.

Етіологія, патогенез і патоморфологія остеодистрофії великої рогатої худоби: Автореф. дис… д-ра вет. наук / Б.В. Борисевич, Нац. аграр. ун-т. — К.,

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IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AI?ENAAE* Ai?en Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 619:616 –
091.71-007.7

AO?IEIA?ss, IAOIAAIAC ? IAOIII?OIEIA?ss

INOAIAeENO?IO?? AAEEEI? ?IAAOI?

OOAeIAE

16.00.02 – iaoieia?y, iieieia?y oa ii?oieia?y oaa?ei

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe

E e ? a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

Aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?eaooaiei Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/,
Iaeanueeee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
ii?iaeueii? oa iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii??.

Aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?eooioi?iaa Aana Aeaae?neaa?aia,
E?einueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aiaoii?? ? a?noieia??.

Aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani? O?aaiiae/ Iaaei Iaaeiae/,
Euea?anueea aeaaeai?y aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?i. N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

?inoeooo aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? ee?i?/ii? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie OAAI,
eaai?aoi??y iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “13” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1000 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.03 a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, i.
Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 11, iaa/. ei?i. ?3.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith 252041, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a
iai?iie, 11, iaa/. ei?i. ?10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “11” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee
A.A.Ai?oi?/oe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

A Oe?a?i? o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae iioe?ai? inoaiaeeno?io?/i?
(inoaiiaoe/i?) ii?ooaiiy (I.Noaeaeia, 1974; A.Ae.Eaeueieoeeee, 1985;
?.I.Iiaaaeaiei, A.A.Ai?enaae/, 1987; A.A.Ai?enaae/, 1989;
?.I.Eiiae?ao?i, 1989, 1998; A.?.Eaa/aiei, 1994; I.I. Einothe, 1999), ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei, yeiaino?,
ia?iaeaeaiiy iaaeeoo?caeaoiiai iioiinoaa, aeieeiaiiy o inoaiiueiai
??cieo caoai?thaaiue ? iaa?oue caaeaae? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo (I.I.Noaeaeia ?
ni?aaao., 1974; A.TH.*oia/aiei, 1986; A. A. E?eooioi?iaa, 1987, 1999; N.
N. Aa?aiia c ni?aaao., 1990). Ia oii? inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue
iniaeeai /anoi i?iyaeythoueny ??ci? o?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aie (a?o?eoe/i?
i?ioeane, e?noeiai-nooiaeeeeia? ? e?noeiai-ca’yceia? ii?ooaiiy,
aeaoi?iaoe?y oa ?io? oai?iae eiieoaoeue oiui), ui ia??aeei e?i?oo?
i?iaaaeaiiy ? iiaia caaa?oaiiy iaaieo oaoiieia?/ieo oeeee?a o
ainiiaea?noaao ? a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo ae?aaea?oueny a
iaaeiiaea?aeaii? aaeeei? e?eueeino? iieiea ? i’yna (I.I.Noaeaeia ?
ni?aaao., 1985; ?.I.Iiaaaeaiei, A.A.Ai?enaae/, 1987; A.N.Eociaoeia,
1980; ?.N.Iaiueei, 1982; A.I.O?aai, A.I.Iaeiaiia, 1984; A.A.Ai?enaae/,
1989, 1993, 1994).

E??i cae/aeieo inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue, aeey aaaaoueio ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie aaaeeeaei ? aea/aiiy noaio e?noeiai? oeaieie ? e?noeiaiai iiceo
a ca’yceo c oo?eiaiiyi iiaie?a’y ia caa?oaeiaieo ?aae?iioee?aeaie
oa?eoi??yo (A.A.Ai?enaae/ oa ni?aaao., 1993; I.A.Eoae?ya/aiei, 1993;
O.I.Naiue, 1993; A.A.Ai?enaae/, A.A.Ai?enaae/, 1994; ?.?.?aeeoeueeee,
1993).

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ae?aaiinoeea oa aea/aiiy inoaiaeeno?io?e
(inoaiiao?e) ? iia’ycaieo c ieie iaoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a i?aai?ci?
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae iathoue aaaeeeaa iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.
Aea/aiiy anyei? oai?iae ii/eia?oueny c ?? ae?aaiinoeee, a naia a oeueiio
a?aeiioaii? inoaiaeeno?io?/i? i?ioeane a iniiaiiio aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny
aai ia i?aenoaa? noa’?eoeaieo aeaieo (a?aooaaiiy neiioii?a, i?e/iio ia
caaaeaee /?oeeo), aai ae canoiniaothoueny ??ci? ?ino?oiaioaeuei? iaoiaee
iai?yiiai aea/aiiy noaio e?noyea. Ana oea iaaiei /eiii aaeueio? ?icaeoie
? i?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue i?i iniaeeaino?
inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo i?ioean?a ? coiiaeaieo ieie aoi?eiieo o?aaeaiue
i?aai?a oa nenoai oaa?eiiiai i?aai?cio, ye? /anoi eaae?o?eothoueny ye
cian?i ie?ai? oa iacaeaaei? a?ae inoaiiao?? iaoieia?/i? i?ioeane.

A?aoiaoth/e neacaia, iniaeeai aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeo o?aiaiia?iin?? e?noyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae,
ye iaea?eueo ia’?eoeaiiai iaoiaeo aecia/aiiy noaio e?noeiai? nenoaie ?
e?noeiaiai iiceo, ui iaiaa?oioiaaii ?aii?o?oueny o a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaeo
? i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaeao. Naia aea/aiiy c?ace?a e?noeiai? oeaieie,
iaea?aeaieo ca aeiiiiiaith a?iin??, iaaea? aeine?aeaeaiiyi oa
ae?aaiinoe/iei i?eeiiai iaeneiaeueii? aeinoia??iino? ? a?aeiia?aea? an?i
no/aniei iaoeiaei ? i?aeoe/iei aeiiaai aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Caaaeath/e ia
aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, oey ?iaioa ? o?aaiaioii caaaeaiiy AeIOI 7
“Caoeno n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei a?ae caoai?thaaiue oa iia?
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/i? i?aia?aoe aeey aaoa?eia???” oa /anoeiith
?i?oe?aoeaii? oaie eaoaae? iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii?? ? aaonaiaenia?oece oa
o??o?a?? IAO, ui aeeiiothoueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?o iaoeiaeie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/eoe ao?ieia?th, iaoiaaiac oa
iaoiii?oieia?th inoaiaeeno?io?? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, aeei?enoiaoth/e
ia?aaaaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a e?noyea, a oaeiae cae?enieoe
aeaye? e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/i? caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia ciaioaiiy
oe?aeeeaiai aieeao inoaiaeeno?io?/iiai i?ioeano.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

-?ic?iaeoe ??ci? iiaeae? o?aiai?a;

-aea/eoe a?noieia?/i? ? a?noio?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aiaiia?iioao?a ?c

ciai?oiueiai ai?aa eeoaiai? e?noee o ei??a a ii?i?;

