3

32

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?I. I. I. Ae?AAIIAIIAA

NEEAeAI Na?a?e Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 378. 1. 14

A?aiiii?/i? iniiae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o aeu?e oeie?

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a E?eai??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo?,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

ae?eniee /eai AII Oe?a?ie

Ooi?aeaanueeee Aeieo?i Ieaenaiae?iae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao

?i. I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy ?
e?aneaiiy;

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaea?ia ?iaa?o Ieeeoiae/,

Aea?aeaaia eueioia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie,

i. E??iaia?aae, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe;

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiae???anueeee Ai?en Iie?eiae/,

Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
iaaeaaia?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. E. Ooeinueeiai, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Iaeana.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “___” _______________ 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei?

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 13 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14-00aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26. 053. 01 o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601,i. Ee?a, aoe.
Ie?iaiaa, 9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaea-aia?/iiai oi?aa?ceoaoo ?i. I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, i. Ee?a,
aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 12 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I. I. ?oaeieoeueea

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioeCaaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiyAeooaeuei?noue ?
oe?eani?yiiaaii?noue. O ca’yceo c aeiei??iiith ?aoi?iith aeui? ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, ye?nii iiaeie aeiiaaie, ye? noaaeoue aeeooy aei aeioneieea aoco
a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, c?inoaiiy oaiaeaioe?? oaoi?caoe?? oa
eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, iac??ea aino?a iaiao?aei?noue a
a?aiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo noiniaii caaaeaiue oaeineiiaeaiiy
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, i?iaeooaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo iaa/aeueieo
oaoiieia?e. Oaeei /eiii, ci?ia oa?aeoa?o ? ci?noo ae?yeueiino? aieiaieo
ae?th/eo in?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano – aeeeaaea/a ? nooaeaioa, a oaeiae
oa?aeoa?o aoc?anueeiai iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua aeiaaathoue i?eioeeiiai
iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano aeui? oeiee.

O iaaeaaia?oe? oa ineoieia?? aei iei?oiueiai /ano iaeiie/aiee cia/iee
oiiae, yeee ?ice?eaa? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy. Eiai
ineoieia?/i? iaoai?cie iaa?oioiaai? a oai??yo iniaenoino?, ae?yeueiino?
oa ni?eeoaaiiy: i?i ?ioaa?aeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee iniaenoino?, iaoai?cie
?? ia?niiae?caoe?? ? ?icaeoeo a ae?yeueiino? (A.A.Aiaiue?a,
I.Ae.Aeia?ei?i, I.N.Eaaai, I.I.Eaiioue?a, A.I.I’yneuaa, N.E.?oa?iooaei
oa ?i.); i?i ae?yeuei?noue oa ?? noa’?eo (E.N.Aeaionueeee,
I.ss.Aaeueia??i, A.A.Aeaaeaeia, ?.I.Eeeiia oa ?i.); i?i ineoieia?/ia ye
ae?yeuei?noue (N.A.Aaoeuaa, A.N.Einothe, I.I.Eaiioue?a, I.I.Iai/einueea,
A.I.Iieyei, TH.I.Naia??i, Ae.A.Aeueeii?i oa ?i.); i?i
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue oa ?? ?icaeoie (A.N.Ia?e?i, ?.?.?acaeoeueeee,
A.I.Oaieia oa ?i.); i?i ni?eeoaaiiy ? noinoiee iniaenoino?
(I.I.Aiaeaeueia, A.O.Eiiia, A.I.I’yneuaa oa ?i.).

Iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aiiy iaaoee ?icaeoeo a ?iaioao,
i?enay/aieo nooiino? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy ? oiiaai, ye? caaacia/othoue eiai
oe?e?ni?noue (N.?.A?oaiaaeuenueeee, TH.E.Aaaainueeee, A.I.Aaciaeueei,
A.?.Aiiaea?, N.O.Aii/a?aiei, A.N.?eue?i, I.ss.Naa/aiei, I.I.Neaoe?i,
Ae.I.Ooi?aeaanueeee, I.Ae.ss?ia/aiei oa ?i.), oi?ioaaiith ci?noo ina?oe
(A.A.E?a?anueeee, A.N.Eaaeiueia, A.I.Nioi?, I.?.Noaanueeee, I.?.Oe?eue
oa ?i.), iaieiae?iith ae?yeuei?noth ? ?icaeoeia? iniaenoino? (A.I.Aaee,
I.A.Eocuei?ia, I.A.Ii?ic, I.I.?oaeieoeueea, A.I.Neanoai?i, I.O.Oaeec?ia
oa ?i.).

Iaoeia? oyaeaiiy i?i i?ioean iaa/aiiy ?noioii caaaa/othoue
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iia’ycai? c aeoea?caoe??th naiino?eii? i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oeo, ooi iaa/a?oueny (A.E.Ao?ye, A.A.Eicaeia, ?.ss.Ea?ia?,
I.A.I?euenii,I.?.I?aeeanenoee oa ?i.), c oaeineiiaeaiiyi iaoiae?a
iaa/aiiy (I.I.Aeaenthe, TH.E.Aaaainueeee, I.I.Neaoe?i oa ?i.), c
iioei?caoe??th i?ioeano iaa/aiiy (TH.E.Aaaainueeee, A.I.Aiae???anueeee,
I.I.AEeeueoeia oa ?i.), c iaoeiaith i?aai?caoe??th iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano
? iaaeaaia?/iith a?aiiii?eith (E.A.Ia?eaa?aeo, I.A.Iieeaia, A.I.Iaoi/ee,
A.I.Ianoa?aiei, ?.I.?a/aiei oa ?i.).

?acii ?c oei, o i?aeoeoe? aeui? oeiee aeiiei? caeeoathoueny
iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aieie nooi?noue ? ci?no iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee,
a?aiiii?/i? iniiae i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii;
nenoaia a?aiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy oiia
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a; a?aeiia?aei?noue ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a
o?ce/iei oa ineoieia?/iei iiaeeeainoyi ethaeeie ia oii? aoiie, no?ano,
aiioe?eiiai noaio; iioei?caoe?y cao?ao o?ce/ii? aia?a??, ia?aiaiai
iai?oaeaiiy ? /ano ethaeeiith a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?; a?aiiii?/i? oiiae
aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean?. Oea noia?a/eoue iio?aaai nioe?aeueii? oa iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeoeee. C o?aooaaiiyi cacia/aii? noia?a/iino?, c iaoith ?icaeyaeo
iacaaieo i?iaeai ia?aii oaio iaoi? ?iaioe, yea noi?ioeueiaaia oae:
“A?aiiii?/i? iniiae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o aeu?e oeie?”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaeaaeeoue aei eiiieaenii? oaie E?eai??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo “Oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? na?aaeiuei? oa aeui? oeiee”, yea aoea aeeth/aia ia eiieo?ni?e
iniia? a eii?aeeiaoe?eiee ieai iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeine?aeaeaiue
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe ? iaa/aeueiee i?ioean o aeu?e
oeie? ye nioe?ioaoi?/ia nenoaia.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — nooi?noue ? ci?no a?aiiii?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei
i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii o aeuiio iaa/aeueiiio
caeeaae?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? e aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ai?iaaoe??
oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? a?aiiii?caoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy a no/ani?e aeu?e
oeie?.

Eiioeaioe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aiiii?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ?
neeaaeiaith i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii o aeu?e
oeie?. Aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeeoue
a?ae ae??oaiiy aaaaoueio i?iaeai ye o?aaeeoe?eii aeeaeaeoe/ieo, oae ?
oeo, eio?? iaeaaeaoue aei aaeoc? iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee. Nie?ath/enue
ia oea, ie ?icaeyaea?ii iaaeaaia?/io a?aiiii?eo ye iiaee iai?yi no/anii?
iaaeaaia?ee.

A iniiao i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii o aeu?e oeie?
caeeaaeaii oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue a?aiiii?caoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy.

Iiaeaeue yaey? niaith i?iaeooaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano c o?aooaaiiyi
a?aiiii?/ieo aeiia; aea/aiiy ? i?iaeooaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ?
nooaeaio?a c iiceoe?? a?aiiii?/ieo e?eoa???a; i?aai?caoe?th iaa/aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua ia iniia? a?aiiii?/ieo aeiia ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.Iiaeaeue
aecia/a? iaoo ? ci?no a?aiiii?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia iniia?
ia’?eoeaieo iio?aa iie?auaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino?. Nenoaiiooai?thth/ei
oaeoi?ii ? aeinoaoiy nooi?iue a?aiiii?caoe?? i?aoe? aeeeaaea/?a ?
nooaeaio?a, a oaeiae a?aeiia?aei?noue noaio iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua
a?aiiii?/iei aeiiaai.

I?ia?aeia ?aeay aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui a?aiiii?caoe?y
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia? aooe ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia
i?aoe?, iiaooo ? a?aeii/eieo an?i o/anieeai iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. Aiia
caaacia/o? aenieo ye?noue iaa/aiiy, ?icaeoie oai?/eo cae?aiinoae
nooaeaio?a, noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey aa?iii?eiiai, anaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? ciaoiaeyoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
caaaeuei?e a?iioac? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Caaaeueia a?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?aae?caoe?y ia i?aeoeoe? a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? a?aiiii?/ieo iniia iiaea i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
? ye?noue i?aeaioiaee aeioneiee?a aoco, caa?aaoe i?e oeueiio caei?ia’y ?
caaacia/eoe oei naiei aa?iii?eiee ?icaeoie on?o o/aniee?a iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano.

Caaaeueio a?iioaco eiie?aoeciaaii /anoeiaeie:

1. ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean a?aiiii?/ieo ii?i ?
aeiia aeanoue ciiao iie?ioeoe iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/?a,
iaa/aeueio ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a, a oaeiae ia?aiao?e iaa/aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua.

2. A?aiiii?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano caaacia/o? icaei?iaeaiiy i?aoe?,
?icaeaa? oai?/? cae?aiino? nooaeaio?a, ni?ey? caa?aaeaiith caei?ia’y ?
oi?ioaaiith iiaeo eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae.

A?aeiia?aeii aei i?aaeiaoa, iaoe e a?iioace aecia/aii iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe aeieeiaiiy e ?icaeoie a?aiiii?ee ? ia oe?e iniia?
aecia/eoe ia?aaeoiiae noaiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee; aeyaeoe
?ieue, i?noea ? cia/aiiy a?aiiii?ee a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? aeui? oeiee.

2. Iaa?oiooaaoe e ?icaeyiooe oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue a?aiiii?caoe?? i?ioeano
iaa/aiiy.

3. Aeaoe nenoaiia ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaiaio?a, ye? ? neeaaeiaeie
ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?.

4. Iaa?oiooaaoe ? aenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iaoaaoe iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee.

5. Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue a?aiiii?caoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a ?aaeueieo oiiaao aeui? oeiee.

6. I?aeaioiaeoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??ai?
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a c oaeineiiaeaiiy
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia iniia? iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iieiaeaiiy ? eaoaai???
ae?aeaeoeee, i?aoe? o?einio?a, ineoieia?a ? iaaeaaia?a o aaeoc?
aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoai, o?einionuee? oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? ?ice?eaathoue aaaaoianiaeoio i?e?iaeo ae?yeueiino?
ethaeeie.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue:

— iaoiaeieia?y eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei
ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaia?/ieo nenoai (I.A.Eocuei?ia);

— eiioeaioe?y iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia?? (A.I.Aaciaeueei);

— iieiaeaiiy i?i ???a?o?/io no?oeoo?o aeinyaiaiiy iaeaeuiai ?acoeueoaoo
a iaa/aii? (I.A.Eocuei?ia, A.I.Aaciaeueei, ?.ss.Ea?ia?, I.I.Neaoe?i);

— iiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy ye i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth (A.E.sseoi?i,A.A.Aiaiue?a,
I.A.Eocuei?ia, A.O.Eiiia);

— iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy (A.A.Ea?iia);

— nenoaiii-ae?yeuei?niee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy e?ioeaai? iaoe
i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a (I.I.Eaiioue?a);

— oe?ii?niee i?aeo?ae aei ia’?eo?a ? yaeu ae?yeueiino?, ye? aea/athoueny
(N.?.A?oaiaaeueneee, I.I.Aa?aeoeueeee);

— a?aiiii?/iee i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy o aeu?e oeie? (I.A.Iieeaia,
A.I.Ioi?iia, A.I.C?i/aiei, A.I.Iaoi/ee, A.I.Ianoa?aiei).

