EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OAA?AI Ie?ineaaa Iao??aia

OAeE 413

Aoeeaoia naiaioeea

a eaene/ieo nenoaiao oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei?

oa oai?nueei? iia

10.02.15 — caaaeueia iiaiciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
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picscalex100010009000003410400000400580100000000050000000b02000000000500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aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oaeai?iaenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoaoi

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? oieieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iauae Ia??y Ieoaee?aia,

Oe?a?inueeee iiaii-?ioi?iaoe?eiee oiiae IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
aiaeae?eo e?iaa?noeee

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie
Iiaoi?ae A?eai??e Iao?iae/,

?inoeooo iiaiciaanoaa ?i. I.I.Iioaaii IAI Oe?a?ie, caaiaeoaa/ aiaeae?eo
caaaeueiineia’yinueei? i?iaeaiaoeee oa noiaeiineia’yinueeeo iia

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?iaeiaa Ieueaa Iao??aia,
Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaainoe/iee oi?aa?neoao, caaiaeoaa/ eaoaae?e
eaeneeieia?? oa noee?noeee aiae?enueei? iiae

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Io?aaeoeueea Ia?aa?eoa Iao??aia,
?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?iaioiee
a?aeae?eo eaeneeieia??, oa?iiiieia?? oa iiiianoeee

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie ?i.?.E?ei’y
eaae/a, aiaeaeie oe?a?inueei? iiae

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny “16” ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?aeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.19 a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoaoi
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252033, i. Ee?a, aoeueaa? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 14,
aoae. 63).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e?ii. 10)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 05 aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
aeioe. E.?.Oaoiaa

1

CAAAEUeIA O?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaie

Cinoaaia aeineiaeaeaiiy naiaioeee ia iiaeiiaiiio ?iai? iaeaaeeoue aei
iaei??? c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ?

aeooaeueieo i?iaeai iiaiciaanoaa e?ioey OO noie?ooy. Oea
iiynith?oueny ianaiia?aae i?aaiaiiyi

?ice?eoe nooi?noue ethaenueei? iiae acaaae?, ?? ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a
oa niaoeeo?ee ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Ine?eueee iaenooo?a?o? ?ene iaoe?iiaeueieo iiaieo eoeueoo?
caa??aathoueny a eaeneoe?, ? cie?aia a

aoeeao?, oi naia c?noaai? aea/aiiy a?aee?eaathoue oe?ie? iiaeeeaino?
aeey ciaeiinoaa c ?ioeie iia-

ieie eoeueoo?aie na?oo, a oaeiae iiai?oiai ona?aeiieaiiy
iniaeeainoae ??aeii? iiaii? eoeueoo?e,

aeyaeyth/e a i?e caeiie, ui ?aaoeththoue iiaio ae?yaeuei?noue
noni?euenoaa.

O ca’yceo c ?nioaaiiyi aaaeeeaiai aeey eiaiioeaii? noa?e iiiyooy
iaioaeueiiai noa?aioeio, c?inoa? aaaiiinoue aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?iiiia
eoeueoo?e, ui aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c iaaieie eoeueoo?ieie
o?aaeeoe?yie iin??a iiae, ?o noni?eueiith ae?yeuei?noth, cae/eaie,
aioo??oi?i na?oii oiui. Aoeeao iaeaaeeoue naia aei oeo yaeu eoeueoo?e,
ye? aeaoa?iiiothoueny noni?eueieie ii?iaie, neooaoeaii iaoiiaeaiei
oa?aeoa?ii ? iaoe?iiaeueieie iniaeeainoyie. Aoeeaoo aiaeaiaeeoueny
iniaeeaa ?ieue nueiaiaeii, ia ii?ic? iiaiai oeny/ieiooy, a oiiaao
iiaeeaeaiiy oa anoaiiaeaiiy ??ciia?/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae ia?iaeaie na?oo.
Ie?aii i?eioeeie aoeeaoo noi?ioeueiaai? a Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie aeey ?o
?aaeicaoe?? a iiaeo ?noi?e/ieo oiiaao, o i?ioeani a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
aeooiaiino? ? eoeueoo?e oa ?noi?e/ieo iaaeaaiue oe?a?inueei? iaoe??.

Ia?ic?iaeaiinoue i?iaeai cinoaaii? eaene/ii? naiaioeee aoeeaoii? eaeneee
o aiaeaeaeaiinii??aeiaieo ? ianii?iaeiaieo iiaao – oe?a?inueeie,
aiae?enuee?e oa oai?nueeie — iiynith?oueny ?yaeii i?e/ei, cie?aia: a)
aiaenooi?noth ?aeeiiai caaaeueiii?eeiyoiai aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iiiyoue
eaene/ii? naiaioeee, yea aenooiaa aaciaith aeenoeeieeiith aeey c?noaaii?
eae- neeieia??; a) iaaeinoaoiii aea/aiiyi ieoaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo iia,
iniaeeainoae a?aeia?aaeaiiy iiaieo yaeu o eaene/iiio eiioeiooii oa neiai
ye iniiai?e iaeeieoe? iiae ? iiaeaiiy; a)aaaa- aaaaoianiaeoi?noth e
niaoeeoeeith naiiai i?aaeiaoa aeineiaeaeaiiy — naiaioeee ne?a ia
iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo ye neeaaeiiai noniieueii oa neooaoeaii iaoiiaeaiiai
aeaiaioa eoeueoo?e; a)??cii- iai?oi?noth aca?iica’yce?a i?ae aoeeaoieie
eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie, ui aeicaieya aeaeieyoe a eaene/iie iiaiie
nenoaii naiaioe/ii oa?oiiaaiiy, ia iniia? yeeo oi?iothoueny
eaeneei-naiaioe/i? iiey; ?) neeaaei?noth e oe?ieiianooaaiinoth
nenoaiiiai aiae?co eieueeinieo oa yeinieo naiaioe/ieo ci?i
o neiaieeiaiio neeaaei aiaeaeaeaiinii?iaeiaieo ?
ianii??aeiaieo iia i?ae aieeaii eiiaa?noe/ieo, a oaeiae
aeno?ae?iaaaeueieo oaeoi??a.

Naiaioeea oe?a?inueei?, aiaeienueei? oa oai?nueei? iia yaey? niaith
noa?o aaaaoinooiaiaaeo aiaeiioaiue aiae iiaieo ciae?a aei ieneaiiy e
ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiinoi, a oaeiae aoeeaoieo ne?a iiae

2

niaith. Oi/ oie oaeo, ui iiaa ? caniaii ae?aaeaiiy ? caa?aaeaiiy
?acoeueoao?a nioeiaeueii- ?noi?e/iiai aeinaiaeo ethaeeie, caeeoa?oueny
iacaia?a/iei oa caaaeueiiaeciaiei, ona ae nioeiaeuei? aniaeoe naiaioeee
ia nueiaiaei? caeeoathoueny iaaeinoaoiuei ?ice?eoeie e oiio ??aeei
noathoue iniiaith cinoaaieo aeineiaeaeaiue.

Eaene/ia nenoaia oe?a?inueei? eeoa?aoo?ii? iiae eeoa c??aeea aea/aeany o
ii??aiyeueii-cinoaaiiio ieaii c eaeneeith aiaeaeaeaiinii??aeiaieo oa
ianii?iaeiaieo iia, oiaei ye no/aniee noaoon oe?a?inueei? iiae aeiaaa?
c’ynoaaiiy i?noey oa ?iei aea?aeaaii? iiae Oe?a?ie a nenoaii iia (?
eoeueoo?) iiai? ?a?iie. Ui noino?oueny aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia,
oi ?o c?noaaeaiiy c ?ioeie iiaieie nenoaiaie neoaoaaei a ia?oo /a?ao
e?iaaiaeeaeaeoeoe? ? ni?yiiaoaaeiny ia onoiaiiy iiieeie oae /an
iaieiae?iiy ae?oaith, o?aoueith ? o.ae. ?iicaiieie iiaaie.

Aea/aiiy eaeneeieia?/ii? oa i?aeiiaii? i?iaeaiaoeee a Oe?a?ii iia’ycaia
c ?iaiaie oaeeo o/aieo, ye ?.E.Aieiaeiae, I.I.Ai?iaeiaa,
A.A.AEaeai?iiie, ss.A.Cae?aanueea, I.I.Ea?iaiei, I.I.Ei/a?aai,
I.I.Eecaiaoeue, A.I.Iaiaeii, I.I.Io?aaeoeueea, I.I.Iauae, A.I.Iiaoi?ae,
E.I.Iiethaa, I.I.Iiethaeei, N.A.Nai/einueeee, I.I.Oa?aiaiei,
I.A.Oea/aiei oa ?i.

I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia iayai?noue ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeue, i?iaeaia
iiaeiiaii? eaeneeieia?? oa iiaeiiaieo eiioaeo?a iio?aao? naiai
iiaeaeueoiai niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iniaeeai o noa?i
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiiai aeeooy ethaenoaa, eiai aoeeaoo.

Oaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c ieaiiaith iaoeiaith eiiieaeniith
i?ia?aiith eaoaae?e aiaeienueei? oieieia?? Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oieaa?neoaoo «Iiaii eiioaeoe ? iiiian?ieia?/i? eaoaai??? a iiaao ?icieo
nenoai».

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii? oa ?ice?eooi naiaioe/ieo
caeiiii??iinoae ooieoeiiioaaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee a oe?a?inueeie,
aiae?enuee?e oa oai?nuee?e iiaao.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeiaaaei ae?ioaiiy ?yaeo caaaeaiue, na?aae yeeo
aeaeieaii:

1) aiae?c oaiiiaia aoeeaoo — yaeua, iaoiiaeaiiai nioe?aeueieie,
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieie oa ?iaeeaiaeoaeueii-ineoieia?/ieie /eiieeaie;

2) i?aeoe/io ?aaeicaoeith aoeeaoieo ii?i o eaene/iiio neeaae?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iia;

3) ?ic?iaeo eiiieaenii? iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy eaene/ii? naiaioeee
?iaiieeia ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo;

4) oa?aeoa?enoeeo eaene/iiai oa naiiiai neeaaeo aoeeaoiiai iiey o
??ciinenoai-ieo iiaao;

5) ?icaeyae niaoeeo?ee ia?aaea/i oi?i ? caniaia aoeeaoo a eaene/iie
naiaioeoei oe?a?inueei?, aiaeienueei? oa oai?nueei? iia;

3

6) aeaaaeaiiy ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee i?eioeei?a ? ia?aiao??a
c?noaaeaiiy aoeeaoieo eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo iieia o
aiaeaeaeaiinii??aeiaieo ? ianii??aeiaieo aeine?aeaeoaaieo iiaao;

7) oeiieiai/ia cinoaaeaiiy naiaioeee aoeeaoieo iieia.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia

O aeine?aeaeaii? aia?oa canoiniao?oueny eiiieaeniee i?aeoiae aei i?iaeai
e?iaainoe/iiai, nioe?ieiiaainoe/iiai, ineoie?iaainoe/iiai oa
oeiieii/ii-c?noaaiiai aea/aiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee. Oaeee i?aeo?ae
aeicaieya ?icaeyaeaoe aoeeao ye nioe?aeueiiiaoiiaeaio,
iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?io e ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieiai/io nooi?noue, yea,
iacaaaeath/e ia ni?euei? ?ene a eaene/iie naiaioeoei oe?a?inueei?,
aiaeienueei? oa oai?nueei? iia, ona ae ii-nai?io i?aaenoaaeya niaoeeo?eo
oi?i ? caniaia ia?aaea/? aoeeaoo a eiaeiie c ieo. Aia?oa ia’?eoii
aiae?co noathoue iiai? caniae ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo a o?ueio
??ciino?oeoo?ieo aiaeaeaeaiinii??aeiaieo oa ianii??aeiaieo iiaieo
nenoaiao — oe?a?inueeie, aiaeienuee?e oa oai?nuee?e. Aia?oa o
neio?iiiiio ieai? i?aaenoaaeaii oe?e?niee iien no?oeoo? aoeeaoieo
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo iieia ? i?iaaaeaii ?o oeiieiai/iee aiaeec o
aeineiaeaeoaaieo iiaao. Oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo aea/aiiy eaene/ii?
naiaioeee ?iaiiee?a oa ?o c?noaaeaiiy oeyoii ii?aeiaiiy e?iaainoe/ieo
iaoiae?a c oi?iae?ciaaieie iniiaaie naiaioe/ii? eeaneoieaoe?? eaeneee.
?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae aea? ciiao aeineiaeeoe iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii
iniaeeaino? ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo a ?iciinenoaiieo iiaao ? aenooia?
niiniaii eiai?oeaiiai i?aaenoaaeaiiy ?o naiaioe/iiai i?inoi?o.

A?oie aoeeaoieo ?iaiieeia ?icaeyaeathoueny o ?iaio? ye nenoaii?
ooai?aiiy eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo a?oi c /?oeith no?oeoo?ith, a iniia? yei?
eaaeaoue ?o naiaioe/ii iciaee ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. Naiaioe/i? eiiiiiaioe a
no?oeoo?i eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie (ENA) aoeeaoo aeieyoueny ia
«yaea?ii» oa «ia?eoa??ei?». Ia?oi ooai?ththoue aoeeaoia naiaioe/ia iiea
i?eoy- aaiiy, oiae? ye ae?oa? ?oeiothoue caieioo?noue aeaiiai
naiaioe/iiai iiey. O noeoiiino? aiie oi?iothoue nai???aeiee aoeeaoiee
naiaioe/iee eiioeiooi.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeineiaeaeaii? ae?noaee naiae iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie:

a) neiai ye iniiaia iaeeieoey iiae; a) no?oeoo?a oa naiaioeea neiaa; a)
naia ye eiiiiiaio cia/aiiy neiaa; a) oai??y eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai iiey,
eiai oa?aeoa? ? nenoaiii-no?oeoo?ia i?aai?caoe?y; ?) naiaioeea ne?a o
ia?aaeeai? eiai?oeaii? e?iaa?noeee; ae) iie?nai?y (eiai?oeaiee aniaeo),
neiii?i?y, aioii?i?y, oeie ca’yce?a oa a?aeiioaiue i?ae aeaiaioaie
eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai iiey; a) c?noaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy eaene/ii?
naiaioeee; ?) eaeneeia?ao? acaaae?, a oeoia/i? neiaieee cie?aia ye
iaae?eia aeaea?aei aea/aiiy iiaii? naiaioeee.

4

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Ine?eueee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia iaae? /ioe?ueio e?iaa?noe/ieo
aeenoeeie?i – o?aaeeoe?eiiai iieniaiai iiaiciaanoaa, nioe?ie?iaa?noeee,
ineoie?iaa?noeee oa eiiia?aoea?noeee, oi ? ?acoeueoaoe aeaii? ?iaioe
iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey iiaeaeueoeo ?ic?iaie oeeo e?iaa?noe/ieo
aaeocae, i?aeoeee e?iaa?noe/iiai iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy, a oaeiae o
ia?aeeaaeiciaanoa?, aeeth/ath/e iaoeiiee ia?aeeaae, ? iaieiae?ii?
?iicaiieie iiaaie. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaea aooe ei?eniei aeey
?icaoaeiae i?iaeai c?noaaii? naiaioeee oa iiaieo eiioaeo?a ? ia oe?e
iniia? ae?iaeaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a,
ni?yiiaaieo ia onoiaiiy iiieeie o aaeeaaii? /oaei? iiae i?ae aieeaii
??aeii?, a oaeiae ciaeiinoaa c eoeueoo?aie ia?iae?a.

Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaea aooe oni?oii aeei?enoaia a eaeneeia?ao?/i?e
i?aeoeoe? i?e iaienaii? neiaieeiaeo noaoae, o i?eeeaaei?e e?iaa?noeoe?
aeey aecia/aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aaae naiaioeee neiaa oa aei??thaaiiy
aaee/eie naiaioe/iiai ca’yceo i?ae neiaaie, a oea i?aaenoaaey? i?aeoe/io
oe?ii?noue i?e oeeaaeaii? oacao?on?a e iaoeiieo neiaiee?a, cie?aia
eiio?anoeaieo ? naiaioe/ieo. ?ice?eooy oa iien o?aaiaio?a eaeneee ia
iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aiae?co ?iaiiee?a o aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i i?aaeeuei?noue, iiaiioo e
oi/i?noue ?o o?enaoe?? a neiaieeao, a oaeiae ei?aeoe?th a?aeiia?aeiiai
eaeneeia?ao?/iiai aeaea?aea o oe?eiio.

Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee aeey
nooaeaio?a i?iaoeueeiai oa o?aioeocueeiai a?aeae?eaiue Oaeai?iaenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo a aeaio /anoeiao (1994), a oaeiae niaoeeo?n c
eaeneeia?ao?? aeey nooaeaio?a aiae?enueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy (1994).