-anoaiiaeoe a?noieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? iniaeeaino? o?aiaiia?iioao?a o

iieiaeiyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae;

-c’ynoaaoe a?noiii?oieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? iniaeeaino?
o?aiaiia?iioao?a i?e

ae?aaeaieo inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiiyo o ei??a;

-aecia/eoe ai?no iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaio?a o o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea
ei??a a

ii?i?;

-aea/eoe ai?no iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea ei??a
i?e

ae?aaeaieo neiioiiao inoaiiao??;

-anoaiiaeoe aieea o?ea?oai?io ia noai e?noyea ei??a;

-c’ynoaaoe noai e?noyea ei??a i?e aoi?eii?e inoaiaeeno?io??, ui
ia?aa?aa? ia oii? eaoico;

-?ic?iaeoe iaoiae aaaaoioaeoi?iiai ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?ca o aecia/aii?
noaio

e?noyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae;

-aeine?aeeoe noai e?noyea i?e noaee?i?/iiio ia?aa?ao inoaiaeeno?io?? o
ei??a;

-aeyaeoe iaoiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie o?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aie o ei??a o ca’yceo c

inoaiaeeno?io??th;

-aea/eoe ao?iiaoiaaiac o?aaeaiue eiieoaoeue a oiiaao no?eeiaiai
oo?eiaiiy ei??a;

-aeine?aeeoe noai e?noeiai? oeaieie ? nooiaeeee?a a?aeaiae?aaeueieo
ae/e?a o ca’yceo

c inoaiiao??th oa aeieeiaiiy inoaioaiaeei?oo;

-c’ynoaaoe noai i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy oa aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo oai?ia o
ae/e?a

i?e a?aeaiae?ae? oe?aiith a?aaith;

-anoaiiaeoe ci?ie e?noyea oa e?noeiaiai iiceo ei??a o ae?oa?e oa o?ao?e
ciiao

?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy;

-aecia/eoe a?noieia?/i? oa iaoia?noieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?noeiaiai
iiceo

aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? i?iaaaeaia
oe?iea ai?iaaoe?y iaoiaeo o?aiaiia?iin?? e?noyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae.

Aeyaeai? a?noieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? ci?ie o?aiaiia?iioao?a i?e
ae?aaeaieo inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo ii?ooaiiyo o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.

Anoaiiaeaii ai?no iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea a
ii?i? oa ?o ci?ie i?e ae?aaeaieo neiioiiao inoaiiao??.

Aea/ai? iniaeeaino? aieeao o?ea?oai?io ia noai e?noyea ei??a oa ci?ie
inoaiiueiai o ca’yceo c eaoicii, i?e noaee?i?/iiio ia?aa?ao inoaiiao??
oa aiaeiaaiii? inoaiiaeyoe?? o ei??a.

?ic?iaeaia oa ai?iaiaaia i?ea?iaeueia iaoiaeeea aaaaoioaeoi?iiai
ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?ca o?aiaiia?iioao?a c iaoith iiaeeaeaiiai oa
anaa?/iiai aecia/aiiy noaio e?noyea.

C’yniaai? ao?iiaoiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie o?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aie oa, cie?aia,
eiieoaoeue ei??a o ca’yceo c inoaiaeeno?io??th.

Aeine?aeaeaii noai e?noeiai? oeaieie oa nooiaeeee?a o a?aeaiae?aaeueieo
ae/e?a i?e aeieeiaii? inoaioaiaeei?oo ia oii? inoaiiao??.

Anoaiiaeaii iniaeeaino? i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy ? oa?aeoa? aeieeiaiiy
aeayeeo oai?ia ae/e?a i?e a?aeaiae?ae? oe?aiith a?aaith.

C’yniaai? iniaeeaino? o?aaeaiiy aoa/anoi? e?noeiai? oeaieie oa aee?iaiai
e?noeiaiai iiceo o ei??a a ae?oa?e oa o?ao?e ciiao ?aae?iaeoeaiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy ? anoaiiaeaii, ui aiie ia?aa?aathoue ca iniaeeaeie
iaoai?ciaie ?aae?aoe?eii? inoaiaeeno?io?? c aeaiaioaie ia??iaee/ii?
?aaaia?aoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy a oiiaao ainiiaea?noa aaciina?aaeiueiai aea/aiiy e?noeiaeo
c?ace?a c iaoith ioe?iee noaio e?noyea ? e?noeiaiai iiceo o aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae. Cai?iiiiiaai? ??ci? iiaeae? ?ino?oiaio?a aeey
o?aiaiia?iin??. Io?eiai? aeai?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai e?noyea
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a ii?i? oa i?e ??cieo oi?iao inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo
o?aaeaiue, ui a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue a ae?aaiinoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo.
Aeaoae?ciaaii iniaeeaino? aieeao o?ea?oai?io ia i?ia?aeueiee iai?i o
ei??a c iaoith eiai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy. A yeino? iaea?eueo
iioeiaeueiiai ae?aaiinoe/iiai e?eoa??th noaio e?noyea cai?iiiiiaaii
aaaaoioaeoi?iee ian-ia’?iiee aiae?c. C’yniaaii ao?iiaoiaaiac o?aaeaiue
e?ioe?aie oa eiieoaoeue, ui ia?aa?aathoue ia oii? inoaiaeeno?io?? o
ei??a a oiiaao no?eeiaiai oo?eiaiiy. ?icoeo?iaaii iniaeeaino? o?aaeaiue
e?noyea, nooiaeeee?a oa ?ioeo oeaiei o a?aeaiae?aaeueieo ae/e?a a
ca’yceo c inoaiaeeno?io??th oa i?e a?aeaiae?ae? oe?aiith a?aaith, ui
eaaeeoue a iniia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii canoinoaaiith ?aoe?iiaeueieo
i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a. Anoaiiaeaii iayai?noue i?e?iaeiueiai
?aae?icaoeniiai iaoai?cio o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca o/anoth aoa/anoi?
e?noeiai? oeaieie oa aee?iaiai e?noeiaiai iiceo.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
aeenoeeie?i: iaoieia?/ia aiaoii?y, aaoa?eia?ia o??o?a?y, ee?i?/ia
ae?aaiinoeea, oa?ai?y.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? “O?aiaiia?iin?y o
aecia/aii? noaio e?noyea ? e?noeiaiai iiceo o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae (c
aeoeaioii ia ae?aaiinoeeo, i?io?eaeoeeo oa e?eoaaiiy inoaiaeeno?io??)”,
?icaeyioo? oa caoaa?aeaeai? ia can?aeaii? naeoe?? “Aaoa?eia?ia
iaaeeoeeia” IO? I?in?eueaini?iaeo Oe?a?ie (i?ioieie ?1 a?ae 9 eenoiiaaea
1998 ?.).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O/anoue caeiaoaa/a a io?eiaii? iaoeiaeo oa
i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a, ye? iieeaaeaii a iniiao aeena?oaoe??,
noaiiaeoue 90%. Iei aeanii?o/ii i?iaaaeai? an? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca
iniiaieie iaoiaeeeaie, i?aaenoaaeaieie a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, a naia:
aeaioiaeaiiy iaiao?aeiiai ?ino?oiaioa??th, ?ic?iaeai? iniaeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo o?aiaiia?iin?? e?noyea o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.
Aeaoae?ciaaii oa iiaeeo?eiaaii iaoiaeeeo aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii?
niaeo?iiao??? e?noeiaeo c?ace?a, cai?iiiiiaaii oi?ioee ?ic?aooie?a
ai?noo i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a e?noyeo ei??a. Ia iniia? a?noieia?/ieo ?
a?noio?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue e?noeiai? oeaieie ?ic?iaeaii
aaaaoioaeoi?iee aeno?aeoiee ian-ia’?iiee iaoiae aiae?ca o?aiaiia?iioao?a
? aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue eiai oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy c iaoith
iiaeeaeaii? aaaaoinoi?iiiuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?noyea. Aeeiiaii /eneaii?
a?noiii?oieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a, aeaii
i?aeoe/io ? oai?aoe/io ioe?ieo ?o ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a oa
ci?i inoaii?o i?e inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo o?aaeaiiyo. Ia i?aenoaa?
i?ea?iaeueieo iaoiaeee c aeiaeaoeiaei caeo/aiiyi o?aaeeoe?eieo cania?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy iienaii iniaeeaino? inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo i?ioean?a o ei??a
? iieiaeiyeo a oiiaao no?eeiaiai oo?eiaiiy oa iniaeeainoae aiae?ae?.
I?iaaaeai? aeine?aee c iaoith i?io?eaeoeee inoaiaeeno?io?/ieo o?aaeaiue
o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.

