IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AI?ENAAE* Ai?en Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 619:616 –
091.71-007.7

AO?IEIA?ss, IAOIAAIAC ? IAOIII?OIEIA?ss

INOAIAeENO?IO?? AAEEEI? ?IAAOI?

OOAeIAE

16.00.02 – iaoieia?y, iieieia?y oa ii?oieia?y oaa?ei

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe

E e ? a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

Aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?eaooaiei Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/,
Iaeanueeee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
ii?iaeueii? oa iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii??.

Aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?eooioi?iaa Aana Aeaae?neaa?aia,
E?einueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aiaoii?? ? a?noieia??.

Aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani? O?aaiiae/ Iaaei Iaaeiae/,
Euea?anueea aeaaeai?y aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?i. N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

?inoeooo aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? ee?i?/ii? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie OAAI,
eaai?aoi??y iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “13” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1000 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.03 a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, i.
Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 11, iaa/. ei?i. ?3.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith 252041, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a
iai?iie, 11, iaa/. ei?i. ?10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “11” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee
A.A.Ai?oi?/oe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

A Oe?a?i? o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae iioe?ai? inoaiaeeno?io?/i?
(inoaiiaoe/i?) ii?ooaiiy (I.Noaeaeia, 1974; A.Ae.Eaeueieoeeee, 1985;
?.I.Iiaaaeaiei, A.A.Ai?enaae/, 1987; A.A.Ai?enaae/, 1989;
?.I.Eiiae?ao?i, 1989, 1998; A.?.Eaa/aiei, 1994; I.I. Einothe, 1999), ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei, yeiaino?,
ia?iaeaeaiiy iaaeeoo?caeaoiiai iioiinoaa, aeieeiaiiy o inoaiiueiai
??cieo caoai?thaaiue ? iaa?oue caaeaae? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo (I.I.Noaeaeia ?
ni?aaao., 1974; A.TH.*oia/aiei, 1986; A. A. E?eooioi?iaa, 1987, 1999; N.
N. Aa?aiia c ni?aaao., 1990). Ia oii? inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue
iniaeeai /anoi i?iyaeythoueny ??ci? o?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aie (a?o?eoe/i?
i?ioeane, e?noeiai-nooiaeeeeia? ? e?noeiai-ca’yceia? ii?ooaiiy,
aeaoi?iaoe?y oa ?io? oai?iae eiieoaoeue oiui), ui ia??aeei e?i?oo?
i?iaaaeaiiy ? iiaia caaa?oaiiy iaaieo oaoiieia?/ieo oeeee?a o
ainiiaea?noaao ? a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo ae?aaea?oueny a
iaaeiiaea?aeaii? aaeeei? e?eueeino? iieiea ? i’yna (I.I.Noaeaeia ?
ni?aaao., 1985; ?.I.Iiaaaeaiei, A.A.Ai?enaae/, 1987; A.N.Eociaoeia,
1980; ?.N.Iaiueei, 1982; A.I.O?aai, A.I.Iaeiaiia, 1984; A.A.Ai?enaae/,
1989, 1993, 1994).

E??i cae/aeieo inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue, aeey aaaaoueio ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie aaaeeeaei ? aea/aiiy noaio e?noeiai? oeaieie ? e?noeiaiai iiceo
a ca’yceo c oo?eiaiiyi iiaie?a’y ia caa?oaeiaieo ?aae?iioee?aeaie
oa?eoi??yo (A.A.Ai?enaae/ oa ni?aaao., 1993; I.A.Eoae?ya/aiei, 1993;
O.I.Naiue, 1993; A.A.Ai?enaae/, A.A.Ai?enaae/, 1994; ?.?.?aeeoeueeee,
1993).

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ae?aaiinoeea oa aea/aiiy inoaiaeeno?io?e
(inoaiiao?e) ? iia’ycaieo c ieie iaoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a i?aai?ci?
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae iathoue aaaeeeaa iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.
Aea/aiiy anyei? oai?iae ii/eia?oueny c ?? ae?aaiinoeee, a naia a oeueiio
a?aeiioaii? inoaiaeeno?io?/i? i?ioeane a iniiaiiio aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny
aai ia i?aenoaa? noa’?eoeaieo aeaieo (a?aooaaiiy neiioii?a, i?e/iio ia
caaaeaee /?oeeo), aai ae canoiniaothoueny ??ci? ?ino?oiaioaeuei? iaoiaee
iai?yiiai aea/aiiy noaio e?noyea. Ana oea iaaiei /eiii aaeueio? ?icaeoie
? i?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue i?i iniaeeaino?
inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo i?ioean?a ? coiiaeaieo ieie aoi?eiieo o?aaeaiue
i?aai?a oa nenoai oaa?eiiiai i?aai?cio, ye? /anoi eaae?o?eothoueny ye
cian?i ie?ai? oa iacaeaaei? a?ae inoaiiao?? iaoieia?/i? i?ioeane.

A?aoiaoth/e neacaia, iniaeeai aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeo o?aiaiia?iin?? e?noyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae,
ye iaea?eueo ia’?eoeaiiai iaoiaeo aecia/aiiy noaio e?noeiai? nenoaie ?
e?noeiaiai iiceo, ui iaiaa?oioiaaii ?aii?o?oueny o a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaeo
? i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaeao. Naia aea/aiiy c?ace?a e?noeiai? oeaieie,
iaea?aeaieo ca aeiiiiiaith a?iin??, iaaea? aeine?aeaeaiiyi oa
ae?aaiinoe/iei i?eeiiai iaeneiaeueii? aeinoia??iino? ? a?aeiia?aea? an?i
no/aniei iaoeiaei ? i?aeoe/iei aeiiaai aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Caaaeath/e ia
aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, oey ?iaioa ? o?aaiaioii caaaeaiiy AeIOI 7
“Caoeno n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei a?ae caoai?thaaiue oa iia?
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/i? i?aia?aoe aeey aaoa?eia???” oa /anoeiith
?i?oe?aoeaii? oaie eaoaae? iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii?? ? aaonaiaenia?oece oa
o??o?a?? IAO, ui aeeiiothoueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?o iaoeiaeie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/eoe ao?ieia?th, iaoiaaiac oa
iaoiii?oieia?th inoaiaeeno?io?? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, aeei?enoiaoth/e
ia?aaaaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea, a oaeiae cae?enieoe
aeaye? e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/i? caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia ciaioaiiy
oe?aeeeaiai aieeao inoaiaeeno?io?/iiai i?ioeano.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

-?ic?iaeoe ??ci? iiaeae? o?aiai?a;

-aea/eoe a?noieia?/i? ? a?noio?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aiaiia?iioao?a ?c

ciai?oiueiai ai?aa eeoaiai? e?noee o ei??a a ii?i?;

-anoaiiaeoe a?noieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? iniaeeaino? o?aiaiia?iioao?a o

iieiaeiyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae;

-c’ynoaaoe a?noiii?oieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? iniaeeaino?
o?aiaiia?iioao?a i?e

ae?aaeaieo inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiiyo o ei??a;

-aecia/eoe ai?no iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaio?a o o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea
ei??a a

ii?i?;

-aea/eoe ai?no iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea ei??a
i?e

ae?aaeaieo neiioiiao inoaiiao??;

-anoaiiaeoe aieea o?ea?oai?io ia noai e?noyea ei??a;

-c’ynoaaoe noai e?noyea ei??a i?e aoi?eii?e inoaiaeeno?io??, ui
ia?aa?aa? ia oii? eaoico;

-?ic?iaeoe iaoiae aaaaoioaeoi?iiai ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?ca o aecia/aii?
noaio

e?noyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae;

-aeine?aeeoe noai e?noyea i?e noaee?i?/iiio ia?aa?ao inoaiaeeno?io?? o
ei??a;

-aeyaeoe iaoiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie o?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aie o ei??a o ca’yceo c

inoaiaeeno?io??th;

-aea/eoe ao?iiaoiaaiac o?aaeaiue eiieoaoeue a oiiaao no?eeiaiai
oo?eiaiiy ei??a;

-aeine?aeeoe noai e?noeiai? oeaieie ? nooiaeeee?a a?aeaiae?aaeueieo
ae/e?a o ca’yceo

c inoaiiao??th oa aeieeiaiiy inoaioaiaeei?oo;

-c’ynoaaoe noai i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy oa aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo oai?ia o
ae/e?a

i?e a?aeaiae?ae? oe?aiith a?aaith;

-anoaiiaeoe ci?ie e?noyea oa e?noeiaiai iiceo ei??a o ae?oa?e oa o?ao?e
ciiao

?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy;

-aecia/eoe a?noieia?/i? oa iaoia?noieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?noeiaiai
iiceo

aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? i?iaaaeaia
oe?iea ai?iaaoe?y iaoiaeo o?aiaiia?iin?? e?noyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae.

Aeyaeai? a?noieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? ci?ie o?aiaiia?iioao?a i?e
ae?aaeaieo inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiiyo o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.

Anoaiiaeaii ai?no iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea a
ii?i? oa ?o ci?ie i?e ae?aaeaieo neiioiiao inoaiiao??.

Aea/ai? iniaeeaino? aieeao o?ea?oai?io ia noai e?noyea ei??a oa ci?ie
inoaiiueiai o ca’yceo c eaoicii, i?e noaee?i?/iiio ia?aa?ao inoaiiao??
oa aiaeiaaiii? inoaiiaeyoe?? o ei??a.

?ic?iaeaia oa ai?iaiaaia i?ea?iaeueia iaoiaeeea aaaaoioaeoi?iiai
ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?ca o?aiaiia?iioao?a c iaoith iiaeeaeaiiai oa
anaa?/iiai aecia/aiiy noaio e?noyea.

C’yniaai? ao?iiaoiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie o?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aie oa, cie?aia,
eiieoaoeue ei??a o ca’yceo c inoaiaeeno?io??th.

Aeine?aeaeaii noai e?noeiai? oeaieie oa nooiaeeee?a o a?aeaiae?aaeueieo
ae/e?a i?e aeieeiaii? inoaioaiaeei?oo ia oii? inoaiiao??.

Anoaiiaeaii iniaeeaino? i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy ? oa?aeoa? aeieeiaiiy
aeayeeo oai?ia ae/e?a i?e a?aeaiae?ae? oe?aiith a?aaith.

C’yniaai? iniaeeaino? o?aaeaiiy aoa/anoi? e?noeiai? oeaieie oa aee?iaiai
e?noeiaiai iiceo o ei??a a ae?oa?e oa o?ao?e ciiao ?aae?iaeoeaiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy ? anoaiiaeaii, ui aiie ia?aa?aathoue ca iniaeeaeie
iaoai?ciaie ?aae?aoe?eii? inoaiaeeno?io?? c aeaiaioaie ia??iaee/ii?
?aaaia?aoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy a oiiaao ainiiaea?noa aaciina?aaeiueiai aea/aiiy e?noeiaeo
c?ace?a c iaoith ioe?iee noaio e?noyea ? e?noeiaiai iiceo o aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae. Cai?iiiiiaai? ??ci? iiaeae? ?ino?oiaio?a aeey
o?aiaiia?iin??. Io?eiai? aeai?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai e?noyea
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a ii?i? oa i?e ??cieo oi?iao inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo
o?aaeaiue, ui a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue a ae?aaiinoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo.
Aeaoae?ciaaii iniaeeaino? aieeao o?ea?oai?io ia i?ia?aeueiee iai?i o
ei??a c iaoith eiai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy. A yeino? iaea?eueo
iioeiaeueiiai ae?aaiinoe/iiai e?eoa??th noaio e?noyea cai?iiiiiaaii
aaaaoioaeoi?iee ian-ia’?iiee aiae?c. C’yniaaii ao?iiaoiaaiac o?aaeaiue
e?ioe?aie oa eiieoaoeue, ui ia?aa?aathoue ia oii? inoaiaeeno?io?? o
ei??a a oiiaao no?eeiaiai oo?eiaiiy. ?icoeo?iaaii iniaeeaino? o?aaeaiue
e?noyea, nooiaeeee?a oa ?ioeo oeaiei o a?aeaiae?aaeueieo ae/e?a a
ca’yceo c inoaiaeeno?io??th oa i?e a?aeaiae?ae? oe?aiith a?aaith, ui
eaaeeoue a iniia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii canoinoaaiith ?aoe?iiaeueieo
i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a. Anoaiiaeaii iayai?noue i?e?iaeiueiai
?aae?icaoeniiai iaoai?cio o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca o/anoth aoa/anoi?
e?noeiai? oeaieie oa aee?iaiai e?noeiaiai iiceo.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
aeenoeeie?i: iaoieia?/ia aiaoii?y, aaoa?eia?ia o??o?a?y, ee?i?/ia
ae?aaiinoeea, oa?ai?y.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? “O?aiaiia?iin?y o
aecia/aii? noaio e?noyea ? e?noeiaiai iiceo o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae (c
aeoeaioii ia ae?aaiinoeeo, i?io?eaeoeeo oa e?eoaaiiy inoaiaeeno?io??)”,
?icaeyioo? oa caoaa?aeaeai? ia can?aeaii? naeoe?? “Aaoa?eia?ia
iaaeeoeeia” IO? I?in?eueaini?iaeo Oe?a?ie (i?ioieie ?1 a?ae 9 eenoiiaaea
1998 ?.).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O/anoue caeiaoaa/a a io?eiaii? iaoeiaeo oa
i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a, ye? iieeaaeaii a iniiao aeena?oaoe??,
noaiiaeoue 90%. Iei aeanii?o/ii i?iaaaeai? an? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca
iniiaieie iaoiaeeeaie, i?aaenoaaeaieie a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, a naia:
aeaioiaeaiiy iaiao?aeiiai ?ino?oiaioa??th, ?ic?iaeai? iniaeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo o?aiaiia?iin?? e?noyea o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.
Aeaoae?ciaaii oa iiaeeo?eiaaii iaoiaeeeo aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii?
niaeo?iiao??? e?noeiaeo c?ace?a, cai?iiiiiaaii oi?ioee ?ic?aooie?a
ai?noo i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a e?noyeo ei??a. Ia iniia? a?noieia?/ieo ?
a?noio?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue e?noeiai? oeaieie ?ic?iaeaii
aaaaoioaeoi?iee aeno?aeoiee ian-ia’?iiee iaoiae aiae?ca o?aiaiia?iioao?a
? aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue eiai oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy c iaoith
iiaeeaeaii? aaaaoinoi?iiiuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?noyea. Aeeiiaii /eneaii?
a?noiii?oieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a, aeaii
i?aeoe/io ? oai?aoe/io ioe?ieo ?o ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a oa
ci?i inoaii?o i?e inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo o?aaeaiiyo. Ia i?aenoaa?
i?ea?iaeueieo iaoiaeee c aeiaeaoeiaei caeo/aiiyi o?aaeeoe?eieo cania?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy iienaii iniaeeaino? inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo i?ioean?a o ei??a
? iieiaeiyeo a oiiaao no?eeiaiai oo?eiaiiy oa iniaeeainoae aiae?ae?.
I?iaaaeai? aeine?aee c iaoith i?io?eaeoeee inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo o?aaeaiue
o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.

Eiie?aoeciaaiee ao?iiaoiaaiac o?aaeaiue e?ioe?aie ?, cie?aia,
eiieoaoeue, ui ianiai aeieeathoue o ei??a a oiiaao no?eeiaiai oo?eiaiiy
ia oii? inoaiaeeno?io??. ?icoeo?iaaii i?e?iaei? ?aae?icaoeni? iaoai?cie,
aeanoea? aoa/ano?e e?nooe? oa aee?iaiio e?noeiaiio iiceo ei??a, aeaii
?o e?euee?nio oa ye?nio ioe?ieo ? ii?iaiiaaii ye ?aae?aoe?eio
inoaiaeeno?io?th. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? i?aaenoaaeaii oa?aeoa? ci?i e?noyea
? o?yuiai? oeaieie, a oaeiae e?noeiaiai iiceo ei??a ia caa?oaeiaieo
oa?eoi??yo ae?oai? oa o?aouei? cii.

Caeiaoaa/ai noi?ioeueiaaii iieiaeaiiy i?i aaaeeeao ?ieue e?noyeo, ye
iniiaii? iii?ii? oeaieie oaa?eiiiai i?aai?cio, a i?aeo?eiaii? iaeaaeiiai
caei?ia’y ? aaaeo/i? ?ie? inoaiaeeno?io?? o aeieeiaii? aeayeeo
o??o?a?/ieo oai?ia, aaaeo/iai cia/aiiy aae?noa?ac?no o iaeiie/aii? oa
aeo?aoao e?noyeii aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia: eiioa?aioe?? “Aeieiaey iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai
aiia?aoa”, Eeeiaioiai. Oa?ueeia, 1992 (Oa?ueeianeee iaaeeoeeineee
einoeooo, Oa?ueeianeee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo i?oiiaaeee e
o?aaiaoieiaee ei. i?io. I.E.Neoaiei); ?aae?ia?ieia?/iiio c’?cae? (Eeaa,
20-25 naioya?y 1993); I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu aaoa?eia?iie oe?o?aee”, i?enay/ai?e 90-??//th c
aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiey caneoaeaiiai ae?y/a iaoee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?a
aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a ?.?.Iaaaea (Oa?ueeia, 1994); Ia?o?e
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e eiioa?aioe?? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoieia?a
(13-15 eenoiiaaea 1996 ?.), Ee?a, 1996; Ae?oa?e i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ia?ioaeoe?eia iaoieia?y oaa?ei” (A?ea
Oea?eaa, 4-5 /a?aiy 1998 ?.); iaoe. i?aeo. eiio. Iaoe. aa?a?i.
oi?aa?neoaoo, Ee?a, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 31 ?iaioo, c ieo
noaoae o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo – 18 (8 iaeiiin?aieo), i?aoeue
i?aeia?iaeieo, anaoe?a?inueeeo, aaeocaaeo c’?cae?a ? eiioa?aioe?e – 11;
e??i oiai, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a cae?i/ai?e oi?i? i?aaenoaaeai? o
aeaio iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao (Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A.
“Iia?aoeaiay oe?o?aey aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo: o?aaeeoeeiiiua e nia?aiaiiua
aniaeou”, Eeaa, 1996 e 1998 aa.; Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A.
“Iaca?aciua aieacie naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aeeaioiuo: aeooa?noai e
aeiaeieiaey, aioo?aiiea iaca?aciua aieacie, oe?o?ae/aneea aieacie”,
Eeaa, 1997 a.); iioae?eiaaia oa iioe?aia a Oe?a?i? eaeoe?y
“?aaeeoeeiiiay inoaiaeeno?ioey o ei?ia, iaoneiaeaiiay aaa?eae ia *AYN”,
Eeaa, 1994, — 37 n.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
oaeeo ?icae?e?a: “Anooi”, “Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e” (4 i?ae?icae?ee), “Aea??
iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe“,
“?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o aiae?c” (18 i?ae?icae?e?a),
“Caeeth/aiiy”, “Aeniiaee” oa nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e
(595 iaeiaioaaiue). Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 292 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno; aiia i?noeoue 38 oaaeeoeue, 87 ?enoie?a.