?ic?iaeaiith o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iaoiaeeeith i?iaaaeaiiy
aiae?co eaene/ii? naiaioeee a iiaao ??cieo no?oeoo?, a oaeiae
??ciinii??aeiaieo iiaieo nenoaiao, ?o c?noaaiiai aea/aiiy,
ei?enoothoueny nooaeaioe aiae?enueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy noaoe?iia?ii? oa
cai/ii? oi?i iaa/aiiy i?e iaienaii? eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o, a
oaeiae o aenooiao ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao e nooaeaionueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeioe?eueii aaiaeeoe ? a oe?eueio i?aeoeeo c
iaoith aeeeaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?, aiaeienueei? oa oai?nueei? iia, a
oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ?icieo oi?iao eoeueoo?ii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

I?i iaea?aeaii ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy aeiiiaiaeaeiny ia
oiiaa?neoaonueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?i oani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
OaeAeO (1995, 1996, 1997, 1998), i?aeia?iaeiie eiioa?aioe??
(Neioa?iiieue 1997), iiaeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo c’?caeao (Aeaa?aoeai 1990,
Aoaeaiaoo 1993, Aaa? 1994, THayneoey 1995, Aoaeaiaoo 1997),
iiaeia?iaeieo neiiic?oiao (Oaeai?iae 1992, 199a, 1997), ia
?aa?iiaeuei?e (Aeiiaoeuee 1996) oa i?aeia?iaei?e (Euea?a
1996) iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo

5

eiioa?aioe?yo, a oaeiae ia ?icoe?aiiio caniaeaii? eaoaae?e aiae?enueei?
o?eieia??, eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae oa eaoaae?e oai?nueei? oieieia??
(/a?aaiue 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii a iiiia?ao?? «Aoeeaoia eaeneea a
oe?a?inuee?e, aiae?enuee?e oa oai?nueeie iiaao» (Oaeai?iae 1998),
noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao, iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e.
Caaaeueia e?euee?noue ioaeieaoeie — 20.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

Aeineiaeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny ci anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icaeieia c
i?ae?icae?eaie oa aeniiaeaie, caaaeueieo aeniiaeia, nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e ? aeiaeaoeia. Ianya ?iaioe — 378 noi??iie oaenoo, o oiio
/ene? 3 oaaeeoe? oa 3 noaie. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 277
iaeiaioaaiue, a aeiaeaoee aeeth/athoue 3 oaaeeoei.

INIIAIEE CI1NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?? aeooaeueiinoue,
ca’ycie c ieaiiaith iaoeiaith eiiieaeniith i?ia?aiith eaoaae?e
aiaeienueei? o?eieia?? Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiao iiaecio,
ie?aneaii oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io oeiiiinoue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa
oi?ie ?o ai?iaaoe??, aeaii iaeyae ioaeieaoe?e aaoi?a.

?icae?e ia?oee “Aoeeaoia naiaioeea a eaene/i?e nenoai? oe?a?inueeii
iiae” neeaaeaaoueny c ainueie i?ae?icaeieia ? ?icaeyaea? iiaii oa
iicaiiai? oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy aoeeaoo a no/aniie oe?a?inuee?e
e?oa?aoo?i?e iiai, ?o aca?iicaeaaeiinoue, a oaeiae ?ice?eaa? caniae
iiaiiai ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo.

A?aecia/aaii, ui ?ioa?an aei iiaiiai aoeeaoo iia’ycaiee c
?ic?iaeith ieoaiue ni?eeoaaiiy, aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
niaoeeo?ee iia, aeinyaiaiiyie ye oai?aoe/ii? eiiaainoeee ?
noiiaeieo c iath iaoe, oae ? i?aeoe/ieie iio?aaaie ni?eeoaaiiy,
iaieiaeiiiy ?iicaiieie iiaaie, ciaeiinoaa c eoeueoo?ith oa iiaooii,
o?aaeeoe?yie iin??a ?icieo iia.

?icaeyaea?oueny nioe?aeueia iniiaa aoeeaoo, i?aaenoaaeaii ??ciia?/ia
o?aeooaaiiy oa?i?ia «aoeeao», a oaeiae aeeeaaeaii caaaeueio iaoiaeeeo
aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaieo cania?a ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo.

O oeueiio ?icae?ei iieacaii, ui no?oeoo?a ? nenoaia oe?a?inueei?
eeoa?aoo?ii? iiae iaei?e?iaeiioa oa iaeia’?iiioa i?aaenoaaeaii a
neiaieeao ??cieo oei?a, a iniaeeai oeoia/ieo, aea, ye ? a i?ioean?
ei?enooaaiiy iiaith, oiiieiaiy, ii?oieia?y, neiaioai? oa ?i. ia
aeae?eythoueny a aaoiiiii? nenoaie /e i?aenenoaie, a aenooiathoue o
aeaeyae? eiiieaenii? oi?ie ae?aaeaiiy ciinoo aoeeaoieo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue. I?e oeueiio aoeeaoia neiai ii?aeioa a niai oi?io ae?aaeaiiy
? ciino. Oi?ia aoeeaoiiai neiaa — oea aaaaoia?aiia yaeua, caaaeyee
yeiio eaene/ia cia/aiiy i?iyaey?oueny o anie nai?e

6

iiaiioi. Ioaea, oeoia/iee neiaiee aeicaiey? cae?enieoe aiae?c iiaieo
caniaia ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo a no/aniie oe?a?inuee?e iiai e?iaainoe/ieie
caniaaie.

Aeey aeai?o iaoa??aeo aeineiaeaeaiiy nenoaiii-no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae
eaene/ii? naiaioeee no/anii? oe?a?inueei? iiae aaiaeeoueny oi?iaeueiee,
nooi iiaiee e?eoa??e – aiaeianai?noue ne?a, yei aiaeicothoueny, aei
iaei??? /anoeie iiae — ?iaiieea, ui aea? ciiao aecia/eoe e iienaoe ?o
na- iaioeeo ca aeiiiiiaith:

1) iao?e/iiai aiae?co naiii? no?oeoo?e aoeeaoiiai neiaa i?e iiaoaeiai
oaaeeoeue ia ia?oiio aoai? eeaneoieaoe?? iaoa??aeo;

2) noaie eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai iiey ia iniiai iiaoaeiaaieo oaaeeoeue;

3) aiae?co oaaeeoe? iieia oeyoii ?o oeiieii/iiai cinoaaeaiiy ca
iaoaiaoe/iei
i?eioeeiii ia?aoeio iiiaeei;

4) iieno niiaa?aeiioaiiy aoeeaoieo ne?a o iieyo, ?o ca’yceia oa
iniaeeainoae.

Iao?e/iee iaoiae i?aaenoaaeaiiy naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiue iiae aoeeaoieie
?iaiieeaie no/anii? oe?a?inueei? iiae ?icaeyaeaaoueny ye iaoaiiaa aeey
iieno aeineiaeaeoaaieo ia’?eo?a aiae?co, a iao?eoey o aeaeyaei oaaeeoe?
— ye iiaeaeue nenoaie naiaioe/ieo ca’yceia, c iaeiiai aieo, oa na-
iaioe/ia no?oeoo?a eaeneee aoeeaoo, c ae?oaiai. Aeaia iiaeaeue o?eno?
naiaioe/i? ca’ycee i?ae aoeeaoieie neiaaie o aeaeyae? noiai/ee?a oa
?yaee?a iaeiaeiai? aeiaaeeie, aea iethnii iicia/a?oueny niiaa?aeiioaiiy
aoeeaoieo ne?a oa ?o cia/aiue.

No?oeoo?oaaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee no/anii? oe?a?inueei?
iiae ia?aaeaa/a? aeaeieaiiy ?? neeaaeo e aioo??oiuei?
i?aaiicaoe??, aianeiaeie /iai a?aeaoaa?oueny iiae?e aoeeaoii? eaeneee
ia eaeneei-naiaioe/i? iiey, i?e?iiiey, eaeneei-naiaioe/ii oa?oiiaaiiy oa
anoaiiaeththoueny neioaaiaoe/ii e ia?aaeeaiaoe/ii ca’ycee iiae ieie.

Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii i?ioeaaeo?o cai?o oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ? aeaeieaiiy
naiiiai neeaaeo eaene/ieo cia/aiue aoeeaoieo ?iaiieeia.

I?e iiaoaeia? oeiieia?? iniiaiith iaeeieoeath niiaaiaeiioaiiy aenooia?
aoeeaoia neiai, a no?oeoo?a ENI aecia/a? iaaeo eiai aiae?co.

Oeacaia iaoiaeeea aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ii?aeioaoueny
c iieniaei, c?noaaiei oa oeiieia?/iei iaoiaeaie, eiiiiiaioiei aiae?cii,
iieueiaei i?aeoiaeii, i?ioeaaeo?ith nooi?i/anoi? ?aeaioeoieaoe??,
noaoenoe/ieie iiae?aooieaie, iaoaiaoe/iith oai???th iiiaeei, a?ao?a ?
iiaeaeth- aaiiyi. ?iciiiaiioiinoue iaoiae?a aeineiaeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia
neeaaeiinoth oa aaaaoianiaeoi?noth aoeeaoiiai o?aaiaioa
eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie a?aeaeaeaiinii??aeiaieo oa ianii?iaeiaieo
iia — oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei?. O ?acoeueoao? ea?oeia
iieueiai? no?oeoo?e aoeeaoii? eaeneee cia/ii oneeaaeieeany, ?ice?eeeny
aioo?ioi? iaoai?cie e aeeiaieea ciinoiaeo aca?iiae?e aoeeaoieo ne?a
i?ae aieeaii aeno?ae?iaaaeueieo oaeoi??a, a oea aeaei ciiao
noi?ioethaaoe aeanoeainoi e

7

aecia/eoe naiaioe/ii caeiiiii?iinoi ooieoeiiioaaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee a
aeineiaeaeoaaieo iiaieo nenoaiao.

Aeey ?ice?eooy i?aaee aoeeaoo, oi?i oa caniaia eiai ae?aaeaiiy a
no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?iie iia? iaie a?aeia?aii c 11-oiiiiai
Neiaieea oe?a?inueei? iiae (NOI) 147 eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny 402 cia/aiiyie. Nienie ne?a eaae?o?eoaaany ye
eaeneei-naiaioe/iee eean iiaieo caniaia ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo a
oe?a?inueeie eioa?aoo?i?e iia?.

Caeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy iie?nai?? aoeeaoia eaeneea ae?eeoueny ia nii a?oi.
Ia?aaaaeia aieueoinoue ne?a aoeeaoii? eaeneee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aaaaoicia/iinoth. Oiio naiaioeea iie?nai?/ieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue ia
iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo ooai?th? iiiyo?ei? noa?e, oiaoi nai???aei? naiaioe/i?
iiey, eiiiiiaioe yeeo ca’ycai? ni?eueiei ci?noiaei no?eaeiai. Ioaea,
aoeeaoia aaaaoicia/ia neiai yaey? niaith iie?inenoaio, a yeie cia/aiiy
o?nii ia?aie?oathoueny, aoaeo/e aca?iiiia’ycaieie ? aca?iiiaoiiaeaieie.
Na?aae iie?naii/ieo iniaeeai aeae?eythoueny ?iaiieee oaaaa, ethaia,
/anoue, caa?oi?noue, caeyaeue, iioaioaaiiy, i?eciaiiy, ieoa. Aei ne?a c
na?aaei?i nooiaiai iie?nai?? a?aeiinyoueny aeaaiaia?iiy, ooaioaaiiy
(aoaioaaiiy), i?aeeii?iiy, noeeyiiy, ?ice?o, neaaa, caaee/iee, i?eeii,
i??oao, oaia, iieeiiiee, ai?ae?noue, ieoiioa oa ?i., aiae?c yeeo
aeyaea oaeo caeiiii??inoue: yeui aoeeaoi? neiaa no?anoeee
nai? oeyoe ? aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaei?e noa?i
iiae c iaaiith oe?eeth, oi aei ?o eiioiieaoeaii?
ooieoe?? i?ae aeiaea?oueny ooieoe?y ae?aciino? ? i?e oeueiio iaeia
aoeeaoia neiai ia oii? ?ioiai aena?/o? nai? iniaeeai iciaee. O
?acoeueoaoi aoeeao noa? iaa?aeae?eueiei a?ae iniae, yea caeaaeii a?ae
niaoeeo?ee aeeooy, aeoiaaiiy, aeiyeueiinoi ii-nai?io ia?aaea? ?icoiiiiy
e ni?eeiyooy aoeeaoieo ii?i iiaaaeiiee, ni?eeoaaiiy oiui. Ioaea, aoeeao
iaaoaaa «naiai iaee//y» o aeaeyaei eiie?aoii? iniae c i?eoaiaiieie ?e
aeanoeainoyie oa oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Iiiinai?/ieie ? aoeeaoii neiaa
iai?eyoaeue (iai?eyoaeueea), ciaaaaeiee (ciaaaaeieoey), nayoioaoaoeue,
iin?iaea, iioaiiaa, aeia??a oa ?i.

Aeaiaioe cia/aiiy aoeeaoieo ne?a aenooiathoue aeeoa?aioeieieie
naiaioe/ieie iciaeaie, aeae?eaieie a ?acoeueoaoi «ni?aaei??o» iaaiei
/eiii c?noaaethaaieo iaeia c iaeiith iaeeieoeue ? a?aeia?athoue aaaeeeao
?ieue o oi?ioaaii? aoeeaoii? eaeneee a no/ani?e oe?a?inueeie
e?oa?aoo?iie iia?.

?ice?eooy iaeiaeiaeo cia/aiue, ni?eueieo aeey ne?a iaei?? oaiaoe/ii?
a?oie aeyaeyaoueny ia’aeoeaiei oa eiiaainoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiei i?e
caa?iaii? aei aeno?aeiiaaaeueieo oaeoi??a, a ia eeoa oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy
nooi iiaiiai aiae?co. Uia onoaiiaeoe ni?euei? oi?iaeuei? aeey aoeeaoieo
ne?a iciaee, ia?aeaeueii ?o ciinoo, a ?iaioi ?ice?eaa?oueny ?o iicaiiaia
nooi?noue.

Iaoiaeeea aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeicaieeea aeineoue eaaei ? /?oei
aecia/eoe e?euee?niee neeaae ? oa?aeoa? nai o iaaeao eaene/iiai
cia/aiiy. Aiae?c iiaiiai iaoa??aeo oe?a?inueeiai aoeeaoo

8

iieacaa, ui a oai?aoe/iiio ? i?aeoe/iiio ieai? naiia /eaioaaiiy
eaene/iiai cia/aiiy ia iaaiiio neio?iiiiio c??c? ?icaeoeo iiae ia
iiaea aooe aaciaaeiei, oae naii ye ia iiaeooue aooe

aaciaaeieie ia no/aniiio ??aii i?ciaiiy na?oo e iciaee i?aaeiao?a, yaeu,
c yeeie niiaa?aeiineoueny eaene/ia cia/aiiy.

Naiiee neeaae ne?a ia iicia/aiiy oi?i ? caniaia ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo a
oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?iie iia? iae?/o? 110 oeoia/aiue, na?aae yeeo
aeaeieythoueny aeac?aee ia iniao, ?? ?ene oa?aeoa?o, aioo??oi?e na?o,
noa?e ae?yeueiinoi, iieiaeaiiy o noniieuenoa?, a?aeiineie c ?ioeie
/eaiaie noni?euenoaa, noaaeaiiy aei ?ae?a??, a oaeiae o?aaeeoe?? iin??a
iiae.

Aanue naiiee ianea ?icaeaa?oueny ia aeaa’youe aaciaeo i?aeiiiaeei, yeeie
iicia/athoueny ciai?oii oi?ie oa aioo?ioi?e noai noa’?eoa ae??:
aiioeieia iano?i?i?noue, aeciaiiy ethaeeie a noni?euenoai, oi?ie
ae?aaeaiiy aenieeo ii?aeueieo ii/oooia; ciai?oi?e aeya iaiiaaae,
iiai?aee; a?aeaeaaaiiy ii/anoae, ia?yaeiainoue; iaoeiaa ae?yeuei?noue oa
iianyeaeaii? ni?aae ethaeeie; oice/ia ae?aaeaiiy iiaaae ye aeaiaioa
aoeeaoo; iniae, ui ei?enoo?oueny iiaaaith oa ?? a/eiee; neooaoeaii
oaeoi?e. Oeacai? i?aeiiiaeeie yaeythoue niaith eiiieaene, ia yeeo
aaco?oueny no?oeoo?a aoeeaoiiai eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai iiey no/anii?
oe?a?inueei? iiae.