Eiie?aoeciaaiee ao?iiaoiaaiac o?aaeaiue e?ioe?aie ?, cie?aia,
eiieoaoeue, ui ianiai aeieeathoue o ei??a a oiiaao no?eeiaiai oo?eiaiiy
ia oii? inoaiaeeno?io??. ?icoeo?iaaii i?e?iaei? ?aae?icaoeni? iaoai?cie,
aeanoea? aoa/ano?e e?nooe? oa aee?iaiio e?noeiaiio iiceo ei??a, aeaii
?o e?euee?nio oa ye?nio ioe?ieo ? ii?iaiiaaii ye ?aae?aoe?eio
inoaiaeeno?io?th. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? i?aaenoaaeaii oa?aeoa? ci?i e?noyea
? o?yuiai? oeaieie, a oaeiae e?noeiaiai iiceo ei??a ia caa?oaeiaieo
oa?eoi??yo ae?oai? oa o?aouei? cii.

Caeiaoaa/ai noi?ioeueiaaii iieiaeaiiy i?i aaaeeeao ?ieue e?noyeo, ye
iniiaii? iii?ii? oeaieie oaa?eiiiai i?aai?cio, a i?aeo?eiaii? iaeaaeiiai
caei?ia’y ? aaaeo/i? ?ie? inoaiaeeno?io?? o aeieeiaii? aeayeeo
o??o?a?/ieo oai?ia, aaaeo/iai cia/aiiy aae?noa?ac?no o iaeiie/aii? oa
aeo?aoao e?noyeii aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia: eiioa?aioe?? “Aeieiaey iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai
aiia?aoa”, Eeeiaioiai. Oa?ueeia, 1992 (Oa?ueeianeee iaaeeoeeineee
einoeooo, Oa?ueeianeee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo i?oiiaaeee e
o?aaiaoieiaee ei. i?io. I.E.Neoaiei); ?aae?ia?ieia?/iiio c’?cae? (Eeaa,
20-25 naioya?y 1993); I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu aaoa?eia?iie oe?o?aee”, i?enay/ai?e 90-??//th c
aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiey caneoaeaiiai ae?y/a iaoee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?a
aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a ?.?.Iaaaea (Oa?ueeia, 1994); Ia?o?e
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e eiioa?aioe?? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoieia?a
(13-15 eenoiiaaea 1996 ?.), Ee?a, 1996; Ae?oa?e i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ia?ioaeoe?eia iaoieia?y oaa?ei” (A?ea
Oea?eaa, 4-5 /a?aiy 1998 ?.); iaoe. i?aeo. eiio. Iaoe. aa?a?i.
oi?aa?neoaoo, Ee?a, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 31 ?iaioo, c ieo
noaoae o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo – 18 (8 iaeiiin?aieo), i?aoeue
i?aeia?iaeieo, anaoe?a?inueeeo, aaeocaaeo c’?cae?a ? eiioa?aioe?e – 11;
e??i oiai, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a cae?i/ai?e oi?i? i?aaenoaaeai? o
aeaio iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao (Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A.
“Iia?aoeaiay oe?o?aey aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo: o?aaeeoeeiiiua e nia?aiaiiua
aniaeou”, Eeaa, 1996 e 1998 aa.; Ai?enaae/ A.A., Ai?enaae/ A.A.
“Iaca?aciua aieacie naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aeeaioiuo: aeooa?noai e
aeiaeieiaey, aioo?aiiea iaca?aciua aieacie, oe?o?ae/aneea aieacie”,
Eeaa, 1997 a.); iioae?eiaaia oa iioe?aia a Oe?a?i? eaeoe?y
“?aaeeoeeiiiay inoaiaeeno?ioey o ei?ia, iaoneiaeaiiay aaa?eae ia *AYN”,
Eeaa, 1994, – 37 n.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
oaeeo ?icae?e?a: “Anooi”, “Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e” (4 i?ae?icae?ee), “Aea??
iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe“,
“?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o aiae?c” (18 i?ae?icae?e?a),
“Caeeth/aiiy”, “Aeniiaee” oa nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e
(595 iaeiaioaaiue). Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 292 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno; aiia i?noeoue 38 oaaeeoeue, 87 ?enoie?a.

Aea?? iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoa??ae oa

iaoiaee aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia aac? eaoaae? iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii?? ?
aaonaiaenia?oece oa o??o?a?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a
oaeiae a ainiiaea?noaao Ee?anueei?, AEeoiie?nueei? oa *a?eanueei?
iaeanoae. A aeine?aeao aoei caae?yii 3120 aie?a ei??a /i?ii-?yai?
ii?iaee ??ciiai a?eo i?iaeoeoeai?noth a?ae 2200 aei 6000 ea iieiea ia
??e oa 2360 aie?a iieiaeiyeo aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, a oiio /ene? 2290
aie?a a?aeaiae?aaeueieo ae/e?a.

Iniiaiei niiniaii io?eiaiiy iaoa??aeo aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoea
o?aiaiia?iin?y. Aeey ?? i?iaaaeaiiy neiino?oeiaaii oa aeaioiaeaii i’youe
iiaeaeae o?aiai?a. O?aiai i?aaenoaaey? niaith iaoaeaao o?oaeo
aeiaaeeiith 8-12 ni ? aioo??oi?i ae?aiao?ii 5-6 ii. A?ey iioiauaiiai
e?ioey ?ino?oiaioa i?eaa?ai? ?o/ee, i?ioeeaaeiee e?ae eiioniaeaeii
caaino?aiee. Aeey aeooiaooaaiiy e?noeiaiai c?acea c na?aaeeie
?ino?oiaioa canoiniaoaaee iaiae?ai.