I?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue o o?e aoaie
i?ioyaii 1989-1998 ??.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1989-1992) aoea i?iaiae?ciaaia o?einionueea e?oa?aoo?a
c i?iaeaie oai??? nenoai, aea/ai? ineoieia?/i? e iaaeaaia?/i? aeaea?aea,
ye? ?ice?eaathoue aaaaoianiaeoio i?e?iaeo ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, a
oaeiae e?oa?aoo?a c a?aiiii?ee oa iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee. ?ic?iaeaii
i?ia?aio aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aaenoaaeaii caaaeueio a?iioaco, aecia/aii
ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo oa caaaeaiiy.

I?iaaaeaii eiinoaooth/? aenia?eiaioe a E?eai??cueeiio aeiiii?/iiio
?inoeooo? Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo e
E?eai??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo?. I?ae /an
aenia?eiaio?a aeine?aeaeaii nooi?iue ?aaeueii? a?aiiii?caoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. ?ic?iaeaii e ai?iaiaaii iaoiaeeee.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1992-1995) iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii iniiai?
eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy iiaoaeiae caaaeueii? nenoaie iaaeaaia?/ii?
a?aiiii?ee. I?iaiae?ciaaii iaoa??aee eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo.
Cae?eniaii aenia?eiaioaeueio ia?aa??eo oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy ia iniia?
?aea? a?aiiii?/ii? i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1995-1998) i?iaeiaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a E?eai??cueeiio aeiiii?/iiio ?inoeooo? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? E?eai??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo?. I?iaiae?ciaaii iaoa??aee oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaioo. Caaa?oaii aenia?eiaioaeueio ia?aa??eo i?aai?caoe?? ?
oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii ia iniia? iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee.
Aianaii ei?aeoeae o oi?ioethaaiiy eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a iiiia?ao??, iaoeiaeo noaooyo,
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo ? oacao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaieo caaea/, c iaoith
ia?aa??ee a?iioac, o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee oai?aoe/iiai e aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aiae?c ? neioac, c?noaaeaiiy e ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo c i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aoee io?eiai? a i?ioean? aea/aiiy o?einionueei?,
ineoieia?/ii?, nioe?ieia?/ii?, iaaeaaia?/ii? oa a?aiiii?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e;

— iaaeaaia?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii;

— niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?yeuei?noth aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a ca
aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaii? oeaee;

— iaoiaee iieooaaiiy, aan?aea, aieaooaaiiy, oanooaaiiy, ?ioa?a’thaaiiy;

— iaoiaee ioe?ithaaiiy: naiiioe?iea ? aenia?oia ioe?iea;

— ?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaethaaiiy;

— aeai?eoi?caoe?y ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a oa aeeeaaea/?a;

— iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio, ye?niee ? e?euee?niee aiae?c ?oiueiai
?acoeueoao?a ca aeiiiiiaith iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeany a E?eai??cueeiio aeiiii?/iiio ?inoeooo? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo e E?eai??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo?. Aeey io?eiaiiy aeayeeo ii??aiyeueieo aeaieo
aoee aeei?enoai? iaa/aeuei? aace E?eai??cueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee,
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo e E??iaia?aaenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.A.Aeiie/aiea. O
??ciiiai?oieo aenia?eiaioao acyee o/anoue a?eueo ye 3500 nooaeaio?a ?
380 aeeeaaea/?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio,
ui:

— io?eiaii ciaiiy, eio?? ?ice?eaathoue nooi?noue ? ci?no iaaeaaia?/ii?
a?aiiii?ee ye neeaaeiiai nenoaiiiai ia’?eoo, ui aea? iai i?aenoaao
noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i aeioe?euei?noue caii/aoeoaaiiy iiaiai iai?yio a
no/ani?e iaaeaaia?oe?;

— c iiceoe?? a?aiiii?ee aecia/aii oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o aoc? ia iniia? iioei?caoe?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nenoaie “aeeeaaea/ — nooaeaio — iaa/aeueia na?aaeiaeua” ye neeaaeiiai
nenoaiiiai ia’?eoo;

— iiaeaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaio nenoaiio eeaneo?eaoe?th aeaiaio?a, c yeeo
neeaaeathoueny oiiae ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o
iaa/aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?;

— aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?ithaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia
iniia? a?aiiii?/ieo e?eoa???a;

— iiaeeaeaii e io?eiaii iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie onoaeaieo oyaeaiue i?i
iioei?caoe?th cao?ao o?ce/ii? aia?a??, ia?aiaiai iai?oaeaiiy e /ano
aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iaoeiaiio aecia/aii?
“Iaaeaaia?/ia a?aiiii?ea”, a ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae?
a?aiiii?caoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy; o aecia/aii? aeinoaoiuei iiaii? e
eia?/ii caaa?oaii? nenoaie aeaiaio?a, ye? aenooiathoue oiiaaie
ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?; a
iaoeiaiio aaeaiooaaii? iaoiaeee ae?iaie/i? a?aiiii?ee c iaoith
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny oei, ui
?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii:

— iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? “Aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy
iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii aoco ia iniia? iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee (aeey
aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a)”;

— iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? “Aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a caniaaie iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee”;

— iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? “A?aiiii?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ye
aaaeeeaee oaeoi? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy”;

— iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? “Nenoaia aa?enoe/ieo ai?aa, ui noeioeththoue
niiioaiio iiao”.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a caeeaaeao aeui? ina?oe.

Iniiai? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c a?aiiii?caoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
E?eai??cueeiai aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, E??iaia?aaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.A.Aeiie/aiea, E?eai??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo e Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee.

I?ioyaii onueiai ia??iaeo oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aaoi?
iniaenoi a?aa o/anoue a ai?iaaoe?? oa i?aeoe/i?e ?aae?caoe?? ?ic?iaeaieo
iieiaeaiue ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e. O E?eai??cueeiio aeiiii?/iiio ?inoeooo?
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, E?eai??cueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo?, E??iaia?aaenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.A.Aeiie/aiea oa Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee i?iaaaeaii
o?eaaeo ?iaioo c iaoith ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy e
i?iaeooaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a c iiceoe??
a?aiiii?/ieo e?eoa???a, a oaeiae i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua
ia iniia? a?aiiii?/ieo aeiia ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Aeaeaii aeia?aeee, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy: ? 7/128 a?ae 01.12.1998 ?. — E?eai??cueeei aeiiii?/iei
?inoeoooii Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo; ?
11/24 a?ae 24.11.1998 ?. — E?eai??cueeei aea?aeaaiei iaaeaaia?/iei
?inoeoooii; ? 3/211 a?ae 12.11.1998 ?. — E??iaia?aaenueeei
aea?aeaaiei iaaeaaia?/iei oi?aa?neoaoii ?i.A.Aeiie/aiea; ? 114/98 a?ae
16.11.1998 ?. — Oa?e?anueeei aea?aeaaiei iaaeaaia?/iei oi?aa?neoaoii
?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a iaea?aeaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a
?ic?iaoe? a?aiiii?/ieo iniia iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o aeu?e oeie?, a
oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ai?iaaoe?? oai?aoe/ii?
iiaeae? a?aiiii?caoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a
23 iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 27,6
ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa. Na?aae ioae?eaoe?e iayai?: 1 iiiia?ao?y, 18
iaoeiaeo noaoae o aeaeaiiyo, caoaa?aeaeaieo AAE Oe?a?ie, 4
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?eethaeithaaeenue o
aeiiia?aeyo ia 3 i?aeia?iaeieo, Anaoe?a?inuee?e oa 4 i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo
eiioa?aioe?yo ? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo nai?ia?ao o I?inueeo,
?inoia?–ia–Aeiio, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo, Caii??aeae? oa E?eaiio ?ic?.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1.Nooi?noue oa ci?no iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee ye iiaiai iai?yio a
iaaeaaia?oe?.

2.Oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue a?aiiii?caoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy o aeuiio
iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?, yea i?noeoue:

— i?iaeooaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano c o?aooaaiiyi a?aiiii?/ieo aeiia;

— aea/aiiy ? i?iaeooaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a c
iiceoe?? a?aiiii?/ieo e?eoa???a;

— i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia iniia? a?aiiii?/ieo aeiia oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

3. Nenoaia oiia aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o
aeu?e oeie? ia iniia? iioei?caoe?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie “aeeeaaea/ —
nooaeaio — iaa/aeueia na?aaeiaeua”.

4. Iaoeiai iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? noiniaii aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia iniia? iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee.

A??ia?aei?noue oa iaa?oioiaai?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?o noaoenoe/iei oa aenia?eiaioaeueiei aeiaaaeaiiyi,
o oiio /ene?:

— iaoiaeieia?/iei iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeo?aeieo iiceoe?e;

— /?oeei aecia/aiiyi i?iaeai, caaaeaiue ? i?aaeiaoii? aaeoc?
aeine?ae-aeaiiy;

— oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy, caniiaaiith ia
eiioeaioe?? iaoa??ae?noe/ii? oai??? i?ciaiiy;

— aeeaieei oai?aoe/iei iaa?oiooaaiiyi i?iaeaie; oe?ieei aeei?en-oaiiyi
??ciiiai?oieo oai?aoe/ieo ? aii??e/ieo iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? i?ieoee ia?aa??eo ia aae?aei?noue e iaae?ei?noue, a
oaeiae no/aniiai iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo;

— c?noaaeaiiyi io?eiaieo aii??e/ieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy c
aiaeia?/ieie ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioeo aaoi??a;

— i?aeoe/iei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?aaeueieo
oiiaao aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a aei ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae (360 iaeiaioaaiue, ?c ieo 27 aeaea?ae ?iicaiiith iiaith).
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 396 noi??iie. ?iaioa i?noeoue 27
oaaeeoeue, ye? caeiathoue 23,5 noi??iee, ? 16 ?enoie?a, ye? caeiathoue
11,5 noi??iee.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaothoueny aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? i?iaeaie; aecia/athoueny ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa,
eiioeaioe?y, a?iioaca, iaoiaeieia?/i? e oai?aoe/i? iniiae oa iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?ice?eaathoueny eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia e
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa; oi?ioeththoueny
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, aeniiaee i?i
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Iaaeaaia?/ia a?aiiii?ea ye aaeocue iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaoee” — iiaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo a?aiiii?ee, c?iaeaii
aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee; aecia/aii iaoiaeieia?/io
iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee; noi?ioeueiaaii aaciaa
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy nenoaie iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee; iaa?oioiaaii e
?ic?iaeaii nenoaiio eeaneo?eaoe?th oaeoi??a, aieeaath/eo ia oi?ioaaiiy
oiia i?aoe? a iaa/aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?.

C iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy iiiyooy e nooiino? a?aiiii?ee ye iaoee, ia
iniia? aiae?co iaoeiaeo i?aoeue A.O.Eiiiaa, I.I.Eaiioue?aa,
A.I.C?i/aiea, A.I.Ioi?iiaa, I.A.E?eeiaa, A.I.Ca?aeianueeiai, E.Ia??aea,
A.N?iaeoiia oa ?i., c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui a?aiiii?ea a?aeiineoueny aei
o??? ae a?oie iaoe, ui e ?iaeaia?ia ineoieia?y oa ineoieia?y i?aoe?.
Aiia a cia/i?e i??? aeei?enoiao? noiae? c ieie iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.
I?ioa i?eioeeiiaa a?aei?ii?noue a?aiiii?ee iieyaa? a oiio, ui ??
oe?eaaeoue ia?aaeon?i ooieoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a nenoaie “ethaeeia —
iaoeia — na?aaeiaeua”, yea aecia/a? iieiaeaiiy oa ?ieue ethaeeie a
nenoai?, aioo??oi? ca’ycee nenoaie, aca?iiae?th ?c na?aaeiaeuai. Iaoa
a?aiiii?ee — aea/eoe iiaeeeaino? e iniaeeaino? ethaeeie a i?ioean?
o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? o iaaiiio ?iai/iio na?aaeiaeu? aeey noai?aiiy
oaeeo oiia, iaoiae?a oa oi?i ?iaioe, ye? ni?eythoue i?iaeoeoeai?e,
iaae?ei?e, aacia/i?e aeey caei?ia’y i?aoe? e ?acii ?c oei anaa?/iiio
?icaeoeia? iniaenoino?.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i noaoon
a?aiiii?ee. Iia?oth/e ?acoeueoaoaie, ye? io?eiothoueny a ?ioeo iaoeao,
a?aiiii?ea o?ainoi?io? ?o, ?ic?iaeyth/e nai? aeo?aei? oyaeaiiy e caniae.

Eiie?aoecaoe?y i?aaeiaoo a?aiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue coiiaeea
?icaaeoaeaiiy oe??? iaoee ia ie?ai? ?icae?ee: ae?iaie/o a?aiiii?eo,
aa?aoe?eio, eini?/io, iaaee/io, iaaeaaia?/io a?aiiii?eo ? o.ae.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae iieacaa, ui a iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? e
i?aeoeoe? aaea ? iaai? iai?aoethaaiiy a aaeoc? iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee
(A.I.Ianoa?aiei, A.I.Iaoi/ee, E.Ia??ae), aea aiie iathoue o?aaiaioa?iee
oa?aeoa? ? ia iia’ycai? i?ae niaith. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ioiieththoue
i?iaeaio iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee aeinoaoiuei iiaii e nenoaiii, oei
naiei ia noai?ththoue ia’?eoeaii? ea?oeie iniia iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee
ye iaeiiai c iiaeo iai?yi?a o iaaeaaia?oe?. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui noaiiaeaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee ne?ae ?icoi?oe ia ye ni?iao cai?ie ooieoe?e
iaaeaaia?ee oa ineoieia??, a ye i?e?iaeiee i?ioean aeieeiaiiy iiaiai
iai?yio a iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe?.

I?iaiae?ciaaii oai??th i?i nenoaie oa i?eioeeie nenoaiiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo i?aoeue ?c o?einio?? (I.E.Aiio?i,
?.A.Aeaoaa?a, A.?.Naaeianueeee, A.A.THae?i, A.I.Uaae?iaeoeueeee, a
oaeiae AE.I?aaea, Ae.Aeaeiinii oa ?i.). Aecia/aii iiaeeea?noue
canoinoaaiiy nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo a iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii?.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co oeeeeo i?aoeue N.?.A?oaiaaeuenueeiai,
TH.E.Aaaainueeiai, A.A.Ai?iaeiaa, O.I.?eue?ii?, A.I.Nioi?a,
I.O.Oaeec?ii? oa ?i., ui noinothoueny ?aea? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo
a?aeiia?aeii aei iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui
eiiieaenia, nenoaiia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeine?aeaeaiiy IA.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui nooi?noue IA noaiiaeoue caaacia/aiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nenoai. O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi iiiyooy “eiiieaeni?noue” oa “nenoaia”,
yeei iaeaaeeoue oeaio?aeueia i?noea ye oaeei, ui iaea?eueo
eiioeaio?iaaii ae?aaeathoue no/aniee i?aeo?ae aei iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iniaeea?noue iaoiaeieia?? aeaiiai eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy IA iieyaa?
a oiio, ui aiia aae?a? e oe?iei aeei?enoiao? eiiieaene ??ciiiai?oieo
iaoiae?a: ineoieia?/ieo, iaaeaaia?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, iaoaiaoe/ieo,
noaoenoe/ieo, a?aiiii?/ieo oa ?i.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaa ciiao noi?ioethaaoe aaciaa
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy nenoaie “aeeeaaea/ — nooaeaio — iaa/aeueia
na?aaeiaeua”, yea noai?th? ia’?eoio aaeocue iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee.
I?ae iaaeaaia?/iith a?aiiii?eith (IA) ie ?icoi??ii iai?yi o no/ani?e
iaaeaaia?oe?, yeee caeia?oueny eiiieaeniei aea/aiiyi ? i?iaeooaaiiyi
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaioa a nenoai? “aeeeaaea/ — nooaeaio — iaa/aeueia na?aaeiaeua” c
iaoith caaacia/aiiy ?? aoaeoeaiino?. Aeeeaaea/ ? nooaeaio
?icaeyaeathoueny ye iin?? ae?yeueiino?, a iaa/aeueia na?aaeiaeua ia?
?ioaa?aeueio ooieoe?th. Oaeei /eiii, iaeaaaeeea?oith iciaeith IA ?
ia?ic?eai?noue ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a oa oaeoi??a iaa/aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua, a aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oeueiai neioaco aecia/a? nooi?noue
IA ye aaeoc? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee.

?en. 1. Nenoaia, yea noai?th? ia’?eoio aaeocue iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee:
A — aeeeaaea/; N — nooaeaio; IN — iaa/aeueia na?aaeiaeua; IA — aaeocue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee.

Iaie aeiaaaeaii, ui eiiieaeni? e?eoa??? iioeiaeueiino?, yeeie ea?o?oueny
ae?iaie/a a?aiiii?ea iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? o iaaeaaia?/i?e
a?aiiii?oe? (IA), ai aiie a?aoiaothoue ?? nooi?noue, a?aeia?aaeathoue
nooi?iue aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie (oi/i?noue, iaae?ei?noue,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue) oa a?aeiia?aei?noue ineoio?c?ieia?? ethaeeie (aaciaea
aeey caei?ia’y aeeeaaea/a e nooaeaioa, ??aaiue iai?oaeaiino? oa aoiie,
aiioe?eiee aieea ia i?ioean ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ? nooaeaioa). ?iaeoa
eaaeo/e, e?eoa??? a?aoiaothoue aca?iica’ycaiee aieea ia aeeeaaea/a ?
nooaeaioa ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo, o?c?ieia?/ieo, aio?iiiiao?e/ieo oa
a?a??i?/ieo oaeoi??a, eio?? aecia/athoueny a?aeiia?aeieie ia?aiao?aie
iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua.

I?eeiath/e ca iniiao nenoaio aeaiaio?a, neeaaeiaeo oiia i?aoe? o
ae?iaie/?e noa?? (A.I.Ca?aeianueeee, A.I.C?i/aiei, A.I.Ioi?iia), o
aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii e ?ic?iaeaii nenoaiia ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaiaio?a
oiia ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?.
Eeaneo?eaoe?y i?noeoue 4 a?oie aeaiaio?a: nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/i?,
ineoio?c?ieia?/i?, anoaoe/i? e nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?. Aeey iai/iino?
i?aaenoaaey?ii iaeio c a?oi aeaiaio?a.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui i?ae
iniiaaie IA ne?ae ?icoi?oe noeoii?noue aeinyaiaiue eiiieaeno iaoe i?i
iaaeaaia?/io i?aoeth oa ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaioa, i?i iaa/aeueia
na?aaeiaeua oa ia?aaeiaee iaaeaaia?/iee aeina?ae, i?i no/ani? oaoi?/i?
caniae, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?. I?e/iio c
iiceoe?? iniia IA aoaeue-yea yaeua ia? na?e ci?no ? ioe?ith?oueny /a?ac
ooieoe?iiaeueio no?oeoo?o nenoaie “aeeeaaea/ — nooaeaio — iaa/aeueia
na?aaeiaeua”.

Oaaeeoey 1

Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aeaiaioe

Aeaiaioe, ui ? neeaaeiaeie oiia ae?yeueiino?Ia?aiao?e, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniiai? yeino?

aeaiaioaIaeeieoe? aei??o

aeaiaioaOa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo ? ei-

iia?aoe?? i?aoe? a eieaeoea???aaiue i?ioan?eii? a?aeiia?aeiino? e
nooi?iue ineoieia?/ii? noi?niino?Nioe?iiao?e/ia ioe?iea a
aaeaoCao?oiaai?noue eieaeoeao iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo, eaoaae?e,
a?oie??aaiue aca?ii?icoi?iiy, aca?iiaeiiiiiae e aeenoeeie?ie a i?ioean?
ae?yeueiino?oa ae naiaOa?aeoa? i?aea?oiiaeo (i?aeno?oeoo?ieo) a?aeiinei
o iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae???aaiue eiioe?eoiino?

(cao?oiaaiino?)oa ae naia

Uia aeinyaoe oe?e?niino? cacia/aii? nenoaie, iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe ??
iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa ooieoe??: iaoo ? caaaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii?
nenoaie; i?noea o/aniee?a iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, eaiaee ?oiuei?
aca?iiae??; ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee o/aniee?a iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano;
ye?noue nioe?aeueieo aieea?a ia nenoaio; ?iciiae?e ooieoe?e i?ae
o/anieeaie iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano; ye?noue ? e?euee?noue cania?a
ae?yeueiino? e iioie?a ?ioi?iaoe?? a nenoai?; oiiae iaa/aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua (?iai/? i?noey, OCI, iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee oiui); iniiai?
iieacieee e e?eoa??? yeino? ae?yeueiino?; i?aai?caoe?th e oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith, eiio?ieue; aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo nenoaie.

O aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii noaoon iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee. ?? oe?eaaeoue
ia?aaeon?i ooieoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a nenoaie
“aeeeaaea/-nooaeaio-iaa/aeueia na?aaeiaeua”, yea aecia/a?oueny
iieiaeaiiyi ? ?ieeth aeeeaaea/a e nooaeaioa a nenoai?, ?oiueith
aca?iiae??th c iaa/aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai, aioo??oi?ie ca’yceaie nenoaie.
I?ae aoaeoeai?noth nenoaie IA ?icoi??oueny ?? caeaoi?noue aeinyaoe
iinoaaeaii? iaoe a aeaieo oiiaao ? c iaaiith ye?noth. Iioei?caoe?y
nenoaie IA ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy oe?eiai eiiieaeno i?iaeai: aeia??,
i?aeaioiaeo e i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a;
i?ioan?eio i???ioaoe?th, i?ioan?eiee aeia?? ? aaeaioaoe?th
nooaeaionueeiai eiioeiaaioo; ?ic?iaeo ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo
oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?iciiae?eo e eiiia?aoe?? i?aoe? o iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?;
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? aeeeaaea/?a, aeoea?caoe?y
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a; aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aiiy oa o/?iiy, oi?aae?iiy ieie; aaeineiiaeaiiy a?aiiii?/ieo oiia
iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua; ii?ioaaiiy ? eiio?ieue i?aoe?, a oaeiae ?ioeo
eiiiiiaio?a /e aniaeo?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o ?oiueiio aca?iica’yceo.

Nenoaiia ae??oaiiy ia?ae?/aieo i?iaeai caaacia/eoue aenieo ye?noue
iaa/aiiy, ?icaeoie oai?/eo cae?aiinoae nooaeaio?a, icaei?iaeaiiy i?aoe?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “A?aiiii?/iee aiae?c iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano” –
aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe a?aiiii?/iiai aiae?co iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano
no/aniiai aoco; aeine?aeaeaii ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a ia
iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo noai aeaiaio?a ?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino?; inoaoi/ii noi?ioeueiaaii e aeine?aeaeaii ci?no
a?aiiii?/iiai iiiyooy “iaa/aeueia na?aaeiaeua”; iaa?oioiaaia e
?ic?iaeaia nenoaia a?aiiii?/ieo e?eoa???a iaae?eiino? aeei?enoaiiy OCI.