A oe?a?inueeiio iie? iiaieo cania?a i?iyao aoeeaoo aeaeieaii aaaaoi- oa
iaeiiooieoeiiiaeueii naie, aeacaii ia ?o ?ieue o nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iie
i?aaiicaoe?? eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai eeano aoeeaoieo ?iaiieeia.

Naiiee oa eaene/iee neeaae aoeeaoiiai o?aaiaioa eaene/ii? nenoaie
oe?a?inueei? iiae iineoaeeee iniiaith aeey iiaoaeiae iao?eoei,
iniaeea?noth yei? ? cia?aaeaiiy no?oeoo?e aoeeaoiiai naiaioe/iiai
i?inoi?o, aea nenoaiii cia/oueie aenooiathoue ia eeoa ?aae?ciaai?
aeaiaaeaioiino?, aea e eiai/i? ?iie?oeeoii iiaeeeainoi.

Oeae iiaeoiae aei aea/aiiy iiaieo caniaia ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo a no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? aeaa iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe naiaioe/ii
caeiiiii?iinoi ooieoeiiioaaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee, na?aae yeeo iniaeeai
aeae?eythoueny: 1) ii?aeiaiiy o iaaeao aoeeaoieo ne?a ??ciiiai?oieo
i?ioenoaaeaiue, ui coiiaeththoue niaoeeo?eo ?o naiaioeee; 2) iayai?noue
ni?eueii? naiaioe/ii? iciaee a aeaeieueeio aoeeaoieo neiaao, ia iniiai
/iai aiie iiaeooue aenooiaoe neiii?iaie e aca?iicaiiithaaoeny; 3)
iayaiinoue ne?a c i?ioeeaaeieie cia/aiiyie ia oiii neiiiiiicaoe??, i?e
yeiio a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane aca?iia?aeooiaooaaiiy e
aca?iii?eoyaoaaiiy aioiiiii/ieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue; 4) aaeeaaiiy
aoeeaoieo ne?a o ae?acao, aea ?ice?eaa?oueny ?o iiae??aiaia naiaioeea,
ui iinoeoue aeineoue ?ic?iciai? iiiyooy ia’?eoeaii? aeieniino? i?ae
aieeaii aeno?aeiiaaaeueieo oaeoi??a.

9

?icae?e ae?oaee – “Aoeeaoia naiaioeea a eaene/i?e nenoai? aiae?enueei?
iiae” — neeaaea?oueny c ainueie i?ae?icae?eia ? i?enay/aiee
aeineiaeaeaiith ooieoeiiioaaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee a ?? o?niiio
aca?iica’yceo c noni?euenoaii, aieeaii ia noni?eueio aeiyeuei?noue
ethaeeie oiui a aiaeienueeie iia?.

Cia/ia iinoea aiaeaaaeaii aiae?co iniaeeainoae oeoia/iiai neiaieea ye
aeaea?aea aea/aiiy iiaieo caniaia ia?aaea/i aoeeaoo, ?ice?eoi ciino
neiaieeiai? noaoo? — caniao aenieioeeoiiai ae?aaeaiiy naiaioe/ii?
no?oeoo?e aoeeaoiiai neiaa, a oaeiae ioa?aeoa?eciaaii noai aeineiaeaeai-
iy aoeeaoii? eaeneee a no/aniiio iiaiciaanoai.

Aiaecia/a?ii, ui ia nueiaiaei? aeinoaoiuei aeeaiei aea/aii
eaeneei-naiaioe/i? a?oie (eaene/i? i?e?iiiey, iie?inenoaie) oa?iiiia
nii??aeiaiino?, eieuei??a, aeayei a?oie eiie?aoii? eaeneee
[?.A.Aeeiieaaa, TH.A.Aieiaethe, A.AAeenaaaa,. A.?.Einieaiia,
A.I.Eociaoeia, ?.N.Iaio/a?yi, A.A.Ieoeeyae/aia, ?.N.Iaaeiaa, ?.E.?iceia,
I.I.Naeeaa?noiaa, E.I.Neana?aaa, A.A.Oeiioeia, A.I.*oaeeiia, C.N.Oiieia,
I.Aieltii, R.I.Araid, ?.Ariwi, A.Giido, S.N.Laviisoi, A.?ist].

Cia/ii a??oa, iniaeeai o a?o/eciyiiio iiaiciaanoai, ?ic?iaeai? oaie
noiniaii aiaeia?aaeaiiy nioeiaeueieo aiaeiinei oa aioo?ioiueiai aeeooy
ethaeeie, ?? oa?aeoa?enoee ? naioini?eeiyooy.

Aoeeaoia eaeneea a nenoai? aiae?enueei? iiae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaiia
aca?iiiia’ycaieie noi?iiaie: nenoaiith ne?a ye ciae?a, ui ia?aaeathoue
cia/aiiy oa nenoaiith naiaioe/ieo a?aeo?ie?a, cae??ieaieo ca neiaaie.

O aea/aiii aiae?enueei? aoeeaoii? eaeneee canoiniaothoueny oi?iae?ciaaii
iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e oa nenoaie aeaii? iiae c iaoith iiaiiai
aiaeeco ?? aioo??oiio iaoai?ci?a, ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ?ica’ycaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue. I?e oaeiio i?aeoiae?
c?a?aia ia iniia? nooe?eueiiai aiae?co Aaeeeiai Ienoi?aenueeiai neiaieea
aoeeaoia eaeneea ooai?th? iiiaeeio, ui neeaaea?oueny c aeaiaio?a, ye?,
oi/ ? ia’?aeiai? ni?eueieie aeanoeainoyie, ana ae oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
nai?ie aaoiiiiieie iniaeeainoyie.

Oeoia/iei neiaieeii aiae?enueei? iiae cao?eniaaii 135
?iaiiee?a, yei ca aeiiiiiaith 707 eaene/ieo cia/aiue oi?iothoue
naiaioe/ia iiea iiaieo cania?a ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo. Io?eiaii neiiiii?/i?
?yaee eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue yaeythoue niaith ia/ioei iiiaeeie, oiaoi
oae?, a yeeo aea- iaioe, e?ii ye?aai a ecia/aiiai aoeeaoiiai cia/aiiy,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?yaeii ?ioeo iciae. Caaaeyee iacaieiaiinoi nai?o iaae
ia/?oe? iiiaeeie iiaeooue ia?aoiaeeoe a ?ioi, ooai?thth/e ?acii c
inoaiiiie oai?aoe/ii ianeii/aiiee neiiiiii/iee iae?i?yae. Uia
iiaoaeoaaoe iao?eoeth niiaaiaeiioaiiy ne?a oa ?o eaene/ieo cia/aiue,
ia?aoai?th?ii oeae neiiiiii/iee iae?i?yae o /?oeo e?iaa?noe/io iiiaeeio
ia iniiai aiae?co neiaieeiaeo aeao?iioe?e, a cia/aiiy ne?a aoeeaoii?
eaeneee i?aaenoaaey?ii o aeaeyaei aeineoue no?iai ie?aneaiiai
i?inoi?iaiai o?aaiaioa eaeneei-naiaioe/ii?

10

nenoaie aiaeienueei? iiae, ?icii?e ? eiioiao?aoe?y yeiai caeaaeaoue aiae
niaoeeo?ee cia/aiue iniiaieo a?aeiia?aeieeia.

Aanue iiaiee iaoa??ae aiaeienueei? iiae ae?eeoueny ia i’youe a?oi, aea
iie?nai?/ieie aenooiathoue ?iaiieee res?ant, hiiier, reference, grace,
price, respection, ragard, credit, consideration, charity, devotion,
duty, affection, conceit, concern, god, merit oa ?i.

Naiaioeea aaaaoicia/ieo ne?a ?ic??ciy?oueny ia eeoa ca no?oeoo?ith ?
iinoeai o nenoai? aiae?enueei? iiae, ooai?thth/e naiaioe/i?
iie?inenoaie, aea e noaoonii, iiae yeei ?icoii?ii noeoii?noue
ni?aa?aeianaieo iaci?noiaeo iciae, ui aecia/athoue ?ieue cia/aiue
aoeeaoieo ne?a o nenoaii iiaieo caniaia iiiiiaoe??. Eiaeia c ieo
aca?iiaei? c ?ioeie cia/aiiyie ana?aaeeii naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e,
aenooiath/e /anoeiith caaaeueii? nenoaie iiiiiaoeaieo cania?a iiae,
oiaoi acaaiiae?? c ?ioeie cia/aiiyie ca iaaeaie naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e
neiaa. Caaaeyee oeei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ? ?ice?eaa?oueny iiaiee noaoon
cia/aiiy aoeeaoiiai neiaa.

Eaene/ia aaaaoicia/i?noue aenooia? niiniaii
nenoaiii? i?aai?caoe?? aoeeaoii? eaeneee, a naiaioe/ii ca’ycee
iiae aoeeaoieie neiaaie – iniiaith no?oeoo?oaaiiy eaene/ieo cia/aiue
iie?naiaio?a: i?ae aeaiia aeaiaioaie naiaioe/ii? nenoaie iiae aiie
aenooiathoue oi ye iciaee i?e?inenoaiiiai, oi ye iciaee iae?inenoaiiiai
oa?aeoa?o. Cae??ieai? ca neiaii ye?nii ??ci? iciaee, ui ia?aaoaathoue o
?icaaeoaeaeaieo a?aeiioaiiyo, neoaeaoue, c iaeiiai aieo, caniaaie
oi?ioaaiiy eaene/iiai cia/aiiy ye oe?e?nii? aaoiiiiii? naiaioe/ii?
iaeeieoe?, a c ae?oaiai – yaeythoue niaith nai???aei? n?e?ie, ia iniia?
/iai aeaia eaene/ia cia/aiiy aoeeaoiiai neiaa i?e?aeio?oueny aei
naiaioe/ii? nenoaie, aenooiath/e ?? aeaiaioii.

Ioaea, a iaaeao iaei??? i?e?inenoaie aoeeaoi? neiaa nai?ie eaene/ieie
cia/aiiyie o?nii ia?aie?oathoueny iaeia c iaeiei, ooai?thth/e
eaioethaeeia? aaciina?aaei? oa iina?aaeeiaai? ca’ycee.

Aoeeaoia eaenaia a iino?ei?e nenoaii?e ni?aa?aeianaiino? c ?ioeie
aeaiaioaie iiiaeeie iinooiiai oi?io? naith naiaioe/io cia/ou?noue, ui
caaacia/o? ?e i?aai ia aeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy a nenoai?, ii?iaeaeo?
oaiaeaioe?th aei cina?aaeaeaiiy iaaeiei ia? ?ioeo /eai?a oe??? nenoaie.
On? ?io? aeaiaioe, i?aeii?yaeeiaoth/enue naiaioe/iei caeiiai oi?ioaaiiy
aoeeaoii? eaeneee oa anooiath/e a nenoaii? a?aeiioaiiy c iath,
i?iaeiaaeothoue aeyaeyoe naith aeanio naiaioe/io ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue ?
caaaeyee oeueiio iioaioe?eii aioia? naiaioe/ii aieeaaoe ia
/i?aa?aeianai?noue c ieie eaenaie – eiiiiiaioa o??? ae iiiaeeie.

Oe?eaaei, ia iao iiaeyae, ? aeiaaeie, eiee naiaioeea
aoeeaoiiai neiaa ?icai?oa?oueny ia ??ai? oa?i?ia. Oiae? aeieea?
nai???aeiee ca’ycie aoeeaoii? oa oa?i?iieia?/ii? eaeneee, aiane?aeie
/iai aoeeaoia naiaioeea ?iaiieea credit iaaoaa? “aeiiii?/iiai
a?aeo?ieo”, ?ice?eaath/e aaie?anueeee aoeeao o?iainiaeo ?ic?aooie?a,
aoeeao aeeaaeieea ? o.?i.: a sum placed at a person’s disposal in the

11

books of a Bank, upon which he may draw to the extent of the amount noia
ia ?aooieo ethaeeie a aaieo, yeith aiia iiaea ?icii?yaeaeaoeny); any
note, bill or other document, on security of which a person may

obtain funds (aeieoiaio, ?aooiie, ia iniia? yeeo iniaa iiaea io?eiaoe
oiiaee); the acknowledgement of payment by entry in an account (aeciaiiy
ieaoe i?e a?aee?eoo? ?aooieo); a sum on account, which the
administration is empowered by vote of Parliament to borrow and expend
in anticipation of the amount voted in the Annual Estimates (noia ia
?aooieo, yeo aaei?i?no?aoe?y, ui iaae?eaia iiaiiaaaeaiiyie,
ia?eaiaionueeei aieinoaaiiyi, iiaea aeaaaoe a iiceeo ? aeo?a/aoe a
i/?eoaaii? eaeueeoeyoe??, caoaa?aeaeaii? a ui??/iiio i?iaeo?
aea?aeathaeaeaoo c aeo?ao); trust or confidence in buyer’s ability and
intention to pay at some future time, exhibited by entrusting him with
goods, etc. without present payment (aeia??a aei ni?iiiaeiino? iieoioey
caieaoeoe i?ci?oa, acyoe oiaa? o e?aaeeo). Oeacaieie naiaioe/ieie
iciaeaie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeiae ? ae?ace letter of credit,
to give credit,on (upon) credit, six months’ credit; o
iiiaeei? oeae ?iaiiee icia/a? noio, caienaio ia i?eoiae aai i?aaee a?e
aooaaeoa?nueei? eieae.

Eaeneei-naiaioe/iee aiae?c a?oi aoeeaoieo ne?a aiaeienueei? iiae
aeicaieea aeae?eeoe iiaee oei aoeeaoieo noinoie?a iiae ethaeueie, a naia
«aeia?i/eiiee aoeeao», ui aiaeaoaa?oueny ia iniiai yeinii iiaeo
i?eioeei?a aeeooy ? ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa, na?aae yeeo iaeaaaeeeaioo
?ieue a?ae?a?athoue aeia?ioa, /oeiinoue, uaae??noue, aeooaaia oaiei,
ni?a/oooy, ue?inoue, aiaeaa?oinoue, aoiaii?noue oa ?ioi. Aeia?i/eiiee
aoeeao iioeii aoiaeeoue o aeeooy ? a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, a oea naiae/eoue
i?i aeieeiaiiy iiaiai oeio ethaeae, yeei i?eoaiaii? ia eeoa
i?ioan?iiae?ci oa aeniea eoeueoo?a, aea e aaaaoee aioo?ioiie na?o,
iaiiaiaiee ni?a/oooyi e ia?aaeeaaiiyi ca ?ioeo /eai?a noni?euenoaa.

Iinoea aoeeaoieo ne?a o eaene/i?e nenoaii aiae?enueei? iiae
aecia/a?oueny ia eeoa yeinieie, aea e eieueeinieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie,
i?aaenoaaeaieie a aeena?oaoe?? iao?eoeyie ENI aoeeaoo a oe?a?inueeie,
aiae?enuee?e oa oai?nueeie iiaao: aaaaoi aeaiaioia ? iieacieeaie oiai,
ui aoeeaoi? neiaa a?oie caeiathoue aonoicaiiaiai? iinoey a nenoai? ?
iathoue oe?iea canoinoaaiiy, oiae? ye ?iaeeicaiiaiaii iinoey caeiyo?
eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie aocueeiai eiea i?ecia/aiiy ? aaeeoeo, a oea, ye
i?aaeei, ?iaeeaiaeoaeuei? cia/aiiy, i?eoaiaii? eeoa aeaiei eaene/iei
iaeeieoeyi.

Iniaeeainoth ne?a aoeeaoii? eaeneee aiaeienueei? iiae ? oa, ui aoeeaoii
neiaa /anoi aiaeia?aaeathoue ia noieueee ia’?eoeaio ae?eniinoue acaaae?,
neieueee ?ioa?ane ethaeae ye o/anieeia ni?eeoaaiiy (?iaiieee ceremony,
adoration, oblation).

Ineieueee no?oeoo?a ne?a ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo a aiaeienuee?e
iiai neeaaea?oueny c aaeeei? eieueeino? iciae, oi aiie iiaeooue
iaeaaeaoe aaaaoueii iiiyo?eiei i?e?inenoaiai. O ?acoeueoao?
anoaiiaeththoueny ?iciiiai?oi? a?aeiioaiiy iiae neiaaie — ia?aoei, ca?a,
i?yiee oa iiina?aaeeiaaiee ca’ycie. Oe? ci?ie a naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiiyo
i?ae eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie aenooiathoue caeiiiii?iei i?ioeanii
oi?ioaaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee, a iniiai yeiai eaaeaoue
??ciianiaeoii

12

ia?aoai?aiiy, a oaeiae iniaeeainoi acaaiiae?? iiae ethaeeiith ?
ia’?eoaie ?aaeueiinoi. Iicia/aiiy iiaeo ia’?eo?a o?aaeeoe?eieie
iiaieie oi?iaie aaaea aei ia?aaoaeiae ?o naiaioe/ii? nenoaiii-

no?oeoo?ii? i?aaiicaoe??, ui i?iyaeyoueny o aeieeiaii? a aoeeaoieo
eaene/ieo iaeeieoeyo iiaeo aiaeoiieia cia/aiue, ooai?aiii ENA oiui. Ia
oe?e i?aaenoaai aaaaea?ii, ui naia ??ciinoi?iii? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae
ethaeeiith oa ia’?eoeaiith aeieniinoth o e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo
aiaeia?athoue ae?ioaeueio ?ieue a i?ioeani ciiie onoaeaieo naiaioe/ieo
ca’yceia aoeeaoieo ne?a aiae?enueei? iiae.