O?aiaiia?iin?th i?iaiaeeee ia noiy/?e oaa?ei?. A eiaeiiio ie?aiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? aoei i?iiia?iaaii 5 – 10 oaa?ei.

A ae?eyioe? iaeeaea aiooaaee iia?aoe?eia iiea. Aino?ee e?iaoeue o?aiaia
i?eoeneaee aei iaeeaea, a ii i?ioeeaaeiiio ei?ioei ? ??cei aeee
o?aiaiaoe?eiei iieioeii. ?ino?oiaio ii??aiyii eaaei caaeeaeth?oueny a
oiauo ciai?oiueiai ai?aa eeoaiai? e?noee (ia 5-7ni).

O?aiai iiaa?oaee iaaeiei aeiaai? a?n?, a?aeae?eyth/e e?noeiaee c?acie
a?ae i?aeni?aei?o oeaiei, ? aeoyaoaaee. ?aio i?eneiaee aioenaioe/iei
ii?ioeii (o?eoeee?i oiui); caaithaaiiy i?ioiaeeei aac oneeaaeiaiue
i?ioyaii 12-14 ae?a.

O?aiaiia?iioao neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio /anoei: i’yeeo iiaa?oiaaeo oeaiei,
o?yuiai? oeaieie (ai?ooaa?aeueiee o?yu) ? aoa/anoi? e?noeiai? oeaieie
(iniiaia /anoeia a?iioaoa). Inoaiith a?aen?eaee ? aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey
a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaiue.

E?noeiaee c?acie caaaeoaaee, ooaiaaioee?eoeai aei??thaaee eiai ae?aiao?
oa aeiaaeeio ? ae?aoiaoaaee ia’?i. Aeae? ae?aoiaoaaee u?euei?noue
c?acea, aaee/eia yei? i???ioiaii na?ae/eoue i?i noai e?noyea – o ei??a a
ii?i? 1015-1295 ia/ni3, a i?e ae?aaeai?e inoaiaeeno?io?? 485-890 ia/ni3.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy a?noieia?/ieo ? a?noio?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
canoiniaoaaee caaaeueiii?eeiyo? iaoiaee o?enaoe??, aeaeaeueoe?iaoe?? oa
aeaioiaeaiiy c??c?a (?.Ie?n,1968; ?.Eeeee,1969; A.E.Eiiiineee,1976).
Iaoiaee oa?aoaaiiy: aaiaoienee?i-aicei, i?e?iooenei, cae?ciee
aaiaoienee?i Aaeaa?oa oa Aaeaeaiaaeia. A?noio?i?/i? iaoiaee aeeth/aee
aecia/aiiy ioeea?iiaeo eeneio (?aaeoe?? Oaeueaaia, A?aoa, Aeia?niia,
Eiia?aaa), a?ee?a (?aaeoe?? c a?iioaiieiaei nei?i oa i?oeiei caeaiei i?e
??cieo cia/aiiyo ?I oa c aeiaeaaaiiyi noeaie – A.Deuth,1955, D.Mazia
et. al.,1953, A.A.Eaaiia,1961, N.Ringert, A.Zetterberg, 1966).

I?ioaiae?eaie aeyaeyee ?aaeoe??th iaoao?iiac?? (G.Quintarelly,1963,
C.Hale, 1946), aeueoe?aiiaei nei?i (E.Moury,1958, S.Spicer,1960).
Aioo??oiueiaeaeiao ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th i?ioaiae?eai?a i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeaie
?aeiiaiaeiaaieie a a?noio?i?? ?c canoinoaaiiyi ia?iaee a?aeo?ii?aeacaie,
iaoeethaaiiy-aeaiaoeethaaiiy, noeueoaooaaiiy, e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe??
aeaeo?ie?o?a oiui.

Ae?eii?ioa?ie aeyaeyee IAN-?aaeoe??th (J.macManus,1945, A.A.Oaaaaeao,
1947).

Ianiaoeeo?/io anoa?aco aecia/aee iaoiaeii aciniieo/aiiy ca I.Aa?noiiii
(1965).

Eoaeio oa eeneo oinoaoace (oinoiiiiianoa?ace ? oa ??) aeyaeyee ca
iaoiaeii Aiii?? (G.Gomory,1939,1941, H.Takamatsu,1939), a oaeiae
?aaeoe??th aciniieo/aiiy ca I.Aa?noiiii (1965). Aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeiae
iaoiae, niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiee aeey aecia/aiiy eoaeii? oa eenei?
oinoaoac o e?noeia?e oeaiei? (A.N.*a?ieeiaa, I.N.Oaa?aeuieia,1981).

Aeeiiaiiy an?o a?noio?i?/ieo iaoiae?a noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny iaiao?aeieie
eiio?ieyie aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?o niaoeeo?/iino?.

Aaiaoieia?/i? iieacieee (e?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a, eaeeioeeo?a,
eaeeia?aio) aecia/aee caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie (E.I.Eiiae?aoei e
niaao.,1985), ai?no aaiiaeia?io – aaiiiao?ii Nae? oa
aaiiaeia?ioe?ai?aeiei iaoiaeii. Ai?no a?eea a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? –
?ao?aeoiiao?ii ?E-2, eieuei?iaee iieaciee e?ia? – ?ic?aooieiaei
iaoiaeii, ai?no eaeueoe?th – ca aea-Aaa?aeii, iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o – ca
iaoiaeii A??ana a iiaeeo?eaoe?? N.A.Eaaiianeiai, eoaeiee ?aca?a e?ia? –
ca Aai Neaeeii, ?I e?ia? aecia/aee iaoiaeii ?.O.Ea?iieeaaa, oeoe?e e?ia?
– ca Naiiaeae?, ea?ioeia a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? – ca A.O.Ei?iieneiaei oa
E.A.Eoae?yaoeaaith, eaoiiia? o?ea – eiaeiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii, a oaeiae ca
I.I.Iooe?iith. (“Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ee?i?ei-a?io?i?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a ae?aaiinoeoe? iaoieia?? iai?io ?a/iaei o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei”, Ee?a, 1981, ?aae. I.I.Noaeaeia).