A?aiiii?/iee aiae?c iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a no/ani?e aeu?e oeie?
iieacaa, ui aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a, a oaeiae
iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, ye ?aeeii? ooieoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie c iaoith
?? iioei?caoe?? ? ?aoe?iiaeueiei oa aoaeoeaiei. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui
aeaiaioe nenoaie IA ?icaeyaeathoueny a ?aeiino? ? aca?iiae??, oea ia
aeeeth/a?, a ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy ?? neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a ie?aii aeey
aeyaeaiiy ?oiueiai ci?noo, ooieoe?iiaeueieo ca’yce?a.

C iaoith eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ?
nooaeaio?a iaie iaa?oioiaai? e ?ic?iaeai? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei?
noaie aeaiaio?a ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeaa ciiao /?oei
aeyaeoe ye ci?no ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a aeaio nenoai, oae ? ?oi?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ca’ycee. Iaoei caaaeaiiyi ia ia?aaeaa/aeiny aecia/eoe
aeo?aoe /ano aeey aeeiiaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a ?ia?o, ie eeoa i?aaioee
iieacaoe neeaaei?noue no?oeoo?e ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a oa iai?yie ??
aaeineiiaeaiiy.

Ca?aeii c i?aaenoaaeaiith noaiith no?oeoo?a iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
ioiieth? i’youe iniiaieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino?: iaaeaaia?/io, iaoeiao,
eaae?o?eaoe?eio, a?iiaaenueeo e ia?aaeaiaioiaaio. Ca?nii, a ?aaeueiiio
aeeoo? oe? aeaee yaeythoue niaith ?aeeia oe?ea, oiio ??aiii??i?noue a
iaieiae?ii? e oe?e?niiio ii?aeiaii? ??cieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino? – iaeia c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo oiia i?iaeoeoeaii? oai?/ino? aeeeaaea/?a
(N.?.A?oaiaaeuenueeee). I?ioa c iaoith iaoeiaiai aiae?co aiie
?icaeyaeaeeny aaoiiiiii.

Ie iiaiaeaeo?iiny c aeniiaeaie I.I.Iieaeiaaiiaa uiaei oeyo?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? aeeeaaeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ye? aaaaea?ii
caaaeaiiyie IA: ii?ioaaiiy i?aoe?; /?oea ?aaeaiaioaoe?y no?oeoo?e
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?; ?iciiae?e ? eiiia?aoe?y i?aoe?; ci?oeiaiiy
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace eaoaae?; iie?ioaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeeeaaea/?a; noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey ??ciia?/iiai
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aeeeaaea/?a; noai?aiiy ?aca?ao aeeeaaea/?a ia
eaoaae??. Nenoaiia ae??oaiiy iacaaieo i?iaeai aaaea aei ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey icaei?iaeaiiy i?aoe?
aeeeaaea/?a.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui a ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ye aeaiaioa nenoaie IA
iaeaaaeeea?oeie ? ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— ?icaeoie o nooaeaio?a ?ioa?ano aei iaa/aiiy, iio?aae o ciaiiyo;

— ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaa/aiiy, ui ?icaeaa?;

— ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeoiaiiai iaa/aiiy;

— oi?ioaaiiy o nooaeaio?a oi?iue ? iaae/ie iaa/aeueii? i?aoe?;

— ieaioaaiiy ? i?iaeooaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai caiyooy ? i?aeoe/ia ae??oaiiy
?o;

— i?aeo?eiea aeoeaii? i?aoeacaeaoiino? nooaeaio?a i?ioyaii caiyooy;

— aiae?c ? naiiioe?iea aeeeaaea/ai nai?? ?iaioe ia caiyoo?.

Ia?aae IA noi?oue nooo?aa caaaeaiiy (Ae.I.*oi?oiia) – ?ic?iaea ii?i
aeeeaaeaoeueei? i?aoe?. Ia?aiao?aie o?oaeiaeo ii?i ? ii?iaoea?a ? ii?ie
/ano, iia’ycai? c aeeiiaiiyi ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a i?aoe?aieeaie
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai, iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai e
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ainiiaea?nueeiai neeaaeo; ii?iaoeae e?eueeino?
nooaeaio?a ia iaeiiai aeeeaaea/a; ii?iaoeae /enaeueiino? oeo /e ?ioeo
i?aoe?aiee?a ca eaoaai??yie; ii?ie e ii?iaoeae caaaioaaeaiino? oa
caeiyoino? i?aoe?aiee?a o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? oa a no?oeoo?? ?ioeo
aeae?a ae?yeueiino?.

Aiae?c no?oeoo?e ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a – ae?oaa ia iaio aaaeeeaa
i?iaeaia IA. Eeth/iaa ieoaiiy a oeueiio ieai? – oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e
?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?, eio?a, c iaeyaeo ia ?? oe?e? e caaaeaiiy,
neeaaea?oueny c /eneaieo aeaiaio?a, ye? iathoue iaaio oi?io ? ci?no,
ooieoe?iiothoue o iaaiee /an ? ni?yiiaai? ia caeiaoaaiiy, ia?iaeo,
inieneaiiy ? caa??aaiiy iaaii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

O iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ? iaiaei ioae?eaoe?e, a yeeo ca aeiiiiiaith
nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eiai? ??ci? ooieoe?iiaeuei?
noaie ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a (TH.?.Eaiiaae/on, ?.I.?aioaa oa ?i.).
?ic?iaeaia a aeena?oaoe?? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia noaia i?aoe?
nooaeaio?a aaco?oueny ia /ioe?ueio iniiaieo aeaeao ae?yeueiino?:
o/aia?e, aooiaia?/i?e, a?iiaaenuee?e oa ia?aaeaiaioiaai?e. A iniiao
cai?iiiiiaaii? noaie oa?eoee /ioe?e ia?aaeoiiae: i?noea, /an, oi?ia,
iaoiaee e niiniae ia?aa??ee ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino?. Oaeee i?aeo?ae
aeaa ciiao eiie?aoecoaaoe ci?no aeaiaio?a nenoaie, /?oe?oa aeine?aeeoe
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ca’ycee a nenoai?, aac /iai iaiiaeeeai ?icaeyaeaoe
iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy ye oe?e?niee i?ioean.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui, c a?aiiii?/iiai iiaeyaeo a i?aeoiae? aei no?oeoo?e
caaaeueiiethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?, ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaioa
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeeie iieacieeaie:

1) aio?iiiiao?e/ieie oa a?iiaoai?/ieie (a?aeiia?aei?noue i?aaeiao?a
i?aoe? e iaa/aeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy ?ici??ai, oi?i?, aac? o?ea, nee? e
ni?yioaaiith ?oo?a) ;

2) e?iaoe/ieie (a?aeiia?aei?noue iic ? ?oo?a oaeaee?niei, aia?aaoe/iei,
ci?iaei oa ?ioei iiaeeeainoyi ethaeeie);

3) anoaoe/ieie (ioi?ieaiiy ?iai/eo i?noeue ? i?aaeiao?a i?aoe? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c anoaoe/ieie iio?aaaie ethaeeie).

O aeine?aeaeai? iaa?oioiaaii, ui c iiceoe?e IA ?ioaa?aeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ii?ioaaiiy nooaeaionueei? ae?yeueiino? ae?aaea?oueny
/a?ac iieacieee ?? i?iaeoeoeaiino?, yeino? ?? ?acoeueoao?a, aia?aicao?ao
aeey cae?eniaiiy oe??? ?iaioe ? ineoio?c?ieia?/iiai noaio i?aai?cio
i?ney aeeiiaiiy iaaii? ?iaioe. Iioeiaeueiei aeey nooaeaioa ye aeaiaioa
nenoaie IA ie aaaaea?ii oaeee eiai noai, yeee iaee?auei /eiii caaacia/o?
ia?iaeo ?ioi?iaoe?? i?ioyaii caaeaiiai a?ae??ceo /ano ca iaia’yceiaiai
aeeiiaiiy oaeeo oiia: cae?eniaiiy ?iaioe ia ni?e/eith? i?eoiaaieo oi?i
ooiie, caeaoieo aei aeoioeyoe??; an? iaaaaeai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? c?ooaiiy
noaio, ye? aeieeathoue oiane?aeie cae?enithaaii? ae?yeueiino?, niiaia
onoaathoueny i?ae /an ?aaeaiaioiaaieo ia?a?a; caaeaia ae?yeuei?noue ia
aeeeeea? o ?? noa’?eoa iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei ia?. Oae? aacia? oiiae
IA aoei caeeaaeaii iaie a iniiao eiiieaeniiai oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo a
i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? a?aiiii?caoe?? i?ioeano
iaa/aiiy o aeu?e oeie?.

Ethaeeia, caeiyoa iaaiei aeaeii ae?yeueiino?, ia?aaoaa? i?ae neeaaeiei
aieeaii na?aaeiaeua. A caaaeueia iiiyooy na?aaeiaeua aoiaeyoue ye
nioe?aeuei?, eoeueoo?i?, aeiiii?/i?, a?aiiii?/i? oaeoi?e, oae ?
i?e?iaei? oiiae.

Iaaeaaia?/ia ?icoi?iiy nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua aeei?enoiao?oueny o
aeaio aniaeoao:

1) o cia/aii? oe?iei? nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?, noni?euenoaa, aea?aeaae a
oe?eiio;

2) o cia/aii? na?aaeiaeua, yea aaciina?aaeiuei ioi/o? iaaeaaiaa e
nooaeaioa ? aieeaa? ia ?oi? oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoie.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii e aeiaaaeaii, ui c iiceoe?? IA iaa/aeueia
na?aaeiaeua ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe o aeaio ieaiao: ciai?oi? (o?ce/ia
na?aaeiaeua, ui ioi/o? ethaeeio) ? aioo??oi? (yea aeoiao? ethaeeio –
ineoieia?/iee ee?iao, ni?eeoaaiiy oiui). I?aaeiaoii-iaoa??aeueio /anoeio
iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua noaiiaeyoue: aoc?anueea oa?eoi??y, aoae?ae?,
iaa/aeuei? i?ei?oaiiy oa ?iai/? i?noey, aea ?icoaoiaai? OCI, AII,
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/a onoaoeoaaiiy, iaae?, iai/i? i?eeaaee,
ina?oethaaeueia aia?aoo?a e o.i.

sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaeiei ?c eeth/iaeo
/eiiee?a aeinyaiaiiy noaa?eueiiai ? aeeiai?/iiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie
IA ? ?aae?caoe?y ia i?aeoeoe? i?eioeeio iaae?eiino? aeei?enoaiiy OCI ia
iniia? a?aiiii?/ieo e?eoa???a. C iaoith ioe?ithaaiiy oaei? iaae?eiino? o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? iaie ?ic?iaeaii ? cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio, a iniiao
yei? caeeaaeaii oae? e?eoa???:

a) iia’ycai? c oaoi?/ieie iieacieeaie OCI (1-oaoi?/ia aeineiiae?noue; 2-
/ania? iieacieee; 3- a?aeiia?aei?noue aio?iiiiao?e/iei aeaiei; 4-
aeiiii?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee);

a) iia’ycai? c aieeaii OCI ia ethaeeio (1- anoaoe/iee ??aaiue; 2-
a?aeiia?aei?noue ineoio?c?ieia?/iei oa?aeoa?enoeeai ethaeeie; 3-
a?aeiia?aei?noue ineoieia?/iei oa?aeoa?enoeeai ethaeeie; 4- a?a??i?/i?
aeiiae).