Iieueiaa aii?yaeeiaai?noue eaene/ii? naiaioeee cia/iith i??ith
iaoiiaeaia ?o a?aiaoe/iith ?aaoey?iinoth, aianeiaeie /iai neioaene/i?
ca’ycee iiae ?iaiieeaie a aiaeienueeie iiaiie nenoaii ? iiaoi?thaaieie,
oeiiaeie ? caeiiiii?ieie. Oeacaia iniaeeainoue oa?aeoa?eco? ?
aiaeiioaiiy iiae neiaaie c na?aaei?i nooiaiai iie?nai??, aei yeeo
iaeaaeaoue re?etatiii, awe, shame, feast, honesty, bountry, ingenuity,
indifference, reward, recognition, recommendation, culture, rudeness,
obeisance, wreath, kindness, tenderness, fame, liking, madam,
degradation, contempt, disfavour, elegance oa ?i.

O no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia? cao?eniaaia aeineoue aeaoaeueii
naaiaioiaaia naiaioeea aiioeie, yeith aiaeia?aaeathoueny caoaeaeoth/i ?o
ianoaaeie, iioeae oiui. I?ioa aiioe?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?iciei nooiaiai
?ioaineaiinoi oa i?iyao. O iaaeao aoeeaoii? eaeneee aeineiaeaeothoueny ?
iienothoueny o?e iniiaii aiioe?eii e?iaa?noe/i? iie?inenoaie, ui
aiaeiiaiaeathoue o?ueii aniaeoai ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiinoi: ae?yi c ?o
ianeiaeeaie, ae?y/ai o ?o ae?yeueiino? oa i?aaeiaoai ? aano?aeoiei
iiiyooyi.

A aoeeaoiie eaeneoei no/anii? aiaeienueei? iiae aeaeieythoueny neiaa,
yei aieiae?thoue iiceoeaiith oa iaaaoeaiith ioe?ieith.

I?e aeine?aeaeaiii naiaioe/ieo no?oeoo? ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy
aoeeaoo a aiaeienueeie iiai a?aoiaoaaeiny, ui aiaeiioaiiy iiae ?o
cia/aiiyie ia ? aaniethoieie /e iaci?iieie, ?ici? cia/aiiy caeiathoue o
oeeo no?oeoo?ao ia??aiii?aaia iieiaeaiiy. Ieoaiiy uiaei ?iciaaeoaaiiy
eaene/ieo cia/aiue o?nii iia’ycaia c i?iaeaiith anoaiiaeaiiy ?o
???a?oi/ieo ca’yceia, ye?, ia aeoieo no/anieo eiiaaino?a, ae?ioothoueny
oae: cia/aiiy neiaa, yeiio i?eoaiaiia iaeaieueoa ia?aaeeaiaoe/ia
cae??ieaiinoue oa aiaeiinia iacaeaaei?noue a?ae eiioaenoo, ? aieiaiei, a
cia/aiiy, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny neioaaiaoe/iith i?ee?iieaiinoth ? iaei
iaoiiaeaia ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieie a?aeiioaiiyie, ? /anoeiaei (ae?oai?yaeiei,
iio?aeiei). Iiaiaeaeoth/enue a oe?eiio c aeaiei iieiaeaiiyi, iaeii/anii
aiaecia/a?ii, ui niaoeeo?ea iiaiiai iaoa??aeo iaia? /ioeiai iiae?eo
cia/aiue ne?a aoeeaoii? eaeneee ia oeie. Ineieueee aiaeienueea, ye ?
?io? iiae, ia? aeanii caniae ia?aaea/i noniieueieo ii?i iiaaae?iee e
niieeoaaiiy, aeiyeueiino? ethaeae oa a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?o aioo?ioiueiai
na?oo, ineoi/iiai noaio i ??ciiiai?oieo ii/oooia, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
niaoeeo?eith i?iyao ?aaeoe??, oi e cia/aiiy ne?a, a oaeiae aiaeo?iee
cia/aiue aeineoue /anoi iaae?aci? oa ciiithaaii,

13

ui oo?oaeith? ?o eeaneoieaoeith ? aiae?c. Ioaea, ia ?nio? /?oei? iaaei
i?ae aiaeo?ieaie iaeiiai ? oiai naiiai cia/aiiy aai aeae?eueeiia
cia/aiiyie iaeiiai ? oiai ae neiaa. No/ani?e aiaeienueeie iia?

i?eoaiaiii aecia/aii oi?ie e oaiaeaioe?? iie?nai??, o?nii iia’ycai? c
aioo??oiueith no?oeoo?ith on??? nenoaie iiae.

Naiaioe/iee aiae?c iieacaa, ui aeioeieueiioa ii?yae c o?aooaaiiyi
???a?oi/ieo ca’yceia i?ae neiaaie aoeeaoii? eaeneee, ?icaeyaeaoe aca?ii?
aai iaeiia?/i? ia?aoiaee/iaia?aoiaee cia/aiue ?iaiieeia, ui
i?iyaeythoueny o caeaoiinoi ne?a aoiaeeoe aei ??cieo eiioaeno?a,
niieo/oaaoeny c ?ioeie /anoeiaie iiae, iaaoaaoe/ao?a/aoe ie?aii nai?
cia/aiiy, aiiuaoe a iaaeao iaei??? eaene/ii? iaeeieoe? aioii?i?/i? oa
neiii?i?/ii ca’ycee. Aiaeii/an oei ia?aoiaee aacothoueny ia
niaoeeoi/ieo, aeeaiei iaoeiiiaeueieo noni?eueieo oaeoi?ao, ye? neoaeaoue
e?eoa???i iiae?eo ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino? a iaaeao iaei??? eoeueoo?e:
ia?aoiaee iiae neiaaie c aenieei oa na?aaei?i nooiaiai iie?nai??
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueoith neeith oa ?ioaineai?noth i?iyao, i?ae o
aeiaaeeao c iiiinai?/ieie neiaaie, aea aiie neaaoathoue, a ?ieiee e
cieeathoue (iai?. disrespect, misesteem, respectfulness, estimableness,
appreciator, self-estimate).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy naiaioe/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ooieoeiiioaaiiy aoeeaoii?
eaeneee a aiae?enuee?e iiai aeicaieeei aeae?eeoe aeaa iniiai? oeie
aoeeaoiiai noeeoaaiiy — iniaiaa oa aaciniaiaa. Inoaii? iae/anoioa
?aaoeth?oueny aoeeaoii, noaiaea?oecoth/e iiaaaeiieo ethaeae o oeiiaeo
neooaoeeyo, oiae? ye iniaiaa ni?eeoaaiiy yaey? niaith i?aeoe/io oi?io
?nioaaiiy naiiai aoeeaoo, ?ice?eaath/e iaai? ii?aeueieo niieoe: aiae
iio?aae noaa?aeaeoaaoe aeia?i aei niiaeeaaoeueeiai, iaoaiiaeeaiai
noaaeaiiy aei ?ioeo.

Aioiiiii/ii ca’ycee iiae aoeeaoieie eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie a no/ani?e
aiae?enuee?e iia? aiaecia/athoueny a?eueoith iaeii?iaeiinoth e
iaeiiieaiia?noth ? a naiaioe/iiio aiaeiioaii? ia aeathoue oaei?
?iciiiaiioiinoi a?aeo?ie?a oa iniaeeainoae, ye neiiiiii/i?, eio?ei
aeanoeai aca?iicaiii- iinoue, aeiaeaoeiai cia/aii?ai aiaeoiiee, nooi?iue
yeinoue aiioe?eiiai caaa?aeaiiy.

O naiiiio neeaae? aoeeaoieo ?iaiieeia no/anii? aiaeienueei? iiae
aeae?eythoueny yeinoi, aeanoeaino? eiai-, /iai-iaaoaeue, oa?aeoa?enoeea
ethaeeie, ?? nioe?aeueiee noaoon, ?iciiiai?oi? oi?ie ? caniae i?iyao
aoeeaoo, noni?eueia ioe?iea aeiyeueiinoi ethaeeie, noa?e canoinoaaiiy
ethaenueeiai aeinaiaeo, ciaiue, a oaeiae iniaeeainoi o?aaeeoeee,
i?iaaaeaiiy eoeueoiaeo ia?yae?a oa ii/anieo oea?aiii?e.

O ?acoeueoao? anoaiiaeaii, ui naiaioe/i? caeiiiii?iino?
oi?ioaaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee a no/ani?e aiae?enueeie iia? aacothoueny
ia: 1) nenoaiiie niiaaiaeianaiinoi aoeeaoiiai neiaa c ?ioeie aeaii? oa
noiiaeieo iiiaeei; 2) caeaoiino? aoeeaoieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue
ooai?thaaoe i?e?inenoaie; 3) aoiaeaeaii? aoeeaoieo ?iaiiee?a aei
neeaaeo naiaioe/ii ??cieo a?oi eaeneee; 4) eieueeinieo oa

14

ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao aoeeaoiiai neiaa, ui aecia/athoue eiai iinoea a
nenoai? iiae; 5)iaya-iino? eaioethaeeiaeo ca’yceia ? ia?aoiae?a
iiae neiaaie c aenieei, na?aaeiii oa iecueeei nooiaiai

iie?nai?? 6) ???a?o?/iiio ?icoaooaaii? nai o eaene/ieo cia/aiiyo
aoeeaoieo ne?a, ui aaaea aei ?o iiae?eo ia iaeii- oa
aaaaoiooieoeiiiaeueii.

Aoeeaoia eaeneea no/anii? aiaeienueei? iiae yaeya niaith
nioeiieiiaa?noe/iee o?aaiaio, iniaeeaino? yeiai iieyaathoue o oe?ieiio
oa ??ciianiaeoiiio aiaeia?aaeaiii aa?aaeueieo ? iaaa?aaeueieo caniaia
aeyao nioe?aeueii aecia/aieo ii?i iiaaae?iee e ni?eeoaaiiy ia iniia?
eieueein- ieo oa ye?nieo naiaioe/ieo ca’yceia iiae neiaaie, a /a?ac ieo
– i?ae cia/aiiyie aae aei nai iiae niaith.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aoeeaoia naiaioeea a eaene/i?e nenoai? oai?nueei?
iiae”, ui neeaaeaaoueny c ainueie i?ae?icaeieia, eaeaoueny i?i
aiaeia?aaeaiiy a oai?nueeie iia? ??ciianiaeoiiai oa?aeoa?o
aca?iica’yceia ethaeeie c ?aaeueiith ae?eniinoth, aiioe?e c ieneaiiyi oa
?ioaeaeooaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth naiaeiiinoi. Aoeeao i?e oeueiio iinoa?
ye /anoeia noni?eueiiai aeeooy iin??a iiae, ui i?aai?/ii ii?aeio? ?o
iiaaae?ieo ? a/eiee, c iaeiiai aieo, oa aioo??oi?e aiioe?eiee na?o, c
ae?oaiai.

No/ania e?iaainoeea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?icoe?ai?oei oa iiaeeaeaiioei
aeineiaeaeaiiyi naiai o?aaeeoe?eiiai ia’?eoa, aeeth/ath/e ?ici? aniaeoe
eiioiieaoeaii? iiaaae?iee ethaeeie a i?ioeani nonoeueii iaoiiaeaiiai
ni?eeoaaiiy. Iiai? no?oeoo?e i?e oeueiio ?icaeyaeathoueny ia oieueee a
eiioaenoi aeania iiae, aea e o ni?eeoaaiii, aca?iica’yceo iiae iiaieie
oa iaiiaieie aeaiaioaie eiioiieaoe??. Ethaenueeee oaeoi? ii/eia? caeiaoe
oeaio?aeueia i?noea a eiiaainoeoei acaaae? oa oai?nueeiio iiaiciaanoai
cie?aia.

Aeoiaeiei aeey iieno iiaii? eiioi?eaoe?? ? iiiyooy ae?yeueiino?, ui
aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe oai?nueeo iiao ye cania aeeiaii/ii? aca?iiae??
eiioiieaioia. I?e oaeiio iiaeoiae? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiae o?nii iia’ycaia
c neooaoeaiei eiioaenoii ?? aaeeaaiiy, a aoeeaoia neiai oa iniaeeainoi
eiai ?nioaaiiy ii?aeiothoueny c o?aooaaiiyi neooaoe?? niieeoaaiiy ? eiai
i?ioeanoaeueii? i?e?iaee. Aeaiaioaie (neeaaeieeaie) eiioiieaoeaii?
neooaoe?? aaaaea?ii nioeiaeueii oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieii/ii
oa?aeoa?enoeee eiioiieaioia, aiaeiioaiiy i?ae ieie, iniaeeainoi
eiioiieaoe??, aeeth- /ath/e ?? ?iciiiai?oi? oi?ie ? caniae. Oeacaii
iciaee i?noyoueny o naiieo no?oeoo?ao oai?nueeeo aoeeaoieo ne?a. Oiio
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoeeaoiiai neiaa ye iaeeieoe? eiioiieaoe??
eiie?aoeco?oueny aea/aiiyi niaoeeoeee eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?ecia/aiiy on?o
eiiiiiaio?a eiai ci?noo. Oe? eiiii- iaioe ia’?aeiothoueny a ?aeeia oe?ea
? aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo nenoaie aoeeaoii? eaeneee no/anii? oai?nueei?
iiae.

A iniia? eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?ecia/aiiy aoeeaoiiai neiaa eaaeeoue eiai
iioaioe?eia aa??aoeai?noue, caaaeyee yeie aiii caeaoia ae?aaeaoe
iae?iciiiai?oi?o? aniaeoe ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino? oa ethaenueei?
ae?yeueiino?, a oiio /ene? e i?ciaaaeueii?, i?ciaaaeueii-eaae?o?eaoeaii?
? aeania eiioi?eaoeaii?.

15

Eiioi?eaoeaia i?ecia/ai?noue aoeeaoii? eaeneee iieyaa? oaeiae ? o
ae?aaeaii? ?acoeueoao?a eaae?o?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, aei yei?
a?aeiineoueny aiioe?eii-/ooo?aa, ioe?iia, /ooo?ai-ia?acia ni?eeiyooy oa
iicia/aiiy ia’?eo?a e i?aaeiao?a iicaiiaii? ae?eniino?. Iioaioe?eia
caeaoi?noue aoeeaoieo ne?a no/anii? oai?nueei? iiae i?enoiniaoaaoeny ?
a?aeia?aaeaoe eiioi?eaoeai? oe?e? aaco?oueny ia iniaeeainoyo ?o
eaene/ii? iii?iaoe?? oa niaoeeo?oe? naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e.

O ineoie?iaa?noe/iiio ieai? naiaioe/iee i?ino?? aoeeaoiiai neiaa
iie?eaa? aecia/aio aeeoocio naiaioe/io noa?o ineo?ee iin?y iiae, aei
yei? iaeaaeaoue an? iiai? caniae ? oi?ie ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo a no/ani?e
oai?nuee?e iia?. Naiaioe/iee i?ino?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye yaeua
nooe?eueia, iaia?a?aia, i?ioa iaiaeii??aeia. Oey iaiaeii??aei?noue
naiaioe/iiai i?inoi?o aoeeaoeiiai neiaa ?ice?eaa? iioaioe?eio
caeaoi?noue aeieeiaiiy o aoaeue-yeiio eiai i?noe? iiaeo naiaioe/ieo
oeaio??a aiane?aeie caouaiiy, noyaoaaiiy aai iaaeeaeaiiy e a?aeaeaeaiiy,

Aoeeaoia neiai a naiaioe/iiio i?inoi?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaieie
ia?aiao?aie, aei yeeo a?aeiineii no?oeoo?iee oei, “aaao”, cia/ou?noue
naiaioe/ieo oeaio??a oa oa?aeoa? ca’y?e?a i?ae ieie.