Aea?? iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoa??ae oa

iaoiaee aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia aac? eaoaae? iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii?? ?
aaonaiaenia?oece oa o??o?a?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a
oaeiae a ainiiaea?noaao Ee?anueei?, AEeoiie?nueei? oa *a?eanueei?
iaeanoae. A aeine?aeao aoei caae?yii 3120 aie?a ei??a /i?ii-?yai?
ii?iaee ??ciiai a?eo i?iaeoeoeai?noth a?ae 2200 aei 6000 ea iieiea ia
??e oa 2360 aie?a iieiaeiyeo aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, a oiio /ene? 2290
aie?a a?aeaiae?aaeueieo ae/e?a.

Iniiaiei niiniaii io?eiaiiy iaoa??aeo aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoea
o?aiaiia?iin?y. Aeey ?? i?iaaaeaiiy neiino?oeiaaii oa aeaioiaeaii i’youe
iiaeaeae o?aiai?a. O?aiai i?aaenoaaey? niaith iaoaeaao o?oaeo
aeiaaeeiith 8-12 ni ? aioo??oi?i ae?aiao?ii 5-6 ii. A?ey iioiauaiiai
e?ioey ?ino?oiaioa i?eaa?ai? ?o/ee, i?ioeeaaeiee e?ae eiioniaeaeii
caaino?aiee. Aeey aeooiaooaaiiy e?noeiaiai c?acea c na?aaeeie
?ino?oiaioa canoiniaoaaee iaiae?ai.

O?aiaiia?iin?th i?iaiaeeee ia noiy/?e oaa?ei?. A eiaeiiio ie?aiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? aoei i?iiia?iaaii 5 — 10 oaa?ei.

A ae?eyioe? iaeeaea aiooaaee iia?aoe?eia iiea. Aino?ee e?iaoeue o?aiaia
i?eoeneaee aei iaeeaea, a ii i?ioeeaaeiiio ei?ioei ? ??cei aeee
o?aiaiaoe?eiei iieioeii. ?ino?oiaio ii??aiyii eaaei caaeeaeth?oueny a
oiauo ciai?oiueiai ai?aa eeoaiai? e?noee (ia 5-7ni).

O?aiai iiaa?oaee iaaeiei aeiaai? a?n?, a?aeae?eyth/e e?noeiaee c?acie
a?ae i?aeni?aei?o oeaiei, ? aeoyaoaaee. ?aio i?eneiaee aioenaioe/iei
ii?ioeii (o?eoeee?i oiui); caaithaaiiy i?ioiaeeei aac oneeaaeiaiue
i?ioyaii 12-14 ae?a.

O?aiaiia?iioao neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio /anoei: i’yeeo iiaa?oiaaeo oeaiei,
o?yuiai? oeaieie (ai?ooaa?aeueiee o?yu) ? aoa/anoi? e?noeiai? oeaieie
(iniiaia /anoeia a?iioaoa). Inoaiith a?aen?eaee ? aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey
a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaiue.

E?noeiaee c?acie caaaeoaaee, ooaiaaioee?eoeai aei??thaaee eiai ae?aiao?
oa aeiaaeeio ? ae?aoiaoaaee ia’?i. Aeae? ae?aoiaoaaee u?euei?noue
c?acea, aaee/eia yei? i???ioiaii na?ae/eoue i?i noai e?noyea – o ei??a a
ii?i? 1015-1295 ia/ni3, a i?e ae?aaeai?e inoaiaeeno?io?? 485-890 ia/ni3.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy a?noieia?/ieo ? a?noio?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
canoiniaoaaee caaaeueiii?eeiyo? iaoiaee o?enaoe??, aeaeaeueoe?iaoe?? oa
aeaioiaeaiiy c??c?a (?.Ie?n,1968; ?.Eeeee,1969; A.E.Eiiiineee,1976).
Iaoiaee oa?aoaaiiy: aaiaoienee?i-aicei, i?e?iooenei, cae?ciee
aaiaoienee?i Aaeaa?oa oa Aaeaeaiaaeia. A?noio?i?/i? iaoiaee aeeth/aee
aecia/aiiy ioeea?iiaeo eeneio (?aaeoe?? Oaeueaaia, A?aoa, Aeia?niia,
Eiia?aaa), a?ee?a (?aaeoe?? c a?iioaiieiaei nei?i oa i?oeiei caeaiei i?e
??cieo cia/aiiyo ?I oa c aeiaeaaaiiyi noeaie — A.Deuth,1955, D.Mazia
et. al.,1953, A.A.Eaaiia,1961, N.Ringert, A.Zetterberg, 1966).

I?ioaiae?eaie aeyaeyee ?aaeoe??th iaoao?iiac?? (G.Quintarelly,1963,
C.Hale, 1946), aeueoe?aiiaei nei?i (E.Moury,1958, S.Spicer,1960).
Aioo??oiueiaeaeiao ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th i?ioaiae?eai?a i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeaie
?aeiiaiaeiaaieie a a?noio?i?? ?c canoinoaaiiyi ia?iaee a?aeo?ii?aeacaie,
iaoeethaaiiy-aeaiaoeethaaiiy, noeueoaooaaiiy, e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe??
aeaeo?ie?o?a oiui.

Ae?eii?ioa?ie aeyaeyee IAN-?aaeoe??th (J.macManus,1945, A.A.Oaaaaeao,
1947).

Ianiaoeeo?/io anoa?aco aecia/aee iaoiaeii aciniieo/aiiy ca I.Aa?noiiii
(1965).

Eoaeio oa eeneo oinoaoace (oinoiiiiianoa?ace ? oa ??) aeyaeyee ca
iaoiaeii Aiii?? (G.Gomory,1939,1941, H.Takamatsu,1939), a oaeiae
?aaeoe??th aciniieo/aiiy ca I.Aa?noiiii (1965). Aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeiae
iaoiae, niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiee aeey aecia/aiiy eoaeii? oa eenei?
oinoaoac o e?noeia?e oeaiei? (A.N.*a?ieeiaa, I.N.Oaa?aeuieia,1981).

Aeeiiaiiy an?o a?noio?i?/ieo iaoiae?a noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny iaiao?aeieie
eiio?ieyie aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?o niaoeeo?/iino?.

Aaiaoieia?/i? iieacieee (e?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a, eaeeioeeo?a,
eaeeia?aio) aecia/aee caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie (E.I.Eiiae?aoei e
niaao.,1985), ai?no aaiiaeia?io – aaiiiao?ii Nae? oa
aaiiaeia?ioe?ai?aeiei iaoiaeii. Ai?no a?eea a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? –
?ao?aeoiiao?ii ?E-2, eieuei?iaee iieaciee e?ia? – ?ic?aooieiaei
iaoiaeii, ai?no eaeueoe?th – ca aea-Aaa?aeii, iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o – ca
iaoiaeii A??ana a iiaeeo?eaoe?? N.A.Eaaiianeiai, eoaeiee ?aca?a e?ia? –
ca Aai Neaeeii, ?I e?ia? aecia/aee iaoiaeii ?.O.Ea?iieeaaa, oeoe?e e?ia?
– ca Naiiaeae?, ea?ioeia a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? – ca A.O.Ei?iieneiaei oa
E.A.Eoae?yaoeaaith, eaoiiia? o?ea – eiaeiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii, a oaeiae ca
I.I.Iooe?iith. (“Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ee?i?ei-a?io?i?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a ae?aaiinoeoe? iaoieia?? iai?io ?a/iaei o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei”, Ee?a, 1981, ?aae. I.I.Noaeaeia).

E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaio?a a e?noeiaeo c?aceao
i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii? niaeo?iiao??? E.Oaaaciaa,
Ae.Oeaiaaa (1983), iiaeeo?eiaaiei aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a
A.A.Ai?enaae/ai, I.I.Iaeueieeiaith (1991). A i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe
?yae iaoiaeee aoee oaeineiiaeai?, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeai? iia?, cie?aia
aecia/aiiy eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o a e?noeiaeo c?aceao a?io?i?/iei
iaoiaeii, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? e?noyea iaoiaeii
aaaaoioaeoi?iiai ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?co.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ?aae?iaeoeaiino? e?noeiaeo c?ace?a inoaii? i?ney
caaaeoaaiiy, ciaaiaeiaiiy oa ciaaee?aiiy a nie?o? ? oei?ioi?i?
aenoooaaee oa ?ic/eiyee a iaaaeeeiio ia’?i? (5-7 ie) noi?o?
eiioeaio?iaaieo acioii? ? nieyii? eeneio, i?ney /iai aeenoeeueiaaiith
aiaeith aeiaiaeeee aei ia’?io 25 ie. ?ic/ei oeo?oaaee aei ?I 7,0
(eiio?ieue cae?enithaaee ?I-iao?ii), inaae, ui aeiaa, a?aeo?eueo?iaoaaee
ia iaia?iaee o?eueo?, aenoooaaee ? aei??yee eiai ?aae?iaeoeai?noue ia
e?/eeueieeo NAO-10; ?aae?iaeoeai?noue i?ici?iai ?ic/eio, ui caeeoeany,
aei??thaaee ia i?eeaae? ?AEN-05. E?/eeueiee NAO-10 oa i?eeaae ?AEN-05
iieacothoue ci?oaio ?aae?iaeoeai?noue, yeo aeathoue ?aae?iioee?aee
no?iioe?th oa oeac?th. Noia iaio aei???a neeaaea? caaaeueio
?aae?iaeoeai?noue o?aiaiia?iioaoa.

??aaiue ?aae?iaeoeaiino? iieiea oa na/? anoaiiaethaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
aaoa-?aae?iiao?a.

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo oeeo?iaeo aeaieo aeeiioaaee ca iaoiaeii
?.A.No?aeeiaa (1966) oa I.A.Naaeianeiai (1975).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O AIAE?C

A?noiii?oieia?/ia oa a?noio?i?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea o?aiaiia?iioao?a

Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii o?aiaiia?iioaoa ? o?yuiaa ieao?aea, yea
i?aaenoaaeaia oeiiaei a?ae?iiaei o?yuai c noaeeiieie eaiaeaie. Oeae
ai?ooaa?aeueiee o?yu aeeiio? ?ieue o?yuiai? ieao?aee ?inoo i?ioyaii
anueiai aeeooy oaa?eie. A iaaeai?aiaiio o?yu? ?ic??ciythoueny ie?ai?
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ciie: a)ciai?oiy /anoeia, aai ciia ?iaeeoa?aioiiai
o?yua (?aca?aia o?yuiaa ciia), a)a?eueo aeeaiea ciia i?ie?oa?aoe??
(i?ioa?ie ?ioaineaiiai iiae?eo o?yuiaeo ee?oei), a)iaea?eueo aeeaiea
ciia aeao?ieoeaiiai o?yua, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oi?ioaaiiyi ee?oeiieo
noiaa/ee?a c ?icoaoiaaieie i?ae ieie i?ioa?eaie iniiaii? ?a/iaeie
(o?yuiaeie o?aaaeoeaie). Ooieoe?y inoaiiuei? ciie iieyaa? a caaacia/aii?
ia?iaiaioiiai ia?aa?ao aioiiae?aeueiiai inoaiaaiaco.

I?aoi?iaoe?y o?yuiai? oeaieie a e?noeiao a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae ae??th
e?iaiiinieo noaeei, ui i?i?inoathoue c i?aeni?aeiuei ?icoaoiaaii? e?noee
a ciio ineo?eaoe??. O?yuia? o?aaaeoee ia?aoai?ththoueny a e?noeia?
o?aaaeoee, oiaoi inoaii? oi?iothoueny ia aac? i?aeeieiii/ii? iniiaii?
?a/iaeie. Ia aac? i?aeeieiii/ii? iniiaii? ?a/iaeie ooai?ththoueny
e?noeia? aaeee (ia?aeeaaeeie), ye? c’?aeiothoue i?ae niaith e?noeia?
o?aaaeoee, oi?ioth/e oe?ieiiaoeenoo no?oeoo?o aoa/anoi? e?noee c
a?/eaie, caiiaiaieie e?noeiaei iiceii.

Aaeee ? o?aaaeoee aoa/anoi? e?noee i?noyoue cia/io e?euee?noue
ae?eii?ioa?i?a oa eao?iiieo a?ee?a; o neeaae? inoaii?o ia?aaaaeii
aecia/athoueny e?cei oa a?noeae?i.

Inoaiaeanoe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iei ai?noii AeIE, inoaioeeoe – ?IE oa
iayai?noth aaaaoi/enaeueieo ae?inoe?a ana?aaeei? e?noeiaeo eaiaeueoe?a.

A?noieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a

iieiaeiyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae

O oaee/ie o?e- oa i’yoei?ny/iiai a?eo noaiiaeaiiy e?noeiai? oeaieie a
ae?eyioe? ciai?oiueiai ai?aa eeoaiai? e?noee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
inoaoi/iei cai?uaiiyi aia??iiaeueiiai o?yua o ca’yceo c a?inoaiiyi a
iueiai e?iaiiinieo noaeei c aieo o?ea eeoaiai? e?noee. Ia iaae? i?ae
o?iioii a?inoaiiy e?iaiiinieo noaeei ? a?ae?iiaei o?yuai oi?io?oueny
ciia ia?aeiiiai aioiiae?aeueiiai inoaiaaiaco, aea niinoa??aa?oueny
aiaieuaaa ?oeioaaiiy o?yuiaeo ee?oei, iaiaaeaieo ia?aai?iaeeaie iniiaii?
?a/iaeie, aiane?aeie /iai oi?iothoueny ca/aoee iaeaooi?o
e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie.

A i??o a?inoaiiy eai?ey?ieo oa?i?iaeae a?aeaoaa?oueny aeano?oeoe?y
oiiae?ioeeo?a oa ?aci?aoe?y o?yuiaiai iao?eeno. A aioiiae?aeueieo
eaeoiao, ui ooai?eeeny, ii/eia?oueny aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y inoaiaeano?a,
ee?oei ?aoeeoey?ii? no?iie e?noeiaiai iiceo, ?icai?oathoueny aeaiaioe
i?aeiiiaca.

O i’yoei?ny/ieo oaee/ie, ia a?aei?io a?ae o?ei?ny/ieo, a cii? ia?aeiiiai
aioiiae?aeueiiai inoaiaaiaco, ye ? a cii? aoi?eiiiai aioiiae?aeueiiai
inoaiaaiaco, noaiiaeaiiy yeiai caaa?oo?oueny i?ney noaoaaiai
aeic??aaiiy, ooai?ththoueny oa?aeoa?i? ?ciaaii? a?oie oiiae?ioeeo?a o
aeaeyae? iiacaeiaaei?o eieiiie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iai?yiii i?i?inoaiiy
e?iaiiinieo noaeei c aeeaeie e?noee. Noaiiaeaiiy inoaiaaiaco
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iineeaiiyi ?aaeoe?? ia eoaeio oinoaoaco, eao?iii?
a?eee oa ae?eii?ioa?ie.

A i?ioean? cai?uaiiy o?yua e?noeith a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy
o?aaaeoey?iiai aiaeinoa. A neeaae? inoaiueiai aeyaeythoueny
i?ainoaiaeanoe, a oaeiae iaeiaeeoa?aioe?eiaai? ee?oeie ?aoeeoey?ii?
no?iie, aaaao? ia ianiaoeeo?/io anoa?aco. I?ioean ?aci?aoe?? o?yua
iiina?aaeaeo?oueny ae?aaeaiith iae?ioaaaeueiith ?aaeoe??th; iae?ioaae
i?noyoue cia/io e?euee?noue eenei? oinoaoace, yea ia?e??o? ?o
oiiae?ie?oe/io aeoeai?noue. Iae?ioaae oaeiae aeooeothoueny ii ia?eoa???
o?yuiaeo aaeie. A i?ii?aeeao i?ae ieie ?icoaoiaothoueny inoaiaeanoe,
aaaao? ia eoaeio oinoaoaco. Noaeeiia, iae?ioaaaeueia ? inoaiaeanoe/ia
?aaeoe?y neeaaeathoue ?aeeiee iaoai?ci i?ioeano aioiiae?aeueiiai oa
aiaeinoaeueiiai inoaiaaiaco, i?e/iio aiaeinoaeueiee inoaiaaiac
ia?aaaaea?. O oaee/ie o?e- oa i’yoei?ny/iiai a?eo e?noeiaa oeaieia a
ae?eyioe? ciai?oiueiai ai?aa eeoaiai? e?noee ? inoaiaeanoe/iith
(iieiaeith). Ia?ao?ae a?ae inoaiaeanoe/ii? e?noee aei inoaioeeoa?ii?
(aeao?i?oeaii?) a ae?eyioe? iaeeaea ianoa? a ia??iae noaoaaiai
aeic??aaiiy.

Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei a o?aiaiia?iioaoao

oa a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ei??a a ii?i?

Aeine?ae i?iaaaeaii ia ei?iaao /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee 4–7-??/iiai a?eo
i?iaeoeoeai?noth 4000 ea iieiea ia ??e a cii? Iie?nny. E?noeia? c?acee
aeine?aeaeoaaee iaoiaeii aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii? niaeo?iiao???.

A e?noyeo aeine?aeaeaieo ei??a (oaae. 1) ainaie, ii??aiyii c aaniith,
aeinoia??ii a?eueoa i?noeoueny eaeueoe?th, iao??th, eae?th, cae?ca,
ia?aaioeth; ??cieoey aeyaeeany iaaeinoia??iith noiniaii i?ae?, oeeieo,
no?iioe?th. E?euee?noue ia?aaioeth a e?noyeo aeoaea iacia/ia, ui
iaoiiaeaii a?iaaio?i?/ieie iniaeeainoyie ciie Iie?nny.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee io?eiaoe /?oe? aeai? i?i
i?ia?aeueiee neeaae o?aiaiia?iioao?a a iaaeao iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeeee;
inoaiiy ia aeicaiey? aecia/aoe ai?no ai?ii?a, cie?aia oinoi?o.

Iaaia aa??aaaeuei?noue ai?noo i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a iiynith?oueny
caeaoi?noth e?noyea iaeiie/oaaoe inoaii?, oiaoi neoaoaaoe i?ia?aeueiei
aeaii, iaiiaiai?noue yeiai caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie iaaeoiaeaeaiiy oa
aeo?ao i?ia?ae?a. Anoaiiaeaia oaeiae iayai?noue /?oeeo naciiieo
eieeaaiue ??aiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? e?noyea, ui ia?aaoaathoue a iaaeao iaaii?
a?aeiinii? ii?ie.

Oaaeeoey 1

Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a o o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea ei??a

i?iaeoeoeai?noth 4000 ea iieiea ia ??e a ii?i? a cii? Iie?nny

AeaiaioeA?iin?y 26 ea?oiyA?iin?y 3 aeiaoiy?Na, a/ea63,8
±2,6175,04±4,15<0,05Mg, a/ea1,44±0,272,52±0,51<0,05Na, a/ea4,4±0,695,92±0,77<0,05K, ia/ea203,5±22,2280,3±36,67<0,05Fe, ia/ea65,94 ±16,4898,52±4,2<0,05Cu, ia/ea13,08±3,6915,52 ±3,39>0,05Zn,
ia/ea53,12±14,1979,74±12,06>0,05Mn, ia/ea1,02±0,171,94±0,54<0,05Sr, ia/ea7,56±1,9110,6±0,66<0,05Ai?no a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? eaeueoe?th, oinoi?o, Na:?, ?aca?aia eoaei?noue ciaoiaeeeeny a iaaeao caaaeueiiaeciaii? ii?ie. Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei a o?aiaiia?iioaoao ? a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ei??a i?e ae?iaioa?i?e inoaiaeeno?io?? oa ?? a?noieia?/i? iniaeeaino? A aeine?ae? aoei caae?yii 320 ei??a /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee i?iaeoeoeai?noth 3900 ea iieiea ia ??e, ui oo?eioaaeeny a iaeiiio c i?ei?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa i. Ee?aa (ciia Iie?nny). ?acoeueoaoe aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii? niaeo?iiao?e? i?aaenoaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 2. Ai?no eaeueoe?th a e?noyeo ei??a, oai?eo ia inoaiaeeno?io?th, aeinoia??ii ieae/ee, i?ae o ii?i?: iaaani? 47,02±2,1 i?ioe 63,8 ±2,61 a/ea, (? <0,01), ainaie 51,42±1,61 i?ioe 75,04±4,16 a/ea (? <0,01). A oie aea /an, ye ? a oiiaao ii?ie, ainaie ai?no eaeueoe?th a e?noyeo ei??a, oai?eo ia inoaiaeeno?io?th, aeyaeany aeinoia??ii a?eueoei, i?ae iaaani?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue ae?aaeaieo naciiieo eieeaaiue ??aiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? e?noyea ia o?eueee o caei?iaeo ei??a, aea e o ei??a c neiioiiaie inoaiaeeno?io??. A?aei?/a?oueny oaeiae aeinoia??ia naciiia eieeaaiiy iane/aiino? e?noeiai? oeaieie eae??i, i?aeaeth, no?iioe??i, ui, a??ia?aeii, iaoiiaeaii a?eueoei ai?noii inoaii?o o caeaieo ei?iao, ye? caiaeiaoaaee a ainiiaea?noa? i?ioyaii e?oa. A e?noyeo ei??a aeaiiai ainiiaea?noaa, a ii??aiyii? c e?noyeii ei??a, a oiiaao yeiai aecia/aee iieacieee ii?ie, anoaiiaeaii iii?oi? a?aeoeeaiiy ai?noo ?yaeo i?ia?ae?a. Oae, aeinoia??ii a?eueoa i?noeeiny (in?ii? iieacieee) no?iioe?th (16,44±1,84 i?ioe 10,6±0,06 ia/ea) ? aeinoia??ii iaioa iao??th (2,27±0,35 i?ioe 5,92±0,77 a/ea) oa ia?aaioeth (0,58±0,05 i?ioe 1,94±0,54 ia/ea), ui, c iaeiiai aieo, iaoiiaeaii aeayeeie i?noeaaeie iniaeeainoyie a?oio?a, a c ?ioiai, ieae/ei ??aiai aeene?ei?iaoe?? no?iioe?th eaeueoe??i a ca’yceo c iaioei ai?noii inoaiiueiai. Aeiionea?ii, ui iaioee ai?no iao??th iia’ycaiee c iineeaiei eiai aeo?a/aiiyi ye eoaeiiai aea?aaeaioo, ia i?aeo?eiaiiy ?I aioo??oiueiai na?aaeiaeua, i?i ui na?ae/aoue a?io?i?/i? iieacieee ne?iaaoee e?ia? (oaae. 3). sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe? 3, ai?no caaaeueiiai a?eea ye iaaani?, oae ? ainaie aoa a iaaeao ii?ie, aea ??cieoey i?ae ieie aeyaeeany noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??iith ia ei?enoue in?ii?o iieaciee?a. Ai?no ea?ioeia iaaani? aoa ieae/ee a?ae ii?ie, a ainaie oeae iieaciee ii?iae?coaaany. Oaaeeoey 2 Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei a o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea ei??a i?e ae?aaeaieo neiioiiao inoaiaeeno?io?? AeaiaioeA?iin?y 28 ea?oiyA?iin?y 26 aa?aniy?Ca, a/ea47,02±2,151,42±1,61<0,05Mg, a/ea 1,36±0,281,79±0,42>0,05Na,
a/ea2,14±0,322,37±0,35>0,05K, ia/ea107,84±6,76225,58±43,43<0,05Fe, ia/ea104,14±6,16101,46±3,92>0,05Cu, ia/ea11,4±2,422,34±5,64<0,05Zn, ia/ea84,44±9,9986,22±10,47<0,05Mn, ia/ea0,62±0,050,58±0,05>0,05Sr,
ia/ea10,48±1,0716,44±1,84<0,05Oaaeeoey 3 A?io?i?/i? iieacieee ne?iaaoee e?ia? ei??a c ae?aaeaieie neiioiiaie inoaiaeeno?io?? IieacieeeAcyooy e?ia? 28 ea?oiyAcyooy e?ia? 26 aa?aniy?Caaaeueiee a?eie, a/e73,2±0,2679,4±0,19<0,05Ea?ioei, ieiieue/ie6,87±0,768,74±0,62<0,01Eoaeiee ?aca?a, iiieue/e11,32±0,1512,15±0,32<0,05Na, iiieue/e2,66±0,052,83±0,13>0,05?, iiieue/e1,59±0.071,71±0,1>0,05Na:?,
ia%2,16±0,12,15±0,08>0,05Eoaeiee ?aca?a e?ia? aaniith aoa ieae/ei a?ae
ii?ie, a ainaie a?i aeyaeany ii?iaeueiei. Ai?no Na ? ?, ye iaaani?, oae
? ainaie, aoa o iaaeao ii?ie.

Oaeei /eiii, oa?aeoa? iai?io ?a/iaei a i?aai?ci? ei??a, oai?eo ia
inoaiaeeno?io?th, oa?aeoa?ecoaaany iii?oiei eiai iia??oaiiyi iaaani? oa
aeayeith oaiaeaioe??th aei ii?iae?caoe?? ainaie.

A?noieia?/ii aeyaey?oueny /anoeiaa ?icniieooaaiiy aeayeeo e?noeiaeo
o?aaaeoe, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oeaiith ea?oeiith ?o “?ic’?aeiaiiy”.
Aeey inoaiiaeyoe??, yea ia?aaaaea?, oa?aeoa?iee aaaaoioieoniee inoaie?c,
aeenioe?thth/a, noaeeiia, iacooia oa ?ieiee inoaieeanoe/ia ?aci?aoe?y.
Inoaiii?ic, ui cono??/a?oueny ii??aiyii ??aeei, i?iyaey?oueny
oi?ioaaiiyi ae?aaeaieo ii?iaeiei a e?noeia?e ?a/iaei?.

Aeeno?io?y e?noeiai? oeaieie noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iaie e?noeiaiai
iiceo. Niinoa??aa?oueny e?iie?c c ooai?aiiyi aioo??oiueia?/eiaeo
aiaeyieo iooe??a oa ?io?eueo?aoe?? iiiiioeeaa?ieie oaaioeeoaie.

Noai e?noyea ei??a i?e inoaiaeeno?io?? ia oii? eaoico

Eaoic ia??aeei oneeaaeith?oueny aoi?eiiith inoaiaeeno?io??th
(?.I.Eiiae?ao?i,1980), yea a?ae??ciy?oueny nai???aeiei iaoiaaiacii, ui ?
iaoiiaeth? ?ioa?an aei aea/aiiy ?aaeoe?e e?noyea ei??a i?e aeaiiio
caoai?thaaii?.

Ae?aaiic ia eaoic noaaeee ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?aoe?iio, ee?i?/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue oa aeaieo eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4

A?io?i?/i? iieacieee e?ia? ei??a, oai?eo ia eaoic

IieacieeeAcyooy e?ia? 4 a?oaeiyAcyooy e?ia? 25 o?aaiyCaaaeueiee a?eie,
a/e89,5±0,2471,1±0,415Aetheica, iiieue/e2,3±0,133,41±0,275Eaoiiia? o?ea,
iiieue/e1,76±0,10,68±0,4Eoaeiee ?aca?a,iiieue/e11,9±0,6410,5±0,19 Na,
iiieue/e2,18±0,032,69±0,04?, iiieue/e2,82±0,031,29±0,15Na:?,
ia%1,04±0,0052,19±0,22Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao
i?aaenoaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 5. A?aeiinii iecueeee ai?no eaeueoe?th a
e?noeiaeo c?aceao iaoiiaeaiee inoaiaeeno?io?/iei i?ioeanii. Caa?oa? ia
naaa oaaao cieaeaiiy ai?noo oeeieo a e?noeia?e oeaiei?, ui, iiaeeeai,
iaoiiaeaii eiai i?aeaeuaieie aeo?aoaie. Oeeie — aaaeeeaa neeaaeiaa
/anoeia aaaaoueio oa?iaio?a, a ia?oo /a?ao ?inoe?ia; aeiionea?ii, ui i?e
eaoic?, a ca’yceo c iecueeei ??aiai aetheice a e?ia?, a?aeaoaa?oueny
iineeaia i?iaeoeoaaiiy ?inoe?io c ianooiiei aeaaaeaiiyi eiai c
i?aai?cio, ui ? aecia/a? ciaioaiiy ai?noo oeeieo a o?aiaiia?iioaoao.

I?aeaeuaiee ai?no cae?ca iia’ycaiee c iineeaiiyi e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy
aoa/anoi? e?noee.

I?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo no?iioe?th, i/aaeaeii, iaoiiaeaii iayai?noth a
neeaae? ceiiaiai ?aoe?iio ei?i?a, aaaaoeo oeei i?e?iaeaiaioii. Aeineoue
iecueeee ai?no naeioeth oa eaaei?th a?aeia?aaea? iaaia aeaaiiieo//y
caiaeueieo oa?aeue aeaiiai ainiiaea?noaa ii caa?oaeiaiith aaaeeeie
iaoaeaie.

Oaaeeoey 5

Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao

i?e aoi?eii?e inoaiaeeno?io??

AeaiaioeO?aiaiia?iin?y 4 a?oaeiyO?aiaiia?iin?y 25 o?aaiy123Na, a/ea
58,06±2,4357,4±5,79Mg, a/ea1,63±0,072,37±0,27Na,
a/ea3,08±0,276,79±0,51K, ia/ea120,2±4,93240±22,3Fe,
ia/ea510±109,4334,4±153,13Cu, ia/ea6,82±0,5652±,8 3Zn,
ia/ea10,17±4,11239±41,85123Mn, ia/ea Ia
aecia/aee11,7±4,4Sr, ia/ea33,9±3,332,44±0,41Pb, ia/eaNe?aee3,96±0,65Cd,
ia/ea0,652±0,17 2,36±0,53C e?ioey ea?oiy ei??a ii/aee aeianaoe. Oea
??cei ci?ieei oa?aeoa? aiae?ae? (e?euee?noue eiioeaio?ao?a a ?aoe?ii?
aoea ciaioaia ia 3 ea, ui cieceei eaoiaaii?noue ?aoe?iio) ? iicia/eeiny
iiceoeaii ia ee?i?/iiio noaoon? oa ia a?io?i?/ieo iieacieeao e?ia? ? ia
i?e?iaeaiaioiiio neeaae? o?aiaiia?iioao?a.

A?aeiinii iecueeee ai?no eaeueoe?th a e?noeiaeo c?aceao, io?eiaieo a
e?ioe? o?aaiy, aeaco? ia oiia?eueiaiiy ?ai?ia?ae?caoe?? e?noyea a
ia??iae i?ciuei? aanie, ui iaoiiaeaii nooo?aeie ii?ooaiiyie iai?iieo
?aaeoe?e o i?aai?ci? ei??a o ca’yceo c eaoicii, oneeaaeiaiei aoi?eiiith
inoaiaeeno?io??th.

A?noieia?/ii a e?noeiaeo c?aceao aeyaey?oueny ?icniieooaaiiy /anoeie
aaeie ? o?aaaeoe, ii?ooo?oueny ??aiii??i?noue ?o caaa?aeaiiy
(“ieyieno?noue”). A ?aaeoe?? c i?e?iooeneiiaith noi?ooth e?noeiaee
eieaaai i?noeyie oa?ao?oueny a iaoa?aeoa?iee aeey iueiai
aeiaoi-i?aiaeiaee eie??, a i?noeyie aeyaey?oueny eiai aacio?e?y.
Iineaaeth?oueny ?aaeoe?y ia ae?eii?ioa?ie ? eao?iii? a?eee,
iineeth?oueny ?aaeoe?y ia i?ioaiae?eaie, ye? i?noyoue ia?aaaaeii
a?aeo?iiao. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i ae?aaeaio aeeno?io?th e?noeiaiai
eieaaaia ? ? oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith aoi?eiii? inoaiaeeno?io?? o ca’yceo
c eaoicii. Aeiionea?ii, ui ae?aaeaia aeeno?io?y e?noeiaiai eieaaaia
coiiaeth? cieaeaiiy a?aeeeaaeaiiy ia iueiio nieae eaeueoe?th.

A aee?iaiio e?noeiaiio iiceo iathoue i?noea e?iie?c, a?ae?ii?/ia
aeeno?io?y, iaeiie/aiiy a?aeo?iiaoo, a?eea, ?io?eueo?aoe?y e?oiieie
aacio?eueieie iiiioeeoa?ii-iae?ioaaaeueieie aeaiaioaie (?aci?aoeaiee
i?ioean).

Canoinoaaiiy aeinooiieo iaoiaeee aecia/aiiy

ai?noo eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o a o?aiaiia?iioaoao

Aeey aecia/aiiy ai?noo eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o a e?noeiaeo c?aceao iiaeia
canoiniaoaaoe ye aeno?aeo, oae ? e?cao a?iioaoa. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo
e?noeiao ?a/iaeio ianith 300 ia – 1 a caio?th?ii a 5%-iee ?ic/ei acioii?
eeneioe (8 ie) ia 12 aiaeei. I?ney oeueiai c?acie aeo?eio?ii a aeaio
ii?oe?yo aeenoeeueiaaii? aiaee (ii 3 ie) – a?aeiia?aeii 6-10 aiaeei oa 1
aiaeeio; iaeaea? ii?oe?? ceeaa?ii ?acii ? aeiaea?ii aei eeneioiiai
aeno?aeoo, caaaeueiee ia’?i yeiai ca?eueoo?oueny aei 14 ie.

A ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo e?noeiaee c?acie ?ic/eiy?ii a noi?o? eiioeaio?iaaieo
acioii? oa nieyii? eeneioe (8 ie) i?ioyaii 6-10 aiaeei. Aei e?caoo
aeiaea?ii 6 ie aeenoeeueiaaii? aiaee.