A?aiiii?/iee aiae?c iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano no/aniiai aoco cana?ae/ea, ui
aoc?anueea i?aeoeea caaaeii oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iecueeei ??aiai
a?aiiii?caoe??. Oea aeaco? ia aeioe?euei?noue ? ia?niaeoeai?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “A?aiiii?/i? iniiae i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy
iaaeaaia?/iei i?ioeanii” – anaa?/ii oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee; ?ice?eaathoueny iaoeia?
i?aeoiaee aei i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy iaaeaaia?/iith oa iaa/aeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth ia iniia? a?aiiii?ee; aiae?cothoueny oeyoe e oiiae
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? aeeeaae/?a ? iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a ia i?aenoaaao IA.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui an? iaoiaee, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
i?iaeoeoeaii aeine?aeaeo?oueny iaaeaaia?/ia a?aiiii?ea, aeioe?eueii
iiae?eeoe ia o?e a?oie: nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee iaoiae, caaaeuei? iaoiaee
eiiieaeno iaoe i?i iaa/aeueio ae?yeuei?noue o nenoai? ina?oe ? cie?aia
iaoiaee, i?eoaiai? iaaeaaia?/i?e a?aiiii?oe?. Aea? ia?o? a?oie iaoiae?a
aeineoue a?aeii? ye aoaeoeai? ?ino?oiaioe i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.
I?ioa o ae??oaii? eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue IA aoaeoeaieie aeyaeeeny naia
oae? iaoiaee a?aiiii?ee: aea/aiiy iniaenoeo aeieoiaio?a,
oaoi?ei-ineoieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy nenoaie aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo,
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca no?oeoo?ith o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ?
nooaeaio?a, aan?aea c o/anieeaie iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, aieaooaaiiy oa
aenia?oia ioe?iea, aiae?c aeeiiaii? ?iaioe, a?aiiii?/iee aenia?eiaio.

?acoeueoaoe iaoiai a?aiiii?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui
iaeiiai?oa oyaeaiiy i?i no?oeoo?o ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a,
ye i?aaeei, iiaea aooe io?eiaia oeyoii ii?aeaiiy i?yiiai cai?o
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i o?oaeiaee i?ioean (aeya ineo?/ieo oa o?c?ieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a, eio?? noaiiaeyoue ci?no ae?yeueiino?) c iia?/ieie
(?a?no?aoe?y ci?i a i?aai?ci? ethaeeie, ye? aeieeathoue o ?acoeueoao?
aeeiiaiiy iei a?aeiia?aeii? ?iaioe).

Iniiaith iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ye a?aeiii, ? ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi?
?ioi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane. Ciai?oi? i?ioeane oa?aeoa?ecothoue aca?iica’ycie
aeeeaaea/a ? nooaeaioa ?c aeaea?aeii ?ioi?iaoe??, a oiio /ene? c
oaoi?/iei. Aioo??oi? ae oa?aeoa?ecothoue ineoio?c?ieia?/io noi?iio
iaa/aiiy – ineo?/i? i?ioeane ni?eeiyooy, ia?a?iaeo e caa??aaiiy
ethaeeiith (a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo nooaeaioii) ?ioi?iaoe??. Aeey IA
aaaeeeaei ? aeyaeaiiy aca?iei ethaeeie, yea iaa/a?oueny, oa aeaea?ae
?ioi?iaoe??, ia oii? yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeeaaeaoeueea oa iaa/aeueia
ae?yeuei?noue. Ia’?eoeaia noi?iia oeeo noinoie?a caeaaeeoue a?ae
o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??, a noa’?eoeaia – a?ae
aeanoeainoae aiae?caoi??a ?aoeei??ioa, ye? i?aeaeathoueny iiae?aciaiith
aeaea?aeaie ?ioi?iaoe??.

Aenia?eiaio ia iniia? ciai?oiueiai ca’yceo aeaa iiaeeea?noue
ia’?eoea?coaaoe ?ioaa?aeuei? iieacieee aiioe?eiino? nooaeaio?a, ?oiueiai
caaaeueiiai aaeiaieaiiy caiyooyie, nooiai? ?oiuei? aaeaioaoe?? aei
caiyoue oa ?i. I?e aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aenia?eiaioo
aeyaeeiny, ui ioe?iee caaeiaieaiiy eaeoe?yie o nooaeaio?a c on?o
aeenoeeie?i aeoaea a?ae??ciythoueny. Na?aaei?e aae caaeiaieaiiy
eaeoe?yie o a?aei?iiee?a aeuee, o iaanoeaath/eo – ieae/ee ia 20% o
ii??aiyii? c na?aaei?i aaeii ioe?iie on?o nooaeaio?a. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
noa’?eoeai?noue ioe?iie, ui ni?e/eith?oueny ??ciei ??aiai ciaiue c
iaaii? aeenoeeie?ie e caaaeueiiai ?icoi?iiy eaeoe??; a 70% aeiaaee?a
niinoa??aa?oueny a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae aaeii (ioe?ieith) aecaiaia oa
na?aaeiueith ioe?ieith eaeoe?e. Ioaea, anaa?/ii ni?eeiyoa eaeoe?y ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith ciaiue o nooaeaio?a; o 80% aeiaaee?a niinoa??aa?oueny
ei?aeyoe?y i?ae na?aaeiueith aaee/eiith i?iiouaieo eaeoe?e ? na?aaei?i
aaeii yeino? eaeoe?e.

Oaeei /eiii, iaoiae ciai?oiueiai cai?ioiiai ca’yceo aeiiiiaaa? aecia/eoe
caaaeueiee ??aaiue eaeoe?? ? iiaea neoaoaaoe aeey aeeeaaea/a
aaciina?aaei?i neaiaeii aei aei?aaeaiiy aeiiouaieo iaaeie?e?a. Oaeee
iaoiae oe?eeii aeioe?eueiee aeey oi?ioaaiiy naiiioe?iee iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aoe?.

O aeine?aeaeai? i?iaaaeaii a?aiiii?/ia ianoaaeaiiy e?iaoe/ii? iiaaae?iee
(iice oa ?oo?ei? aeoe) aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
(ia eaeoe?yo, eaai?aoi?ieo caiyooyo).

Aiae?coth/e aeai?, io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aea/aiiy
ia?ai?uaiue aeeeaaea/?a i?ae /an eaeoe?e, ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui
?ioaineai?noue oa aeiaaeeia ia?ai?uaiue aeeeaaea/?a i?ae /an eaeoe?e
caeaaeeoue a?ae: aeaeo aeenoeeie?i, ye? aeeeaaeathoueny, ia?aiao??a
?iai/i? ciie ? ?ici?uaiiy i?aaeiao?a a aoaeeoi???, ?ioaineaiino?
noi?iii?o iiae?aciee?a (ooio, na?oea, oaiia?aoo?e oiui), yeino? e
e?eueeino? OCI, eio?? aeei?enoiaothoueny, /aniaiai oaeoi?o (ii?e ?ieo,
i?nyoey, oeaeiy, aeiy), caei?ia’y, naiiii/oooy oa iano?ith aeeeaaea/?a,
a oaeiae iniaenoeo ?en. E??i oiai, ca aeiiiiiaith e?iaoeeia?ai ie
aecia/eee iaea?eueo caaaioaaeai? naeoi?e, caaaeueiee oa?aeoa?
ia?ai?uaiue, o?a?eoi??? ?oo?a ? o.ae.

?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo i?aeaaee aei aeniiaeo, ui
aeoea?caoe?y iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ia iiaea ia?eoeny aac
oaeineiiaeaiiy e?iaoe/ieo aeo?a (a?aeiia?aeieo ?oo?a, aeano?a, iic,
eieiiioe?e, eiioi?eaoeaieo cania?a), ye? ni?eythoue aeiiii?? aia?a?? ?
/ano aeeeaaea/a, aeoea?cothoue ni?eeiyooy nooaeaioaie ?ioi?iaoe??,
i?aeaeuothoue ?oi?e aiioe?eiee oiion. Oaeei /eiii, cae??ieaiiy no?eeino?
?iai/eo iic ? ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a, caaaeii ni?ey? aaeineiiaeaiith
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?ie c?ooaiue ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a o
nooaeaio?a i?ae /an caiyoue o ?acoeueoao? ?icoiiai? i?aoe? i?ney ia?oi?,
ae?oai? oa o?aouei? eaeoe?e. I?iaiae?ciaaii a?aiiii?/i? aenia?eiaioe,
cae?eniai? c iaoith aei??o eaoaioiiai ia??iaeo iioi?ieo ?aaeoe?e o
nooaeaio?a i?ney ia?a?a, a oaeiae aei??o ci?i o oaeaeeino? ia?a?iaee
?ioi?iaoe?? nooaeaioaie i?ney ia?a?a.

?acoeueoaoe a?aiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaaae?iee aeeeaaea/?a ?
nooaeaio?a i?ae /an caiyoue i?aeoaa?aeeee aoaeoeai?noue oa
?aoe?iiaeuei?noue aeaiiai iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy IA. C eiai aeiiiiiaith
aeine?aeaeothoueny oae? eeth/ia? i?iaeaie IA, ye a?aiiii?/i? oiiae
oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean?; a?aeiia?aei?noue ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a
o?ce/iei oa ineoieia?/iei iiaeeeainoyi ethaeeie ia oii? aoiie, no?ano e
aiioe?eiiai iai?oaeaiiy.

C?o/i?noue ?iai/eo i?noeue ioe?ithaaeanue ca aeiiiiiaith
aio?iiiiao?e/ieo ianoaaeaiue ethaeeie ia iniia? o?ce/ieo aei???a
aaiiao??? i?ei?uaiiy, i?e?iee?iaoo ? aeayeeo o?ce/ieo oaeoi??a
na?aaeiaeua (ooi, ina?oeaiiy, oee?eoeyoe?y iia?o?y ? o.i.).

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui eiiieaenia, nenoaiia aea/aiiy
??cieo aniaeo?a iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe? ia i?aenoaaao IA ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aeoea?caoe?y
ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a i?ae /an iaa/aeueieo caiyoue icia/a?
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?aoe? (aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? caiyoue) ca
aeiiiiiaith a?aeiiae a?ae caeaeo eiai aeaiaio?a (ia?aaeaiiy ooieoe?e, ui
ia iio?aaothoue aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? aeeeaaea/a aeiiii?aeiiio
ia?niiaeia?, aai aeei?enoaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a),
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a oa niinia?a iaa/aiiy oa eiio?ieth.

O ?icae?e? aena?oeaii, ui aeey IA o?eueee aeania a?aiiii?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?ic??c? iio?aa ? e?eoa???a iaaeaaia?ee iaaeathoue aaae
oa oe?iiino? anueiio oiio, ui noai?th?oueny a ?ioeo aaeocyo ciaiue,
eio?? aea/athoue ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie a iaaeao iaaeaaia?/iiai
i?ioeano.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy ie nie?aeeny ia oa, ui i?aai?caoe?y
iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano e oi?aae?iiy iei iathoue aaaaoioe?eueiaa
i?ecia/aiiy ? a ?ica’ycaii? nai?o caaaeaiue ni?yiiaai? ia aea??
o/anieeaie oeueiai i?ioeano iioeiaeueieo aa??aio?a ae?e ?c /enea
iiaeeeaeo. Ioaea, ea??aia e ea?iaaia noi?iie o aoc?anueeiio i?ioean?
ia?aaoaathoue o iino?eiiio aca?iica’yceo oa aca?iicaeaaeiino?,
aiane?aeie /iai iiaea ?noioii ci?ithaaoeny oa?aeoa? oi?aae?iiy e
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaiaio?a o nenoai? aoc?anueeiai iaa/aiiy, yeee, ye
a?aeiii, ? aeoaea aio/eei, ?ooeeaei, aeeiai?/iei.

Cina?aaeaeaiiy o aeuiio iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae? i?aoe?aiee?a ??ciiiai?oieo
niaoe?aeueiinoae ? a?aeiia?aeiee ?iciiae?e iaoa??aeueii? aace (a
eaai?aoi??yo, eaeoe?eieo aoaeeoi??yo, ia/enethaaeueieo oeaio?ao,
a?ae?ioaeao, iaenoa?iyo, ae?oea?i? oa ?ioeo i?noeyo) aeiaaa? /?oei?
i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy oe??th neeaaeiith nenoaiith. A?eueoa oiai,
ethaenuee? e iaoa??aeuei? ?ano?ne iathoue aooe ea?iaai? ia o?eueee c
iaoith aeinyaiaiiy iniiaiiai caaaeaiiy – i?aeaioiaee e aeoiaaiiy
aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo niaoe?ae?no?a, a e c iaoith ?o iaeiie/aiiy,
iiiaeaiiy e ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo.

