aiith ieaeiueith /anoeiith nieiee, ui
? aeaai?i ca iioiaeaeaiiyi. A oie /an o?aaeeoe?eiee iaeya aoi?a?ao?/ieo
a?ei?onueeeo ?aa?ii?a caciaa nooo?aeo aieea?a c aieo iieuenueei? oa
?in?enueei? aoiieoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e. A oeaio?aeuei?e cii? A?ei?on?
aeineoue a?ae/ooiei ? aieea oe?a?inueei? o?aaeeoe??. Ia aeoieo
N.Oiea??aa, a iaeyc? a?ei?on?a acaaae? iaei aeania i?noeaaeo oi?i, ooo
ci?oai? aeaiaioe oe?a?inuee?, ?in?enuee? ? oae?, ye? iiaycothoue
no?aeiineiayinueeee na?o ?c cao?aeiineiayinueeei.

Iaeiei ?c iieaciee?a, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue niaaeei?ii?noue
aoiieoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a, ? i?iaiaio. Ia oa?ai? Aa?anoaeueie iaea?eueo
oaeeaaiee aaiiao?e/iee eiai oei. Ie?ai? o?aaiaioe aeathoue i?aenoaae
aaa/aoe a iueiio nii??aeiai?noue ?c i?iaiaioii i?aoe?a?inueeeo eoeueoo?:
i?acueei-ei?/aoeueei? oa eoea-?aeeiaaoeueei?. Ia aoi?/i?e a?ei?onuee?e
oa?eoi??? ia?aaaaea? oei i?iaiaioo, ui i?noeoue ?ineeii? oa ciiii?oi?
iioeae. Iaaea iioe?aiiy oeeo iaio oei?a iaeaea ca?aa?oueny ?c iaaeath
neiayinueeiai oa aaeonueeiai ianaeaiiy iaia?aaeiaei? VII–VIII no.

4.2. Aoi?/ia niaoeeo?ea ae?acii i?iyaey?oueny a nenoai? aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e, yea, ia a?aei?io a?ae iaoa??aeueii? noa?e, iacaaaeath/e ia
iaoa?oaaiiy aiio, caa??aa? a?eueo oe?e?nii aeanio no?oeoo?o.

Aa??aio nayoa Eieyaee, iioe?aiee ia Aa?anoaeuei?, caciaa a?eueoiai
aieeao i?aaeaiieo oe?ai?ianueeeo eoeueoo?, i?ae a A?ei?on?. A oeueiio ?
i?inoaaeo?oueny eiai oeiieia?/ia ?aei?noue ?c oe?a?inueeith
o?aaeeoe??th. Oe?a?inuee? eieyaeee, iioe?ai? ia Aa?anoaeuei?, a
a?ei?onueeeo caieyo c’yaeeenue o ia?aeeaaeao a?aeiinii iaaeaaii.

?ai?acaioeaiei aeaeii oe?a?inueeiai ceiiaiai oieueeei?o ? uaae??aee, ye?
iiaooothoue ? ia Aa?anoaeuei?. A a?ei?onuee?e aoi?/i?e o?aaeeoe??
aiaeia?/iee aeai? ia? i?noea o aaeeeiaeiueiio aiei/aaiiio ia?yae?, a ia
Iiaee ??e ooo ia uaae?oaaee.

Ia oa?ai? Aa?anoaeueie ia Ianeyio aoa iioe?aiee oe?a?inueeee cae/ae
i?ea’ycoaaoe “eieiaeeo”, a a?ei?on?a – “aiceoe” oa “?iccoaaoe iieiaeo”,
ui niinoa??aa?oueny ? a iieuenuee?e aoi?/i?e o?aaeeoe??

Ia TH??y oe?ai?ianuee? ?eooaee ye a iie?uoe?a, oae ? a a?ei?on?a, aoee a
iniiaiiio oioiaeieie, i?ioa a inoaii?o oea nayoi iaei a?eueo ae?aaeaiee
neioa?nueeee aeoeaio. A oeae aeaiue a a?ei?onueeeo caieyo aoa iioe?aiee
ia?yae “th?eoenue”, ui iaaaaeoaaa ?in?enueeee ia?yae “eoioaaiiy”.