Uia aeiaanoe eiioeaio?aoe?th eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o a aeine?aeaeoaaieo
?ic/eiao aei aaee/ei na?aaei?o iieaciee?a a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? (oea
aaaeeeai, ine?eueee aeicaiey? aeeiioaaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a oiiaao
cae/aeieo aaoa?eia?ieo eaai?aoi??e) inoaii? ?icaiaeeii aeenoeeueiaaiith
(a?aeenoeeueiaaiith) aiaeith a 20-50 ?ac?a. I?aeoe/ii aa?aii 1 ie
eeneioiiai aeno?aeoo (e?caoo) ? aeiaea?ii 20-50 ie aiaee. Noa?aiii
ia?ai?oo?ii. A aeaiiio ?ic/ei? aecia/a?ii ai?no eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o c
aeei?enoaiiyi caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo iaoiaeee. A ianooiieo ?ic?aooieao
a?aoiao?ii iieacieee ?icaaaeaiiy aeno?aeoa (e?caoa) oa iane e?noeiaiai
c?acea.

E?euee?noue eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o iiaeia ae?aoiaoaaoe ye a iaeeieoe?
iane, oae ? a iaeeieoe? aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/iiai ia’?io e?noee.

O ei??a i?iaeoeoeai?noth 2200-3200 ea iieiea ia ??e aeey eiiiaeoii? ?
aoa/anoi? e?noee anoaiiaeai? oae? iieacieee ai?noo eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o
(oaae. 6).

Oaaeeoey 6

Ai?no eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o (ia/a, a/ea) a e?noeiaeo c?aceao.

Noai e?noyeaAi?no Na a eiiiae-oi?e e?nooe?Ai?no ?

a eiiiae oi?e e?nooe?Na:? a eiiiaeo-

i?e e?nooe?Ai?no Na a aoa/an-o?e e?nooe?Ai?no ? a aoa- /ano?e
e?nooe?Na:? a aoa/an-o?e e?nooe?1234567I i ? i
a145-40576-2031,45-258-8840-711,26-1,81234567Eaeueoe?eaeao?oeeoia
inoaiaeeno?io?y95-14098-1360,7-1,435-5775-1650,4-2,89Oinoi?iaeao?oeeoia
inoaiaeeno?io?y128-19561-752,1-2,690-16821-394,2-4,9??aiii??ia (ci?oaia)
inoaiaeeno?io?y93-13059-731,5-235-5721-371,5-2E?noee aoa/anoi? aoaeiae,
ye? ianooue iaioa iaoai?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ye? ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii
iia?e?caoe?? i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a o e?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iii?oii
iaioei ai?noii iniiaieo inoaio?io?/ieo i?ia?ae?a.

Aieea o?ea?oai?io (A, D, A) ia noai e?noyea ei??a

Iieaciee ai?noo iane i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a, yeei ie aein? iia?oaaee,
i?aaenoaaey?oueny a iaai?e i??? iaaeinoaoiuei /ooeeaei e?eoa???i,
ine?eueee caeeoa?oueny iaa?aeiiith ci?ia iane anueiai e?noyea. Ae??oaii
oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaoe iieaciee ai?noo i?ia?ae?a a iaeeieoe? ia’?io
e?noeiai? oeaieie (ni3), yeee iaio ci?ith?oueny, i?ae iana neaeaoa.
Aaaaea?ii, ui a ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? ai?noii i?e?iaeaiaio?a iiaeia aei
aeayei? i??e ciaoooaaoe, ine?eueee ?o e?euee?noue a e?nooe? neeaaea?
nio? /e iaa?oue oeny/i? aeie? a?aenioea.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi neacaiiai ? aeine?ae ii aea/aiith aieeao o?ea?oai?ia
(A,
D, A) ia
noai e?noyea ei??a. Ei?iaai aea?/? ia i?nyoeue i?ioyaii ?ieo
aioo??oiueii’yciai aaiaeeee ii 10 ie o?ea?oa; eiio?ieai neoaoaaee
?ioaeoi? ei?iae-aiaeiae. Acyooy e?ia? oa o?aiaiia?iin?th i?iaaee 28
ea?oiy oa 29 aa?aniy. A?io?i?/i? iieacieee e?ia? ciaoiaeeeeny a iaaeao
ii?ie. Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a e?noeiaeo c?aceao i?aaenoaaeaii a
oaaeeoe? 7.

Oaaeeoey 7

Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea ei??a

a oiiaao e?oiuei? a?oai?i?caoe??

AeaiaioeEiio?ieueAeine?ae?Na, a/ea72,6±6,6582,6±13,19>0,05?,
a/ea18,2±1,4823,32±3,58>0,05Mg, a/ea1,21±0,081,27±0,14>0,05Na,
a/ea5,5±1,464,92±0,86>0,05K, ia/ea301±15,88264±64,38>0,05Fe,
ia/ea77±21,46103±33,95>0,05Cu, ia/ea24,8±3,8621,6±1,07>0,05Zn,
ia/ea561,2±204,753150±675,96<0,001Mn, ia/ea0,050,05>0,05Sr,
ia/ea9,66±0,2811,56±0,34<0,05sse aeaeii c aeaii? oaaeeoe?, aaaaeaiiy o?ea?oa a e?oi?e ia??iae i?ecaaei aei aeinoia??iiai ca?eueoaiiy a e?noyeo eeoa ai?noo oeeieo oa no?iioe?th. Iaea?eueo a??ia?aeii, ui oeueiio ni?eya a?oai?i A, ine?eueee a?aeiia o?nia aca?iiae?y i?ae aeaiei a?oai?iii oa aeayeeie iaoaeaie, cie?aia oeeieii (I.E.Aa?ceiue,1987). A ?acoeueoao? ceiiai? a?oai?i?caoe?? a e?noyeo ei??a aeinoia??ii ca?eueoeany ai?no iaai?th, oeeieo, ia?aaioeth, no?iioe?th (oaae. 8). Oaaeeoey 8 Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea ei??a a oiiaao ceiiai? a?oai?i?caoe?? AeaiaioeEiio?ieueAeine?ae?1234Ca, a/ea54±3,3565,29±9,27>0,05P,
a/ea29,37±1,5435,13±5,62>0,05Mg, a/ea1,79±0,172,4±0,45<0,051234Na, a/ea1,69±0,092,11±0,22 <0,05K, ia/ea90,25±57,0279,75±34,81>0,05Fe,
ia/ea76,75±12,64140±34,83<0,05Cu, ia/ea1,65±0,113,4±1,43<0,05Zn, ia/ea75±8,43264±147,19<0,01Mn, ia/ea0,84±0,081,75±0,14<0,05Sr, ia/ea7,57±0,369,3±0,55<0,05Iiaeeo?eiaai? ?ic?aooiee c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaieo aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii? niaeo?iiao??? eeneioieo e?cao?a e?noeiaeo c?ace?a i?iaaaeai? ca oi?ioeith: Qnoia = Mnoia : (V o Q1 o 1000), aea Qnoia – noia?ia u?euei?noue iniiaieo iae?iaeaiaio?a (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K), Mnoia – u?euei?noue Na + ? + Mg + Na + K a a?aiao ia ea iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee ca aeaieie aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii? niaeo?iiao???, V - ia’?i o?aiaiia?iioaoa, Q1 – u?euei?noue o?aiaiia?iioaoa, yeo ae?aoiaothoue ca oi?ioeith Q = I1 : V, (I1 – iana iaoeaiiai ne?iai c?acea), 1000 - e?aoi?noue a?aeiioaiiy a:ea. I?iaaaeai? ca aeaiith oi?ioeith ?ic?aooiee aeyaeee ianooiia: a) a ?acoeueoao? e?oiuei? a?oai?i?caoe?? u?euei?noue iniiaieo iae?iaeaiaio?a neeaea a eiio?ie? 200,26±33,76 ia/ni3, a aeine?aei?e 186,16±19,69 ia/ni3 (?>0,05), a)a ?acoeueoao? ceiiai? a?oai?i?caoe?? – a eiio?ie? 90±5,62
ia/ni3, a aeine?ae? 192,6 ±25,28 ia/ni3 (?<0,01). Ioaea, a e?oi?e ia??iae ?ieo aaaaeaiiy o?ea?oai?ia ia i?iyaeei iii?oiiai iiceoeaiiai aieeao ia ai?no a e?noyeo aeine?aeieo ei??a iniiaieo iae?iaeaiaio?a, a oie /an ye ceiiaa a?oai?i?caoe?y i?aaenoaaeea iiaeeea?noue cia/ii i?aeaeueoe i?ia?aeueio iane/ai?noue e?noyea aeine?aeieo ei??a; canoinoaaiiy inoaiuei? iiaea aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo. Aaaaoioaeoi?iee aeno?aeoiee ian-ia’?iiee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a ?ic?iaeaii ii??aiyii i?inoee iaoiae anaa?/ii? ioe?iee noaio e?noeiai? oeaieie. Ae?aoiao?ii u?euei?noue (Q1) iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee (I1) ca oi?ioeith - Q1= M1 : V, aea I1 – iana iaoeaiiai ne?iai c?acea (300 ia – 1 a), V- ia’?i c?acea (V=?R2L). C?acie e?noee ciaaee?th?ii a nie?o-ao??? ? aenooo?ii i?e 1050N aei iino?eii? iane (I2) ? ae?aoiao?ii u?euei?noue nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee a ii/aoeiaiio ia’?i? iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee. C nooiai ciaaee?aiiai e?noeiaiai c?acea aenoa?ao?ii i?ia?aee 5% acioiith eeneioith (8 ie) i?ioyaii 12 aiaeei c ianooiiei aeo?eioaaiiyi o aeaio ii?oe?yo (ii 3 ie) aeenoeeueiaaii? aiaee (10-12 aiaeei oa 1 aiaeeio). Iaea?aeaiee caeeoie (i?aai?/iee iao?een aai ina?i) aenooo?ii i?e 1050N aei iino?eii? iane (I3) ? ae?aoiao?ii u?euei?noue i?aai?/iiai iao?eeno a ii/aoeiaiio ia’?i? iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee – Q3=M3 :V. Ae?aoiao?ii iano i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei, a?aei?iath/e a?ae iane nooiai ciaaee?aiiai e?noeiaiai c?acea iano ina?ia – I4 =I2-I3. Ae?aoiao?ii u?euei?noue i?ia?ae?a a ii/aoeiaiio ia’?i? iaoeaiiai ne?iai e?noeiaiai c?acea – Q4=M4:V. Ae?aoiao?ii a?aeiioaiiy (E) i?ae i?ia?aeueiei eiiiiiaioii oa ina?iii e?noeiaiai ca?acea (?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe??); inoaii? iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia ye /anoea ian aai u?eueiinoae i?ia?aeueii? ? i?aai?/ii? iniiae c?acea e?noee. E??i oiai, iieacieee aaaaoioaeoi?iiai aeno?aeoiiai ian-ia’?iiiai iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy e?noeiaeo c?ace?a iiaeooue aooe i?aaenoaaeai? o a?aenioeao. A oaaeeoe? 9 i?eaaaeai? iieacieee o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea ei??a, i?e aea/aii? yeeo canoiniaaia aeaia iaoiaeeea. Ii??aithaaee noai e?noyea ei??a aeaio ainiiaea?noa, iaeia c yeeo ?icoaoiaaia a e?ninoaiia?e cii? (*a?eanueea iaeanoue) - oiiae aiae?ae? oa oo?eiaiiy caaeia?euei?, i?iaeoeoeai?noue neeaea 2500 ea iieiea ia ??e, ?ioa ?icoaoiaaia a cii? Iie?nny (*a?i?a?anueea iaeanoue) – a ainiiaea?noa? ia? i?noea ae?aaeaia ianoa/a ei?i?a, ui iaoiiaeei iacaaeia?euei? oiiae aiae?ae? (/anoeiaa aieiaeoaaiiy), a oaeiae oo?eiaiiy - i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia ei?iao neeaea 1700 ea iieiea ia ??e. Oaaeeoey 9 Iieacieee o?aiaiia?iioao?a ei??a /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee 3-5-??/iiai a?eo ainiiaea?noa c ??ciei ??aiai aiae?ae? oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? IieacieeeENI n. Eai’yiee A??ae. A?iin?y 9.0?.ENI n. Ne?ei/ei. A?iin?y 28.02.?U?euei?noue ne?i? iaoeaii? e?noee (Q1), ia/ni3 1080±19,2920±33,25<0,05U?euei?noue nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee (Q2), ia/ni3 368,8±21,32 222,5±10,64 <0,05Ai?no nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee a iaeeieoe? iane iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee,% 33,72±1,72 24,38±0,66 <0,05U?euei?noue i?aai?/iiai iao?eena, ia/ni3 a iaeeieoe? iane iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee (Q3) 131,5±5,3 71±6,6 <0,05Ai?no i?aai?/iiai iao?eena a iaeeieoe? iane nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee,%36,01±1,3216,75±0,94<0,05U?euei?noue i?ia?ae?a, ia/ni3 ne?i? iaoeaii? e?noee (Q4)235±18,1155±6,6<0,05Ai?no i?ia?ae?a a iaeeieoe? iane nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee,%63,99±1,3268,63±1,2<0,05A?aeiioaiiy ai?noo i?ia?ae?a aei ai?noo i?aa-i?/iiai iao?eena – ?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe?? (E)1,798±0,1042,22±0,09<0,05A i?iaaaeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? an? iieacieee aaaaoioaeoi?iiai aeno?aeoiiai ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?ca o /anoeiai aieiaeoth/eo ei??a aeyaeeeny aeinoia??ii iaioeie, oiaoi aiie cana?ae/othoue ciaioaiiy a e?noyeo ia o?eueee ai?noo ina?io, a e i?ia?aeueiiai eiiiiiaioo, i?e/iio cieaeaiiy ai?noo i?aai?/ii? iniiae aeia?aaeaea? cieaeaiiy ai?noo i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei, i?i ui na?ae/eoue a?eueo aenieee iieaciee ??aiy i?ia?ae?caoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea oa ne?iaaoee e?ia? ei??a i?e noaee?i?/iiio ia?aa?ao inoaiaeeno?io?? Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia ei?iaao-aiaeiaao /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee 3-6-??/iiai a?eo i?iaeoeoeai?noth 6000 ea iieiea ia ??e, na?aae yeeo a?ae?a?aee a?oio ee?i?/ii caei?iaeo oaa?ei, ii?iaeueiee noai neaeaoa yeeo caa??aaany i?ioyaii ?ieo oa ei??a, o yeeo i?e a?aenooiino? ia /an aeine?aeaeaiiy neiioii?a inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo o?aaeaiue, inoaii? i?iyaeeeny aeaui caiaeii, oiaoi iaa i?noea noaee?i?/iee (i?eoiaaiee) ia?aa?a oai?iae. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ne?iaaoee e?ia? oa o?aiaiia?iioao?a i?aaenoaaeai? a oaaeeoeyo 10 oa 11. Oaaeeoey 10 Aeine?aeaeaiiy ne?iaaoee e?ia? ei??a a ii?i? oa i?e noaee?i?/iiio ia?aa?ao inoaiaeeno?io?? IieacieeeIi?iaeueiee noai ei??aNoaee?i?/iee ia?aa?a inoaiaeeno?io???Eoaeiee ?aca?a, iiieue/e128,8±10,75132,4±14,32>0,05Eiioeaio?aoe?y aiaeiaaeo eii?a
(?I)7,38±0,027,34±0,02>0,05A?eie, a/e81,6±1,7272,4±3,43<0,05Ea?ioei, ieiieue/e9,14±1,017,5± 0,54<0,05Eaeueoe?e, iiieue/e3,1±0,262,88±0,13>0,05Oinoi?, iiieue/e2,3±0,092,59±0,06<0 .05Na:?, ia%1,6±0,061,4±0,06<0,05I?ei?oea: eaoiiia? o?ea a e?ia? ei??a iaio a?oi ia aeyaeai?. sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe? 10, a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ei??a c iciaeaie i?eoiaaii? inoaiaeeno?io?? ia aeyaeaii nooo?aeo ci?i ai?noo eaeueoe?th, ui iiynith?oueny ooieoe?iioaaiiyi iaoai?ci?a aiiainoaco. Ia? i?noea aeinoia??ia ciaioaiiy a?eea, ea?ioeio oa cieaeaiiy eaeueoe?e-oinoi?iiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, yea ne?ae aaaaeaoe /ooeeaei iieacieeii ci?i i?ia?aeueiiai iai?io. Oaaeeoey 11 Iieacieee o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea ei??a a ii?i? oa i?e noaee?i?/i?e inoaiaeeno?io?? IieacieeeIi?iaeueiee noai e?noyeaNoaee?i?/ia inoaiaeeno?io?y?U?euei?noue iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee, ia/ni31120 + 64,38912 + 57,94<0,05U?euei?noue nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee, ia/ni3 336 + 42,9 200 + 8,58 <0,05Ai?no nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noeiai? ?a/iaeie a iaoeai?e ne??e e?nooe?, % 29,4 + 1,93 22,2+ 1,5 <0,05U?euei?noue i?aai?/iiai iao?eena, ia/ea iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee 106 + 17,2 62 + 1,3 <0,05Ai?no ina?io a iaeeieoe? iane iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee, %9,4 + 1,077,2 + 0,43<0,05U?euei?noue i?ia?ae?a, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee234 + 25,8136 + 0,64<0,05Ai?no i?ia?ae?a a iaeeieoe? iane iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee, %20,4 + 1,0715 + 0,86<0,05?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe??2,2 + 0,22,14 + 0,08<0,05sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe? 11, canoinoaaiiy aaaaoioaeoi?iiai aeno?aeoiiai ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?ca o?aiaiia?iioao?a aeineoue /?oei aecia/a? iayai?noue inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue i?e iaae?acieo ee?i?/ieo iciaeao oai?iae, aai iaa?oue i?e aeaeei?e a?aenooiino? inoaii?o. Aiaeiaaiia inoaiiaeyoe?y Aiaeiaaiio inoaiiaeyoe?th aoei aeyaeaii o aea?aeiaaieo ei??a c ii?ooaiiyi ooieoe?? iieieii?iaeoeoe?? ? a?aeoai?aiiy. I?iaeoeoeai?noue ca iiia?aaeith eaeoaoe?th neeaea 2150 ea iieiea ca ??e. A eiio?ieueio a?oio i?ae?a?aee ia o?eueieo, ae?eieo ei??a-aiaeia?a c i?iaeoeoeai?noth 2300 ea iieiea ca ??e c ii?iaeueiei noaiii ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? noa?e. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? o?aiaiia?iioao?a (oaae. 12) ? ne?iaaoee e?ia? (6.O) aoee io?eiai? oae? ?acoeueoaoe. Oaaeeoey 12 Iieacieee o?aiaiia?iioao?a ei??a a ii?i? oa i?e aiaeiaaii?e inoaiiaeyoe?? IieacieeeAe?ei? ei?iaeAea?aeiaai? iaae?ei? ei?iae?U?euei?noue iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee, ia/ni31009±26,19926,67±44,05<0,05U?euei?noue nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee, ia/ni3 271,56±13,57384,44±21,44<0,05Ai?no nooi? ciaaee?a-ii? e?noeiai? ?a/iaeie a iaoeai?e ne??e e?nooe?, % 30,38±1,84 41,78±1,9 <0,05U?euei?noue i?aai?/iiai iao?eena, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee 108,51±4,96 166,67±9,85 <0,05Ai?no i?aai?/iiai iao?eena a iaoeai?e ne??e e?nooe?,% 36±1,64 43,55±1,55 <0,05U?euei?noue i?ia?ae?a, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee 205,97±10,33 220±15,48 >0,05Ai?no i?ia?ae?a a iaoeai?e ne??e
e?nooe?,%64±0,9156,44±1,55<0,05?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe?? 1,9±0,071,33±0,09<0,01sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, o aea?aeiaaieo iaae?eieo ei??a u?euei?noue iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee, nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee oa ina?io aoea aeinoia??ii a?eueoith, i?ae o eaeooth/eo. A oie aea /an ??cieoey i?ae u?euei?noth i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei aoea iaaeinoia??iith. I/aaeaeii, ui aeyaeai? a?aei?iiino? coiiaeai?, aieiaiei /eiii, ??cieoeath ai?noo a e?noyeao i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, a??ia?aeii a ca’yceo c iaioith aeo?aoith iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei ia ooai?aiiy iieiea, oi?ioaaiiy ieiaeo oiui. ?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe?? aoa aeinoia??ii aeuei o eaeooth/eo ei??a a ii??aiyii? c aea?aeiaaieie ei?iaaie; o inoaii?o a?i aoa aeoaea iecueeei, ui i?yii aeaco? ia iaae?iiy ??aiy caaiiaiiy e?noyea, oiaoi ?icaeoeo o aea?aeiaaieo ei??a inoaiiaeyoe??, yea ee?i?/ii ia?aa?aa? a i?eoiaai?e oi?i?. Ine?eueee o aea?aeiaaieo ei??a ci?ie a e?noyeo i?iyaeythoueny a e?ioe? ianiaeuiiai ia??iaeo ? i?e oeueiio o ae?eieo ei??a aiie aoee a?aenooi?ie, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui aeyaeai? a?aeoeeaiiy iathoue aiaeiaaiia iioiaeaeaiiy ? iia’ycai? c ai?iiiaeueieie ci?iaie a i?aai?ci? aea?aeoaaieo ei??a. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi neacaiiai ? iiiaaeii?iiaa i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo eaeueoe?th (3,88±0,11 iiieue/e) oa ae?aaeaia cieaeaiiy ai?noo oinoi?o (0,69±0,05 iiieue/e) a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? aea?aeiaaieo ei??a, ui aeaco? ia a?ia?ooieoe?th ia?aueoiaeaeieo caeic. Iaoiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie o?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aie a ca’yceo c inoaiaeeno?io??th Ia oii? inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue ia??aeei niinoa??aa?oueny iaaei??ia i?iaeiaiiy noaeia?a e?ioe?aie, ia?aaaaeii iaeueoe?a, iaoiiaeaia eiiaicii nooiaeeee?a oa ca’ycie, ye? eiio?ieththoue noaeiaia? eooe a noaoeoe?. ?icaeaathoueny iaaoo? ci?ie iinoaae e?ioe?aie, ia?aaaaeii oaciaeo, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ae?aaeaieie eieiiioi?ieie ii?ooaiiyie. Aaee/eia eoo?a iaeueoeaaeo noaeia?a a ii?i? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny no?iaith noaa?euei?noth, a oie /an ye i?e eiiaic? nooiaeeee?a o ca’yceo c aeeno?io?/iei inoaioaiaeei?oii aaee/eia noaeiaiaeo eoo?a a?ae??ciy?oueny cia/iith aa??aa?euei?noth ?o iii?oiiai ciaioaiiy (oaae. 13). Oaaeeoey 13 Aaee/eie aei?naeueieo eoo?a iaeueoeaaeo noaeia?a a a?aaeonao NoaeiaeEi?iae c ii?iaeueiith iinoaaith iaeueoe?aEi?iae c ia?a?icaeiaiiyi iaeueoeaaeo noaeia?a?Iooiaee172,2±0,73107,2±6,87<0,01A?ioeaaee162,4±0,73116±2,33<0,0 1Eiieooeaaee157±0,66119,4±5,15<0,01I?e ia?a?icaeiaii? noaeia?a iaeueoe?a iineeth?oueny aieea iioeiaeaeoth/eo oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia aeenoaeuei? eaiee e?ioe?aie, ui ia??aeei noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?o caoai?thaaiiyi (ai?eii-iae?ioe/i? oa ?io? i?ioeane). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a /?oei aecia/athoue iayai?noue aeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue a e?noyeo ei??a c ia?a?icaeiaiiyi iaeueoe?a (oaae. 14). Inoaiaeeno?io?/i? ii?ooaiiy iinyoue, a iniiaiiio, oa?aeoa? inoaiiaeyoe??, i?i ui na?ae/aoue iaaeinoia??i?noue ??cieoe? o ai?no? ina?ia a iaeeieoe? ia’?io iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee oa ae?acia ciaioaiiy ?iaeaeno i?ia?ae?caoe??. A?noieia?/ii a cii? aa?oeeaeueiiai aoiaeaeaiiy e?ioeaaeo nooiaeeeeiaeo aieieii a e?noeo aeyaeythoueny iii?oi? ?icoe?aiiy e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie, a oaeiae iacooia, noaeeiia, aeenioe?thth/a oa inoaeeanoe/ia ?aci?aoe?y. A ae?eyioe? e?noeiai-nooiaeeeeiai? a?aieoe? niinoa??aa?oueny ?icaieieiaiiy a?oaiaieieienoi? e?noeiai? ?a/iaeie a ca’yceo c i?ioeanii aeai?ia?ae?caoe??. A i?eeaaeeo e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/eao niinoa??aa?oueny i?ie?oa?aoe?y o?a?i?aoeeoey?ii? oeaieie, Oaaeeoey 14 Iieacieee o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea ei??a c ii?iaeueiith iinoaaith iaeueoe?a oa c ia?a?icaeiaiiyi iaeueoeaaeo noaeia?a IieacieeeEi?iae c ii?iaeueiith iinoaaith iaeueoe?aEi?iae c ia?a?icaeiaiiyi iaeueoeaaeo noaeia?a?1234U?euei?noue iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee, ia/ni31098±15,02880±38,63<0,01U?euei?noue nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noeiai? ?a/iaeie 394±17,17 268±25,75 <0,01U?euei?noue i?aai?/iiai iao?eena, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee 128±8,58 106±12,88 >0,051234U?euei?noue i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee

166± 8,58

196±17,9

<0,05?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe??2,15±0,071,69±0,06<0,01yea a aeayeeo a?/eao iiai?noth cai?ua? e?noeiaee iicie. Inoaie?c a?oaiaieieienoi? e?noee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icniieooaaiiyi aaeie i?aeni?aeiueiai oa?o aoa/anoi? e?noee c ?ice?eooyi a aei?caeueiiio iai?yieo /anoeie e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie. Iiainoi?iiaaia aioo??oiueia?/eiaa o?a?i-?aoeeoey?ia oeaieia ceeaa?oueny c nooiaeeeeiaith oeaieiith e?noeiai-nooiaeeeeiaiai c’?aeiaiiy; aiia “oaiaeei?co?oueny”, ui i?iyaey?oueny ae?aciei iineeaiiyi iaeiiinii? i???ioaoe?? eieaaaiiaeo aieieii oa ?o io/e?a acaeiaae nee o?aeoe??. A ?acoeueoao? a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaeiaaeaiiy nooiaeeeea a cii? eiai o?enaoe?? aei e?noee. ?ieue inoaiaeeno?io?? o aeieeiaii? iaoieia?? eiieoaoeue A oiiaao no?eeiaiai oo?eiaiiy aeyaeaii o?niee ca’ycie i?ae inoaiaeeno?io??th oa o?aaeaiiyie eiieoaoeue. Anoaiiaeaii, ui inoaiaeeno?io?/i? ii?ooaiiy ? ia?aeiieie, a aeaoi?iaoe?y eiieoaoeue oa ?io? ?o o?aaeaiiy – aoi?eiieie. Ae?aaiinoo?ii aino?ieooi? (eoo caoeaia 28-430), ooiieooi? (eoo caoeaia 65-850), oi?oeaa? (eoo caoeaia 85-900) ieinuee? ? iiai? eiieooey (??aaiue i?aeioae ieae/a ??aiy i?aeioiaieo e?a?a eiieooeaaeo no?iie), a?ii- oa a?ia?ieaciaai? eiieooey, noenioo? (e?ea?) eiieooey oa no?eeia? eiieooey (caiouaia aeaoi?iaoe?y). Eiaeia ??ciiaeaei?noue aeaoi?iiaaieo eiieoaoeue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ae?aaeaieie iaoieiaiaiaoii?/ieie iniaeeainoyie, iaoiiaeaieie, a ia?oo /a?ao, oa?aeoa?ii ? iniaeeainoyie ii?ooaiue iii?ii-neeiaeo aca?iiae?e a ?o no?oeoo?ao. Inoaii? ? iane?aeeii ii?ooaiue iinoaae e?ioe?aie. A?noieia?/ii aecia/a?oueny aeaci?aai?caoe?y i?e?ino?oeoo?e iniiae oe??e oa ai?aea?i?no. Ia? i?noea ioei?aeia oa o?a?eii?aeia iaaooaiy, a?eeiaa aeeno?io?y, caiaeaiiy oa neea?ic iniiae oe??e, aeenea?aoic ai?aea?i?na oa i?inyeiaiiy eiai ae?eii?ioa?iaie, ui ii?ooo? i?ioean a?aeoa?oaaiiy ea?aoeiioeeo?a ia i?aeioiai?e iiaa?oi? eiieoaoeue. Niinoa??aa?oueny aeaoi?iaoe?y nini/e?a ? eenoi/e?a, ?o iiaeiaaeaiiy aai, iaaiaee, oei?i/aiiy, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiai?ioiino? (c /anii) aeaoi?iaoe?? eiieoaoeue. *anoeiaa aai iiaia aeeeth/aiiy c iii?e eiieooeaaeo no?iie oa ia?aaaioaaeaiiy i’yeoo?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeieeiaiiyi iiaeiaea?iaoeoo, ae?acee i’yeooa, ei?ii?oo oiui; aee?eaeaiiy eiieooeaaeo no?iie a aen?aeueiee a?e iia’ycaia c eai?i?oii. Ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? iaoiaaiii? neooaoe?? inoaiaeeno?io?y ii?ooaiiy iinoaae e?ioe?aie aeaoi?iaoe?y eiieoaoeue ee?i?/ii aecia/athoueny ia?aaaaeii neiioiie inoaiaeeno?io??. Ia ae?oa?e ee?i?/ii ae?aaeai?e noaae?? aeaoi?iaoe?? eiieoaoeue ii?yae c i?ia?anoaaiiyi inoaiaeeno?io?/iiai i?ioeano, aeyaeythoueny ae?aci? iciaee iaoieia?? eiieoaoeue. Noai e?noyea i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? eiieoaoeue i?aaenoaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 15. Oaaeeoey 15 Iieacieee o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea ei??a c ii?iaeueieie oa aeaoi?iiaaieie eiieooeyie IieacieeeEi?iae c ii?iaeueiei noaiii eiieoaoeueEi?iae c aeaoi?iiaaieie eiieooeyie?U?euei?noue iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee, ia/ni31064±40,77836±25,75<0,05U?euei?noue nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noeiai? ?a/iaeie 340±10,73 272± 23,6 <0,05U?euei?noue i?aai?/iiai iao?eena, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee 152±8,56142±12,88>0,05U?euei?noue i?ia?ae?a, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i?
e?noee

188±15,02

130±8,58

<0,05?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe??1,26±0,160,92±0,07<0,05sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, a?aei?/a?oueny iayai?noue ae?aaeaii? inoaiiaeyoe??, i?i ui na?ae/eoue a?aenooi?noue aeinoia??ii? ??cieoe? iieaciee?a u?eueiino? i?aai?/iiai iao?eeno oa iecueeee iieaciee ?iaeaeno i?ia?ae?caoe?? aoa/anoi? e?noee o ei??a c aeaoi?iiaaieie eiieooeyie. Inoaiaeeno?io?y iaieio/a aeieea? a oiiaao o?eaaeiai oo?eiaiiy ei??a a i?ei?uaiiyo aac iaeaaeiiai iioe?iio oa iaeicaaeia?eueii? aiae?ae? (a ?aoe?iiao ia?aaaaeathoue eene? aea?aaeaioe, ia? i?noea ianoa/a i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei ? a?oai?i?a oiui). A iniiaiiio o?aaeothoueny ei?iae, ae?oaa iieiaeia aaa?oiino? ? ioaeaiiy yeeo i?eiaaea? ia e?iaoeue ceie ? ii/aoie aanie. I?io?eaeoe/i? caoiaee i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? eiieoaoeue iaia’yceiai iiaeii? aeeth/aoe iiia?aaeaeaiiy inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue, a e?eoaaeuei? – ?aaoey?io ?ic/enoeo eiieoaoeue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy e?noeiai? oeaieie, nooiaeeee?a oa e?ia? a?aeaiae?aaeueieo ae/e?a o ca’yceo c inoaiaeeno?io??th I?e a?aeaiae?ae? a i?ei?uaiiyo o ca’yceo c D-a?iia?oai?iicii oa ia??aeei i?e iacaaeia?euei?e aiae?ae? o iieiaeiyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a?aei?/athoueny inoaiaeeno?io?/i? ii?ooaiiy. Niinoa??aaee oeiia? iciaee ?ao?oo, oaaeaaeaeio aai e?ooo iinoaao oaciaeo e?ioe?aie, i?eiooaiiy oeaiei a ae?eyioe? i’yoeiaeo ai?a?a, eoeueaaiiy iia?oi? e?ioe?aee. O /anoeie oai?eo ae/e?a niinoa??aaee a?ae?ea i’yoeiaeo nooiaeeee?a. Aoee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy o oai?eo ? eiio?ieueieo ae/e?a (inoaii? io?eioaaee a?oai?i D3). A?noieia?/ii aeyaeyee, ui o oai?eo ae/e?a /anoeia e?ioeaaeo aieieii i’yoeiaiai nooiaeeeea cae?i/o?oueny ia a i?oei?e e?noeia?e oeaiei?, ye oea ia? i?noea a ii?i?, a a iaaeinoaoiuei caaiiaiiio aai cian?i iai?ia?ae?ciaaiiio aiio?c? e?noee. I?e iaaieo coneeeyo oaa?eie (anoaaaiiy, naaeea oiui), ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny iaoyaiaiiyi nooiaeeeea, i?iieci? aieieia ii??aiyii eaaei a?ae?eaathoueny – nii/aoeo ie?ai? aieieiioey, a c /anii ?o a?oie oa io/ee, ui caiaeii i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?ae?eao nooiaeeeea a?ae e?noee. I?e a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ia? iaio a?oi oaa?ei aeyaeaii ii?iaeueiee ai?no eaeueoe?th, oinoi?o, caaaeueiiai a?eea, ?aca?aii? eoaeiino?, aea o aeine?aeieo ae/e?a iaei i?noea ii?ooaiiy eaeueoe?e-oinoi?iiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (a eiio?ie? 1,86±0,13, a aeine?ae? 2,24±0,05, ?<0,05). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a i?aaenoaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 16. Oaaeeoey 16 Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea a?aeaiae?aaeueieo ae/e?a AeaiaioeAe/e?, ui io?eioaaee a?oai?i DAe/e? c neiioiiaie inoaiaeeno?io???Na, a/ea107±5,969,7±4,09<0,01?, a/ea54,02±4,2735,9±8 2,9<0,01Mg, a/ea2,82±0,241,91±0,16<0,05Na, a/ea3,35±0,312,28±0,2<0,01K, ia/ea840±310,5950±60,4>0,05Fe, ia/ea23,7±2,5321,36±1,91>0,05Cu,
ia/ea7,44±0,922,94±0,69<0,01Zn, ia/ea5,58±0,433,62±0,26<0,05Mn, ia/ea0,16±0,010,12±0,01<0,05Sr, ia/ea22,9±8,514,8±1,29<0,05sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, aeei?enoaiiy a?oai?ia D3 noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeinoia??iei ca?eueoaiiyi o e?noyeo a?aeaiae?aaeueieo ae/e?a ai?noo a?eueoino? i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a, ui ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye ?acoeueoao caaaeueiiai iie?auaiiy i?ia?aeueiiai iai?io. Noai i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy oa iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? oai?iae ae/e?a i?e a?aeaiae?ae? oe?aiith a?aaith Oaoiiiao?yie i?e a?aeaiae?ae? ae/e?a oe?aiith a?aaith ? inoaiiaeyoe?y ? iaoiiaeaiee iath aeeno?io?/iee inoaioaiaeei?o (ia?aaaaeii oaciaeo e?ioe?aie), a oaeiae naaiaioa?iee aea?iio?a?ic oa inoaineea?ic. Aeieeiaiiy oeeo oaoiieia?/ieo oai?ia ni?e/eiy? iaaeeeoie a ?aoe?ii? i?ioa?io ? oinoi?o oa ianoa/a eaeueoe?th ? oeoe??a, ii?ooaiiy eaeueoe?e-oinoi?iiai (a ?aoe?ii? 0,83, a ii?i? 1,5-2) oa oeoe?ii?ioa?iiaiai (a ?aoe?ii? 0,4-0,6, a ii?i? 0,8-1,2) ni?aa?aeiioaiiy; aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? ? a?aenooi?noue ?inieyoe??, ui ni?e/eiy? D-a?iia?oai?iic. I?e aecia/aii? noaio e?noyea io?eiaii oae? ?acoeueoaoe (oaae. 17) Oaaeeoey 17 Iieacieee o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea oai?eo ae/e?a i?e a?aeaiae?ae? oe?aiith a?aaith IieacieeeAeeno?io?/iee inoaioaiaeei?oNaaiaioa?iee aea?iio?a?ic?U?euei?noue iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee, ia/ni31207±50,561232,5±56,18>0,05U?euei?noue nooi? ciaaee?aii? ea?noee,
ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noeiai? ?a/iaeie