Aieiaiee nenoaiioai?/ee oa aca?iiae?th/ee aeaiaio o aoc?anuee?e
oi?aae?inuee?e nenoai? – aeaiaio “aeeeaaea/ – nooaeaio”. ?oiy
iaaeaaia?/ia ? iaa/aeueia ae?yeuei?noue caeaaeeoue a iniiaiiio a?ae
eaae?o?eaoe??, iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino?, a?ae caaaeueii? i?ioan?eii?
ni?yiiaaiino? aeeeaaea/?a, a oaeiae a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae,
iioea?a iaa/aiiy, oe?eani?yiiaaiino? nooaeaio?a.

I?aai?caoe?y oa oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii ia i?aenoaaao IA
ni?yiiaai? aei ci?ie ia e?aua ?aaeueiiai iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
ye /anoeie iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?eniino?, a oea ia ? iiaeeeaei aac
aaeaeaaoiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy oaeo?a ? ca’yce?a, ui ?niothoue o oe?e
ae?eniino?. Aeia?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ? nooaeaionueeiai eiioeiaaioo,
i?aaeiaoieo ca’yce?a, oi?i, iaoiae?a ? niinia?a ?iaioe c iaoith
i?aeaioiaee aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo niaoe?ae?no?a a?aeiia?aeii aei
aea?aeaaiiai noaiaea?oo aeui? ina?oe ca /an, ?aaeaiaioiaaiee iaa/aeueiei
ieaiii, a oaeiae aea?? iaeaeiiiii?oeo niinia?a ae?yeueiino?, ni?yiiaaieo
ia ca?eueiaiiy iaaeaaia?a ? nooaeaio?a a?ae iiiioiiieo oa
iai?iaeoeoeaieo ?ia?o, — ona oea a iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aoiaeeoue o
iiiyooy i?aai?caoe?? e oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei i?ioeannii.

I?ae oi?aae?iiyi iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii ie ?icoi??ii oe?eani?yiiaaiee
aieea ia iaaeaaia?/iee ? nooaeaionueeee eieaeoeae, ia ie?aieo ?oi?o
/eai?a oeyoii cae?eniaiiy noeoiiino? caoiae?a c iaoith i?aai?caoe??,
?aaoethaaiiy, eii?aeeiaoe?? ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy aia?a??, /ano ? cania?a.

C iaoith aeyaeaiiy oaeoi??a, ye? caaaaeathoue iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?
aoei iieoaii 100 aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a. Oaeoi?e, eio?? caaaaeathoue
ii?iaeuei?e ?iaio? iaaeaaia?a, ioe?ithaaeeny 3-aaeueiith nenoaiith (0 –
oaeoi? ia ia? i?noey; 1 – aeyaey? neaaeo ae?th; 2 – aeyaey? iaaaoeaio
ae?th). ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo na?ae/aoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy
aocaie aaaaoueio i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c oaeineiiaeaiiyi iaa/aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua. Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaaeaaia?/iei
i?ioeanii ia iniia? a?aiiii?/iiai i?aeoiaeo, ye iieacothoue iao?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iia’ycaia cae?eniaiiyi oaeeo caoiae?a:

— oaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? aeeeaaea/?a ? aeoea?caoe?y
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy athaeaeaoo /ano aeeeaaea/a oa nooaeaioa;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? aoiinoa?e ? o?ce/iiai
na?aaeiaeua;

oaoi?caoe?y e aaoiiaoecaoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ye caniao
caaacia/aiiy aeniei? ?icoiiai? i?aoeacaeaoiino? aeeeaaea/?a oa
nooaeaio?a.

?acoeueoaoe /eneaieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ? a?aiiii?/ieo
aenia?eiaio?a aeiaiaeyoue, ui oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a ia iniia? IA iaiiaeeeaa aac ii?ioaaiiy o?eaaeino? ?o ?iai/iai
aeiy (c oaiaeaioe??th eiai nei?i/aiiy), ?ic?iaee iiaeo oi?i ? iaoiae?a
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? (ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo oi?i caiyoue,
i?aeneethaaieo iioeaaoe??th iaa/aeueii? i?aoe? oa iineaaethth/eo
ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ? aoiio; i?iaeaiii-?icaeaath/a ? i?ia?aiia iaa/aiiy),
?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy AII ? OCI, iie?ioaiiy ?iaioe a?ae?ioae,
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-iaoa??aeueii? aace aoco (ca?aeii c i?eioeeiaie
a?aiiii?ee).

Oaaeeoey 2

? I C I I Ae ? E

ioe?iie oaeoi??a, ye? ni?aaeythoue iaaaoeaio

ae?th ia ?iaioo aeeeaaea/?a

Oaeoi?I?aenoieiaa ioe?ieaAaeeea e?euee?noue aeiaeaoeiaeo iacaieaiiaaieo
?ia?o132Ia?aoe?iiaeueii neeaaeaiee ?iceeaae126Iaaeie?ee a a?aiiii?/i?e
ia?iaoe? ?iai/iai i?noey aeeeaaea/a a aoaeeoi???115A?aenooi?noue
iaiao?aeieo oiia aeey ?iaioe a i?ei?uaiiyo eaoaae?e (aeey i?aeaioiaee
aei caiyoue)89Ooiia? ia?aoeiaee88Neaaea ooo/ia
ina?oethaaiiy86A?aenooi?noue ?aaoey?iiai ?aaeeio oa?/oaaiiy82?iaioa a
i?ei?uaii?, yea ia a?aeiia?aea? nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iei
aeiiaai74Ia??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ae aeeeaaea/aie
eaoaae?e72I?aeaeuaia e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a o iioioe?58Iaaeinoaoi?
iiaeaiiy i?ei?uaiiy48Iacaaeia?eueia aeonoeea a aoaeeoi??yo46

?icoiiaa i?aoey, yea a?ae??ciy?oueny aenieith ia?aiai-aiioe?eiith
iai?oaith, neeaaeia, niaoeeo?/ia ? aaaaoia?aiia. I?io?eath/e ia oii?
aeaaeae? c?inoath/iai noaoe/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, aiia iaaaoeaii aieeaa?
ia ??aaiue i?aoeacaeaoiino?, i?aeaeuo? aoiio, ni?ey? c?inoaiith
caoai?thaaiue aeeeaaea/?a. Aeey caiia?aaiiy iiae?aieo iaaaaeaieo yaeu,
ye iieacothoue ?acoeueoaoe iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaiao?aeii ai?iaaaeeoe
a i?aeoeeo aoc?a oae? caoiaee: iaaee/i? (?aaoey?i? iaaeiaeyaee,
i?io?eaeoeea aieiniaiai aia?aoo ? ci?o), oaoi?ei-a?aiiii?/i?
(caaacia/aiiy ni?eyoeeaei i?e?iee?iaoii, c?o/ii iaeaaeiaiei ?iai/ei
i?noeai, ni?eyiiy ?ooiai? aeoeaiino? i?ae /an ia?a?a ? /a?aoaaiue ??cieo
aeae?a ae?yeueiino? oa ?i.), i?aai?caoe?ei? (aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iceeaaeo
caiyoue, ii?ioaaiiy aeaiiiai, oeaeiaaiai, i?ny/iiai ? ??/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy).

sse iieacaei iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii?ioaaiiy ?icoiiai? i?aoe?
aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a, anoaiiaeaiiy iaoeiai ?aaeaiaioiaaii?
o?eaaeino? ?o ?iai/iai aeiy — aeoaea aaaiia i?iaeaia aoco, yea
noino?oueny ia eeoa iaaeaaia?/ii?, a e nioe?aeueii? noa?e.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “Athaeaeao /ano aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a ye
aaaeeeaee iieaciee iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee” – ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoiaeeea
aecia/aiiy o?oaeii?noeino? ??cieo aeae?a iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe oa
aiae?co?oueny athaeaeao /ano nooaeaio?a; aeine?aeaeothoueny a?aiiii?/i?
oiiae aaeineiiaeaiiy athaeaeaoo /ano aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

Iieaciee cao?ao /ano a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? aeeeaaea/ai ? nooaeaioii –
iin?yie ae?yeueiino? a nenoai? IA, aacia?a/ii, ? eeth/iaei e?eoa???i i?e
ioe?ioe? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo nenoaie.
Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy, iai?aaeai? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy athaeaeaoo /ano
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? nooaeaionueeiai eiioeiaaioo,
oi?eathoueny naii? noo? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano aoco. Ia?aaeueii noai?eoe
a?eueo aoaeoeaiee iaa/aeueiee i?ioean aac oaeineiiaeaiiy athaeaeaoo /ano
ye aeeeaaea/a, oae ? nooaeaioa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aoe?
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ia iniia? IA ?icii/aoi iaie c
eeaneo?eaoe?? oa ioe?iee i?aoe? ?icaeyiooi? eaoaai??? i?aoe?aiee?a
aeui? oeiee. Iae/ano?oa ?iaioo aeeeaaea/?a iiae?eythoue ia iaa/aeueio,
iaoiaee/io ? iaoeiai-aeine?aeio. I?e oeueiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeia ?iaioa
(ine?eueee ia ?nio?, i?eiaeii? ia nueiaiaei?, ?aeeii? iaa?oioiaaii?
iaoiaeeee ii?ioaaiiy oa iae?eo) ieaio?oueny ye iaaia /anoeia
caaaeueiiaeiionoeiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo, oiio cacae/ae aeaoaeueii ?icaeyaea?oueny iaa/aeueia ?
iaoiaee/ia ?iaioa. Iiaeeea? e ?io? iciaee eeaneo?eaoe?? ?iaioe
aeeeaaea/?a. Cie?aia, a aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y ca aeaeaie
iai?aaeaiino? iaa/aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe? aeaea ciiao ?icae?eeoe
an? aeaee iaa/aeueii? ? iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe, yeo aeeiio? aeeeaaea/, ia
aea? a?oie noiniaii iiiaethaaii? iaa/aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Ia?oo a?oio
iacaaii iino?eiith (iniiaiith) neeaaeiaith. Aei ia? oa?eoee o? aeaee
?ia?o, ianya yeeo ia caeaaeeoue a?ae iiiaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? ( ? a oeueiio
?icoi?ii? aiie iino?ei?). Ae?oao a?oio iacaaii ci?iiith (aeiaeaoeiaith)
neeaaeiaith. Aei ia? ca?aoiaai? o? aeaee i?aeaioiaee iaa/aeueii?
?ioi?iaoe??, ia’?i yeeo ? a?aeiia?aei? cao?aoe /ano ? ooieoe??th
iiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??. I?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? iaaeaaia?/io
i?aoeth aoei ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ?yaeii ia?aiao??a, iia’ycaieo c
iaa/aeueiith ?ioi?iaoe??th. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie c ieo ? iiiaeaiiy ci?noo ?
iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy eo?no oa o?oaeii?noe?noue ??cieo aeae?a caiyoue
(eaeoe?e, ai?aa, eaai?aoi?ieo ?ia?o, eo?niaiai ? aeeieiiiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy ? o.i.).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui cia/i? cao?aoe /ano aeeeaaea/?a eaeooue
ia iiooe oa aea/aiiy iiai? iaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo a aeena?oaoe??
?ic?iaeaii: eeaneo?eaoe?th iaaieo cao?ao /ano aeeeaaea/ai ia ??ci? aeaee
?ia?o iaae eo?nii; eeaneo?eaoe?th cao?ao /ano ia ?ic?iaeo eaai?aoi?ieo
?ia?o; eeaneo?eaoe?th cao?ao /ano ia ?ic?iaeo iaa/aeueii-iai/ieo
iin?aiee?a.

C iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/iai /ano
aeeeaaea/aie, aoa i?iaaaeaiee aenia?eiaio ia iniia? “naii?aeiiaiaeaoe?e”
aeeeaaea/?a. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeeee
aeioe?euei?noue naii?aeiiaiaeaoe?e. I?ioa oea ia ae??oeei iniiaii?
i?iaeaie IA uiaei ?iciiae?eo /ano – aaeineiiaeaiiy eiai athaeaeaoo.