O Aaeeeiaei?e ia?yaeiaino? oe?a?ioe?a oa a?ei?on?a nooo?a? a?aei?iiino?
a?aenooi?, ui iiynith?oueny i?aaethth/ei aieeaii o?enoeyinoaa. I?ioa
eeoa a a?ei?onueeeo caieyo caa??any aeaai?e ia?yae “oiae?iiy
aiei/aaiee?a”, oiae? ye ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie oa Aa?anoaeueie a?i
i?aeoe/ii ciee.

A Cao?aeiiio Iie?nn? ia Caeai? nayoa iaei i?noea ae?enoai “aiae?iiy
eonoa”. Ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie aiii a?aeiia i?ae iacaith “oiiiey”. A oie
/an a a?ei?onueeeo caieyo aeeiioaaany ia?yae “caaeaaiiy aa?ace”,
nii??aeiaiee ?c ?in?enueeei ia?yaeii “eoioaaiiy”. Ioaea, ? oea ?
na?ae/aiiyi o/ano? aaeo?a oa oa?i-o?i?a o a?ei?onueeiio aoiiaaiac?.

Eoiaeuenueeee ia?yae ia Cao?aeiiio Iie?nn? ? a oiio /ene? ia Aa?anoauei?
ei?aeth? ?c cao?aeiith /anoeiith neia’yinueeiai aoiiiiaiiai eiioei?oio.
A oie /an a a?ei?onueeiio i?inoaaeothoueny aacnoii?ai? ca’ycee ?c
i?aaeaiii?in?enueeei ia?yaeii.

Ia Aa?anoaeuei? eoiaeuenuee? aiaieua ia iaee caaaeueiiai iioe?aiiy, ui
iiynith?oueny iniaeeainoyie aoiieoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a o aeaai?e ia??iae.
A aoi?/i?e A?ei?on? ?nioaaa aeaai?e cae/ae caiaethaaoe eoiaeuenuee?
aiai? a?ey eiaeii? naaeeae.

Oe?a?inuee?e o?aaeeoe?? aeanoea? a??oaaiiy a iaa?/io neeo, yeith
iaae?eyeenue a?iee. Oa?aeoa?ii oea ? aeey Aa?anoaeueie. Iaoii?noue a
a?ei?on?a iioe?aiei ? a??oaaiiy a i/euoaaeueio neeo aiaee. C oe??th
iaoith a i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao aeei?enoiao?oueny eaciy.

A a?ei?on?a, ye ? a ?in?yi caa??any cae/ae iaoiae?a iieiaeaeth iie?a oa
naaeea. A oe?a?inueeeo ?aa?iiao oa ia Aa?anoaeuei? aiaeia?/i? iaoiaee
iie?a a?aeaoaaeenue a aeaiue TH??y.

Nayoi “ae?ae?a” iioe?th?oueny ia aoi?/io A?ei?onue oa i?ai?/i? ?aeiie
Oe?a?ie. ? noi?ioaaeinue aiii a ?aieao aaeoi-neiayinueei? ni?eueiioe.
A?aei?iiei ? oa, ui a Cao?aeiiio Iie?nn? iaei i?noea o?e?aciaa
aoaioaaiiy i?aaee?a, a aoi?/i?e A?ei?on? – /ioe?e?aciaa.

Oaeei /eiii, iacaaaeath/e ia ni?euei? ?ene, ui i?inoaaeothoueny a
aaaaoueio ia?iae?a ?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai ei?aiy, a oe?a?inueeeo oa
a?ei?onueeeo eaeaiaea?ieo ia?yaeao i?inoaaeo?oueny a?aei?ii?noue, yea
coiiaeaia niaoeeo?eith ?icaeoeo iaio ia?iae?a. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
a?ei?onueei? eaeaiaea?ii? ia?yaeiaino? ? iayai?noue a i?e aeaiaio?a
aaeonueeiai oa, iiaeeeai, oa?i-o?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Ia Aa?anoaeuei?,
ye ? a oe?eiio a oe?a?inuee?e aoi?/i?e o?aaeeoe??, aieea oeeo
eoeueoo?ieo eiiieaen?a ia i?inoaaeo?oueny.