E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaio?a a e?noeiaeo c?aceao
i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii? niaeo?iiao??? E.Oaaaciaa,
Ae.Oeaiaaa (1983), iiaeeo?eiaaiei aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a
A.A.Ai?enaae/ai, I.I.Iaeueieeiaith (1991). A i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe
?yae iaoiaeee aoee oaeineiiaeai?, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeai? iia?, cie?aia
aecia/aiiy eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o a e?noeiaeo c?aceao a?io?i?/iei
iaoiaeii, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? e?noyea iaoiaeii
aaaaoioaeoi?iiai ian-ia’?iiiai aiae?co.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ?aae?iaeoeaiino? e?noeiaeo c?ace?a inoaii? i?ney
caaaeoaaiiy, ciaaiaeiaiiy oa ciaaee?aiiy a nie?o? ? oei?ioi?i?
aenoooaaee oa ?ic/eiyee a iaaaeeeiio ia’?i? (5-7 ie) noi?o?
eiioeaio?iaaieo acioii? ? nieyii? eeneio, i?ney /iai aeenoeeueiaaiith
aiaeith aeiaiaeeee aei ia’?io 25 ie. ?ic/ei oeo?oaaee aei ?I 7,0
(eiio?ieue cae?enithaaee ?I-iao?ii), inaae, ui aeiaa, a?aeo?eueo?iaoaaee
ia iaia?iaee o?eueo?, aenoooaaee ? aei??yee eiai ?aae?iaeoeai?noue ia
e?/eeueieeo NAO-10; ?aae?iaeoeai?noue i?ici?iai ?ic/eio, ui caeeoeany,
aei??thaaee ia i?eeaae? ?AEN-05. E?/eeueiee NAO-10 oa i?eeaae ?AEN-05
iieacothoue ci?oaio ?aae?iaeoeai?noue, yeo aeathoue ?aae?iioee?aee
no?iioe?th oa oeac?th. Noia iaio aei???a neeaaea? caaaeueio
?aae?iaeoeai?noue o?aiaiia?iioaoa.

??aaiue ?aae?iaeoeaiino? iieiea oa na/? anoaiiaethaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
aaoa-?aae?iiao?a.

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo oeeo?iaeo aeaieo aeeiioaaee ca iaoiaeii
?.A.No?aeeiaa (1966) oa I.A.Naaeianeiai (1975).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O AIAE?C

A?noiii?oieia?/ia oa a?noio?i?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea o?aiaiia?iioao?a

Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii o?aiaiia?iioaoa ? o?yuiaa ieao?aea, yea
i?aaenoaaeaia oeiiaei a?ae?iiaei o?yuai c noaeeiieie eaiaeaie. Oeae
ai?ooaa?aeueiee o?yu aeeiio? ?ieue o?yuiai? ieao?aee ?inoo i?ioyaii
anueiai aeeooy oaa?eie. A iaaeai?aiaiio o?yu? ?ic??ciythoueny ie?ai?
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ciie: a)ciai?oiy /anoeia, aai ciia ?iaeeoa?aioiiai
o?yua (?aca?aia o?yuiaa ciia), a)a?eueo aeeaiea ciia i?ie?oa?aoe??
(i?ioa?ie ?ioaineaiiai iiae?eo o?yuiaeo ee?oei), a)iaea?eueo aeeaiea
ciia aeao?ieoeaiiai o?yua, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oi?ioaaiiyi ee?oeiieo
noiaa/ee?a c ?icoaoiaaieie i?ae ieie i?ioa?eaie iniiaii? ?a/iaeie
(o?yuiaeie o?aaaeoeaie). Ooieoe?y inoaiiuei? ciie iieyaa? a caaacia/aii?
ia?iaiaioiiai ia?aa?ao aioiiae?aeueiiai inoaiaaiaco.

I?aoi?iaoe?y o?yuiai? oeaieie a e?noeiao a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae ae??th
e?iaiiinieo noaeei, ui i?i?inoathoue c i?aeni?aeiuei ?icoaoiaaii? e?noee
a ciio ineo?eaoe??. O?yuia? o?aaaeoee ia?aoai?ththoueny a e?noeia?
o?aaaeoee, oiaoi inoaii? oi?iothoueny ia aac? i?aeeieiii/ii? iniiaii?
?a/iaeie. Ia aac? i?aeeieiii/ii? iniiaii? ?a/iaeie ooai?ththoueny
e?noeia? aaeee (ia?aeeaaeeie), ye? c’?aeiothoue i?ae niaith e?noeia?
o?aaaeoee, oi?ioth/e oe?ieiiaoeenoo no?oeoo?o aoa/anoi? e?noee c
a?/eaie, caiiaiaieie e?noeiaei iiceii.

Aaeee ? o?aaaeoee aoa/anoi? e?noee i?noyoue cia/io e?euee?noue
ae?eii?ioa?i?a oa eao?iiieo a?ee?a; o neeaae? inoaii?o ia?aaaaeii
aecia/athoueny e?cei oa a?noeae?i.

Inoaiaeanoe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iei ai?noii AeIE, inoaioeeoe – ?IE oa
iayai?noth aaaaoi/enaeueieo ae?inoe?a ana?aaeei? e?noeiaeo eaiaeueoe?a.

A?noieia?/i? oa a?noio?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aiaiia?iioao?a

iieiaeiyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae

O oaee/ie o?e- oa i’yoei?ny/iiai a?eo noaiiaeaiiy e?noeiai? oeaieie a
ae?eyioe? ciai?oiueiai ai?aa eeoaiai? e?noee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
inoaoi/iei cai?uaiiyi aia??iiaeueiiai o?yua o ca’yceo c a?inoaiiyi a
iueiai e?iaiiinieo noaeei c aieo o?ea eeoaiai? e?noee. Ia iaae? i?ae
o?iioii a?inoaiiy e?iaiiinieo noaeei ? a?ae?iiaei o?yuai oi?io?oueny
ciia ia?aeiiiai aioiiae?aeueiiai inoaiaaiaco, aea niinoa??aa?oueny
aiaieuaaa ?oeioaaiiy o?yuiaeo ee?oei, iaiaaeaieo ia?aai?iaeeaie iniiaii?
?a/iaeie, aiane?aeie /iai oi?iothoueny ca/aoee iaeaooi?o
e?noeiai-iiceiaeo a?/ie.

A i??o a?inoaiiy eai?ey?ieo oa?i?iaeae a?aeaoaa?oueny aeano?oeoe?y
oiiae?ioeeo?a oa ?aci?aoe?y o?yuiaiai iao?eeno. A aioiiae?aeueieo
eaeoiao, ui ooai?eeeny, ii/eia?oueny aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y inoaiaeano?a,
ee?oei ?aoeeoey?ii? no?iie e?noeiaiai iiceo, ?icai?oathoueny aeaiaioe
i?aeiiiaca.

O i’yoei?ny/ieo oaee/ie, ia a?aei?io a?ae o?ei?ny/ieo, a cii? ia?aeiiiai
aioiiae?aeueiiai inoaiaaiaco, ye ? a cii? aoi?eiiiai aioiiae?aeueiiai
inoaiaaiaco, noaiiaeaiiy yeiai caaa?oo?oueny i?ney noaoaaiai
aeic??aaiiy, ooai?ththoueny oa?aeoa?i? ?ciaaii? a?oie oiiae?ioeeo?a o
aeaeyae? iiacaeiaaei?o eieiiie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iai?yiii i?i?inoaiiy
e?iaiiinieo noaeei c aeeaeie e?noee. Noaiiaeaiiy inoaiaaiaco
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iineeaiiyi ?aaeoe?? ia eoaeio oinoaoaco, eao?iii?
a?eee oa ae?eii?ioa?ie.