432,5±42,14

502,5±22,47

<0,05U?euei?noue i?aai?/iiai iao?eena, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee200±30,9150±19,66>0,05U?euei?noue i?ia?ae?a, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i?
e?noee 232,5±39,3350±11,24<0,05?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe??1,25±0,32,41±0,34<0,05 Ia iayai?noue inoaiiaeyoe?? o ae/e?a, o?aaeaieo aeeno?io?/iei inoaioaiaeei?oii, aeaco? a?aeiinii iecueea (a ii??aiyii? c ae/eaie, oai?eie ia aea?iio?a?ic) u?euei?noue nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee oa i?ia?ae?a, a oaeiae ae?aaeaia ciaioaiiy ?iaeaeno i?ia?ae?caoe??. A ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ia? i?noea cieaeaiiy ai?noo ea?ioeio (4,73±1,08 iiieue/e), ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo eaoiiiaeo o?e (1,73±0,86 iiieue/e) oa ii?ooaiiy eaeueoe?e-oinoi?iiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (1,32±0,06); oe? iieacieee na?ae/aoue i?i ii?ooaiiy iai?io ?a/iaei, ui ni?e/eiythoue aeieeiaiith inoaiiaeyoe?? ye iaei??? c oi?i aa?aeyii? oaoiiiao??. Naaiaioa?iee aea?iio?a?ic i?iyaey?oueny a iniiaiiio ia e?ioe?aeao. O?aaeaiiy ii/eia?oueny c oe??e ?o ie?aieo naaiaio?a, aea ia? i?noea o?a?ic oa iioiauaiiy oeaiei; i?ioean neea?icoaaiiy iioe?th?oueny aaeea ? iiaea ?iciianthaeaeoaaoeny ia e?noee. Oai??thoue aea?a?/ii /ooeea? oaa?eie, o yeeo i?iyaeythoueny a?noieia?/i? iciaee oaiiiaia A?othna. Iineeaia i?ia?ae?caoe?y e?noyea, a ca’yceo c aea?iio?a?icii, iiynith?oueny, ia iaoo aeoieo, niaoeeo?/iith ae??th a?oai?ia E, ui ca?eueiy?oueny c o?iiaioeeo?a (iaoiiaeaii o?iiaiaaii?aa?/iei oaiiiaiii). A?oai?i E ia? i?yia a?aeiioaiiy aei a?ineioaco inoaieaeueoeeia – niaoeeo?/iiai a?eea, yeee i?eeia? aeoeaio o/anoue a iai?i? eaeueoe?th, iineethth/e i?ia?ae?caoe?th e?noeiai? iao?eoe? (A.Ae.Eaeueieoeueeee, 1983; A.A.Aca?neay, A.N.Iaeueoeaa,1996). ?aae?aoe?eia inoaiaeeno?io?y o ei??a a ae?oa?e cii? ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy Aeiciaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?aai?ci ei??a ca 5 ?ie?a oo?eioaaiiy a ainiiaea?noa? ae?oai? ciie ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy a?ae ciai?oiueiai ii?ii?iaiiy neeaaeaei a na?aaeiueiio 2,3 aa?; e??i oiai, a i?aai?ci ei??a c ?aoe?iiii uiaeiaiai iinooiaei 115,5 eAe ?aae?ioeac?th. Aeiciaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ca ?aooiie ?iei?ii?iaaieo ?aae?iioee?ae?a o ei??a noaiiaeei a?ey 0,4 Ca (40 aa?) a ??e (A.A.Eoae?ya/aiei,1993; O.A.Naiue,1994,1995). Ai?no oeac?y a iieioe? ei??a ia?aaeuoaaa AAeO a 1,4-2,9 ?ace. I?e a?noieia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? o?aiaiia?iioao?a aeyaeaii iacaaa?oaiee aioiiae?aeueiee inoaiaaiac, a?ae?ea oa ia?ai?uaiy a oiauo o?aaaeoe o?aaiaio?a o?yua, oiiae?ie?c, inoaiiae?ic, o?aaiaiooth/o inoaiaeano?oeoe?th (?aae?aoe?eii-aeano?oeoeaiee inoaiii?ic) c ia?ai?uaiiyi e?noeiaeo i?e?inaeaano??a ana?aaeeio e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie, aea niinoa??aaeeny ianeai? e?iaiaeeeae, c ianooiiith naia?aoe??th c e?ia? aiaee oa ooai?aiiy aiaeieo e?noiiiae?aieo iooe??a. Ana?aaeei? inoaii?o a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ic/eiaiiy naeaano??a, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei iineeaiiy ?aae?iaeoeaiino? na/? aiane?aeie aeaaaeaiiy a?ia?ini?/iiai ?ic/eio. Anoaiiaeaia cai?ioiy caeaaei?noue i?ae ?aae?iaeoeai?noth na/? ? ?aae?iaeoeai?noth e?noeiaeo c?ace?a: iaeneiaeueia ?aae?iaeoeai?noue na/? (3,7 o 103 – 3,7. o 105 Ae/e-1) ? i?i?iaeueia ?aae?iaeoeai?noue o?aiaiia?iioao?a (3,7 o 103 – 37 Ae/ea-1) iaee i?noea a ia??iae c a?oaeiy ii ea?oaiue. Ii/eiath/e c ea?oiy oa o?aaiy, ?aae?iaeoeai?noue na/? cieaeoaaeany (3,7 o 102 – 3,7 o 0,37 Ae/e-1), a ?aae?iaeoeai?noue c?ace?a aoa/anoi? e?noee iineethaaeany (3,7 o 102 – 3,7 o 104 Ae/ea-1). C iie?auaiiyi oiia aiae?ae? (o?aaaiue-aa?anaiue) niinoa??aaeeny i?ioeane ?aaaia?aoe??, ye? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny ae?aaeaiith iae?ioaaaeueiith ?aci?aoeaiith ?aaeoe??th oa i?ie?oa?aoe??th iaaaea??ioeeo?a, ye? o ooaeiae aieiae?thoue cia/iith ?aae?aoe?eiith no?ee?noth. Inoaii?, aeania, ? caioneathoue ?aaaia?aoeaio ?aaeoe?th, a i?ioean? yei? a iaaeai?aia?e o?yuia?e ieao?aoe? ooai?th?oueny o?a?iciee o?yu. AEe?iaee e?noeiaee iicie /anoeiai cai?ua?oueny iooeiaieieienoith oeaieiith, a?aeiiaeth?oueny aaei/ia no?oeoo?a aoa/anoi? e?noee. Ioaea, ?aae?aoe?eia inoaiaeeno?io?y i?aaenoaaey? niaith oeeee?/iee i?ioean, yeee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaeiie/aiiyi inoaio?iiieo ?aae?iioee?ae?a, /anoeiaei ?oeioaaiiyi aaeie ? o?aaaeoe, aeaaaeaiiyi ?aae?iioee?ae?a c na/ath oa ianooiiith ?aaaia?aoe??th (iiaoi?aiiy o?aaeaiiy). Aeiionea?ii, ui aoa/anoa e?noea o ei??a aeeiio? ?ieue iiaeeia/a ?aae?aoe?eii-oiene/ieo i?ia?ae?a, caaaeyee /iio ciaioo?oueny ?o ?oei?aiee aieea ia i?aai?ci. Aeinyaioaoe iaaiiai (e?eoe/iiai) ??aiy iaeiie/aiiy, inoaio?iii? ioee?aee aeeeeeathoue /anoeiaa ?oeioaaiiy aaeie ? o?aaaeoe. Aeaei?ii?iaai? ?aae?iioee?aee, ?acii c ?ic/eiaieie o aiaeiiio na?aaeiaeu? e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie nieyie aeaiaeyoueny c na/ath. ?acoeueoaoe aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii? niaeo?iiao??? e?noeiaeo c?ace?a ei??a-aiaeia?a c ainiiaea?noa ae?oai? oa /aoaa?oi? cii ?aaenoaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 18. sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, o ei??a, oai?eo ia ?aae?aoe?eio inoaiaeeno?io?th, a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai, aoa/anoa e?noea i?noeea aeinoia??ii iaioa eaeueoe?th, oa aeinoia??ii a?eueoa cae?ca (ca ?aooiie e?iaiaeeea?a), i?ae?, oeeieo, ia?aaioeth, no?iioe?th, naeioeth. Iineeaia aeoioeyoe?y ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? c ieo iia’ycaia, ia iao iiaeyae, c? caeaoi?noth aoa/anoi? e?noee neoaoaaoe aeoioeyoi?ii ia o?eueee ?aae?iioee?ae?a, aea ? aaaeeeo iaoae?a. Ioaea, ? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui aoa/anoa e?noea aeeiio? a i?aai?ci? aaaeeeao caoenio ooieoe?th. O e?ia? ei??a ainiiaea?noaa ae?oai? ciie aeyaeeiny (ii a?aeiioaiith aei ii?ie) cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? eaeeioeeo?a a na?aaeiueiio a 1,5-1,7 ?ac?a, e?ioioeeo?a (?<0,05) ? iiiioeeo?a (?<0,05) oa aeinoia??ia ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo an?o oi?i iaeo?io?e?a. Oae? iieacieee oa?aeoa?i? aeey o?ii?/ii? i?iiaiaai? oai?iae, ui ia?aa?aa? a ii??aiyii eaae?e oi?i? (E.E.Ea?iooue,1986). Oaaeeoey 18 Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao ei??a ainiiaea?noa /aoaa?oi? oa ae?oai? cii Aeaiaioe*aoaa?oa ciiaAe?oaa ciia?Ca, a/ea85,3±8,552,4±3,9<0,05P, a/ea47,2±5,944,1±3,6>0,05Mg, a/ea1,9±0,41,5±0,1>0,05Na,
a/ea3,2±0,23,1±0,3>0,05K, ia/ea395±138,4225±33,3>0,05Fe,
ia/ea246±42,9642±94,4<0,01Cu, ia/ea9,4±0,743,6±4,3<0,01Zn, ia/ea85,1±14,564±14,4>0 .05Mn, ia/ea0,6±0,11,3±0,2<0,01Sr, ia/ea9,4±0,626,8±6,7<0,01Pb, ia/ea13,2±3,0425±3,2<0,01Cd, ia/ea-0,8±0,1-?aae?aoe?eia inoaiaeeno?io?y ei??a a o?ao?e cii? ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy Iniiaiei, iaea?eueo iioe?aiei ? oa?aeoa?iei aeaeii iaoieia?/ieo ci?i, ui a?ae??ciythoue ia?aa?a ?aae?aoe?eii? iaoieia?? aoa/anoi? e?noee o ei??a, ye? oo?eiothoueny a o?ao?e cii?, ? ?aae?aoe?eii-a?ae?ii?/ia aeeno?io?y e?noeiaeo o?aaaeoe ? aee?iaiai e?noeiaiai iiceo. A e?noeia?e oeaiei? ia? i?noea ae?aaeaia iaeiie/aiiy aiaee a inoaioeeoa?ieo eaeoiao c yaeuaie i?ia?anoth/i? inoaieaeoia?ii? ?aci?aoe??, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?ic/eiaiiyi e?noeiai? ?a/iaeie (?aae?aoe?eii-a?ae?ii?/iee inoaiii?ic), a oaeiae ?aae?aoe?eii-aeenioe?thth/a ?aci?aoe?y, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny /anoeiaith aeano?oeoe??th o?aaaeoe. Aa?aneaia iainiaeaiiy aiaee a o?aaaeoeao oa a?/eao aoa/anoi? e?noee, a??ia?aeii, iaoiiaeaia /anoeiaei ?aae?ie?cii aiaee aiane?aeie o?eaaeiai ii?ii?iaiiy inoaiuei? ?iei?ii?iaaieie ?aae?iioee?aeaie. Aiaea caaaa/o?oueny ?aaeeeaeaie, a?ae?iia?aeenaie, aoiia?iei eeniai, a?ae?aoiaaieie aeaeo?iiaie, nieyie, a oiio /ene? ?aae?iaeoeaieie, ye? iaaeathoue ?e aeniei? ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino?, yea a cia/i?e i??? iaoiiaeth? iaoia?ic aoa/anoi? e?noee. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a ca aeiiiiiaith aaaaoioaeoi?iiai aeno?aeoiiai ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?ca i?aaenoaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 19. sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, iieacieee u?eueiino? iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee ainaie na?ae/aoue i?i iaaia caaaeueia iie?auaiiy noaio e?noyea ei??a, a aeinoia??ia ??cieoey o aaniyieo oa in?ii?o iieacieeao ?iaeaena i?ia?ae?caoe?? aiai?eoue i?i iayai?noue inoaiiaeyoe?eieo ci?i a neaeao?, ui ni?aiaaea? c aeaieie a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aenooi?noue nooo?aeo ??cieoeue a ?ioeo iieacieeao iaoiiaeaia, a??ia?aeii, ia?aa?aii ?aae?aoe?eii? aeeno?io??. A e?ia? ei??a iaaani?, a ii??aiyii? c in?ii?ie iieacieeaie, aeyaeaii aeinoia??ia iicaii?iiaa ciaioaiiy ai?noo a?eo?ioeeo?a, aaiiaeia?io, ca?eueoaiiy eieuei?iaiai iieacieea e?ia? (a?ia?o?iiia aiai?y), a oaeiae ciaioaiiy eaeeioeeo?a oa an?o ee?oeiieo oi?i eaeeia?aie, ae?acia c?ooaiiy iieaciee?a c??eino? yaea? iaeo?io?e?a e?ai?o/. O aeayeeo ei??a a?aei?/a?oueny aiceiio?e?y oa iiiioeeoiiai?y. Oaaeeoey 19 Iieacieee o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea ei??a ainiiaea?noaa o?aouei? ciie IieacieeeA?iin?y 7 ea?oiyA?iin?y 6 aeiaoiy?U?euei?noue iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee,ia/ni3984±301144±38,63<0,05U?euei?noue nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee444±32,19452±51,5>0,05U?euei?noue
i?aai?/iiai iao?eena, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i?
e?noee128±6,4138±12,9>0,05U?euei?noue i?ia?ae?a, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i?
e?noee312±6,4316± 40,8>0,05?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe??2,42±0,12,26±0,08<0,05O /anoei? eaeeioeeo?a niinoa??aa?oueny oieneeiaaiia ca?ieno?noue, aaeoie?caoe?y oeeoieacie, iaaooaiiy oa i?eiic yaea?; a iaceao aeyaeythoueny a?aioeio?eioeeoe, ieneo?euei? ii?iioeeoe, ?ieiee a?eo?iaeanoe. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i ae?aci? ?aae?aoe?eii-oiene/i? ci?ie e?ia?, ii?ooaiiy e?noeiai-iiceiaiai e?iaioai?aiiy. A?noieia?/i? iieacieee e?noeiaiai iiceo a ii?i? oa iaoieia?? Ii?iaeueiee noai e?noeiaiai iiceo. ?ioaineaia e?iaioai?aiiy – aaiiiiaoe/i? ino??aoe? oa aeeooci? neoi/aiiy aeaiaio?a e?iaioai?aiiy caeiathoue 70-90%, e?noeiai-iiceia? e?iioeeoe – 30-10% ieiu? e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie. Iii??ii ae?aaeaia e?iaioai?aiiy – ieiua e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie i?eaeecii iaai?e (50% : 50%) caiiaiaia e?iioeeoaie oa aiaieuaie ee?oeiiiai eiiieaeno e?iaioai?aiiy. Neaai ae?aaeaia e?iaioai?aiiy – na?aae /eneaieo e?iioeeo?a ie?ai? aiaieua e?iaioai?aiiy caeiathoue 5-10% ieiu? e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie. ?aca?aoaaiiy e?iaioai?ii? ooieoe?? – any ieiua e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie caiiaiaia e?iioeeoaie e?noeiaiai iiceo. Iaoieia?/iee noai e?noeiaiai iiceo. Ci?ie iaea?eueo yne?aai i?iyaeythoueny i?e ?aae?aoe?ei?e inoaiaeeno?io?? oa aoi?eii?e inoaiaeeno?io?? eaoiciiai iioiaeaeaiiy. A?ae?ii?/ia aeeno?io?y – ?ioaineaiee e?iie?c noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ooai?aiiyi a e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/eao aiaeyieo iooe??a aai nooe?eueiei caiiaiaii?i a?/ie aiaeith. Iniaeeai aa?aneaieo aeanoeainoae aiaeia na?aaeiaeua iaaoaa? o ei??a, ui oo?eiothoueny a ae?oa?e oa o?ao?e ciiao ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy. I?ioaiae?eaiiaa aeeno?io?y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?iiieac??th e?noeiai-iiceiaeo e?iioeeo?a c iaeiie/aiiyi a ?icoe?aieo i?aeee?oeiieo i?ioa?eao o?iiio?iiieo i?ioaiae?eaiiaeo niieoe, ia?aaaaeii a?aeo?iiaoo. A?eeiaa aeeno?io?y – ia oii? a?iiieac?? e?noeiai-iiceiaeo e?iioeeo?a aai ?o a?ae?ii?/ii? aeeno?io?? ia? i?noea iaeiie/aiiy a i?aeee?oeiieo i?inoi?ao o?iiio?iiieo a?eeiaeo ?a/iaei, ia?aaaaeii eeneeo a?ee?a. Ci?oaia i?ioaiae?eaiiai-a?eeiaa aeeno?io?y. Ia oii? a?iiieac?? e?noeiai-iiceiaeo e?iioeeo?a aai ?o a?ae?ii?/ieo ci?i a ?icoe?aieo i?aeee?oeiieo i?ioa?eao iaeiie/othoueny o?iiio?iii? niieoee iaio aeae?a. O?a?ic e?noeiaiai iiceo i?aaenoaaey? niaith o?iaeueio noaae?th a?eueoino? eiai aeeno?io?/ieo ci?i ? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aioo??oiueia?/eiaei ?ic?iuaiiyi u?eueii? o?a?icii? oeaieie. ?aaaia?aoe?y e?noeiaiai iiceo – aeyaeaia i?e ?aae?aoe?ei?e inoaiaeeno?io?? ? i?iyaey?oueny eiai /anoeiaei a?aeiiaeaiiyi, a iniiaiiio iayai?noth iaaaea??ioeeo?a na?aae ?ic?iuaiue iooei? ee?oeiaeie. AENIIAEE 1.A ainiiaea?noaao ia?aaaaea? ae?iaioa?ia inoaiaeeno?io?y aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae; iioe?aia inoaiiaeyoe?y, ui iaoiiaeaii o?c?