Cia/ia a?aei?ii?noue i?ine?aeeiao?oueny a nenoai? n?iaeii? ia?yaeiaino?.

?iaeeeueia ia?yaeia?noue. Ia Aa?anoaeuei? ae?iea ia?iaeaeoaaea a oao?,
oiae? ye a aeayeeo a?ei?onueeeo ?aa?iiao, cie?aia ia A?oaauei?, i?noeai
aeey ?iae?a aeae?athoue i?ei?uaiiy c /enea ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae. A
Cao?aeiiio Iie?nn? caai?iiyeiny iaeyaaoe iiaiia?iaeaeaio aeeoeio a iaeya
aei?inei? ethaeeie, a a?ei?on?a oea aoei i?aaeeii. A Cao?aeiiio Iie?nn?
iioe?aiee ia?yae, iiaycaiee c “aaaeiith eaoath”. A i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao
A?ei?on? ia? i?noea ia?yae “eoaaaee”, a?aei?iiee ca ci?noii.

Aan?eueia ia?yaeia?noue. Aeey oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? o?aaeeoe??
oa?aeoa?iee ei?iaaeiee oei aan?eueiiai ia?yaeo. A?i ? iioe?aiei ? ia
Aa?anoaeuei?. A i?ai?/ieo oa no?aeieo ?aeiiao A?ei?on? iioe?aiee
noiaiiaee oei, iaeiioeiiee ?c ?in?enueeei aan?eueiei ia?yaeii.
Iayai?noue ei?iaaeiiai ia?yaeo a oeaio?aeuei?e A?ei?on?, i/aaeaeii,
coiiaeaia aieeaii eoeueoo?e neiayinueeeo eieii?no?a ?c Oe?a?ie o
VII–VIII no. Noiaiiaee oei ? aeaiaioii o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e aaeo?a
oa, iiaeeeai, ? oa?i-o?i?a.

A oe?a?inuee?e aan?euei?e ia?yaeiaino?, yea i?eoaiaiia Aa?anoaeuei?,
ia?aaaaeathoue aeaiaioe, iiaycai? ?c oe?ai?ianueeeie eoeueoo?aie: ooo
a?eueo iii?oiith ? ?ieue ia?yaeiaiai oe?aa, ioaieoeath /e aeeoii
ianeiaee aan?eueiee ei?oaae, i?ney caii?i ae?a/eia aea?oaaea noaeaeaiiio
ieyoeo, iaiiaiaio ioaieoeath aai aeeoii. A a?ei?onueeiio aan?eueiiio
ia?yae? ae?aci?oa i?inoaaeothoueny aeaiaioe neioa?nueeeo eoeueoo?:
oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaany iaan a ia?yaeiaiio ieoa? oa a i?ee?anao, cono??/
iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e a aaouee?a iieiaeiai a?ey oe?aa, a ia oaoe, a oaeiae
a?aenooi?noue o no?aeieo oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?aeiiao ei?iaaeiiai
ia?yaeo.

Iioiaaeueia ia?yaeia?noue. Ia Aa?anoaeuei? oa a oe?a?inueeeo ?aa?iiao
iie?eieea eeaee ia eaao, a?ei?one – ia no?e. A Cao?aeiiio Iie?nn?
caai?iiyeinue niaethaaoe o??nee, ye? caeeoeeenue i?ney aeaioiaeaiiy
o?oie. A o?oio iie?eieeo eeaee ?ooiee, iaeya, aeineoue ??aeei oethaeai?
?a/?. A?ei?one o??nee niaethaaee, a a o?oio eeaee acoooy, iaeya,
etheueeo, cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, yeeie ei?enooaaany iie?eiee. Ia
Aa?anoaeuei?, ye ? ia Oe?a?i?, ia iiaee? noaaeee o?ano, a?ei?one ia
iiaeeao e??i o?ano?a eeaee eaiai?. Ia A?oaauei? ae?ieai o?anoe ia
noaaeee, ia oaeo iiaeeo aeacoaaa eeoa iiaeeueiee ianei.