O iaaeao aoeeaoii? eaeneee a oai?nuee?e iia? aeae?eythoueny: aoeeaoia
neiai, a yeiio oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aioo??oi?e naiaioe/iee i?ino?? oa
naiaioe/ia aoeeaoia iiea, ui aenooia? ii a?aeiioaiith aei naiaioeee
aoeeaoiiai neiaa ye ciai?oi?e naiaioe/iee i?ino??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoeeaoieo ne?a no/anii? oai?nueei? iiae o?nii iia’ycaia c
i?iaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, ??ciiai ?iaeo iaoe?iiaeueieie
oaeoi?aie: eoeueoo?ith, cae/ayie, o?aaeeoe?yie ? o.i., ine?eueee
aoeeaoia eaeneea aecia/a?oueny ??aiai ?icaeoeo ii?iaoeaiino? ye
nioe?aeueii? eaoaai???, ui a naith /a?ao aenooia? aeaiaioii
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e.

Eoeueoo?ith a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? iicia/a?oueny nioe?aeueiee iaoai?ci
aca?iiae?? iniaenoino?, ni?eueiioe c aeeoo?aei, i?e?iaeiei oa
nioe?aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai, yeee caaacia/o? ia?aaea/o aeina?aeo ?
?icaeoie ?aoi?iaoi?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, a o aocueeiio – oe?iiino?,
ia?aeiiaiiy, c?acee, ii?ie iiaaae?iee, aeanoea? nioe?aeuei?e a?oi?,
iaaiiio noni?euenoao. sse ? aoaeue-yea eiie?aoia noni?euenoai, oai?nueea
iaoe?y i?ioyaii nai?? ?noi??? noai?th? aeanio eoeueoo?o, yea
ae?aaea?oueny: 1) iiaith ye nenoaiith ciae?a, iaae?eaieo cia/aiiyie, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey caa?aaeaiiy, ia?aoai?aiiy oa ia?aaea/?
?ioi?i?oe??; 2) ??ciiai ?iaeo oe?iiinoyie, a??oaaiiyie, ia?aeiiaiiyie;
3) ii?iaie, aei yeeo iaeaaeeoue ? aoeeao; 4) cae/ayie, o?aaeeoe?yie,
ia?yaeaie, ui iathoue ia?aaaaeii aoeeaoia caaa?aeaiiy oa ni?yioaaiiy.

Ioaea, aoeeaoia eaeneea aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo iiaiiai ae?aaeaiiy ii?i,
yei ?aaeaiaioothoue i?eioeeie iiaaae?iee a noni?euenoai,
a?aeia?aaeathoue aeiiae nioe?aeueii? a?oie aei iiaaae?iee iniaenoinoi,
a?oi o ?oi?o aca?iia?aeiineiao iaeia c iaeiith, nioeiaeueieie
?inoeoooaie, noni?euenoaii o oe?eiio.

16

Aoaeo/e nioe?aeueii ocaaaeueithth/ei, aoeeaoia neiai neoaeeoue aeey
?iaeeaiaeoaeueiiai ae?aaeaiiy aiioeieii? ioeaiee ia’?eo?a na?oo, a eiai
?aae?caoe?y i?ioiaeeoue o a?aeiia?aeieo neooaoe?yo ni?eeoaaiiy ca
aeiiiiiaith aiaeiiaiaeieo aiioe?eieo oei?a oiiaieo aeoia.

Aoeeaoia eaeneea no/anii? oai?nueei? iiae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aa?aaeueieie, a oiio /enei aiioeieii caaa?aeaieie, ia??aeei
ii?aeioth/enue c iaaa?aaeueieie caniaaie naiai ae?aaeaiiy. Aei aoeeaoii?
eaeneee, c?a?aii? oeyoii nooeieueiiai aiae?co oeoia/iiai neiaieea
oai?nueei? iiae, aa?eoee eaene/i? iaeeieoei c aiioe?eii-ioe?iiei
eiiiiiaioii, ui ia aecia/a?oueny eiioaenoii, neooaoe??th /e noa’?eoeaiei
aaeeaaiiyi, a aenooia? ianeiaeeii iiina?aaeeiaaiiai aiaeia?aaeaiiy
aca?iiae?? aiioe?? oa ioe?iee: aiioe?? ye ineo?/ii? ia?aaea/? noa’?eoii
eiai noaaeaiiy aei ioi/oth/iai na?oo e ioe?iee ye ?acoeueoaoo oeueiai
i?ioeano. Aeine?aeaeoaaia aoeeaoia eaeneea i?noeoue neiaa, ui iathoue
yne?aai ae?aaeaio ? i?eoiaaio aiioe?ei?noue.

Aiioe?eiinoue aenooiaa iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aeeooy oa
iiaii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ??
oa?aeoa?enoee: c iaeiiai aieo, oeyoii iiaiiai ae?aaeaiiy aiioe?e
iicia?oueny ? naia ethaeeia ye iiaia iniaeno?noue, a c ae?oaiai,
aeineiaeaeaiiy oai?nueei? iiae ia- iiaeeeaa aac caa?iaiiy aei ?? iiniy,
oai?oey oa ei?enooaa/a.

O ?iaioi aeey aeineiaeaeaiiy naiaioeee aoeeaoo a?aoiao?oueny
eiai?oeaiinoue, ine?eueee aoeeaoi? neiaa oa?aeoa?ecothoue oi o?aaiaioe
ethaenueeiai aeina?aeo ? ciaiue, ui aoiaeyoue aei noa? ?iciiai ?iaeo
ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?.

???a?o?/ia no?oeoo?a aoeeaoiiai iiey yaeya niaith ?aeyoe?eio no?oeoo?o,
ui neeaaeanoueny c eiioeaaiai /enea eean?a, eiaeai c yeeo aeeth/a?
aeae?eueea /eai?a, oa oeio ca’yceo i?ae ieie.

Aoeeaoia eaeneea ioiieth? cia/io /anoeio neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo oai?nueei?
iiae ? ia’?aeio ia iniia? ??ciiiaiioieo ca’yceia aeaeieueea
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo iieia, a aeaiaioe iiey — aoeeaoi? neiaa —
ooai?ththoue iiae ?aeeio nenoaio aai aeayea /enei aca?iiiia’ycaieo
i?aenenoai. Naiae/aiiyi oeueiai ? eaene/iee ? naiiee neeaae aoeeaoiiai
iiey no/anii? oai?nueei? iiae, i?aaenoaaeaiee 268 eaene/ieie
iaeeieoeyie, yeei a?aeiiaiaeathoue 639 cia/aiue. Iieinaii/ieie
aenooiathoue aoeeaoi? neiaa ember, tisztesseg, becsuelet, buzgalom,
buzgosag, disz, hit, hitel, tekintet, tekintely, tisztelet,
megbecsueles, becsueles, meltanylas, uedvoezlet oa ?i. Aei ne?a c
na?aaei?i nooiaiai iie?nai?? a?aeiinyoueny erzek, csodalat, ertek,
isten, istenseg, vallas, tisztasag, szentseg, koszoru, nagysag,
becsueletsertes, fogadas, mocsok oa ?i.

O ?iaio? aeyaeaii a?oio aoeeaoieo ne?a, ye? iieacothoue, ui oiiae
oni?oiiai ni?eeoaaiiy caeaaeaoue aaciina?aaeiuei a?ae i?aaee iiaiiai
aoeeaoo, i?eeiyoeo o iaaiiio iiaiiio eieaeoeai. Aea/aiiy iiaiiai
aoeeaoo, eiai oi?i oa niaoeeoeee ae?aaeaiiy a no/aniie oai?nueeie iiai
ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith iiaii? iniaenoino?, caeaoii? i?aaeeueii i???iooaaoeny
o aeai?? iiaieo cania?a i?e aeinyaiaiii oni?oo a eiioi?eaoeaiiio aeoi.

17

O iaaeao eaene/ieo cia/aiue aoeeaoieo ne?a aeae?eaii iniaeeao
niaoeeo?/io ?eno ?o naiaioeee, ui iieyaa? a caeaoiino? oeeo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue ii?aeioaaoe a nia? ??ciiai ?iaeo i?ioenoaaeaiiy: iiceoeai?
?ene, c iaeiiai aieo, oa iao?aiiy iacaaeiaieaiiy oiui — c ae?oaiai, o
aeaeyae? iai?enoieieo ae?ac?a, eaeee, a?oaeo ne?a: az istensegit neki,
nem ismer se istent, se embert, te jo isten!, ne adj isten!, verje meg
az isten. ?o iayai?noue na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui naiaioe/iee ciino
aoeeaoieo ne?a aecia/anoueny ia eeoa oei, ui aiie iicia/athoue, a e
oaeoaie, yeei aiie i?ioenoaaeythoueny, a oea aaaea aei iaiao?aeiino?
a?aooaaiiy ineoieia?? i?ioenoaaeaiue, ui iaieio/a ca/iia? ? ?iaaiue
eieaeoeaii? ioe?iee naiaioe/ii? noanoaioe?? iiae. O ?acoeueoaoi
naiaioe/i? ?iaeaene i?ioenoaaeaiiy ye aeii?thaaii aaee/eie noathoue
iniiaith e?eueeinieo oa?aeoa?enoee ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a eaene/ii?
naiaioeee, a ?o c?noaaeaiiy aeicaiey? aecia/aoe ii??aiyeueio oe?iiinoue
aeaiaioia ??cii? ineoieii/ii? no?oeoo?e aoeeaoiiai neiaa.

Naiaioe/iee aiae?c aoeeaoieo ne?a no/anii? oai?nueei? iiae aeyaea, ui
cia/aiiy neiaieeiaeo iaeeieoeue ia iaaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa
caciathoue aaeeeeo ciii oa aieeaia, aianeiaeie /iai eaene/i? iaeeieoe?
ii/eiathoue aaeeaaoeny o ye?nii iiaeo cia/aiiyo. Oae o?aieeiny ? c
?iaiieeii belyeg, iniiaia ooieoe?y eio?iai nii/aoeo iieyaaea a
iicia/aiii ia?ee ia eiiaa?oao, aeueaiiao oiui. Ca?ac oey eaene/ia
iaeeieoey aeaco? ia aoeeaoia eeaeii aai oaa?i.

Aoeeaoii neiaa caeaoii aenooiaoe iioaioe?eieie neiii?iaie, oi/ nooi?iue
aeecueei? ciinoiai? ni?aa?aeianaiino? a ie?aieo /eai?a aoeeaoiiai iiey
iaiaeiaeiaee: a iaeieo niinoa??aa?ii o?eueee i?eoiaaii iiaeeeaino?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy aoeeaoieo aiaeiioaiue, a a ?ioeo — ?o /?oea
i?aaenoaaeaiiy, o ?acoeueoao? /iai aiie ni?eeiathoueny iiaoeyie ye
?aaeuei? neiiiiie oai?nueei? iiae, aaciina?aaeiuei ii?iaeaeai? ca’yceaie
oa a?aeiioaiiyie, ui oi?iothoueny naia a ?? no?oeoo??. Ia oeie
i?aaenoaai c?noaaeaiiy ? i?ioenoaaeaiiy aoeeaoieo ne?a-neiiiiiia
eaene/iiai cia/aiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeei c iiaeeeaeo, iaea?eueo
cia/oueo ??o nenoaiii? i?aai?caoe??.

Iiiinaii/ii eaene/ii iaeeieoe? ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo caeiathoue aaaeeeaa
iinoea a nenoai? no/anii? oai?nueei? iiae ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaeiei
naiaioe/ii aaaiiei cia/aiiyi: tiszteloe, hodolo, hazafi, becsloe,
huncut, diszdoktor, foe-foe, diszueles, foehajtas, tisztelettudas,
oenbecsueles, rontas, nagyravagyas oa ?i.

Naie ?icaeyaeathoueny a ?iaio? ye iaeae??ai?o? aeaiaioe
eiai?oeaii-naiaioe/iiai eiioeiooio, ui neoaeeoue iniiaiei aoae?aaeueiei
iaoa??aeii eaene/ii? naiaioeee no/anii? oai?nueei? iiae oa iia’ycothoue
ia eeoa anacaaaeueio eiai?oeaii-naiaioe/io noa?o e eiie?aoi? ethaenuee?
iiae, aea oaeiae ? nai? iiae iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy ?o nii??aeiaiino?,
iioiaeaeaiiy, niaoeeo?ee ? o.i. Ia oi?aa?naeueiiio oa?aeoa?? nai
aaco?oueny e iiaeeea?noue ia?aeeaaeo aoeeaoii? eaeneee no/anii?
oai?nueei? iiae ia oe?a?inueeo, aiae?enueeo ?, iaaiaee.

18

Naiiee neeaae ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo a no/ani?e oai?nuee?e iia?
iae?/o? 158 oeoia-/aiue, yeeie ?ice?eaathoueny noni?euei?,
caiaeueiii?eeiyo? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?, ineoieiai-o?c?ieia?/i? ?
ii?aeuei? oe?iiino? ethaeeie, ?? noaiiaeua e aaoi?eoao, aeya
??ciiiai?oieo ii/ooo?a ye o i?ioean? eiioi?eaoe??, oae ? a ni?eeiyoo?
iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo. O naiiiio neeaae? aoeeaoii? eaeneee cia/ia i?noea
iin?aea? a?aeia?aaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?i oa cania?a ae?aaeaiiy iiaaae,
oaie, o?aaeeoe?eieo ? eoeueoiaeo oea?aiii?e, a oaeiae a?aeaa?oi
iaaaoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee a/eie?a, iiaaae?iee ? o.i. ethaeeie, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaia?aaeaa/oaaieo iane?aee?a.

O ?iaio? ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaeiiooieoe?iiaeuei? naie, ye? aenooiathoue
eiiiiiaioaie eaene/iiai cia/aiiy aoeeaoieo iie?naiaioe/ieo ne?a oa
i?noyoueny a neiaao c na?aaei?i nooiaiai iie?nai??, ? oae?, ui aoiaeyoue
aei neeaaeo eaene/iiai cia/aiiy iiiinai?/ieo aoeeaoieo ?iaiiee?a,
ia?aaeath/e ?o iaenooo?a?o? naiaioe/i? aeanoeaino?. Ca’ycie i?ae
oeacaieie aeaiia oeiaie iaeiiooieoe?iiaeueieo nai o iaaeao aoeeaoiiai
iiey aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe ?o iiiaeeiaie, ui iathoue ???a?o?/io
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?io i?aai?caoe?th, aea ia?o? aenooiathoue aaciaeie, a
ae?oa? ?i i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny.

?icae?e /aoaa?oee “Oeiieia?/ia c?noaaeaiiy aoeeaoii? naiaioeee a
eaene/ieo nenoaiao oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia”
neeaaea?oueny c oanoe i?ae?icae?e?a ? noaaeoue nai?th iaoith anaa?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaiii-no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? oeeo iia, anoaiiaeaiiy
oei?a ca’yce?a i?ae ieie, a oaeiae ???a?o?/iiai ii?yaeeo ?icoaooaaiiy
?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo a ?o eaene/i?e naiaioeoe? ye
??ciino?oeoo?ieo iia.

Oe?a?inueea, aiae?enueea oa oai?nueea iiae ia o?eueee ni?a?niothoue, aea
e aca?iiae?thoue, aca?iii?iieeathoue iaeia a iaeio, a, iaeeaaeathyenue,
iino?eii ?ice?eaathoue iia? eiia?iaoi?i? iiaeeeaino?, ooai?thth/e ye?nii
? e?euee?nii iia? nenoaii? oa?oiiaaiiy eaeneee.

C?noaaeaiiy aoeeaoii? naiaioeee a eaene/ieo nenoaiao oe?a?inueei?,
aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia ioa?aeoa?eciaaii oaeeie iine?aeiaieie
aoaiaie: 1) aecia/aiiyi a?oi eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo
ye oe?e?nieo nenoai, ui iathoue iaaio no?oeoo?io i?aai?caoe?th,
caeiiii??iinoae ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy, oa?aeoa?o aca?iica’yce?a i?ae
aeaiaioaie oeeo oa ?ioeo ENA; 2) iienii c?noaaethaaieo iciae e
ia?aiao??a a?aeiia?aeii aei ?aeeiiai oa?i?iieia?/iiai aia?aoo oa
?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aiae?co oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo; 3) naiaioe/iei
aiae?cii aoeeaoieo ne?a o nioe?- oa ineoie?iaa?noe/iiio ieaiao ? a
ia?aaeeai? eiai?oeaii? e?iaa?noeee; 4) oi?ioaaiiyi eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai
iiey aoeeaoo ye o?aaiaioa eaene/ieo nenoai aeine?aeaeoaaieo iia, ui
caeia? aecia/aiee naiaioe/iee i?ino??.