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie i?aai?cio ei??a, a naia caeaoi?noth oaeaeei iaeiie/oaaoe ? a?aeaeaaaoe (ca ?aooiie aae?noa?ac?no) i?ia?aeuei? ?a/iaeie c iieieii; inoaii?ic cono??/a?oueny a?aeiinii ??aeei ? i?iyaey?oueny aeaiia aieiaieie oi?iaie: inoaieeanoe/iith oa inoaioeeoa?iith (o aeiaaeeao ?aae?aoe?eii? inoaiaeeno?io??) ?aci?aoe?yie. 2.Iaea?eueo ia’?eoeaiei iaoiaeii ae?aaiinoeee inoaiaeeno?io?? ? o?aiaiia?iin?y e?noyea a ae?eyioe? ciai?oiueiai ai?aa eeoaiai? e?noee; a?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaii? ne?iaaoee e?ia? iathoue aeiiii?aeia cia/aiiy. 3.Ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai iaie aaaaoioaeoi?iiai aeno?aeoiiai ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?ca a e?noeiaiio c?aceo aecia/a?ii u?euei?noue iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee, nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee, i?ia?ae?a, i?aai?/iiai iao?eeno (a iniiaiiio e?noeiaiai eieaaaia), a oaeiae ?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe?? (a?aeiioaiiy ian aai u?eueiinoae i?ia?ae?a aei i?aai?/iiai ia?eena). ?ic?iaeai? i?ino? oa aeinooii? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy a e?noeiaeo c?aceao iniiaieo inoaio?io?/ieo aeaiaio?a (Na, ?), aaeaioiaai? aei ?nioth/eo iiaeeeainoae eaai?aoi??e. Anoaiiaeai? iieacieee ai?noo Na, ? oa Na:? ye a eiiiaeoi?e, oae ? a aoa/ano?e e?nooe? a ii?i?, i?e eaeueoe?eaeao?oeeoi?e, oinoi?iaeao?oeeoi?e oa ??aiii??i?e (ci?oai?e) inoaiaeeno?io??. 4.Aeey ii?iaeueiiai noaio e?noyea ei??a oa aeey eiai inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo o?aaeaiue iaoiaeii aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii? niaeo?iiao??? a ia?a?aooieo ia ea ne?i? e?noee anoaiiaeaeaiee ai?no Na, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr. 5.Canoinoaaiiy o?ea?oo ei?iaai a ceiiai-no?eeiaee ia??iae cia/ii iineeth? i?ia?aeueio iane/ai?noue e?noyea, oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy yei? nooo?ai i?aeaeuo?oueny i?e ae?aooaaii? ai?noo iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaio?a a iaeeieoe? aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/iiai ia’?io e?noeiaiai c?aceo (a/ni3, ia/ni3). ?ic?aooiee iiaeia iaiaaeoaaoe ae?aooaaiiyi u?eueiino? Ca+P+Mg+Na+K, aaee/eie yeeo iaea?eueo ci?iththoueny. 6.I?e noaee?i?/iiio ia?aa?ao inoaiaeeno?io?? aeyaey?oueny aeinoia??ia ciaioaiiy u?eueiino? iaoeaii? ne?i?, nooi? ciaaee?aii? e?noee, ai?noo i?aai?/iiai iao?eena, i?ia?ae?a; ?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe?? ci?ith?oueny iaaeinoia??ii, ui aeaco? ia ??aiii??iee (ci?oaiee) oa?aeoa? inoaiaeeno?io?/iiai i?ioeano. Ciaioaiiy u?eueiino? i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei ? iaea?eueo /ooeeaei ae?aaiinoe/iei e?eoa???i. 7.I?e aiaeiaaii?e inoaiiaeyoe?? iieaciaei ? aeinoia??ia ciaioaiiy ?iaeaeno i?ia?ae?caoe??, iaoiiaeaia cieaeaiiyi a?aeeeaaeaiiy i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei. 8.I?e inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo o?aaeaiiyo o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ia??aeei ia? i?noea ia?a?icaeiaiiy iaeueoeaaeo noaeia?a, ui iia’ycaii c i?ieiiaoth/ei inoaioaiaeei?oii iaeueoeaaeo caeia/?a, iniiaiei iaoiaaiaoe/iei iaoai?ciii yeiai ? inoaie?c ia?aeeaaeei a cii? o?enaoe?? nooiaeeeea aei e?noee c ianooiiith i?ie?oa?aoe??th o?a?i?aoeeoey?ii? a?/eiai? oeaieie, ?? i?aoi?ioaaiiyi (oaiaeei?caoe?y) oa aeeth/aiiyi aei neeaaeo e?ioeaai? /anoeie nooiaeeeea (iaoai?ci eiiaica). 9.O?aaeaiiy eiieoaoeue (aeaoi?iaoe?y, iiaeiaea?iaoeo, eai?i?o, ae?acea i’yeooa oiui) o ei??a iiina?aaeaeo?oueny i?ieiiaoth/ei inoaioaiaeei?oii iaeueoeaaeo caeia/?a aiane?aeie inoaiiaeyoe??. 10.Inoaiaeeno?io?/i? o?aaeaiiy i?e aaci?ea’ycii-aieniaiio oo?eiaii? oa a?aeaiae?ae? ae/e?a ia a?aioeao noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny eiiaicii aai eio?aeoo?ith nooiaeeee?a, a oaeiae a?ae?eaii i’yoeiaiai nooiaeeeea, o i?io?eaeoeoe? yeiai aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? iaeaaeia iinoa/aiiy a?oai?iii D. 11.I?e a?aeaiae?ae? iieiaeiyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae oe?aiith a?aaith a yeino? oaoiieia?/ieo oai?ia niinoa??aathoueny naaiaioa?iee aea?iio?a?ic (ei?iiaa aea?a?/ia o?aaeaiiy oe??e c oaiaeaioe??th i?ia?anoth/iai caaeeaeaiiy a i?aeni?aei? oeaieie) oa aeeno?io?/iee inoaioaiaeei?o, iaoiiaeaiee inoaiiaeyoe??th. 12.Oo?eiaiiy ei??a a ae?oa?e cii? ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeieeiaiiyi ?aae?aoe?eii? inoaiaeeno?io??, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny o?aaeaiiiyi aoa/anoi? e?noee (inoaiiae?ic, ?aae?ie?c e?noeiai-iiceiaeo e?iioeeo?a, o?aaiaiooth/a inoaiaeano?oeoe?y c ia?ai?uaiiyi i?e?inaeaano??a ana?aaeeio e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie, e?iaiaeeeae a inoaii? c naia?aoe??th aiaee, ?ic/eiaiiyi naeaano??a oa ianooiiei aeaaaeaiiyi a?ia?ini?/iiai ?ic/eio c na/ath). 13.Oo?eiaiiy ei??a a o?ao?e cii? ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?aae?aoe?eiei o?aaeaiiyi aoa/anoi? e?noee, iaea?eueo oeiiaith iciaeith yeiai ? ?aae?aoe?eii-a?ae?ii?/iee aioo??oiueio?aaaeoey?iee (a ca’yceo c caaeaaeeth /anoeie inoaioeeo?a) oa aioo??oiueia?/eiaee (a ca’yceo c ?aae?ie?cii e?iioeeo?a) inoaiii?ic. 14.A ca’yceo c aenieith ?aaaia?aoeaiith caeaoi?noth e?noeiai? oeaieie, ?aae?aoe?eia inoaiaeeno?io?y ia? oeeee?/iee oa?aeoa? ? ia?aa?aa? a aea? noaae??: a)inoaiaeano?oeoeaia, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeaaaeaiiyi ?iei?ii?iaaieo ?aae?iioee?ae?a, a)inoai?aaaia?aoeaia, yea i?iyaey?oueny iaeiie/aiiyi inoaio?iiieo ioee?ae?a. 15.Iaoieia?y e?noeiai-iiceiai? oeaieie i?iyaey?oueny e?iaiaeeeaaie a e?noeiaee iicie, a?ae?ii?/iith aeeno?io??th, a?eeiai-i?ioaiae?eaiiaith (ia?aaaaeii iaeiie/aiiyi a?aeo?iiaoo) aeeno?io??th oa ?aae?aoe?eiei ?oeioaaiiyi; ?aaaia?aoe?y e?noeiaiai iiceo iia’ycaia c ooieoe??th ?aae?aoe?eii no?eeeo iaaaea??ioeeo?a ? ia ? iiaiith. I?IIICEOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO U?euei?noue o?aiaiia?iioaoa c ae?eyiee iaeeaea ? i?inoei ae?aaiinoe/iei e?eoa???i inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo o?aaeaiue (o ei??a a ii?i? 1010-1295 ia/ni3, i?e inoaiaeeno?io?? – 485-890 ia/ni3). I?e canoinoaaii? o aecia/aii? i?ia?aeueiiai neeaaeo e?noyea aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii? niaeo?iiao??? e?noeia? c?acee ei??a a cii? Oe?a?inueeiai Iie?nny i?e u?eueiino? ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy 1 Ee/ei2 ca ?aae?ioeac??i i?noyoue a ia?a?aooieo ia ea iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee: Ca 58-88 a, Mg 0,9-3,5 a, Na 3-7 a, K 110,7-370 ia, Fe 32,8-108,7 ia, Cu 5,2-21,7 ia, Zn 28,3-108,7 ia, Mn 0,7-3,2 ia, Sr 3,1-12 ia. I?e anoaiiaeaii? ai?noo a eeneioieo aeno?aeoao aai e?caoao e?noeiaeo c?ace?a Na ? ? iaoiaeaie, ye? canoiniaothoueny i?e aea/aii? aiaeia?/ieo iieaciee?a ne?iaaoee e?ia?, ne?ae i???iooaaoeny ia oae? aaee/eie ai?noo iniiaieo inoaio?io?/ieo aeaiaio?a a e?noeia?e ?a/iaei?: Noai e?noyeaNa eii-iaeoii? e?noee? eii-iaeoii? e?noee Na:?Na aoa-/anoi? e?noee? aoa-/anoi? e?noee Na:?I i ? i a145-40576-2031,45-258-8840-711,26-1,8Eaeueoe?eaeao?oeeoia inoaiaeeno?io?y95-14098-1360,7-1,435-5775-1650,4-2,89Oinoi?iaeao?oeeoia inoaiaeeno?io?y128-19561-752,1-2,690-16821-394,2-4,0??aiii??ia (ci?oaia) inoaiaeeno?io?y93-13059-731,5-235-5721-371,5-2Iaioee ai?no Na ? ? a aoa/ano?e e?nooe? iiynith?oueny iaioei ?? iaoai?/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi, a ca’yceo c /ei aiia ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii iia?e?caoe?? i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a e?ia. I?e canoinoaaii? aaaaoioaeoi?iiai aeno?aeoiiai ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?ca iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ianooii? iieacieee ii?ie u?eueiinoae e?noeiaeo c?ace?a: iaoeaiiai – 1010-1295 ia/ni3, nooiai ciaaee?aiiai – 285-360 ia/ni3, i?aai?/ii? iniiae e?noee (ina?ia) – 120-165 ia/ni3, i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a – 205-285 ia/ni3, a?aeiioaiiy ai?noo i?ia?ae?a aei ai?noo ina?ia (?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe??) – 1,95-2,6. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Ai?enaae/ A.A. O?aiaiiaeiiney einoiie oeaie //A ei.: Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A. Iia?aoeaiay oe?o?aey aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo: O/aaiia iiniaea. - Eeaa: E??iaia?aaeaea?aeaeaeaa, 1996, - 254 n.- N. 49. 2. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Inoaiaeeno?ioey //A ei.: Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A. Iaca?aciua aieacie naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aeeaioiuo: aeooa?noai e aeiaeieiaey, aioo?aiiea iaca?aciua aieacie, oe?o?ae/aneea aieacie. – Eeaa: Ee?iaia?aaeaea?aeaeaeaa, 1997. – 324 n., – N. 163-168. 3. Ai?enaae/ A.A. I?iaaaeaiea o?aiaiiaeiinee einoiie oeaie //A ei.: Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A. Iia?aoeaiay oe?o?aey aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo - o?aaeeoeeiiiua e nia?aiaiiua aniaeou: O/aaiia iiniaea e i?aeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai. - Eeaa: E??iaia?aaeaea?aeaeaeaa, 1998, - 243 n., – N. 48-49. 4. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A. ?aaeeaoeeiiiay inoaiaeeno?ioey o ei?ia, iaoneiaeaiiay aaa?eae ia *AYN: Eaeoeey aeey nooaeaioia e neooaoaeae iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee. – E.: ONOA, 1994. – 37 n. 5. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Eoae?ya/aiei A.A., Naiue ss.A., ssoeuoei A.E., Oea/aiei A.I., Ai?enaae/ A.A. ?aaeeiaeieiae/aneia e aenoieiae/aneia eco/aiea o?aiaiiaeiioaoia aoa/aoie einoe o ei?ia ec ?aaeiiia, iino?aaeaaoeo a ?acoeueoaoa aaa?ee ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN //?aaeeiaeieiaey.- 1992.- aui. 5. – N.647-653 6. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Iaeueieeiaa I., Iioioeueeee I., Ai?enaae/ A. A. ?aae?aoe?eia inoaiaeeno?io?y o ei??a //Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.- 1992. - ? 3. – N. 18-19. 7. Ai?enaae/ A.A., ssoeuoei A.E., Iioioeeee I.E., Iaeueieeiaa I.I., Ai?enaae/ A.A. Eciaiaiey aoa/aoie einoe o ei?ia a nayce n aaa?eae ia *AYN //A?niee a?a?ii? iaoee. – 1992. - ? 9. – N. 27-30 8. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Oea/aiei N.I., Ai?enaae/ A.A., Aeieaoeueeee N.I. Aeeno?io?/iee inoaioaiaeei?o o ei??a //A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. – 1993. - ? 11. – N. 69-73 9. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Oea/aiei N.I., Ai?enaae/ A.A., Aii/a?oe O.I. Iieacaoaee nuai?ioee e?iae e einoiie oeaie o ei?ia i?e ne?uoie inoaiaeeno?ioee //Aaoa?eia?ey. – 1994. - ? 7. – N. 15-18 10. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Aiaeiaaiiay inoaiiaeyoeey o aua?aeiaaiuo ei?ia //Aaoa?eia?ey. – 1995. -? 8. – N. 17-20 11. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Aa?aca A., Ai?enaae/ A. A. Noai ei??a a ainiiaea?noa? o?aouei? ciie //Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie. – 1995. -? 1. – N.14-15 12. Ai?enaae/ A., Ai?enaae/ A., Iaooao N. Oai?iae e?ioe?aie ae/e?a i?e a?aeaiae?ae? oe?aiith a?aaith //Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie. – 1995. -? 10. – N.22-23. 13. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Oaeineiiaeaiee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea //Ia?ioaeoe?eia iaoieia?y oaa?ei: Iaoa?. iaoe.-i?aeoe/i. eiio. (i. A?ea Oea?eaa, 7-8 /a?aiy 1995) . A?niee A?eioea?e. AeAO.- aei. 5. – /. 1- A?ea Oea?eaa, 1995 – N. 130-131. 14. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A., Aii/a?oe O.I., Oea/aiei N.I. Ian-ia’?iiee aeno?aeoiee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a o aecia/aii? noaio e?noyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae //Aaoa?eia?ia iaaeeoeeia /I?aea?aeii/ee oaiaoe/i. ca??iee, Ee?a: O?iaeae, 1995.- aei. 70. - N. 174-177. 15. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Aii/a?oe O.I., Ai?enaae/ A.A., Aeieaoeueeee N.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ne?iaaoee e?ia? oa o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea ei??a o ii?i? oa i?e noaee?i?/iiio ia?aa?ao inoaiaeeno?io?? //Aaoa?eia?ia iaaeeoeeia /I?aea?aeii/ee oaiaoe/i. ca??iee, Ee?a: O?iaeae, 1995. – aei. 70. - N. 196-198. 16. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Ninoiyiea einoyea au/eia, aieueiuo inoaiaeeno?ioeae e aea?iioea?icii i?e ioei?ia oeaaiie aa?aeie //Aaoa?eia?ey.- 1996. - ? 3. N. 46-50 17. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Aeaye? iniaeeaino? ia?aa?ao ?aae?aoe?eii? inoaiaeeno?io?? o ei??a a ca’yceo c aaa???th ia *AAN //Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy aaoa?eia?ii? iaoieia?? /Iaoa??aee Ia?oi? Anaoe?. iaoe.-ae?iai. eiio. aao. iaoieia?a (13-15 eenoii. 1996 ?., i. Ee?a). – /.1. – Ee?a, 1996. – N. 48-49. 18. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Ci?ie aoa/anoi? e?noeiai? oeaieie ei??a a ca’yceo c aaa???th ia *i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN //Aao. iaaeeoeeia Oe?a?ie. 1997. - ?5.- N. 31-33 19. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Ninoiyiea einoii-nooiaeeeueiiai niaaeeiaiey iaeueoeaauo naeaaoaeae o ei?ia a ii?ia e i?e inoaiaeeno?ioee //Aaoa?eia?ey. 1997. - ? 5. N.39-43 20. Ai?enaae/ A.A. ?aae?aoe?eia inoaiaeeno?io?y o ei??a a o?ao?e cii? ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy //Aao. iaaeeoeeia Oe?a?ie. 1998. -.? 9. -. N.42-43. 21. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Iniaeeaino? ?aae?aoe?eii? inoaiaeeno?io?? o ei??a //A?niee A?eioea?e?a. aea?ae. aa?a?i. oi-oo: A?ea Oea?eaa, 1998.- aei. 5. – /. 2. – N. 123-125 22. Ai?enaae/ A.A. O?aiaiia?iin?y o aecia/aii? noaio e?noyea ? e?noeiaiai iiceo o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae – c aeoeaioii ia ae?aaiinoeeo, i?io?eaeoeeo oa e?eoaaiiy inoaiaeeno?io??. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? (caoaa?aeaeaii ia can?aeaii? naeoe?? “Aaoa?eia?ia iaaeeoeeia” IO? I?in?eueainii?iaeo Oe?a?ie – i?ioieie ? 1 a?ae 18.12.98 ?.). Ee?a: Ciaiiy, 1998, 24 n. 23. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Aieea noaee?i?/ieo oi?i inoaiaeeno?io?? ei??a ia noai iiaiia?iaeaeaieo oaeyo //Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe. aa?a?iiai oi-oo. E.,1998. – aei. 11. – N.50 - 53 24. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Noai e?noeiaiai iiceo o ooaeiae a ii?i? ? iaoieia?? // A?niee A?eioea?e. aea?ae. aa?a?i. oi-oo: A?ea Oea?eaa, 1999, -aei. 8. – /. 1 – N. 18 – 22 25. Ai?enaae/ A.A. A?noieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaiaaiaco a ae?eyioe? ciai?oiueiai ai?aa eeoaiai? e?noee o iieiaeiyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae //Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe. aa?a?i. oi-oo. E.,1999. – aei. 16. – N. 17 – 19 26. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Iioioeeee I.E., Ai?enaae/ A.A., Iaeueieeiaa I.I. ?aaeeaoeeiiiay aeeno?ioey, iaoneiaeaiiay aaa?eae ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN //Aeieiaey iii?ii-aeaeaao. aiia?aoa: Iaoa?eaeu oeieu (Eeeiaioiai, 22 – 26 naio. 1992 a.). Ieicae?aa. Oe?aeiu, Oa?ueeia, 1992. – N. 26 – 28 27. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A. ?aaeeaoeeiiiua iia?aaeaeaiey iiaeacaeioiie einoe e einoiiai iicaa o ei?ia a nayce n aaa?eae ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN //Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu aaoa?eia?iie oe?o?aee /Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?. iao/i.-i?aeoe/. eiio.- Oa?ueeia. 1994. N 23 (oacenu) 28. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Aenoiiaoieiaey ?aaeeaoeeiiiie inoaiaeeno?ioee ei?ia, iaoneiaeaiiay aaa?eae ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN. // ?aaeeiaeieiae/aneee nuacae. (Eeaa 20-25 naioya?y 1993 a.). Oacenu aeiee., Ioueii, 1993. N. 133. 29. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A. Aeeyiea ?aaeeaoeee ia neaeao e einoiue iica ei?ia oicyenoaa o?aoueae ciiu //Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu aaoa?eia?iie oe?o?aee /Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?. iao/i.-i?aeoe/. eiio. – Oa?ueeia. 1994. – N.23 (oacenu). 30. Ai?enaae/ A.A., Aa?aca A.?., Ai?enaae/ A.A. Ci?ie e?ia? i?e ?aae?aoe?ei?e inoaiaeeno?io?? o ei??a ainiiaea?noaa o?aouei? ciie //I?iaeaie aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno: iiooe, aeinyaiaiiy (ciioaoi. oa aao. iaae.) /Oace aeiiia?aeae eiio. i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ani??aio?a. Ee?a, 1994. N.101-102 31. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Aea/aiiy noaio e?noyea ei??a i?e inoaiaeeno?io?? a ca’yceo c eaoicii //Iaoa??aee iaoe. eiio. OAI IAO “No/ani? i?iaeaie aao. iaae.”, Ee?a, 1997. – N. 80-81 (oace). Ai?enaae/ A.A. Ao?ieia?y, iaoiaaiac ? iaoiii?oieia?y inoaiaeeno?io?? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 16.00.02 – iaoieia?y, iieieia?y oa ii?oieia?y oaa?ei.- Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith noaio e?noyea oa e?noeiaiai iiceo ei??a ia i?aenoaa? canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo o?aiaiia?iin??. ?ic?iaeai? /ioe?e iniiai? eiino?oeoe?? o?aiai?a. I?iaaaeaii a?noieia?/ia, a?noio?i?/ia, aoiiii-aani?aoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy e?noeiaeo c?ace?a. Aecia/aii ai?no a ieo inoaio?iiieo iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaio?a ye a ii?i?, oae ? i?e inoaiaeeno?io??. Cai?iiiiiaaii o?i?/i? iaoiaee aeyaeaiiy a o?aiaiia?iioaoao Na oa ?. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aecia/aiiy a e?noeiaiio c?aceo u?eueiinoae: iaoeaii? e?noee, nooi? e?noee, i?aai?/iiai iao?eeno, i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei oa ?iaeaeno i?ia?ae?caoe??. Aea/aii noai e?noyea i?e inoaiaeeno?io?? ei??a ? iieiaeiyea, aieea ia neaeao o?ea?oa. Anoaiiaeaia aaaeo/a ?ieue inoaiaeeno?io?? o aeieeiaii? inoaioaiaeei?oa oa iaoieia?? eiieoaoeue. Anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino? ?aae?aoe?eii? inoaiaeeno?io?? ei??a a ae?oa?e oa o?ao?e cii? ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy. Aecia/ai? a?noieia?/i? e?eoa??? ii?iaeueieo noai?a e?noeiaiai iiceo oa eiai iaoieia?/ieo ci?i. Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?aiaiia?iin?y, e?noye, aoa/anoa e?noea, e?noeiaee iicie, ae?iaioa?ia inoaiaeeno?io?y, inoaioaiaeei?o, aea?iio?a?ic, iaoieia?y eiieoaoeue, ?aae?aoe?eia inoaiaeeno?io?y. Ai?enaae/ A.A. Yoeieiaey, iaoiaaiac e iaoiii?ieiaey inoaiaeeno?ioee e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aaoa?eia?iuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 16.00.02 – iaoieiaey, iieieiaey e ii?oieiaey aeeaioiuo. – Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999. Aeena?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth ninoiyiey neaeaoa e einoiiai iicaa ei?ia ia iniiaaiee eniieueciaaiey iaoiaea o?aiaiiaeiinee. ?ac?aaioaiu /aou?a iniiaiua eiino?oeoeee o?aiaiia. I?iaaaeaiu aenoieiae/aneia, aenoioeie/aneia, aoiiii-aani?aoeeiiiia enneaaeiaaiea einoiuo ia?acoeia. Ii?aaeaeaii niaea?aeaiea a ieo inoaio?iiiuo iae?i- e iee?iyeaiaioia eae a ii?ia, oae e i?e inoaiaeeno?ioee. I?aaeeiaeaiu oeie/aneea iaoiaeu auyaeaiey a o?aiaiiaeiioaoao Na e ?. ?ac?aaioai iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey a einoiii ia?acoea ieioiinoae: iaoeaiie einoe, nooie einoe, i?aaie/aneiai iao?eena, ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa e eiaeaena ieia?aeecaoeee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a oicyenoaao i?aaaee?oao aeeiaioa?iay inoaiaeeno?ioey e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa; ?ani?ino?aiaia inoaiiaeyoeey, /oi iaoneiaeaii oeceieiae/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie i?aaiecia ei?ia, a eiaiii niiniaiinoueth auno?i iaeaieeaaoue e ioaeaaaoue (ca n/ao aaeenoa?acena) ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa n iieieii; inoaiii?ic ano?a/aaony n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeei e i?iyaeyaony aeaoiy iniiaiuie oi?iaie – inoaieeanoe/aneie e inoaioeeoa?iie (a neo/ayo ?aaeeaoeeiiiie inoaiaeeno?ioee) ?aci?aoeeyie. Onoaiiaeaiu iieacaoaee niaea?aeaiey Na, ? e Na:? eae a eiiiaeoiie, oae e a aoa/aoie einoe a ii?ia, i?e eaeueoeeeaeaoeoeeoiie, oinoi?iaeaoeoeeoiie e ?aaiiia?iie (niaoaiiie) inoaiaeeno?ioee. A ii?ia e i?e inoaiaeeno?ioee iaoiaeii aoiiii-aani?aoeeiiiie niaeo?iiao?ee onoaiiaeaii niaea?aeaiea Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr. I?eiaiaiea o?eaeoa ei?iaai a ceiia-noieeiaue ia?eiae au?aaeaii oneeeaaao ieia?aeueioth ianuuaiiinoue einoyea, oi/iinoue ii?aaeaeaiey eioi?ie cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaaaony i?e au/eneaiee niaea?aeaiey iae?i- e iee?iyeaiaioia a aaeeieoea aiaoiii-oeceieiae/aneiai iauaia einoiiai ia?acoea (a/ni3, ia/ni3). Noaeeeie/aneia oa/aiea inoaiaeeno?ioee nii?iaiaeaeaaony aeinoiaa?iui oiaiueoaieai ieioiinoe iaoeaiie nu?ie, nooie iaacaee?aiiie einoe, niaea?aeaiey i?aaie/aneiai iao?eena, ieia?aeia; eiaeaen ieia?aeecaoeee eciaiyaony iaaeinoiaa?ii; iaeaieaa /oanoaeoaeueiui aeeaaiinoe/aneei e?eoa?eai yaeyaony oiaiueoaiea ieioiinoe ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa. I?e yiaeiaaiiie inoaiiaeyoeee iieacaoaeueiui yaeyaony aeinoiaa?iia oiaiueoaiea eiaeaena ieia?aeecaoeee, iaoneiaeaiiia nieaeaieai ioeiaeaiey ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa. I?e inoaiaeeno?ioe/aneeo ii?aaeaieyo /anoi eiaao ianoi ia?a?acaeaaiea iaeueoeaauo nonoaaia, /oi iaoneiaeaii i?ieiiae?othuei inoaioaiaeeieoii iaeueoeaauo naeaaoaeae, iniiaiui iaoiaaiaoe/aneei iaoaieciii eioi?iai yaeyaony inoaieec ia?aeeaaeei a ciia oeenaoeee nooiaeeeey e einoe n iineaaeothuae i?ieeoa?aoeeae oea?i?aoeeoey?iie aioo?ey/aenoie oeaie, aa i?aoi?iaoeey a aeaea “oaiaeeiecaoeee”. Ii?aaeaiea eiiuoaoe (aeaoi?iaoeey, iiaeiaea?iaoeo, eaieieo, ycaa iyeeoa e ae?.) iiin?aaenoaothony i?ieiiae?othuei inoaioaiaeeieoii iaeueoeaauo naeaaoaeae aneaaenoaea inoaiiaeyoeee. Inoaiaeeno?ioe/aneea ii?aaeaiey i?e aani?eaycii-aieniaii niaea?aeaiee e ioei?ia au/eia ia a?aioeao nii?iaiaeaeathony eiiaicii eeai eiio?aeoo?ie nooiaeeeee, a oaeaea io?uaii iyoi/iiai nooiaeeeey, a i?ioeeaeoeea eioi?iai au?aaeaiioth ?ieue ea?aao iaaeeaaeauaa niaaaeaiea aeoaieiii D. I?e ioei?ia au/eia oeaaiie aa?aeie a ea/anoaa oaoiieiae/aneeo aieaciae iaaethaeaaony naaiaioa?iue aea?iioea?ic (ei?iiaia aeea?ae/aneia ii?aaeaiea eiaee n oaiaeai-oeeae i?ia?anne?othuaai oaeoaeaiey a iiaeeaaeauea oeaie) e aeeno?ioe/aneee inoaioaiaeeieo, iaoneiaeaiiue inoaiiaeyoeeae. Niaea?aeaiea ei?ia ai aoi?ie ciia ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caa?yciaiey nii?iaiaeaeaaony aicieeiiaaieai ?aaeeaoeeiiiie inoaiaeeno?ioee, eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii?aaeaieai aoa/aoie einoe (inoaiiae?ic, ?aaeeieec einoii-iicaiauo eeiioeeoia, o?aaiaioe?othuay inoaiaeano?oeoeey n ia?aiauaieai iee?inaeaano?ia aioo?ue einoii-iicaiauo y/aae, e?iaieceeyiey a iineaaeiea n naia?aoeeae aiaeu, ?anoai?aieai naeaano?ie e iineaaeothuei auaaaeaieai aeia?inie/aneiai ?anoai?a n ii/ie). Niaea?aeaiea ei?ia a o?aoueae ciia ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caa?yciaiey nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?aaeeaoeeiiiui ii?aaeaieai aoa/aoie einoe, iaeaieaa oeie/iui i?eciaeii eioi?iai yaeyaony ?aaeeaoeeiiii-aeae?iie/aneee aioo?eo?aaaeoey?iue (a nayce n aeaaeueth /anoe inoaioeeoia) e aioo?ey/aenoue (a nayce n ?aaeeieecii eeiioeeoia) inoaiii?ic. A nayce n aunieie ?aaaia?aoeaiie niiniaiinoueth einoiie oeaie ?aaeeaoeeiiiay inoaiaeeno?ioey eiaao oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa? e i?iyaeyaony aeaoiy noaaeeyie: a)inoaiaeano?oeoeaiie, eioi?ay nii?iaiaeaeaaony auaaaeaieai eiei?ii?e?iaaiiuo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, a)inoai?aaaia?aoeaiie, eioi?ay i?iyaeyaony iaeiieaieai inoaio?iiiuo ioeeeaeia. Iaoieiaey einoii-iicaiaie oeaie i?iyaeyaony e?iaieceeyieyie a einoiue iica, aeae?iie/aneie aeeno?ioeae, aaeeiai-i?ioaiaeeeaiiaie (i?aeiouanoaaiiia iaeiieaiea aeaeo?iiaoa) aeeno?ioeae e ?aaeeaoeeiiiui ?ac?ooaieai; ?aaaia?aoeey einoiiai iicaa naycaia n ooieoeeae ?aaeeaoeeiiii onoie/eauo iaaaea?eioeeoia e ia yaeyaony iieiie. Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?aiaiiaeiioao, neaeao, aoa/aoay einoue, einoiue iica, aeeiaioa?iay inoaiaeeno?ioey, inoaioaiaeeieo, aea?iioea?ic, iaoieiaey eiiuoaoe, ?aaeeaoeeiiiay inoaiaeeno?ioey. Borisevich B.V. Ethiology, pathogenesis and pathomorphology of the cow’s osteodystrophy. – MS. Dissertation devoted to the study of the skeleton and the bone marrow with the method of trepanobiopsy. Four trepan constructions was elaborated. For the bone specimens investigation was used histological, histochemical and atom absorption spectrometry methods. In bone spaciments was determined osteotropic micro- and macroelements in the norm and by the osteodystrophy. Chemical methods for the Ca and P determination in trepanobioptates was proposed. The method of the determination in the bone spacimen densities of native bone, dry bone, organic base (ossein), mineral substances, and the mineralization index was elaborated. Skeleton conditions by the cows and young animal osteodystrophy and the influence of the preparation “Treevit” on the skeletion was studied. The leading role of the osteodystrophy in the arrising of the osteotendinitis and hooves pathology was esteblished. Also was esteblished peculiarities of the cow’s radiational osteodystrophy in second and third zones of the radiational soiling. Histological criteria of bone marrow normal and pathological conditions was determined. Key words: trepanobioptate, skeleton, spongy bone, bone marrow, osteodystrophy, osteotendinitis, dermofibrosis, hoves pathology, radiational osteodystrophy.

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