sse na?ae/eoue aiae?c aeaiaio?a o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e, ia ??ai?
?noi?eei-aoiia?ao?/ieo ?aa?ii?a Aa?anoaeueia ? neeaaeiaith
cao?aeiiiie?nueeiai ?aa?iio. Eoeueoo?a aoiia?ao?/ieo a?ei?onueeeo
?aa?ii?a caciaea iiooaeiiai aieeao c aieo eoeueoo? aaeonueeiai oa
/anoeiai oa?i-o?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oe? aieeae ia Aa?anoaeuei? ia
i?ine?aeeiaothoueny. Iaaaoeaiith oaiaeaioe??th a aoiieoeueoo?iiio
?icaeoeo Aa?anoaeueie ia no/aniiio aoai? ? ci?ia niiniao niaaeei?iiino?
eoeueoo?e, ui noeioeth? i?ioean aoi?/ii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? aaoiooii?a e?ath.

O aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaothoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy. A
ieai? aoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo Aa?anoaeueia ei?aeth? ?c oe?a?inueeei ianeaii.
Ii/eiath/e ?c ?? oen. aei i.a., any oa?eoi??y Cao?aeiiai Iie?nny
aeeth/ii c Aa?anoaeueiith aoiaeeea a noa?o na?aaeiuei?a?iiaenueeeo
eoeueoo?, a aoi?/i? a?ei?onuee? caie? – a noa?o
aaeo?enueei-i?eaei?i?ianueeeo. Ia iiiaio neia’yinueei? eieii?caoe??
aaeonueeeo oa?eoi??e ia Aa?anoaeuei? i?iaeeaaee a?oie aieeiyi, ae?aaeyi
oa i?aaeaiieo ae?aaiae/?a, eio?? aoee aoyaioo? a i?a?oo oe?a?inueeiai
aoiiaaiaco.

Noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? i?ioeane ia Aa?anoaeuei? a?aeaoaaeeny o o?niiio
aca?iica’yceo ?c aiaeia?/ieie i?ioeanaie, ui ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie,
iniaeeai ?? cao?aeieo ?aa?ii?a. Iniaeeai ?ioaineaieie aoee eiioaeoe ?c
oe?a?inueeeie ?aa?iiaie a ??ci? ia??iaee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue, ?aeaieia?y yeeo ia Aa?anoaeuei? ciaoiaeeea aaey/iee a?oio.

Iniaeea?noue aoiina?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi???
iieyaa? a iayaiino? iie?oii?i?/ii? naiiiacae “a?ei?one”, yea
aaeeaa?oueny ia?aeaeueii ?c i?noeaaeie aoi?eii?iaie. A noaaeaii? aei
eiie?aoieo yaeu eoeueoo?e oa iiae oi?iothoueny ioe?ieia? eaoaai???,
ca?aeii c yeeie aa?anoaeoe? ona?aeiieththoue naith a?aei?ii?noue a?ae
aoi?/ieo a?ei?on?a oa “iiae?ai?noue” aei oe?a?ioe?a.

O?aaeeoe?eia eoeueoo?a ? yaeuai eiina?aaoeaiei, a ioaea i?noeoue
noaa?euei?o? iciaee aoii?aeaioeo?eaoe??, ye? ae?acii i?inoaaeothoueny a
eaeaiaea?ii-iiaooia?e oa n?iaei?e ia?yaeiaino?. Aiae?c na?ae/eoue i?i
iaeaaei?noue eoeueoo?e aaoiooii?a Aa?anoaeueie aei oe?a?inueeiai
aoiieoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua. Aoi?/ia eoeueoo?a a?ei?on?a i?noeoue
aeaiaioe aaeonueeiai oa oa?i-i??inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? a?aenooi? ia
Aa?anoaeuei?, ui iiynith?oueny niaoeeo?eith aoiiaaiaoe/ieo i?ioean?a.