Na?aae niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae c?noaaiiai aea/aiiy aoeeaoii? naiaioeee
a eaene/ieo nenoaiao oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia
aeae?eaii: a) iioea, ui aecia/a? aea?? o?ueio ??ciinenoaiieo iia aeey
c?noaaeaiiy ? caaea?oueny ia eia?eith /enoi? e?iaa?noeee
(iaaeinoaoi?noue

19

aea/aiiy naiaioeee aeine?aeaeoaaieo iia, iayai?noue iaiao?aeii?
aii??e/ii? aace, a oaeiae oe?eaaeo aeey ae??oaiiy o na?oe? iiaeo aeaieo
iaoiaeee, yaeu, oai?aoe/ieo i?eioeei?a ? o.i.), a a ca’yceo ?c
ciai?oi?ie, nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieie oaeoi?aie, ui o?nii iia’ycai? c
i?ioeanaie i?ciaiiy e na?aeii?noth, iaioae?oaoii iin??a oeeo iia; a)
iaiaaaiiy iiaii? oeiieia?? ioiieoe iaeneiaeueii aaeeeo e?euee?noue iia
na?oo, ni?aa?aeiiny/e ?o ii i?i?ioio iaecaaaeuei?oeo, oi?aa?naeueieo
no?oeoo?ieo iciae iica/aniaiai oa?aeoa?o, oiae? ye c?noaaia e?iaa?noeea
ia caoiieth?oueny aaeeeith e?euee?noth iia, a i?aaia a ia?oo /a?ao
/i?aa?aeianoe ?o ii iaeneiaeuei?e e?eueeino? iciae, a?aoiaoth/e, ye
i?aaeei, no/aniee noai c?noaaethaaieo iia; i?e oeueiio iiaia oeiieia?y
ae?? a ?aieao aioo??oiuei? e?iaa?noeee, iaiaaeoth/e naaa aiae?cii
aoaeiae iia, oiae? ye c?noaaia e?iaa?noeea cina?aaeaeo? naith oaaao ia
iniaeeainoyo na?aaeiaeu ? noa? aaeeaaiiy ii??aithaaieo iia, o
ni?aa?aeianaii? “eiiaaioe?iiaeueieo ii?i iiaiiai oa iaiiaiiai
ni?eeoaaiiy a oeo eieaeoeaao, ye? ei?enoothoueny aeaieie iiaaie”
(?.I.Nonia). Ca?aene – c?noaaia e?iaa?noeea ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?ia, nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ia, a oaeiae aoiie?iaa?noe/ia ?
i?aaiae?iaa?noe/ia aeenoeeie?ia ia i?ioeaaao oeiieia?? iia, aea
ia?aaaaea? nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c iiaiiai iaoa??aeo; a) ?ioa?an aei
oeo iniaeeainoae, niaoeeo?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aoeeaoieo ne?a
c?noaaethaaieo iia, ye? aeiaaeathoue c iiey ci?o aac aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o
aioo??oiuei? naiaioeee, aiioe?eiiai caaa?aeaiiy, ii?iaoeaiiai e
neooaoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? c?noaaia eaeneei-naiaioe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
nii??aeiaieo, a?aeaeaeaiinii??aeiaieo oa ianii??aeiaieo iia iio?aao?
?ic?iaee e ooi/iaiiy ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a, i?eeii?a ? i?ioeaaeo? naiai
aiae?co. Iaei??th c aeiia, ui caaacia/oaaea a i?iaaaeaiiy c?noaaiiai
aea/aiiy oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iiaieo nenoai,
aaaaea?ii aeiaea?aeaiiy i?eioeeio oe?e?nii? nenoaiiino?, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
aeae?eaiiy aaeaeaaoii? eieueeinoi ia?aiao?ia aeey aiaeia?aaeaiiy
oiiaa?naeueieo iiaieo iaoaiiciia. Ineieueee aoeeaoia eaeneea yaey?
niaith oeieeii aecia/aiee, nioe?aeueii e ii?iaoeaii-eoeueoo?iee o?aaiaio
aeineiaeaeoaaieo iia, oi iaeaaaeeeaioei ? iaeia?oei e?ieii aei eiai
c?noaaiiai aea/aiiy ? ?ic?iaea niaoe?aeueii? iaoiaeeee, yea a,
a?oiooth/enue ia iiia?aaeiueiio aiae?ci naiaioeee aoeeaoieo ne?a o
eiaei?e c iia, aeaea iiaeeea?noue i?aaenoaaeoe anth noeoii?noue iciae oa
aeanoeainoae, i?eoaiaiieo aeineiaeaeoaaiei o?aaiaioai eaene/ieo nenoai.

Ii?iaiyeueiee aiae?c nioeiaeueieo aniaeo?a eaene/iiai cia/aiiy aoeeaoieo
ne?a a oe?a?inuee?e, aiaeienuee?e oa oai?nuee?e iiaao aeicaiey? io?eiaoe
a?aeiiinoi i?i oa, ye? naia eiiiiiaioe nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?
iicia/athoueny ia no?oeoo?i eaene/ii? naiaioeee aoeeaoieo ne?a,
aecia/eoe nooi?iue iaia’yceiainoi/oaeoeueoaoeaiino? nioe?aeueieo
eiiiiiaio?a naiaioeee, a oaeiae aeyaeoe nioe?aeueio iaoiiaeaiinoue
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo noa?aioei?a.

20

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai eiiiiiaioa a eaene/i?e
naiaioeoe? aenooia? nooo?aei aoaiii i?iaaaeaiiy cinoaaiiai aiae?co oi?i
i cania?a i?iyao aoeeaoo a o?ueio aiaeaeaeaiinii?iaeiaieo ?
ianii??aeiaieo iiaao. Oae, aoeeaoia a?oaiiy i?e cono?i/i, i?iuaiii aai
/a?ac ?ioo iniao ia?aaeaa/a? iaoeeyiiy aieiae /e aa?oiuei? /anoeie
ooeoaa iacaeaaeii aiae aieo, noao? aai noniieueiiai noaiiaeua ethaeeie
(oee?i). Aiaeii/an oe?a?ioeyi, ia aiaei?io aiae aiae?eoeia oa oai?oeia,
oeieeii c?icoiieei ? cai?ioaiiy iaeaiaeaoe oe?aa-niei i?aeiineoe
oe?a-nieue, a oaeiae ia?ano?iaaoe oe?aii-n?eeth (oe?a-n?eue). Aeya oaie
aeeth/a? i?iaaaeaiiy oea?aiii?e, ?eooae?a, c?icoi?eeo ethaeyi ?icieo
iaoeee i ?o ia?aaea/o ca aeiiiiiaith ae?ac?a, ui i?noyoue eiiioaoe??.
Iaoai?ci aeieeiaiiy eiiioaoe?e iia’ycaiee c i?aeneeaiiyi ie?aieo
aniaeo?a cia/aiiy /anoi ca ?aooiie yne?aai? aioo??oiuei? oi?ie neiaa, ia
aaci yei? c’yaeythoueny i?oeiio? e oi/i?o? anioeiaoe??. Iai?eeeaae,
eeaiyoeny (iieeiieoeny, aeeiiyoeny) a iiyn icia/aa iecueei, oaiiaeeai
eeaiyoeny ? aeyaeyoe iiei?o (iiyn), a neiainiieo/aiiy oeeiiyoeny aei
caie? oa?aeoa?eco? aeoaea iecueeee oee?i aeey aeyao iniaeeai? oaie
(caiey).

A oai?nuee?e oa aiae?enueeie iiaao aea?aaeaioaie oe?a?inueeeo ne?a
aenooiathoue ?iaiieee kalap (eaiaetho), foehajtas, meghajlas (oee?i),
kezcsok, csok, a aiae?enueeie — kiss (iioe?eoiie, oe?eoaaiiy ?oee),
uedvoezlet, salutation (aioaiiy) oa ?io?. Uia aiaeaeaoe oaio iiia?eiio,
oeeiiythoueny eiai i?aoo (i?ao). Oe?a?ioeyi, oae naii ye aiae?eoeyi ?
oai?oeyi, aeia?a ciaeiii iaoe?iiaeueii ii/oooy, ui iieyaathoue o aeyai
ethaia? e iiaaae aei naiai ia?iaeo, aei eiai eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue
(ii/oooy, 1ika1?apatriotizmus, culture). Naia neiai ethaeeia i?noeoue o
nia? aenieee aoeeaoiee ca?yae, ui a?aeia?aaea?oueny o ae?acao aaaaeaoe
ca ethaeeio (iiaaaeaoe eiai-iaaoaeue, ?aooaaoeny c eeiinue); iaoe ca
ethaeae (noaaeoeny c iiaaaith) ? ?ice?eaa? aoeeaoio naiaioeeo
oe?a?inueeeo ne?a ethaeeia, ethaee oa oai?nueeiai ember. A aiae?enueeie
iiai?e nenoai? ?i aiaeiia?aeaa eaene/ia iaeeieoey god ia iicia/aiiy
iaeaecia/i?oeo ethaenueeeo yeinoae. Iiae?aiith eiiioaoei?th
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oe?a?inueea neiai na?oea (aeooath ? na?oeai) oa
oai?nueea sziv aeey ia?aaea/? ue?eo ii/ooo?a. O aeine?aeaeoaai?e
aoeeaoi?e eaeneoe? aiae?enueei? iiae naiaioe/iiai a?aeiia?aeieea oeei
neiaai ia aeyaeaii.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy naiaioeee aoeeaoieo ne?a oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa
oai?nueei? iia o ia?aaeeaii eiai?oeaii? eiiaainoeee aeaei iiaeeeainoue
aecia/eoe ae??oaeueio ?ieue o?acaieia?ci?a o noai?aii? iiaieo ea?oei
na?oo. I?e?iaea naiaioeee o?acaieiaiciia o?nii iia’yco?oueny c
i?aeoe/iei aeina?aeii iiaoe?a, c eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieie o?aaeeoe?yie
iin??a iia. Iai?eeeaae, ae?ac aoaea (i?eeaea, caeaea, ianoaia) e ia
iao?e (ii?e) aoeeoe? nayoi icia/a? aeiiiaeaiiny naiai, cae?eniyoueny
iaae??, niiaeiaaiiy, ia?aiiaea ni?aaaaeeeainoue (nayoi), a ia iaoe ? ca
aiaea iioeooy (iioeooy) ia?aaea? iaiiaaao aei ethaeeie, aaaaeath/e ?? ii
ia ui ia caeaoiith.

21

Ao?aoa aaoi?eoaoo, iiaaae iicia/aaoueny a oe?a?inuee?e iiai
o?acaieia?ciii iaaeaoe a i/ao (iei). A oai?nuee?e iia? eiio a?aeiia?aea?
noaoe ia oeaiee oeyo, ui aaaea aei aac/anoy: leter a becsuelet
oesvenyeroel (oesveny), a i?iaaaeaiiy ia/anieo iia?aoeee c
iaoith aeaiaee a?aeia?aaeanoueny ae?a-

cii zsebre dug (rak, tesz) o naiaioeoe? neiaa zseb.

Aoeeaoii neiaa a oe?a?inueeie, aiaeienueeie oa oai?nueeie iaoe?iiaeueieo
eoeueoo?ao, iacaaaeath/e ia naith niaoeeoeeo, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
oi?aa?naeueieie iciaeaie, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo i?iaaaeaii ?o
ii?iaiyeueii-cinoaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oeacaii iciaee a?aeia?aaeathoue
?aeiinoue: 1) ia’?eoeaiiai na?oo oa ethaenueei? na?aeiiino? ye eiai
/anoeie; 2) iaioaeueii-ineoieiai/ieo caeii?a i?ciaiiy, ui aenooiathoue
iniiaith e?iaa?noe/ieo oi?aa?nae?e oa aaaeeeaeo iiaieo caeii?a ?
eaoaai?ee oa 3)niaoeeo?/iiai aaiaoe/iiai eiaeo ethaeeie.

Cinoaaia aeineiaeaeaiiy aoeeaoieo ne?a oe?a?inueei?, aiaeienueei? oa
oai?nueei? iia nie?a?oueny ia iiia?aaeith ia?iaeo iiaieo oaeo?a oeyoii
?o iaeiiiaiaeaoiiai iieno c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeai?
ni?aaeii?iinoi iaoa??aeo aeineiaeaeoaaieo iia oa aeaeieaiiy ?aeaaaioieo
aeey cinoaaeaiiy iciae, a iniia? yeeo eaaeaoue e?euee?nii oa ye?ni?
ia?aiao?e.

Iaoa ? ?acoeueoao cinoaaiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee a nenoaiao
oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia iieyaa? o aecia/aiii
eiio?anoeaiiai ni?aaiaeiioaiiy aoeeaoieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue ?
noai?aii? iaeneiaeueii ae/a?iiiai oa?aeoa?ieiai/iiai iieno aoeeaoieo
ENI. Aeeth/ath/e aoeeaoi? neiaa oai?nueei? iiae o c?noaaeaiiy c
oe?a?inueeeie oa aiae?enueeeie eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie ia iicia/aiiy
aoeeaoo ? ?ice?eaath/e oioiaeiino? oa ?icaiaeiinoi nenoaiii-no?oeoo?ii?
i?aaiicaoe?? ENI, naiaioe/ii iniaeeainoi aeaiaioia iiey, ?o ?iciiiaiioii
ca’ycee ana?aaeeii eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo iieia oa c ?ioeie iieyie a
eiaeiie iiai, aoeeaoia eaeneea i?aeoaa?aeaeoa iaiaoiaeiinoue ? ?aaeueio
iiaeeeainoue noai?aiiy ?aeeii? caaa?oaii? ia?aaeeaie c oe?einiith
noeoiiinoth no?oeoo?ieo i?eeiiia, ui ii?aeiothoue aeinyaiaiiy
ii?iaiyeueii-?noi?e/iiai, cinoaaiiai e oeiieiai/iiai iiaiciaanoaa.

Eaeneei-naiaioe/ia cinoaaeaiiy ?iaiieeia ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo a
oe?a?inueeie, aiae?enueeie oa oai?nueeie iiaao yaey? niaith cinoaaeaiiy
iao?eoeue, iiaoaeiaaieo o ?acoeueoao? aea/aiiy aoeeaoii? naiaioeee a
eaene/i?e nenoai? eiaeii? c iia, ca nooiaiai iie?nai?? aoeeaoieo ne?a ?
oa?aeoa?ii naiiiai neeaaeo aoeeaoieo ?iaiiee?a.

O ?iaioi aeaeieaii aoeeaoia naiaioe/ia iiea, i?aaenoaaeaia a?oiith
aoeeaoieo neiaa, ye? a ciinoiaiio aiaeiioaii? aecia/athoue naiaioeeo
iaeia iaeiiai, a oaeiae oaiaoe/io a?oio, ui ia’?aeio? aoeeaoii neiaa ia
iicia/aiiy iiae?aieo i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu ia?aeoeaii? ae?eniinoi (iai?.,
iacae oi?i aiaeaeaaaiiy ii/anoae, a?oaiiy, eoeueoiai? ia?yaeiainoi).

Oe? a?oie caeiathoue ia?aoiaeia iieiaeaiiy i?ae iaeeie/ieie neiaaie i
neiaieeii, aenooiath/e a eiioeaaiio ?aooieo /anoeiith iiae a oe?eiio oa
aieiae?th/e oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ui caeeaeothoue ?o c?

22

neiaaie e neiaieeii: aiie iiaeiaii aei ne?a o oiio, ui niieo/athoueny c
?ioeie neiaaie, ooai?thth/e iaeeieoei aeuiai ??aiy. Iiae?aiinoue aei
neiaieea iieyaa? a ?o iiaeeeaino? aooe ?iceeaaeaieie ia iaio? iaeeieoei.

Aoeeaoia eaeneea i?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? aeaeiey? ci naiai neeaaeo yae?i,
iaaeiei yeiai ia i?aaenoaai naiaioe/ieo ca’yce?a ???a?o?/ii a?oiothoueny
aoeeaoii neiaa-aeaiaioe. O naiaioe/iiio iiei aoeeaoii neiaa
iia’ycothoueny ia an??th noeoiiinoth nai?o cia/aiue, a eeoa ie?aieie
cia/aiiyie, yei, a naith /a?ao, anoaiiaeththoue ??ci? aiaeiioaiiy c ?i
iiae?aieie cia/aiiyie ne?a ?ioeo iie?iiieia aai iie?a.

Aoeeaoi? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii iiey oe?a?inueei?, aiaeienueei? oa
oai?nueei? iia aea/athoueny iaeii/anii a aeaeieueeio iai?yieao ca:

1) ?o eieueeiniei neeaaeii, ui nooo?ai aieeaan ia nenoaiii-no?oeoo?io
i?aaiicaoeith aeineiaeaeoaaieo ENI;

2) ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie;

3) oeiaie ca’yceia ? a?aeiioaiue iiae aeaiaioaie.