A i?ioean? cai?uaiiy o?yua e?noeith a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy
o?aaaeoey?iiai aiaeinoa. A neeaae? inoaiueiai aeyaeythoueny
i?ainoaiaeanoe, a oaeiae iaeiaeeoa?aioe?eiaai? ee?oeie ?aoeeoey?ii?
no?iie, aaaao? ia ianiaoeeo?/io anoa?aco. I?ioean ?aci?aoe?? o?yua
iiina?aaeaeo?oueny ae?aaeaiith iae?ioaaaeueiith ?aaeoe??th; iae?ioaae
i?noyoue cia/io e?euee?noue eenei? oinoaoace, yea ia?e??o? ?o
oiiae?ie?oe/io aeoeai?noue. Iae?ioaae oaeiae aeooeothoueny ii ia?eoa???
o?yuiaeo aaeie. A i?ii?aeeao i?ae ieie ?icoaoiaothoueny inoaiaeanoe,
aaaao? ia eoaeio oinoaoaco. Noaeeiia, iae?ioaaaeueia ? inoaiaeanoe/ia
?aaeoe?y neeaaeathoue ?aeeiee iaoai?ci i?ioeano aioiiae?aeueiiai oa
aiaeinoaeueiiai inoaiaaiaco, i?e/iio aiaeinoaeueiee inoaiaaiac
ia?aaaaea?. O oaee/ie o?e- oa i’yoei?ny/iiai a?eo e?noeiaa oeaieia a
ae?eyioe? ciai?oiueiai ai?aa eeoaiai? e?noee ? inoaiaeanoe/iith
(iieiaeith). Ia?ao?ae a?ae inoaiaeanoe/ii? e?noee aei inoaioeeoa?ii?
(aeao?i?oeaii?) a ae?eyioe? iaeeaea ianoa? a ia??iae noaoaaiai
aeic??aaiiy.

Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei a o?aiaiia?iioaoao

oa a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ei??a a ii?i?

Aeine?ae i?iaaaeaii ia ei?iaao /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee 4–7-??/iiai a?eo
i?iaeoeoeai?noth 4000 ea iieiea ia ??e a cii? Iie?nny. E?noeia? c?acee
aeine?aeaeoaaee iaoiaeii aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii? niaeo?iiao???.

A e?noyeo aeine?aeaeaieo ei??a (oaae. 1) ainaie, ii??aiyii c aaniith,
aeinoia??ii a?eueoa i?noeoueny eaeueoe?th, iao??th, eae?th, cae?ca,
ia?aaioeth; ??cieoey aeyaeeany iaaeinoia??iith noiniaii i?ae?, oeeieo,
no?iioe?th. E?euee?noue ia?aaioeth a e?noyeo aeoaea iacia/ia, ui
iaoiiaeaii a?iaaio?i?/ieie iniaeeainoyie ciie Iie?nny.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee io?eiaoe /?oe? aeai? i?i
i?ia?aeueiee neeaae o?aiaiia?iioao?a a iaaeao iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeeee;
inoaiiy ia aeicaiey? aecia/aoe ai?no ai?ii?a, cie?aia oinoi?o.

Iaaia aa??aaaeuei?noue ai?noo i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a iiynith?oueny
caeaoi?noth e?noyea iaeiie/oaaoe inoaii?, oiaoi neoaoaaoe i?ia?aeueiei
aeaii, iaiiaiai?noue yeiai caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie iaaeoiaeaeaiiy oa
aeo?ao i?ia?ae?a. Anoaiiaeaia oaeiae iayai?noue /?oeeo naciiieo
eieeaaiue ??aiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? e?noyea, ui ia?aaoaathoue a iaaeao iaaii?
a?aeiinii? ii?ie.

Oaaeeoey 1

Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a o o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea ei??a

i?iaeoeoeai?noth 4000 ea iieiea ia ??e a ii?i? a cii? Iie?nny

AeaiaioeA?iin?y 26 ea?oiyA?iin?y 3 aeiaoiy?Na, a/ea63,8
±2,6175,04±4,150,05Zn,
ia/ea53,12±14,1979,74±12,06>0,05Mn, ia/ea1,02±0,171,94±0,540,05Na,
a/ea2,14±0,322,37±0,35>0,05K, ia/ea107,84±6,76225,58±43,430,05Cu, ia/ea11,4±2,422,34±5,640,05Sr,
ia/ea10,48±1,0716,44±1,840,05?, iiieue/e1,59±0.071,71±0,1>0,05Na:?,
ia%2,16±0,12,15±0,08>0,05Eoaeiee ?aca?a e?ia? aaniith aoa ieae/ei a?ae
ii?ie, a ainaie a?i aeyaeany ii?iaeueiei. Ai?no Na ? ?, ye iaaani?, oae
? ainaie, aoa o iaaeao ii?ie.

Oaeei /eiii, oa?aeoa? iai?io ?a/iaei a i?aai?ci? ei??a, oai?eo ia
inoaiaeeno?io?th, oa?aeoa?ecoaaany iii?oiei eiai iia??oaiiyi iaaani? oa
aeayeith oaiaeaioe??th aei ii?iae?caoe?? ainaie.

A?noieia?/ii aeyaey?oueny /anoeiaa ?icniieooaaiiy aeayeeo e?noeiaeo
o?aaaeoe, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oeaiith ea?oeiith ?o “?ic’?aeiaiiy”.
Aeey inoaiiaeyoe??, yea ia?aaaaea?, oa?aeoa?iee aaaaoioieoniee inoaie?c,
aeenioe?thth/a, noaeeiia, iacooia oa ?ieiee inoaieeanoe/ia ?aci?aoe?y.
Inoaiii?ic, ui cono??/a?oueny ii??aiyii ??aeei, i?iyaey?oueny
oi?ioaaiiyi ae?aaeaieo ii?iaeiei a e?noeia?e ?a/iaei?.

Aeeno?io?y e?noeiai? oeaieie noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iaie e?noeiaiai
iiceo. Niinoa??aa?oueny e?iie?c c ooai?aiiyi aioo??oiueia?/eiaeo
aiaeyieo iooe??a oa ?io?eueo?aoe?? iiiiioeeaa?ieie oaaioeeoaie.

Noai e?noyea ei??a i?e inoaiaeeno?io?? ia oii? eaoico

Eaoic ia??aeei oneeaaeith?oueny aoi?eiiith inoaiaeeno?io??th
(?.I.Eiiae?ao?i,1980), yea a?ae??ciy?oueny nai???aeiei iaoiaaiacii, ui ?
iaoiiaeth? ?ioa?an aei aea/aiiy ?aaeoe?e e?noyea ei??a i?e aeaiiio
caoai?thaaii?.