A ia??iae ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee anei?eyoe?ei? i?ioeane iineeeeenue, ui
aoei iia’ycaii c iioe?aiiyi oae caaii? “nioe?ae?noe/ii? eoeueoo?e”.
Ia?aeaeueii aieea oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e oa iioe?aiiy ia oa?ai e?ath
oe?a?inueei? naiina?aeiiino? aoei iaeo?ae?ciaaii.

No/ania neooaoe?y, a ye?e iieieeanue Aa?anoaeueia, noeioeth? i?ioeane
i?aaeyoe?? ?? aoiieoeueoo?ii? naiiaooiino?, ine?eueee ciaioo?oueny
e?euee?noue iin??a o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e, iaoii?noue iioe?th?oueny
“ianiaa eoeueoo?a”. Ao?aoa aoiia?ao?/ieo iciae eiiiaino?oueny ii/oooyi
iaeaaeiino? aei a?ei?onueeiai aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iiai i?inoi?o, c
i?eoaiaiiei eiio einiiiie?oeciii.

Aeoiaey/e ?c oeueiai, ?nio? ?aaeueia caa?ica inoaoi/ii? aoi?/ii?
i?aaeyoe?? aaoiooiiiiai ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie /a?ac aeaa-o?e iieie?iiy
oa aoiaeaeaiiy aei neeaaeo a?ei?onueei? iie?oe/ii? iaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai?

a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aei i?iaeaie aoiieoeueoo?ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie
// Iaoa??aee O?L iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a AAeO ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee. — Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1995. —
N. 47. (0,1 ae?oe. a?e.)

2. Nai???aei?noue a?ei?onueeiai aan?eueiiai ia?yaeo //
Oieueeei?enoe/i? cioeoe. -Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1996. — N. 67-75. (0,5
ae?oe. a?e.)

3. Aieea i?iieneiai? ?aaiethoe?? ia o?aaeeoe?eio iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o
(ia i?eeeaae? cao?aeiiiie?nueeiai ?aa?iio ae?oai? iie. XIX -ii/. XX no.)
// Iie?nny: aoi?ein, o?aaeeoe??, eoeueoo?a. – Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1997. – N.
50-57. (0,5 ae?oe. a?e.)

4. I?iaeaia aoi?/iiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie a ia??iae
Ee?anueei? ?on? // Ia?iaeiciaa/? cioeoe. — 1998. — ? 4. – N. 373-375.
(0,4 ae?oe. a?e.)

AIIOAOe?ss

Nia/oe A.N. Aoiieoeueoo?ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ianaeaiiy Aa?anoaeueie.
Aeena?oaoe?y (?oeiien) ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.05 – aoiieia?y. ?inoeooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa
IAI Oe?a?ie.

O aeena?oaoe?? c’yniao?oueny ieoaiiy aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino? aaoiooii?a
Aa?anoaeueie ia iniia? aiae?co aoi?/ii? ?noi???, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
i?ioean?a, ooiina?aeiiino?. I?iaaaeaii ni?anoaaeaiiy iniiaieo
eiiiiiaio?a o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e ?c ?ciooieoe?iiaeueieie eiiiiiaioaie
eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeeo oa a?ei?onueeeo ?noi?eei-aoiia?ao?/ieo ?aa?ii?a.
Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui Aa?anoaeueia iaeaaeeoue aei
oe?a?inueeiai aoi?/iiai ianeao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aa?anoaeueia, Cao?aeia Iie?nny, aoiiaaiac,
aoiina?aeii?noue, o?aaeeoe?eia eoeueoo?a, ?noi?eei-aoiia?ao?/iee ?aa?ii.