?en.2 Iiae?e iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe? ia iino?eio oa ci?iio, neeaaeia?
iaa/aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Caaacia/eaoe i?aai?caoe?th e oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii ia iniia?
IA, ie ?icii/aee eiiieaenia aea/aiiy athaeaeaoo /ano aeeeaaea/?a ?
nooaeaio?a. Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui /an o?eaaeino? iaa/aeueieo caiyoue
noai?i ?aaeaiaioiaaii ?iceeaaeii, ie i?oee oeyoii aeine?aeaeaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai /ano oa onoiaiiy eiai ao?ao. C
oe??th iaoith iaie i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy eeaneo?eaoe?? aeaiaio?a
iaiaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe? ? cao?ao /ano ia ?o aeeiiaiiy ia eaeoe?yo c
aoiai?oa?iiai eiiieaeno aeenoeeie?i. ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? oeyoii
o?iiiiao?aaeo (100 eaeoe?e), cana?ae/eee, ui ia iaae?iaie/? aeaiaioe
aeeeaaea/aie aeo?a/a?oueny a na?aaeiueiio 15,8% /ano, a?aeaaaeaiiai ia
eaeoe??.Oaeee cia/iee ianya ia?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoaiiai /ano iiaea
neoaeeoe ?aca?aii aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? eaeoe?eieo caiyoue ? i?aeaeuaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa i?aoe? iaaeaaiaa.

Iaie oaeiae aoea aeine?aeaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y aeaiaio?a iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aoe? ? cao?aoe /ano ia ?o aeeiiaiiy a i?ioean? eaai?aoi?ieo caiyoue.
I?e oeueiio aeyaeeinue, ui ia ia?aoe?iiaeuei? iia?aoe?? a?eueoa anueiai
/ano aeo?a/a?oueny ia 4-aiaeeiieo eaai?aoi?ieo caiyooyo (37,8%), a iaio
ca ana — ia 3-aiaeeiieo (10%). O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui aeey ?ic?iaee a?eueo /?oei? iaoiaeeee
i?iaaaeaiiy ? i?aai?caoe?? eaai?aoi?ieo caiyoue ia?aae iaaeaaiaaie
iinoaaeai? oae? ia?oi?yaei? caaaeaiiy IA:

a) oaeineiiaeaiiy ? ni?iuaiiy i?ioeano aeeiiaiiy ?ia?o;

a) iie?auaiiy ieaioaaiiy i?ei?uaiue;

a) onoiaiiy iaae?iaie/eo aeaiaio?a iaaeaaia?/ii? ? nooaeaionueei?
i?aoe?;

a) oi?o?eaoe?y iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?ieo caiyoue.

Aeiiii?? /ano ia caiyooyo nooo?ai aeiiiiaaathoue caniae oaoi?caoe?? ?
aaoiiaoecaoe?? (10-20%). Iaoai?/i? ooi?e, aeenoaioe?eii ea?iaai?
ai?ae?aneiie oa a?aeainenoaie, ae?ai, ui neeaaea?oueny, na?oeia?
aeaeo?eo?eiaai? ueoe, oi?aa?naeuei? aeaiiino?aoe?ei? oaoe, ?icnoai?
aeioee – ana oea ia o?euee? ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, a e aeiiiieoue /an aeeeaaea/a.

O aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae aoei aeine?aeaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aeaiaio?a
nooaeaionueei? i?aoe? ? cao?aoe /ano ia ?o aeeiiaiiy i?ae /an eaeoe?e oa
eaai?aoi?ieo caiyoue.

C iaoith aeyaeaiiy i?e/ei cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eaeoe?eieo caiyoue aoei
i?iaaaeaii niaoe?aeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy, oae caaiee e?i?eiee
o?iiiiao?aae, nooue yeiai iieyaa? a iaeii/aniiio aeyaeai? ae?yeueiino?
aeeeaaea/a ? nooaeaioa.

Ioaea, a?aiiii?/ia aea/aiiy cao?ao /ano (aecia/aiiy
ae?iaie/i-iaae?iaie/iai /ano ? iaoc) aoaeoeaii ni?ey? aeyaeaiith
?aca?a?a /ano, ui a naith /a?ao aieeaa? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo
caiyoue. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?aca?ae aeey ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy a
iaa/aeueieo caiyooyo /ano iaaecae/aeii a?ae/ooi?. Cia/ieie ? ao?aoe /ano
o nooaeaio?a i?e iaeyae? ieie ea?oioae, caiiaeaii?, io?eiaii? ?
iiaa?iaii? e?oa?aoo?e, ia?aienoe? ?ino?oeoe?e eaai?aoi?ieo ?ia?o,
nai?ia?nueeeo ? eo?niaeo caaaeaiue, ioi?ieaii? ??cieo a?ao?/ieo ?ia?o ?
o.ae. Aoc?anuee? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? neoaeae (oai, aea aiie ?) ia
caaeiaieueiythoue iio?aae nooaeaio?a, aeyaeythoue aeaeaei ia aeinoaoith
aeiiiiiao (a i?aea??oe? e?oa?aoo?e aeey iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa
aeeieiiieo i?iaeo?a ? o.i.). Aeoiaiee aniaeo oe??? i?iaeaie noino?oueny
ae?iaeaiiy ii/ooo?a aeaaeeeaiai ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai a?aeiioaiiy aei /ano,
ai?iiy i?aaeeueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiai.

Aiae?c i?iaeaie ?aca?ao ?iai/iai (oa ?ioiai) /ano aeeeaaea/?a ?
nooaeaio?a aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ia nueiaiaei? ? /eiae? ?aca?ae
/ano o iaaeaaia?a ? nooaeaio?a, aoaeoeai? caniae aeei?enoaiiy yeiai
aea/a? IA. Iniiaia caaaeaiiy aoc?anueeeo eieaeoea?a ? eiaeiiai ?o /eaia
– iiooe ?aca?a?a /ano ? ?aoe?iiaeueia eiai aeei?enoaiiy. Oaeei /eiii,
a?ae ??aiy i?aai?caoe?? e oi?aae?iiy iaaeaaia?/iei i?ioeanii ia canaaeao
IA caeaaeeoue aaeineiiaeaiiy ia o?eueee athaeaeaoo /ano, a e
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? aeeeaaea/a, ? ye i?aenoiie – iie?auaiiy
yeino? i?aeaioiaee aeioneiee?a — oao?aoe?a aeui? eaae?o?eaoe??.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? — “Oeyoe e oiiae aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? ia iniia? iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee” – aeine?aeaeaii
naiii?aai?caoe?th iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?; aea/aii oa i?iaiae?ciaaii
oeyoe iieaaoaiiy i?aoe? oa icaei?iaeaiiy oiia ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ?
nooaeaioa, a oaeiae iie?ioaiiy a?aiiii?/ieo oiia iaa/aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei c’yniaaii, ui aca?iica’ycee i?ae
aeeeaaea/ai, nooaeaioii ? iaa/aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai iiaeooue aooe
aoaeoeaieie, yeui eiaeai c aeaiaio?a cacia/aii? nenoaie (yeee a naith
/a?ao ? nenoaiiei ia’?eoii) ooieoe?iio? iioeiaeueii. Ia aeaeue, ye
iieacaee iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, inoaiiy oiiaa ia aeo?eio?oueny, oiio ie
aoee aeiooai? i?iaanoe na??th aenia?eiaio?a, aea eiaeai ?c iacaaieo
aeaiaio?a nenoaie aenooiaa ye aaoiiiiiee ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy.

IA aeoeaii aeei?enoiao? aeai?, io?eiai? a ?ioeo iaoeao. Iaoeiaith
i?aai?caoe??th i?aoe? nooaeaioa iaeiie/aiee cia/iee a?naiae iaoiae?a ?
iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a. Aiie oe?iei ? aoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaie i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ae?yeueiino? a iaa/aeueiiio
na?aaeiaeu?.

Iieacaii, ui o?aaeeoe?eii ?iaioa ?c nooaeaioaie c iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe??
i?aoe? neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio iine?aeiaieo aoai?a: a) aea/aiiy
nooaeaio?a c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy ciaiue oa oi?iue ?c aeaiiai
ieoaiiy, ?oi? ineo?/i? oa o?ce/i? iiaeeeaino?; a) iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a
oai??? ? iaoiaeeoe? iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?; a) ae?iaeaiiy o
nooaeaio?a i?aeoe/ieo iaae/ie ? ai?iue ii iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?.
Aieaooaaiiy aei iaaii? i??e nii/aoeo neeaaeaei iniiao iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Eiaeia aieaoa – oea nai???aeia i?ia?aia aea/aiiy, yea
aeeeeeaea ?ioa?an o nooaeaio?a ? iaea aeey ieo iaaio ?ioi?iaoeaio
oe?ii?noue. Ia aeiaaeeiai, ui a?eueo?noue nooaeaio?a i?ioaee aeaoe ?i
c?acie aieaoe. ?acii c oei aa?oi a?aei?oeoe, ui aieaoe aoee ia ?aeeiei,
a a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ia aieiaiei “?ino?oiaioii” aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiie
aeicaieeee iai ii??aiyii oaeaeei c?a?aoe aaeeeo e?euee?noue ?ioi?iaoe??,
yea iio?i ooi/ithaaeanue ?ioeie iaoiaeaie: niinoa?aaeaiiyi, aan?aeith,
?ioa?a’th, oanoaie, aenia?eiaioii, nioe?iiao?e/ieie oa ?ioeie iaoiaeaie.
Iaaeae? iaie aeei?enoiaoaaeenue c oe??th iaoith nai?ia?nuee? caiyooy c
??cieo aeenoeeie?i. Ii/eiath/e c 1992 ?ieo ia oaeoeueoao? aeiiii?ee oa
oi?aae?iiy, o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiio oa iae?eiai-aeiiii?/iiio
oaeoeueoaoao c aa?oo???ioaie aoei i?iaaaeaii aieaooaaiiy ? ni?aaan?aeo c
iaoith aeyaeaiiy ?o ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeaieo oa aioiaiino? aei
iaa/aiiy a aeiiii?/iiio aoc?.

Oaeei /eiii, a?ae ai?ciaee/iiai aea/aiiy nooaeaio?a ie ia?aeoee aei
iinooiiaiai ? nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?. A i?aeoeoe?
iaoi? ?iaioe nii/aoeo neeaaeaeanue iaaia nenoaia aea/aiiy nooaeaio?a,
yea ana a?eueo i?aai?/ii iia’ycoaaeany c iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei i?ioeanii,
c i?aeoeeith ae?yeueiino? ?inoeoooo.

Aieiaia oe?ii?noue iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? nooaeaioa, ia iao
iiaeyae, iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia caioi/o? aei ae?yeueiino?, aei
ia?aoai?aiiy i?aeoeee. Ona?aeiieaiiy nooaeaioaie naaa a i?ioean?
iaa/aeueii? i?aoe? a?aeaoaaeiny aoaeoeai?oa, yeui ia aoei ?ic?eao i?ae
oai???th ? i?aeoeeith. C oe??? ae iiceoe?? aea/aany ? ioe?ithaaany
?aaeueiee neeaae ni?aa. Nthaee aa?eoee oae? i?iaeaii? ieoaiiy: ?aaeei
aeiy ? athaeaeao /ano nooaeaioa; ?iai/ee /an, i?noea oa oiiae i?aoe?; ye
?aoe?iiaeueii ? aoaeoeaii iaa/aoeny; ?aoe?iiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y
naiino?eii? iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe; i?aai?caoe?y naiiaeoiaaiiy.