Ae?aaiic ia eaoic noaaeee ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?aoe?iio, ee?i?/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue oa aeaieo eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4

A?io?i?/i? iieacieee e?ia? ei??a, oai?eo ia eaoic

IieacieeeAcyooy e?ia? 4 a?oaeiyAcyooy e?ia? 25 o?aaiyCaaaeueiee a?eie,
a/e89,5±0,2471,1±0,415Aetheica, iiieue/e2,3±0,133,41±0,275Eaoiiia? o?ea,
iiieue/e1,76±0,10,68±0,4Eoaeiee ?aca?a,iiieue/e11,9±0,6410,5±0,19 Na,
iiieue/e2,18±0,032,69±0,04?, iiieue/e2,82±0,031,29±0,15Na:?,
ia%1,04±0,0052,19±0,22Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao
i?aaenoaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 5. A?aeiinii iecueeee ai?no eaeueoe?th a
e?noeiaeo c?aceao iaoiiaeaiee inoaiaeeno?io?/iei i?ioeanii. Caa?oa? ia
naaa oaaao cieaeaiiy ai?noo oeeieo a e?noeia?e oeaiei?, ui, iiaeeeai,
iaoiiaeaii eiai i?aeaeuaieie aeo?aoaie. Oeeie – aaaeeeaa neeaaeiaa
/anoeia aaaaoueio oa?iaio?a, a ia?oo /a?ao ?inoe?ia; aeiionea?ii, ui i?e
eaoic?, a ca’yceo c iecueeei ??aiai aetheice a e?ia?, a?aeaoaa?oueny
iineeaia i?iaeoeoaaiiy ?inoe?io c ianooiiei aeaaaeaiiyi eiai c
i?aai?cio, ui ? aecia/a? ciaioaiiy ai?noo oeeieo a o?aiaiia?iioaoao.

I?aeaeuaiee ai?no cae?ca iia’ycaiee c iineeaiiyi e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy
aoa/anoi? e?noee.

I?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo no?iioe?th, i/aaeaeii, iaoiiaeaii iayai?noth a
neeaae? ceiiaiai ?aoe?iio ei?i?a, aaaaoeo oeei i?e?iaeaiaioii. Aeineoue
iecueeee ai?no naeioeth oa eaaei?th a?aeia?aaea? iaaia aeaaiiieo//y
caiaeueieo oa?aeue aeaiiai ainiiaea?noaa ii caa?oaeiaiith aaaeeeie
iaoaeaie.

Oaaeeoey 5

Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao

i?e aoi?eii?e inoaiaeeno?io??

AeaiaioeO?aiaiia?iin?y 4 a?oaeiyO?aiaiia?iin?y 25 o?aaiy123Na, a/ea
58,06±2,4357,4±5,79Mg, a/ea1,63±0,072,37±0,27Na,
a/ea3,08±0,276,79±0,51K, ia/ea120,2±4,93240±22,3Fe,
ia/ea510±109,4334,4±153,13Cu, ia/ea6,82±0,5652±,8 3Zn,
ia/ea10,17±4,11239±41,85123Mn, ia/ea Ia
aecia/aee11,7±4,4Sr, ia/ea33,9±3,332,44±0,41Pb, ia/eaNe?aee3,96±0,65Cd,
ia/ea0,652±0,17 2,36±0,53C e?ioey ea?oiy ei??a ii/aee aeianaoe. Oea
??cei ci?ieei oa?aeoa? aiae?ae? (e?euee?noue eiioeaio?ao?a a ?aoe?ii?
aoea ciaioaia ia 3 ea, ui cieceei eaoiaaii?noue ?aoe?iio) ? iicia/eeiny
iiceoeaii ia ee?i?/iiio noaoon? oa ia a?io?i?/ieo iieacieeao e?ia? ? ia
i?e?iaeaiaioiiio neeaae? o?aiaiia?iioao?a.

A?aeiinii iecueeee ai?no eaeueoe?th a e?noeiaeo c?aceao, io?eiaieo a
e?ioe? o?aaiy, aeaco? ia oiia?eueiaiiy ?ai?ia?ae?caoe?? e?noyea a
ia??iae i?ciuei? aanie, ui iaoiiaeaii nooo?aeie ii?ooaiiyie iai?iieo
?aaeoe?e o i?aai?ci? ei??a o ca’yceo c eaoicii, oneeaaeiaiei aoi?eiiith
inoaiaeeno?io??th.

A?noieia?/ii a e?noeiaeo c?aceao aeyaey?oueny ?icniieooaaiiy /anoeie
aaeie ? o?aaaeoe, ii?ooo?oueny ??aiii??i?noue ?o caaa?aeaiiy
(“ieyieno?noue”). A ?aaeoe?? c i?e?iooeneiiaith noi?ooth e?noeiaee
eieaaai i?noeyie oa?ao?oueny a iaoa?aeoa?iee aeey iueiai
aeiaoi-i?aiaeiaee eie??, a i?noeyie aeyaey?oueny eiai aacio?e?y.
Iineaaeth?oueny ?aaeoe?y ia ae?eii?ioa?ie ? eao?iii? a?eee,
iineeth?oueny ?aaeoe?y ia i?ioaiae?eaie, ye? i?noyoue ia?aaaaeii
a?aeo?iiao. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i ae?aaeaio aeeno?io?th e?noeiaiai
eieaaaia ? ? oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith aoi?eiii? inoaiaeeno?io?? o ca’yceo
c eaoicii. Aeiionea?ii, ui ae?aaeaia aeeno?io?y e?noeiaiai eieaaaia
coiiaeth? cieaeaiiy a?aeeeaaeaiiy ia iueiio nieae eaeueoe?th.

A aee?iaiio e?noeiaiio iiceo iathoue i?noea e?iie?c, a?ae?ii?/ia
aeeno?io?y, iaeiie/aiiy a?aeo?iiaoo, a?eea, ?io?eueo?aoe?y e?oiieie
aacio?eueieie iiiioeeoa?ii-iae?ioaaaeueieie aeaiaioaie (?aci?aoeaiee
i?ioean).

Canoinoaaiiy aeinooiieo iaoiaeee aecia/aiiy

ai?noo eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o a o?aiaiia?iioaoao

Aeey aecia/aiiy ai?noo eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o a e?noeiaeo c?aceao iiaeia
canoiniaoaaoe ye aeno?aeo, oae ? e?cao a?iioaoa. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo
e?noeiao ?a/iaeio ianith 300 ia – 1 a caio?th?ii a 5%-iee ?ic/ei acioii?
eeneioe (8 ie) ia 12 aiaeei. I?ney oeueiai c?acie aeo?eio?ii a aeaio
ii?oe?yo aeenoeeueiaaii? aiaee (ii 3 ie) – a?aeiia?aeii 6-10 aiaeei oa 1
aiaeeio; iaeaea? ii?oe?? ceeaa?ii ?acii ? aeiaea?ii aei eeneioiiai
aeno?aeoo, caaaeueiee ia’?i yeiai ca?eueoo?oueny aei 14 ie.

A ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo e?noeiaee c?acie ?ic/eiy?ii a noi?o? eiioeaio?iaaieo
acioii? oa nieyii? eeneioe (8 ie) i?ioyaii 6-10 aiaeei. Aei e?caoo
aeiaea?ii 6 ie aeenoeeueiaaii? aiaee.