AIIIOAOeEss

Nia/oe A.N. “Yoiieoeueoo?iay eaeaioeoeeaoeey ianaeaiey Aa?anoaeueiu”. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie nooiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.05 – yoiieiaey. — Einoeooo oe?aeiiaaaeaiey ei.
E.E?eiyeaae/a IAI Oe?aeiu, Einoeooo ia?iaeiaaaeaiey IAI Oe?aeiu.

Enneaaeiaaiea ninoieo ec anooieaiey, /aou?ao ?acaeaeia, caeeth/aiey,
nienea eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia. E?iia oiai, a ?aaioa eiathony
i?eeiaeaiey e oaenoiaie /anoe – ea?ou ec iaicia/aoaeueiuie a?aieoeaie
?ani?ino?aiaiey aeeaeaeoia e a?oaieiae/aneeo eoeueoo?, a?aoe/aneea
ecia?aaeaiey oeiia i?iaiaioa.

Aeaaiay caaea/a aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou – ii?aaeaeaiea yoie/aneie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aaoiooiiiiai ianaeaiey Aa?anoaeueiu. A iniiaaiea
?anniio?aiey yoie i?iaeaiu iieiaeai aiaeec aai o?aaeeoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u,
yoiiniciaiey, iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeania e yoie/aneie enoi?ee.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee 1995-1996 aa. ai aa?iy yeniaaeeoeee aaoi?ii aue nia?ai
yoiia?aoe/aneee iaoa?eae, eioi?ue eniieueciaai a aeenna?oaoeeiiiii
enneaaeiaaiee.

Iniaoth iiceoeeth a ?aaioa caieiaao aiaeec yoiiaaiaoe/aneeo i?ioeannia,
eiaaoeo ianoi ia oa??eoi?ee Aa?anoaeueiu a aeiainoaea?noaaiiue ia?eiae.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi Aa?anoaeueia ni a?aiai nouanoaiaaiey
i?aaenei-ei?/aoeeie eoeueoo?u auea ninoaaiie /anoueth neaayineiai ie?a.
A ia?eiae VII-IX aa. aa ianaeaiea auei aoyiooi a i?ioeann oe?aeineiai
yoiiaaiaca. Aianoa n yoei, yoe/aneia ?acaeoea ia aaei?onneeo caieyo
i?ioiaeeei a eiii iai?aaeaiee. Ia/eiay n VIII a. i.y. a i?ioeanna
neaayineie eieiiecaoeee aaeoneeo oa??eoi?ee e neiaeica aeaieo eoeueoo?
aue cieiaeai ooiaeaiaio oi?ie?iaaiey aaei?onneiai yoiina.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo neaaenoaee yoie/aneie aeeooa?a?ioeeaoeee noae
ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneee ?aniaae Eeaaneie ?one e oi?ie?iaaiea o?ieo
yoiiiieeoe/aneeo eiinieeaee?othueo oeaio?ia. Ia oa??eoi?eth Aa?anoaeueiu
?ani?ino?aiyeny noaa?aieoao Aieuineiai eiyaeanoaa, a iicaea e
Aaeeoeei-Aieuineiai ainoaea?noaa. Iiae aeeyieai iineaaeiaai iaoiaeeeanue
aieueoay /anoue oe?aeineie yoie/aneie oa??eoi?ee. Iaeaieaa oaniuie auee
nayce enneaaeoaiie oa??eoi?ee ec yoie/aneei oe?aeineei iaoa?eeii a
ia?eiaeu iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueau.