Naiaioe/ii iiey iiaieo cania?a ia?aaea/? aoeeaoo

ENIEaene/i? iaeeieoe?Eaene/i? cia/aiiya aaniethoieo

oeeo?aoo i?ioeaioaoa aaniethoieo

oeeo?aoo
i?ioeaioaooe?a?inueea14726,7340222,86aiae?enueea13524,5570740,57oai?nuee
a26848,7363936,57?acii5501001748100

Oeiieia?/ia c?noaaeaiiy aoeeaoii? naiaioeee a eaene/ieo nenoaiao
oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia aaco?oueny ia i?eioeeiao
eiioiieaoeaii? iai?aaeaiino?, ???a?o?/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy aeaiaioia o ENI,
oeiao a?aeiioaiue iiae aoeeaoieie neiaaie, ?o ca’yceao, iayaiinoi
iacaeaaeii? iaoaiiae (oaaeeoeue ni?aaiaeiioaiiy eaene/iiai ? naiiiai
neeaaeo aoeeaoieo ne?a oa a?ao?a ENI aoeeaoo). Nenoaia oe??? iaoaiiae
a?aeia?aaea? eiai?oeaii-naiaioe/io noa?o caaaeueii? ethaenueei? iiae ?
i?iyaey?oueny a naiao ye oiiaa?naeueieo aeaiaioao eiai?oeaii-naiaioe/ii?
noa- ?e, ui eiino?oththoue eaene/ii cia/aiiy aoeeaoieo ne?a oa ?o
ci?noiai no?oeoo?e. Iaiiaoi?iinoue ? nai???aei?noue ciinoiaeo no?oeoo?
?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo o aiaeaeaeaiinii??aeiaieo oa
ianii??aeiaieo iiaao iaoiiaeth?oueny ?iciiiai?oi?noth eiia?iaoeie nai.

23

Oeiieii/ia c?noaaeaiiy aoeeaoii? naiaioeee a eaene/ieo nenoaiao
oe?a?inueei?, aiaeienueei? oa oai?nueei? iia neeaaea?oueny c
eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai c?noaaeaiiy ?iaiieeia ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iiaao oa eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai c?noaaeaiiy aoeeaoieo
iieia oeeo iia.

Niiaa?aeiioaiiy eaene/iiai ? naiiiai neeaaeo cinoaaethaaieo aoeeaoieo
ne?a a?aeia?aaeaii iao?eoeath, a yeie ?ice?eaathoueny eaene/ia
naiaioeea, ca’ycee e a?aeiioaiiy oa iinoea a nenoaii iiae oiui. Iao?e/ia
i?aaenoaaeaiiy aoeeaoii? naiaioeee ?iciino?oeoo?ieo iia anaa?/ii
oa?aeoa?eco? no?oeoo?o eaene/ieo cia/aiue aoeeaoieo ?iaiieeia, aeae?ey?
nooi?iue ?o naiaioe/ii? nii??aeiaiinoi, ?ice?eaa? oa?aeoa?
ooieoeiiiaeueiinoi nai, ui a iaaeao ne?a oae naii ooai?ththoue
no?oeoo?o, ye ? no- eoii?noue aoeeaoieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue o ENI.

Iayai?noue ni?eueieo oa a?aei?iieo iciae o c?noaaethaaieo aoeeaoieo
neiaao oe?a?inueei?, aiaeienueei? ? oai?nueei? iia, a oaeiae ??cieo
oei?a aca?iia?aeiioaiue i?ae ieie, i?aaenoaaeaieo iao?eoeyie, aeaei
iiaeeeainoue neiino?othaaoe noaie aoeeaoieo ENI o aeaeyae? a?ao?a ?
i?iaanoe ?o eaeneei-naiaioe/ia cinoaaeaiiy ca ciai?oiueith no?oeoo?ith ?
aioo?ioiueith nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iith i?aaiicaoei?th.

Eieueeinii ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?aaaeththoue iaae yeinieie: iiey
aiae?iciythoueny ia no?eueee iiiaieeaoo?ith aeaiaioia, ne?eueee ?o
oaeeaai?noth e iinoeai o neeaaei iiae. Oai?nueea aoeeaoia iiea yaey?
niaith iiiioeaio?e/ia oa?oiiaaiiy, ia aiaeiiio aiae oe?a?inueeiai oa
aiaeienueeiai iiei- oeaio?e/ieo oa?oiiaaiue. Aoeeaoii iiey
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny yae?aie, ia?eoa???th, iie?iiieyie, iaai?aie aeaiaioia
oa ?iciinaiaioe/ieie aaciina?aaeiiie e iiina?aaeeiaaieie ca’yceaie.

Aei aiaeiiiieo ?en c?noaaethaaieo aoeeaoieo iieia aiaeiinyoueny:
iaiaeiaeiaa e?euee?noue nai o eaene/ieo cia/aiiyo ne?a, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??ciei nooiaiai ?ioaineaiino? i?iyao ii/oooy
iiaaae/iaiiaaae oa ?o neiii?i?a e aioiiii?a, iniaeeainoi ye ciai?oiuei?,
oae ? aioo??oiuei? no?o- eoo?e ENI, iai?yie?a a?aeiioaiue i?ae iniiaieie
oeaio?aie, ia?eoa???th, aeaiaioaie oa i?e?iiieyie.

I?e?iiiey oe?a?inueeiai ? aiaeienueeiai aoeeaoieo ENI yaeythoue niaith
aeineoue caieioo? naiaioe/i? oa?oiiaaiiy, aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaii c
iniiaieie oeaio?aie. Ia aiaei?io a?ae ieo, oai?nueei iie?iiiey
aenooiathoue ii??aiyii iacaeaaeieie ? aeoiaeyoue ca iaae? aoeeaoiiai
ENI, ooai- ?thth/e aeiaie? aiaee?eoo ia?eoa??th, aeaiaioe yei? caeaoii
anooiaoe o aiaeiioaiiy c ?ioeie iaeeieoeyie iiey.

Ca’ycee i?ae aeaiaioaie a oe?a?inueeiio aoeeaoiiio iiei i?aaenoaaeai?
aeaiia oeiaie: aaciina?aaeiiie oa iiina?aaeeiaaieie, ye? aoaathoue
aeai-, o?e- oa /ioe?enooi?i/anoeie caeaaeii a?ae niiniao ii?aeiaiiy c
?ioeie aeaiaioaie. A aiaeienuee?e iiaiie nenoai? aoeeaoia iiea oa?aeoa-
?eco?oueny ca’yceaie ca oeiii ia?aoiae?a ii caieiooiio eieo. Ia a?aeiiio
aiae aiaeienueeiai oa oe?a?inueeiai, aoeeaoia iiea oai?nueei? iiae
aenooia? aiaee?eoei nenoaiiei oa?oiiaaiiyi, aea

24

aeaiaioe iiaeooue aaciina?aaeiuei anooiaoe a ?iciiiai?oii ca’ycee c
?ioeie neiaaie noiiaeieo ii- eia, i?e oeueiio naiaioe/ii caaaa/oth/enue.
Ia oeie aeanoeainoi oai?nueeiai aoeeaoiiai iiey aaco?oueny iayai?noue
aieueoi? e?eueeino? iiina?aaeeiaaieo, iiae aaciina?aaeiio ca’yceia.

Oeiieia?/ia cinoaaeaiiy aoeeaoieo ENI a?aeaeaeaiinii??aeiaieo oa
ianii??aeiaieo iia aeyaeei, ui aoeeaoii iie?iiiey ii?aeiothoueny iiae
niaith, a oea aaaea aei ?o aca?iiiai ia?aoiaeo iaeia a iaeia, ui a
e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo ni?ey? ceeooth i?e?iiieia oa ENI ? ooai?aiith ia oeie
iniiai iae?iiieia, c yeeo neeaaeanoueny any eaene/ia nenoaia iiae.

Oeiieia?/i? ia?aeaei naiaioeee ne?a ia iicia/aiiy oi?i ? cania?a
ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo a ??ciino?oeoo?ieo iiaao na?ae/aoue i?i ?o ni?euei?
ci?ie, a, ioaea, e ni?euei? ci?noiai iioaioe??, ui iinoyoueny o naieo
eaene/ieo aeaiaioao. O naith /a?ao, iiae?ai?noue nieneiaeo iioaioe?e,
yea i?iyaey?oueny a oeiieia?/ii ni?aaiaeiinieo aoeeaoieo ENI
oe?a?inueei?, aiaeienueei? oa oai?nueei? iia ia?aeiio? a iayaiino?
?nioaaiiy caaaeueieo aeeaeiieo naiaioe/ieo ca’yce?a, coiiaeaieo
eia?ei-ineoieia?/iei iaoai?ciii ethaenueeiai ieneaiiy.

AENIIAEE

O aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia a?aecia/aii, ui oeiieia?/ia c?noaaeaiiy
aoeeaoii? naiaioeee a eaene/ieo nenoaiao oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa
oai?nueei? iia aeicaieeei eiiieaenii aea/eoe oaiiiai aoeeaoo ye yaeua,
iaoiiaeaiiai nioe?aeueieie, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieie e
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/ieie /eiieeaie.

Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee i?aai?/ii ii?aeiaei aiae?oe/iee ?
neioaoe/iee iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee a oe?a?inuee?e,
aiae?enuee?e oa oai?nuee?e iiaieo nenoaiao: c iaeiiai aieo, aoeeaoia
eaeneea aea/aeany ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia eiaeii? ie?aii acyoi?
aeine?aeaeoaaii? iiae, a c ae?oaiai – i?iaiaeeeiny ?? oeiieia?/ia
c?noaaeaiiy o oeeo iiaao.

Aei ni?eueieo aeanoeainoae aoeeaoieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue oe?a?inueei?,
aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia a?aeiineii: a) iayai?noue iie?nai??,
neiii?i??, aioii?i??; a) aaciina?aaei? oa iiina?aaeeiaai? ca’ycee i?ae
aoeeaoieie neiaaie; a) aenie?oeeoia e ?iie?oeeoia ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo
neiaaie aeine?aeaeoaaieo iia; a) naiaioe/io ?aaeoeai?noue iie?nai?/ieo
aoeeaoieo ?iaiiee?a; ?) ii-ae?e iie?nai?/ieo aoeeaoieo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue ia a?oie ca nooiaiai iie?nai??; ae) iayai?noue iiiinai?/ieo
ne?a; a) iayai?noue naiiiai neeaaeo, aea naie ooai?ththoue nenoaie c?
nai?ie ???a?o?ciaaieie no?oeoo?aie; ?) iiae?e nai ia
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeuei? oa ?aeiiooieoe?iiaeuei?; ae) aeaa aeaee
iaeiiooieoe?iiaeueieo nai.

25

Na?aae a?aei?iieo oa?aeoa?enoee aoeeaoieo ne?a oe?a?inueei?,
aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iiaieo nenoai iniaeeai aeae?eaii: a)
e?euee?nii ??ciee eaene/iee ? naiiee neeaae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai o?aaiaioa
eiaeii? iiae; a) iaiaeiaeiaee oa?aeoa? aoeeaoii? eaeneee:
caaaeueiiethaenueeee (a oe?a?inuee?e iia?), nioe?aeueii iaoiiaeaiee (a
aiae?enuee?e iia?) ? ineoieiai-o?c?ieia?/iee (a oai?nuee?e iia?); a)
ye?nii iia? oeie aoeeaoieo noinoie?a i?ae ethaeueie – “aeia?i/eiiee
aoeeao” a aoeeaoi?e eaeneoe? aiae?enueei? iiae oa
“noni?eueii-?noi?e/iee” a oai?nuee?e iia?; a) iaiaeiaeiaa iaiiaiaiiy
naiaioe/iiai i?inoi?o aoeeaoieie neiaaie; ?) cia/ia i?aaaethaaiiy
iiina?aaeeiaaieo ca’yce?a i?ae aoeeaoieie neiaaie iaae aaciina?aaei?ie
(a oai?nuee?e iia?), ia a?aei?io a?ae oe?a?inueei? oa aiae?enueei?; ae)
aenieee nooi?iue niieo/oaaiino? aoeeaoieo ?iaiiee?a c ?ioeie /anoeiaie
iiae (a aiae?enueeiio iaoa??ae?) ii??aiyii c oe?a?inueeei oa oai?nueeei;
a)ia-yaiinoue iaoe?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee ae?aaeaiiy aoeeaoo
(oe?a-n?eue;kalap; kezcsok).

sseinii oa eieueeinii iniaeeainoi e oa?aeoa?enoeee aoeeaoieo ne?a i ?o
cia/aiue a oe?a?inuee?e, aiae?enuee?e oa oai?nuee?e iiaieo nenoaiao
aia?oa a neio?iiiiio ieaii i?aaenoaaeythoue aoeeaoio eaeneeo o aeaeyaei
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo iieia ye o?aaiaio?a nenoaiii aii?yaeeiaaieo iiaieo
oa?oiiaaiue c oi/ee ci?o ?o nenoaiii-no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe??,
aca?iiaiaeiioaiue neeaaeieo aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae aea/aiiy ca’yce?a i?ae
noi?aeieie e ianoiiaeieie eaeneei-naiaioe/ieie a?oiaie; i?iaaaeaii ?o
oeiieia?/iee aiae?c.

O ?iaio? ?ice?eoi nenoaii? ca’ycee oa ???a?o?/i? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae
aoeeaoieie neiaaie a iiei, i?iaiae?ciaaii ciai?oith aoaeiao ? aioo??oith
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?io i?aaiicaoeith aoeeaoieo iieia aeineiaeaeoaaieo iia,
a oaeiae aeaeieaii caaaeuei? e niaoeeo?/i? aeanoeaino? ENI.

Oeiieia?/iee aiae?c aoeeaoii? naiaioeee a eaene/ieo nenoaiao
oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia ? iaea?aeaieo aoeeaoieo ENI
aeaa i?aenoaao ?icaeyaeaoe aoeeaoi? iiey ye eiiaaieoeueoo?ieia?/ii
nooiino?, ui iathoue naith no?oeoo?o: yae?i, ia?eoa??th, aeaiaioe,
iia’ycai? aaciina?aaeiiie e iiina?aaeeiaaieie ca’yceaie, iie?iiiey c
i?e?ioeaio?aie ? ia?eoa???th, ?o aiaeiinio naiinoieiinoue, iai?yiie,
neeo aca?iia?aeiioaiue iiae yae?ii ? ia?eoa???th, yae?ii ? aeaiaioaie,
yae?ii oa i?e?iiieyie oiui.

??ciiiai?oii naiaioe/i? ca’ycee oa a?aeiioaiiy i?ae aoeeaoieie
?iaiieeaie a iaaeao ie?aieo i?aea?oi, a?oi, a oaeiae ?o ?aeiinoyo
aeicaieythoue aeyaeyoe iaenooo?aio?, iaeoiioi e iaeae??aiioi aeaoaei
eiioi?eaoeaiiai ooieoeiiioaaiiy ne?a, ?o cia/ouinoi, ia?aaea/i ieie
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo iniaeeainoae iin??a iiae oa ?o
ineoieiai-o?c?ieiai/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ia iniiai yeeo oi?iothoueny
ea?oeie na?oo.

Cia?aaeaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee o oi?ii a?aoa aeaei iiaeeeainoue
e?euee?nii ? ye?nii ioe?ieoe e aecia/eoe naiaioe/i? aeanoeaino? oa
caeiie oi?ioaaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee a oe?eiio i ?? eiiiiiaio?a
cie?aia. A?aoi/iee niin?a i?aaenoaaeaiiy naiaioe/ieo ca’yceia
oa naiaioe/ii?

26

no?oeoo?e aoeeaoii? eaeneee caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueio iai/iinoue, ia
iniia? yei? iiaeia aea/aoe aoaeue-yea nenoaiii-no?oeoo?ia oa?oiiaaiiy
eaeneee ye nii??aeiaieo, aeecueeinii??aeiaieo, oae ?
a?aeaeaeaiinii??aeiaieo e ianii??aeiaieo iia. O a?aoi iiaiinoth
aiaenooii ia?aoeie aeoa oa iiaoi? ne?a, a oea aenoaa? ia ia?aaeiie ieai
oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy ? ?icoaooaaiiy aoeeaoieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue
oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?/ieo a?aenoaiae iiae ieie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoeeaoieo iie?a oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei?
iiaieo nenoai i?aaenoaaey? oe?e?nio ea?oeio aiaeia?aaeaiiy oi?i ?
cania?a i?iyao aoeeaoo ia eeoa c nooi e?iaa?-noe/ieo iiceoe?e, a e c
iaeyaeo ia eiai oii: iin??a iia, noaaeaiiy aei noni?eueieo ii?i, oeyo?a
ia?aaea/? aoeeaoo iiaaae?iee, ni?eeoaaiiy, aioo??oiueiai noaio,
ni?eeiyooy ia’?eoeaii? ae?eniino?.