Uia aeiaanoe eiioeaio?aoe?th eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o a aeine?aeaeoaaieo
?ic/eiao aei aaee/ei na?aaei?o iieaciee?a a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? (oea
aaaeeeai, ine?eueee aeicaiey? aeeiioaaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a oiiaao
cae/aeieo aaoa?eia?ieo eaai?aoi??e) inoaii? ?icaiaeeii aeenoeeueiaaiith
(a?aeenoeeueiaaiith) aiaeith a 20-50 ?ac?a. I?aeoe/ii aa?aii 1 ie
eeneioiiai aeno?aeoo (e?caoo) ? aeiaea?ii 20-50 ie aiaee. Noa?aiii
ia?ai?oo?ii. A aeaiiio ?ic/ei? aecia/a?ii ai?no eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o c
aeei?enoaiiyi caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo iaoiaeee. A ianooiieo ?ic?aooieao
a?aoiao?ii iieacieee ?icaaaeaiiy aeno?aeoa (e?caoa) oa iane e?noeiaiai
c?acea.

E?euee?noue eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o iiaeia ae?aoiaoaaoe ye a iaeeieoe?
iane, oae ? a iaeeieoe? aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/iiai ia’?io e?noee.

O ei??a i?iaeoeoeai?noth 2200-3200 ea iieiea ia ??e aeey eiiiaeoii? ?
aoa/anoi? e?noee anoaiiaeai? oae? iieacieee ai?noo eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o
(oaae. 6).

Oaaeeoey 6

Ai?no eaeueoe?th ? oinoi?o (ia/a, a/ea) a e?noeiaeo c?aceao.

Noai e?noyeaAi?no Na a eiiiae-oi?e e?nooe?Ai?no ?

a eiiiae oi?e e?nooe?Na:? a eiiiaeo-

i?e e?nooe?Ai?no Na a aoa/an-o?e e?nooe?Ai?no ? a aoa- /ano?e
e?nooe?Na:? a aoa/an-o?e e?nooe?1234567I i ? i
a145-40576-2031,45-258-8840-711,26-1,81234567Eaeueoe?eaeao?oeeoia
inoaiaeeno?io?y95-14098-1360,7-1,435-5775-1650,4-2,89Oinoi?iaeao?oeeoia
inoaiaeeno?io?y128-19561-752,1-2,690-16821-394,2-4,9??aiii??ia (ci?oaia)
inoaiaeeno?io?y93-13059-731,5-235-5721-371,5-2E?noee aoa/anoi? aoaeiae,
ye? ianooue iaioa iaoai?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ye? ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii
iia?e?caoe?? i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a o e?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iii?oii
iaioei ai?noii iniiaieo inoaio?io?/ieo i?ia?ae?a.

Aieea o?ea?oai?io (A, D, A) ia noai e?noyea ei??a

Iieaciee ai?noo iane i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a, yeei ie aein? iia?oaaee,
i?aaenoaaey?oueny a iaai?e i??? iaaeinoaoiuei /ooeeaei e?eoa???i,
ine?eueee caeeoa?oueny iaa?aeiiith ci?ia iane anueiai e?noyea. Ae??oaii
oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaoe iieaciee ai?noo i?ia?ae?a a iaeeieoe? ia’?io
e?noeiai? oeaieie (ni3), yeee iaio ci?ith?oueny, i?ae iana neaeaoa.
Aaaaea?ii, ui a ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? ai?noii i?e?iaeaiaio?a iiaeia aei
aeayei? i??e ciaoooaaoe, ine?eueee ?o e?euee?noue a e?nooe? neeaaea?
nio? /e iaa?oue oeny/i? aeie? a?aenioea.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi neacaiiai ? aeine?ae ii aea/aiith aieeao o?ea?oai?ia
(A,
D, A) ia
noai e?noyea ei??a. Ei?iaai aea?/? ia i?nyoeue i?ioyaii ?ieo
aioo??oiueii’yciai aaiaeeee ii 10 ie o?ea?oa; eiio?ieai neoaoaaee
?ioaeoi? ei?iae-aiaeiae. Acyooy e?ia? oa o?aiaiia?iin?th i?iaaee 28
ea?oiy oa 29 aa?aniy. A?io?i?/i? iieacieee e?ia? ciaoiaeeeeny a iaaeao
ii?ie. Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a e?noeiaeo c?aceao i?aaenoaaeaii a
oaaeeoe? 7.

Oaaeeoey 7

Ai?no i?ia?aeueieo aeaiaio?a a o?aiaiia?iioaoao e?noyea ei??a

a oiiaao e?oiuei? a?oai?i?caoe??

AeaiaioeEiio?ieueAeine?ae?Na, a/ea72,6±6,6582,6±13,19>0,05?,
a/ea18,2±1,4823,32±3,58>0,05Mg, a/ea1,21±0,081,27±0,14>0,05Na,
a/ea5,5±1,464,92±0,86>0,05K, ia/ea301±15,88264±64,38>0,05Fe,
ia/ea77±21,46103±33,95>0,05Cu, ia/ea24,8±3,8621,6±1,07>0,05Zn,
ia/ea561,2±204,753150±675,960,05Sr,
ia/ea9,66±0,2811,56±0,340,05P,
a/ea29,37±1,5435,13±5,62>0,05Mg, a/ea1,79±0,172,4±0,450,05Fe,
ia/ea76,75±12,64140±34,830,05), a)a ?acoeueoao? ceiiai? a?oai?i?caoe?? – a eiio?ie? 90±5,62
ia/ni3, a aeine?ae? 192,6 ±25,28 ia/ni3 (?0,05Eiioeaio?aoe?y aiaeiaaeo eii?a
(?I)7,38±0,027,34±0,02>0,05A?eie, a/e81,6±1,7272,4±3,430,05Oinoi?, iiieue/e2,3±0,092,59±0,060,05Ai?no i?ia?ae?a a iaoeai?e ne??e
e?nooe?,%64±0,9156,44±1,550,051234U?euei?noue i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noee

166± 8,58

196±17,9

0,05U?euei?noue i?ia?ae?a, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i?
e?noee

188±15,02

130±8,58

0,05Fe, ia/ea23,7±2,5321,36±1,91>0,05Cu,
ia/ea7,44±0,922,94±0,690,05U?euei?noue nooi? ciaaee?aii? ea?noee,
ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i? e?noeiai? ?a/iaeie

432,5±42,14

502,5±22,47

0,05U?euei?noue i?ia?ae?a, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i?
e?noee 232,5±39,3350±11,240,05Mg, a/ea1,9±0,41,5±0,1>0,05Na,
a/ea3,2±0,23,1±0,3>0,05K, ia/ea395±138,4225±33,3>0,05Fe,
ia/ea246±42,9642±94,40 .05Mn, ia/ea0,6±0,11,3±0,20,05U?euei?noue
i?aai?/iiai iao?eena, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i?
e?noee128±6,4138±12,9>0,05U?euei?noue i?ia?ae?a, ia/ni3 iaoeaii? ne?i?
e?noee312±6,4316± 40,8>0,05?iaeaen i?ia?ae?caoe??2,42±0,12,26±0,08

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