A ?aaioa eiinoaoe?oaony, /oi yoiiniciaiea aaoiooiiia Aa?anoaeueiu
yaeyaony ianoaaeeueiui i?eciaeii, a iiyoiio ia iiaeao auoue iniiaaieai
aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eo yoie/aneie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Yoio oacen
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ?acoeueoaoaie ia?aienae ianaeaiey. ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie
anoue ?aaeiiaeueiua naiiiacaaiey, ii yoiiiei ionoonoaoao. Aaoi? i?eoae e
caeeth/aieth, /oi naiiiacaaiea “aaei?onu”, eioi?ui ii?aaeaeytho naay
iieauoee-aa?anoaeoeu – iieeoiiei, eioi?ue ia io?aaeaao yoie/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey. Oaeia ninoiyiea yaeyaony aa?eaioii naiicaueou, eioi?ue
niinianoaoao nio?aiyoue yoiieoeueoo?ioth naiiauoiinoue.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaaaeai aiaeec o?aaeeoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u aeeoaeae
aa?anoaenei-ieineiai Iieanuey ia iniiaaiee oeenaoeee
yoiiaeeooa?aioee?othueo i?eciaeia. Eaeaioeoeeaoeey iineaaeieo
inouanoaeyeanue iooai eo niiinoaaeaiey ec eciooieoeeiiaeueiuie
eiiiiiaioaie yoie/aneeo oe?aeineie e aaei?onneie eoeueoo?. Oai?aoe/aneei
iniiaaieai aeey auiieiaiey yoie neiaeiie i?iaeaiu neoaeeo o/ao
niaoeeoeee yoie/aneeo i?ioeannia, eioi?ua eiaee ianoi ia oa??eoi?ee
niaaeiuo n Aa?anoaeueiie oe?aeineeo e aaei?onneeo
enoi?eei-yoiia?aoe/aneeo ?aaeiiia a ia?eiae VIII-IX aa.

Ia iniiaaiee yoiai aeenna?oaio i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi o?aaeeoeeiiiay
eoeueoo?a ianaeaiey aa?anoaenei-ieineiai Iieanuey anoue ninoaaiie
/anoueth oe?aeineiai yoiieoeueoo?iiai ianneaa. Oaeei ia?acii,
Aa?anoaeueio iiaeii n/eoaoue eae ninoaaioth oe?aeineie yoie/aneie
oa??eoi?ee.

Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia nouanoaoao oa?ica anneieeyoeee ianaeaiey
Aa?anoaeueiu. Yoi iaaaoeaiia yaeaiea naycaii n oiaiueoaieai eiee/anoaa
iineoaeae o?aaeeoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u e eneonnoaaiiie iaeo?aeecaoeeae
aeeyiey ia ?aaeii oe?aeineie eoeueoo?u.

Enneaaeiaaiey ii eca?aiiie oaia oeaiiu aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yoie/aneie
oa??eoi?ee. Iaiaeiaaaeii e i?eaea/aiea aieiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, iao/iuo e?oaia, iauanoaaiiinoe e i?iaeaia ono?aiaiey
oa?icu anneieeyoeee aa aaoiooiiiiai ianaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Aa?anoaeueia, Caiaaeiia Iieanuea, yoiiaaiac,
yoiiniciaiea, o?aaeeoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a, enoi?eei-yoiia?aoe/aneee ?aaeii.

Annotation

Sobchuk V.S. Ethnocultural identification of population of
Beresteishchina. – Manuscript.

Dissertation for the academic degree of the Candidate of Historical
Sciences in the specially 07.00.05 – Ethnology. – Ivan Krypyakevych
Institute of Ukrainian Studies of the Ukrainian National Academy of
Sciences, Institute of Ethnology of the Ukrainian National Academy of
Sciences Lviv, 1999.

The work is devoted to the problem of ethnic character of autochthons in
the Land of Brest. The study of ethnic history, social and political
relations, ethnic self – consciousness, the specific of traditional
culture in comparison with analogus elements of culture of Ukrainian and
Belarusian and ethnographic region allowes to concluede that the Brest
Land belongs to the Ukrainian ethnic territory.

on the basis of the analysis of the ethnical history, social and
political processes, ethnoconscionsness, specificity of traditional
culture using the comparison of one-level elements of culture in
Ukrainian and Byelorus historical – ethnographical regions. The
conclusion is that Beresteishchina belongs to the Ukrainian ethnic area.

The key words: the Land of Brest, Western Polissia, ethnogenesis, ethnic
conciousness, traditional culture, ethnographical regions.

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