Aoeeaoi? eaeneei-naiaioe/i? iiey iinoathoue ye iiaii nenoaie c /?oei
ae?aaeaieie no?oeoo?aie ? aiaeii/an ye o?aaiaioe iaoeiiiaeueieo
eoeueoo?, o yeeo ciaoiaeyoue nai? aiaeia?aaeaiiy iaiiiioii ithaine
aeooiaiiai aeeooy, naiaeiiinoi ethaeae, niinia ?nioaaiiy, noni?eueia
aeiyeueiinoue, cae/ee, o?aaeeoe?? oiui, oiaoi aoeeaoi? ENI iaaoaathoue
oe?oiai ? neeaaei?oiai ci?noo:

1) iieueiaa iiaeaeue aoeeaoo oeoia/eoue aeine?aeaeoaaii iiae ye nenoaie
i?aenenoai, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aca?iiaei?th oa aca?iii?iieeiaiiyi;

2) ca oe??th iiaeaeeth iiae ?icaeyaeathoueny ye aacia?a?aii
ooieoeiiiaeueii nenoaie, a yeeo i?ioiaeeoue i?ioean iinoieii? ciiie oa
ia?aaoaeiae aeaiaio?a ? aiaeiioaiue i?ae ieie;

3) o i?ioeani iieueiaiai no?oeoo?oaaiiy aoeeaoii? eaeneee
?ice?eaathoueny aeiaeaeoe/ii ca’ycee iiae iiaieie yaeuaie ? iicaiiaiith
ae?eni?noth. Aeaiaioe aoeeaoiiai iiey a?aeiinyoueny ia o?eueee aei iiae,
a e aei eoeueoo?e, oa?aeoa?ecoth/enue i?e oeueiio ye iiaieie, oae ?
nai???aeieie aeno?aeiiaa?noe/ieie aei??aie, a ?o naiaioeea aenooia? ii
nooi ?aeiinoth iiaiiai cia/aiiy ? iicaiiaiiai ciinoo;

4) o iaoai?ci? ca’yce?a iiae iiaieie yaeuaie oa iicaiiaiith ae?eniinoth,
?o caeiiiii?iinoth aeyaey?oueny iaoe?iiaeueia niaoeeo?ea iiaii?
na?aeiiinoi, iaoiiaeaia nioeiaeueieie (noni?eueii-iieioe/ieie,
eoeueoo?ieie, aeiiii?/ieie) ? ineoieiai-oiciieiai/ieie (iaioaeioao,
oice/iee ? aeooiaiee noai, aeiyeuei?noue iiceo oa ia?aiai? nenoaie oiui)
oaeoi?aie.

Ioaea, aoeeaoi? ENI oe?a?inueei?, aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia
no?oeoo?othoueny ia iniiai aiinaieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ? eiai?oeaii?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?o aeaiaioia caaaeyee aeaiai/i?e iai?aaeaiino? aei
i?aaeiaoiiai na?oo e aei iiae, a oaeiae i?iiiaeeiaiai iieiaeaiiy i?ae
ieie. Aaaaoiiai?oi?noue iiaieo eiioeaio?a, ui ia?aaeathoue ?aaeuei?
i?aaeiaoe ? i?ioeane ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo a ?o ??ciianiaeoieo
a?aeiioaiiyo oa ca’yceao, inieneththoueny ia eiai?oeaiiio ??ai?. Ia
oeueiio ??ai? oi?iothoueny oae? eaoaai???: aoeeaoia iiiaeeia, ui
neeaaea?oueny c aoeeaoieo aeaiaio?a; aea?aaeaioi?noue (neiii?i?y
aoeeaoieo aeaiaioia); i?ioeeaaeiinoue (aioii?i?y aoeeaoieo aeaiaio?a)

27

oiui. O ?acoeueoaoi eiai?oeaiee eiioo? aoeeaoieo iie?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iia iiaeia aaaaeaoe iiiyo?eiei iieai aai aeeaeiiei ci?noii iiaiiai iiey.

5) Iieueiaee iiaeoiae aei ciinoiai? no?oeoo?e aoeeaoiiai neiaa cia/iith
i??ith ?ice?eaa? eiai iaeoiioi naiaioe/ii aiaeoiiee,
oa?aeoa?eco? ci?io eiai naiaioeee i?ae aieeaii e?iaa?noe/ieo oa
aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieo oaeoi??a;

6) iiaeiiaia aeineiaeaeaiiy aoeeaoiiai iiey ae?ioo? i?iaeaio
niiaaiaeiioaiiy oi?aa?naeueiiai oa ?ae?iaoi?/iiai a iiaieo nenoaiao, a
oaeiae aeyaey? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?io niaoeeo?eo /eaioaaiiy ?
aiaeia?aaeaiiy o ieo ia’?eoeaii? ae?eniino?. Aeaia ye?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea
aeiiiaith?oueny ua e eieueeiniith iciaeith — aeaeieaiiyi oeo aoeeaoieo
ne?a, ye? aeae?athoueny aeine?aeaeoaaieie iiaaie aeey iicia/aiiy iaeii??
? o??? naii? aai iiaeiaii? neooaoe??.

Cinoaaiee aiae?c aoeeaoieo iieia oe?a?inueei?, aiaeienueei? oa
oai?nueei? iia aeyaea iaiaoiaeiinoue o?aooaaiiy oinieo acaaiia?aeiioaiue
iiae iiaith oa eoeueoo?ith a oe?eiio.

Aeaiee aniaeo o ii?aeiaiii c oeiieia?/iei c?noaaeaiiyi iniaeeainoae
eoeueoo?e iaei??? iiae c eoeueoo?aie ?ioeo ?iciino?oeoo?ieo iia aea?
iiooiao aei i?iaaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiue c oi?ioaaiiy iiaii? iniaenoino?
iiaiai oeio — iieacieea aeooiaiiai aeaaiiieo//y noniieuenoaa,
iniaenoino? aeniei? ?ioa?iaoeiiiaeueii? eoeueoo?e.

?acoeueoaoe aeaii? ?iaioe iiaeooue oni?oii aeei?enoiaoaaoeny o oai??? ?
i?aeoeoe? ia?aeeaaeo, i?ioeani oe?eueiiai oa aocianueeiai aeeeaaeaiiy
?iicaiieo iia, eaeneeia?aoi/iie i?aeoeoei, i?eeeaaei?e e?iaa?noeoe?,
noai?aiii ia?aaeoiia iia?aoeaiiai ni?eeoaaiiy ethaeeie c iaoeiith,
oi?ioaaii? “aaieia aeaiieo”, iiaoaeia? ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo oiui.

NIENIE I?AOeUe C OAIE AeENA?OAOe??

Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaeia?aaeaii oaeeie
ioae?eaoe?yie:

1. Aoeeaoia eaeneea a oe?a?inueeie, aiae?enuee?e oa oai?nuee?e iiaao:
Iiiia?ao?y. – Oaeai?iae: ?ioi?i.-aeaeaai. aaaionoai «?AA», 1998. – 256
n.

2. Eaene/ia iie?nai?y ye niin?a nenoaiii? i?aaiicaoe?? aoeeaoii? eaeneee
// I?iaeaie ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? o?eieia??: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. —
Oaeai?iae: Aini?ic?aooieiaee ?aaeaeoeieii-aeaeaaie/ee aiaeaeie eii?oaoo
?ioi?iaoe??, 1998. — N. 54-58.

3. Aeayei i?iaeaie oeiieia?/iiai c?noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? oa
aiae?enueei? iia // Eiiia?aoeaiee aiae?c: Ieoaiiy oai??? ? i?aeoeee: Ca.
iaoe. i?aoeue. – E.: IIE AI, 1992. — N. 69-72.

4. Canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo oai??e a ii??aiyeueii-cinoaaieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo // Iaoeiaee a?niee Oaeai?iaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y
?iiaii-aa?iainueea oieieia?y.- Aei. 1.- Oaeai?iae, 1994. N. 40-43.

28

5. Neiai o iiai oa neiaieeo // Iaoeiaee ainiee Oaeai?iaenueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na?iy ?iiaii-aa?iainueea oieieia?y. — Aei. 3 — Oaeai?iae,
1996. — N. 47-49.

6. 0 naiaioe/aneie niioianaiiinoe ?onneiai oaaaeaoue n aai aaiaa?neei
yeaeaaeaioii // Anta Iungarina. — 1992. – ? 1. — N. 41-43.

7. I?eioeeiu e iaoiaeu eco/aiey naiaioe/aneie eioa?oa?aioeee // Anta
Iungarina. — 1997. – ?? 4-5. — N. a5-70.

8. Iniaeeainoi oeoia/aiiy ne?a-aea?aaeaio?a o ianii??aeiaieo iiaao —
oai?nuee?e oa aiaeienueeie // Anta Iungarina. — 1997. – ? 6. — N. 90-93.

9. Nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ii aniaeoe oe?a?inueei-oai?nueeeo i?aeiiaieo
eiioaeo?a // Anta Iungarina. – 1998. — ? 7-8. – N. 44-46.

10. Iiiinaii/i? aeaiaioe oi?ioaaiiy aoeeaoiiai iiey a oai?nueeie iiai //
Anta Iungarina. – 1998. – ? 7-8. — N. 47-49.

11. Yoeeao a nenoaia nia?aiaiiiai oe?aeineiai ycuea // Iaoa?eaeu eiio.
«I?eioeeiu e iaoiaeu ooieoeeiiaeueii-naiaioe/aneiai iienaiey ycuea:
eoiae, iai?aaeaiey, ia?niaeoeau». — Iineaa — Neioa?iiieue, 1997. — N.
299-301.

12. Ua ?ac i?i naiaioe/ia iiea // Oace aeii. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. iieiaeeo
a/aieo, i?enay/aii? 45-?i//th OaeAeO. – Oaeai?iae, 1990. — N. 84-85.

13. E aii?ino i iaoiaeeea oeiieiae/aneiai niiinoaaeaiey oe?aeineiai e
aiaeeeneiai ycueia // Oacenu aeiee. V iao/. eiio. iieiaeuo o/aiuo.–
Oaeai?iae, 1990. — N. 13.

14. ?ieue ? iinoea iiae o noniieuenoai // Oace aeii. 50-i? i?aenoie.
eiio. i?io.- aeee. neeaaeo OaeAeO. — Oaeai?iae, 1996. — N. 21.

15. Iniaeeainoi iiaoaeiae eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai iiey o ianii??aeiaieo
iiaao // Oace aeiii-a?aeae 49-i? iiaenoie. eiio. i?io.-aeee. neeaaeo
OaeAeO. — Oaeai?iae, 1995. — N. 12.

16. Nouanoaeoaeueiua, oiio?aaeythueany aeey au?aaeaiey ?aeeaeiciuo
/oanoa a aiaeeeneii e aaiaa?neii ycueao // Oacenu aeiee. IX Iaaeaeoia?.
eiia?anna oeiii-oa?iaaaeia. — Jyvaeskylae, 1995. — N. 152.

17. E enneaaeiaaieth ?onnei-aaiaa?neeo naiaioe/aneeo ?acee/ee // Oacenu
aeiee. VII Iaaeaeoia?. eiia?anna oeiii-oa?iaaaeia. — Debrecen, 1990. —
N. 45.

18. Leaoini-semantic group of nouns denoting “respect” in English and
Hungarian languages (on the material of English and Hungarian
dictionaries) // Acta Hungarica. — 1994. – ? 3. – N. 45-58.

19. Nouns Denoting Religious Feelings in English and Hungarian //
Sessiones sectionum Lexicologia & Onomastica.- Pars V.- Jyvaeskylae,
1996. – ?. 27-29.

29

20. Presentation of the lexico-semantic group becsuelet in Hungarian and
English dictionaries // Oacenu aeiee. VI Iaaeaeoia?. eiia?anna ii
oa?iaaaeaieth. — Eger, 1994. — ?. 24-25.

AIIOAOe??

Oaa?ai I.I. Aoeeaoia naiaioeea a eaene/ieo nenoaiao oe?a?inueei?,
aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeueiinoth 10.02.15 — caaaeueia iiaiciaanoai. – Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii c?noaaiiio eaeneei-naiaioe/iiio aiae?co
?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy aoeeaoo a oe?a?inuee?e, aiaeienuee?e oa
oai?nueeie iiaao. ?ic?iaeaii iiao iaoiaeeeo oeiieiai/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo a?oi ne?a, a oaeiae eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo iie?a, ui
aaco?oueny ia ii?aeiaii? e?iaainoe/ieo iaoiaeia c iaoaiaoe/ieie
oai??yie. Aeae?eaii e?eueeinii oa ye?ni? ia?aiao?e iiaeiiaiiai
c?noaaeaiiy ?iaiiee?a. Iae?aneaii oeyoe oai?aoe/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie e?iaaieoeueoo?ieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo oa eiai?oeaiiai
aniaeoo aea/aiiy i?aeiiaieo eiioaeo?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii a oai??? ? i?aeoeoei ia?aeeaaeo, aeeth/ath/e
iaoeiiee ia?aeeaae, a i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia, o i?aeaioiaoei
eo?n?a, niaoeeo?n?a c eaeneeieia??/eaeneeia?ao?? oe?a?inueei?,
aiae?enueei? oa oai?nueei? iia, eaeneeia?ao?/iie i?aeoeoei oa
i?eeeaaei?e e?iaa?noeoe?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoeeaoia naiaioeea, oe?a?inueei-aiae?enueei-oai?nuee?
a?aeiia?aeieee, eiiaaieoeueoo?ieia?/iee i?aeo?ae oa eiai?oeaiee aniaeo
i?aeiiaieo eiioaeoia, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iee eiiiiiaio.

Oaaeai I.I. Yoeeaoiay naiaioeea a eaene/aneeo nenoaiao oe?aeineiai,
aiaeeeneiai e aaiaa?neiai ycueia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.15 — iauaa ycueiciaiea. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia niiinoaaeoaeueiiio
eaeneei-naiaioe/aneiio aiaeeco nouanoaeoaeueiuo, iaicia/athueo yoeeao, a
oe?aeineii, aiaeeeneii e aaiaa?neii ycueao. ?ac?aaioaia iiaay iaoiaeeea
oeiieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey eaeneei-naiaioe/aneeo a?oii neia, a oaeaea
eaeneei-naiaioe/aneeo iieae, iniiauaathuayny ia ni/aoaiee
eeiaaenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia n iaoaiaoe/aneeie oai?eyie. Onoaiiaeaiu
eiee/anoaaiiua e ea/anoaaiiua ia?aiao?u iaaeuycueiaiai niiinoaaeaiey
nouanoaeoaeueiuo. Ii?aaeaeaiu iooe oai?aoe/aneiai e i?aeeoe/a-

30

neiai ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu eeiaaieoeueoo?ieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea, a oaeaea
eiaieoeaiiai aniaeoa eco/aiey iaaeuycueiauo eiioaeoia.
?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu

a oai?ee e i?aeoeea ia?aaiaea, aeeth/ay iaoeiiue ia?aaiae, a i?ioeanna
i?aiiaeaaaiey eiino?aiiuo ycueia, i?e iiaeaioiaea eo?nia e niaoeeo?nia
ii eaeneeieiaee/eaeneeia?aoee oe?aeineiai, aiaeeeneiai e aaiaa?neiai
ycueia, eaeneeia?aoe/aneie i?aeoeea e i?eeeaaeiie eeiaaenoeea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yoeeaoiay naiaioeea, oe?aeinei-aiaeeenei-aaiaa?neea
niioaaonoaey, eeiaaieoeueoo?ieiae/aneee iiaeoiae e eiaieoeaiue aniaeo
iaaeuycueiauo eiioaeoia, iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iue eiiiiiaio.

Fabian M.P. Etiquette semantics in the Ukrainian, English and Hungarian
lexical systems.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 10.02.15 – general
linguistics.- Taras Shevchenko Kyiv University, Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the comperetive lexico-semantic analysis
of the nouns denoting etiquette in the Ukrainian, English and Hungarian
languages. A new direction in typological investigation of both
lexico-semantic word groups and lexico-semantic fields based on the
combination of linguistic methods with mathematical theories is
elaborated. Both quantitative and qualitative parameters of the
nouns’’interlanguage comparison have been set up. Theoretical and
practical solutions to the problem of both linguoculturological approach
and cognitive aspect of interlanguage contacts have been developed. The
results of the work may be employed to the theory and practice of
translation, including machine translation, to the process of foreign
language teaching, to working out lectures and specialized courses in
lexicology/lexicography of the Ukrainian, English and Hungarian
languages, lexicographical practice and applied linguistics.

Key words: etiquette semantics, the Ukrainian – English – Hungarian
correspondences, linguocultorological approach and cognitive aspect of
interlanguage contacts, national-cultural component.

Похожие записи