Iaa?oioiaaii ? aeiaaaeaii, ui ica?i?iiy nooaeaio?a i?aai?caoe?eieie
ciaiiyie ? ai?iiyie ? iaiao?aeiei, aea iaaeinoaoi?i aeey oiai, uia
i?aeaeueoe i?aai?ciaai?noue nooaeaio?a, aoaeoeai?noue ? ye?noue ?oiuei?
i?aeaioiaee aei i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeno?noue, ye a?aeiii,
?icaeaa?oueny ? oi?io?oueny a ae?yeueiino?. Aeina?ae iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy cana?ae/ea, ui ne?ae oae i?aai?coaaoe ae?yeuei?noue
nooaeaio?a, uia naia ae?yeuei?noue, i?aeoeea, aeina?ae iaee?auei /eiii
oi?ioaaee ? ?icaeaaee iniaeno?noue iaeaooiueiai oao?aoey.

Aea/aiiy nooaeaio?a c iiceoe?e iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?, ca
aeoeaiith o/anoth nooaeaio?a, aeaei ciiao ioe?ieoe aeaaii a?aeii? oaeoe,
a iiaeo ca’yceao ? a?aeiioaiiyo, a ?ioeo aei??ao ? ianooaaao. O naiiio
ae ?inoeooo? ia?oi/a?aiai, ia iao iiaeyae, noaea i?iaeaia aeyao
ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei iaa/aiiy, oiio ui ?? iio?aaa
aeicaieeea iai ae?aaiinooaaoe ? i?iaeooaaoe ae?yeuei?noue ia o?eueee
nooaeaio?a, a a ye?enue i??? oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a. I?iaeaia
ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aaeeea ? neeaaeia, oiio a nai?e ?iaio? ie
oi?eaeeny eeoa aeayeeo ?? aniaeo?a.

sseei aea aeiiaai ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe ineo?/iee noai iaeaooiueiai
oao?aoey? sseui aiai?eoe i?i iniiaia, oi nthaee aa?oi a?aeianoe:

1. ?iciiae?e, iaia?a?ai?noue ? no?ee?noue oaaae.

2. Iae?e caeiiii??iinoae ni?eeiyooy.

3. Oi/i?noue, oaeaee?noue caiai’yoiaoaaiiy, o?eaae?noue oo?eiaiiy,
oaeaee?noue a?aeia?aaeaiiy.

4. Ii?aeiaiiy neioaoe/iiai ? aiae?oe/iiai ieneaiiy, naiino?ei?noue,
oi/i?noue ? oiie?noue noaeaeaiue, aeiao?aeeea?noue, aeioaii?noue,
ni?eoi?noue, e?eoe/i?noue.

5. Cae?ai?noue oaeaeei, yne?aai ? oi/ii oyaeoe nia? oie /e ?ioee ia’?eo.

?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo iieacaee aenieo aoaeoeai?noue
caeo/aiiy naieo nooaeaio?a aei aeine?aeaeaiiy a i?ioean? ?o iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaieea ae??oeoe ?yae iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue: ica?i?oe nooaeaio?a aeaiaioaie iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeiiiiiaoe ona?aeiieoe ? ioe?ieoe naaa, aeeaoa ioe?ieoe
i?ioean iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?; ci?ieoe, aaeineiiaeeoe naaa ? naith
ae?yeuei?noue, ui a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? ni?eyei oi?ioaaiith o
nooaeaio?a a?eueo aeoeaii? iiceoe?? o iaa/aii?.

Oaeei /eiii, iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a oai??? ? i?aeoeoe? iaoeiaiai i?aeoiaeo
aei i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? a i?aai?/iiio ca’yceo c aea/aiiyi ?
naiiaea/aiiyi o i?ioean? ae?yeueiino? aeicaiey? aeyaeoe ia o?eueee
eiiieaen i?iaeai aoco, a e iiaeeea? oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaei ia o?eueee i?e?iaeiei, ia?aoai?thth/ei ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iei
aenia?eiaioii, a e eieaeoeaiei aeina?aeii nooaeaio?a, ?oiueith aeoeaiith
aeeoo?aith iiceoe??th.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeiaaaeaii, ui i?ae oiiaaie ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ie
?icoi??ii nenoaio oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue ia ?? ?icaeoie a
iaa/aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? aoco, ia ?ioaineai?noue, ?acoeueoao ? cao?aoe
/ano i?e oeueiio. A oeueiio ieai? iaea?eueo aeooaeueieie ?
ia?niaeoeaieie a iaoeiaiio ? i?aeoe/iiio a?aeiioaii? ? oae? i?iaeaie IA:

— ?aoe?iiaeueiee ?iciiae?e ? eiiia?aoe?y i?aoe? na?aae /eai?a
iaaeaaia?/iiai eieaeoeao;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeiniaeno?nieo a?aeiioaiue na?aae /eai?a
iaaeaaia?/iiai eieaeoeao;

— iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea e?eoa???a ioe?iee yeino? i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?o o i?aeoeeo aoc?a;

— oiiae ?aoe?iiaeueii? ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? iaaeaaiaa ? nooaeaioa,
i?iaeoeoeaiiai iaieiae?iiy ciaiiyie;

— ii?aeiaiiy eieaeoeaiiai iaa/aiiy, aeoiaaiiy c ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei
i?aeoiaeii i?e iioeiaeuei?e aca?iiae?? (ni?eeoaaii?) iaaeaaiaa ?
nooaeaioa;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo ca’yce?a ?c nooaeaioaie;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy ? naiieiio?ieue o ne?ooieo neooaoe?yo;

— iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea e?eoa???a ioe?iee ina?/aiino? ? aeoiaaiino?
nooaeaio?a;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy nooaeaionueeeo i?aeiniaeno?nieo a?aeiinei;
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia iaa?oioiaai?noue i?ioean?a naii?aaoeyoe?? ?
aca?iiae?? nooaeaio?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeiaaaeaii, ui eiioi?oi?noue o/aiaeo i?ei?uaiue
caeaaeeoue a?ae c?o/iinoae ?iai/iai i?noey, ?ici?uaiiy onoaoeoaaiiy ?
neaey/eo i?noeue a i?ei?uaii?, aia?aoo?e oa i?eai??a, ye?
canoiniaothoueny a ?iai/?e cii?, ?ici?uaiiy aeiiii?aeieo cania?a oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iaa/aeueieo cania?a nooaeaioa, i?e?iee?iaoa,
caaaeueiiai ina?oeaiiy, ??aiy ooio ? eieuei?iai? aaie oa?a i?ei?uaiiy oa
i?aaeiao?a, oiaoi a?ae anoaoe/iiai ioi?ieaiiy i?ei?uaiiy. Ana oea
nooo?ai aieeaa? ia ye?noue ae?yeueiino? a iaa/aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e anoaoecaoe?th iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua aeeeaaea/a ?
nooaeaioa, ie iaee ia oaac? caaeiaieaiiy ?oi?o anoaoe/ieo iio?aa.
Ioi/oth/? i?aaeiaoe i?aoe? oa iiaooo iiaeii? aooe ia o?eueee c?o/ieie ?
aeioe?eueieie, a e ni?yiiaai? ia anoaoe/ia caaeiaieaiiy. Oea
a?aeiineoueny ? aei i?ei?uaiue, iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a, iaae?a, ieoo/eo
?ino?oiaio?a oa ?i. On?i oeei caeia?oueny oaoi?/ia anoaoeea, yea
?ic?iaey? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c iie?auaiiy oiia i?aoe? c o?aooaaiiyi
aiioe?eiiai oiiono ethaeeie.

Ia iano??e ethaeeie aieeaathoue oae? oaeoi?e, ye ieaioaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai
i?ei?uaiiy, i?aai?caoe?y ?iai/iai i?noey a aoaeeoi??? ? ia eaoaae??,
aaeaea ii?aeiaiiy eieuei??a i?e oa?aoaaii? i?ei?uaiue, a oaeiae
?icoaooaaiiy iaae?a oa ?ioiai iaa/aeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy. Aaaeaii, uia a
aeeoo? aoc?a a?eueo yne?aai i?iyaeea naaa iaaeaaia?/ia anoaoeea, yea
caeia?oueny ieoaiiyie ieaioaaiiy ? ?icnoaiiaee ?iai/eo i?noeue,
ioi?ieaiiy aeaiiino?aoe?eieo ? iai/ieo i?eeaae?a.

A ?icae?e? ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co eaai?aoi?ieo i?ei?uaiue c
iiceoe?e a?aiiii?/ieo aeiia ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e iaie aoei cai?iiiiiaaii
eiie?aoi? aa??aioe iiaeaethaaiiy eaai?aoi?ieo i?ei?uaiue, aeieoaaiiy
eaai?aoi?ieo noie?a, a oaeiae ?ici??e aoaeeoi?ieo iaae?a.

Iaea?eueo aeooaeueieie i?iaeaiaie c oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua ?: i?i?-eiioi?o ?iai/iai i?noey ?c caaacia/aiiyi
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo, anoaoe/ieo oa ?ioeo a?aiiii?/ieo aeiia;
oaoi?caoe?y e aaoiiaoecaoe?y iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano c iaoith cieaeaiiy
cao?ao aia?a?? ? /ano a i?ioean? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa ? nooaeaioa.

I?iaaaeaia o ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
?aae?caoe?y ia i?aeoeoe? iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a c iiceoe?? IA aei
i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? aeeeaaea/a, i?aoe? nooaeaioa oa iaa/aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua ?noioii aieeaa? ia aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano,
icaei?iaeth? i?aoeth.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiie aeathoue
i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui aeo?aeia iaoiaeieia?y ? i?aaeeueiith, eiioeaioe?y
aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aeiith, aecia/ai? caaaeaiiy ?aae?ciaaii, iaoo
aeinyaiooi, a noeoii?noue io?eiaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a iaoeia
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey oai??? ? i?aeoeee a?aiiii?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano o caeeaaeao aeui? ina?oe.

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee

1.Aeieeiaiiy a?aiiii?ee coiiaeaii iaiao?aei?noth nenoaiiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ethaeeie a i?ioean? i?aoe?. A?aiiii?ea ye eiiieaenia
iaoea aea/a? iiaeeeaino? oa iniaeeaino? ethaeeie i?ae /an i?aoe? a
iaaiiio ?iai/iio na?aaeiaeu? aeey noai?aiiy oaeeo oiia, iaoiae?a ? oi?i
?iaioe, eio?? ni?eythoue i?iaeoeoeai?e, iaae?ei?e oa aacia/i?e aeey
caei?ia’y i?aoe? ? ?acii c oei anaa?/iiio ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?.
Iia?oth/e ?acoeueoaoaie, ye? io?eiaii a ?ioeo iaoeao, a?aiiii?ea
o?ainoi?io? ?o, ?ic?iaeyth/e nai? aeo?aei? oyaeaiiy oa caniae.

Ia?aaeoiiaith aeieeiaiiy e ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee ?
ia’?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue a a?aiiii?/iiio i?aeoiae? aei aea/aiiy
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ye neeaaeiiai nenoaiiiai ia’?eoo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
IA aeieeea e ?icaeaa?oueny ia iniia? iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ae?iaie/i?
a?aiiii?ee, a oaeiae aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? oa
iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

Iaa?oioiaaii e aeiaaaeaii, ui ia’?eoio aaeocue IA noai?th?
ooieoe?iiaeueia nenoaia “aeeeaaea/ – nooaeaio – iaa/aeueia na?aaeiaeua”.
C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui IA oea iai?yi no/anii? iaaeaaia?ee, yeee
caeia?oueny eiiieaeniei, nenoaiiei aea/aiiyi ? i?iaeooaaiiyi
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a o iaaiiio iaa/aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?. IA ni?ey? ae??oaiith ia
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiio ??ai? i?iaeaie iioei?caoe?? nioe?ioaoi?/ii?
nenoaie iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

O ?iaio? iiaeaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia aecia/aiiy iiiyooy IA.

2. Oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue a?aiiii?caoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy aeeth/a? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaai? no?oeoo?e ? iaoai?cie ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Iiaeaeue aecia/a?
iaoo ? ci?no a?aiiii?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia iniia? ia’?eoeaieo
iio?aa iie?auaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino?. Aiia yaey? niaith i?iaeooaaiiy
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano c o?aooaaiiyi a?aiiii?/ieo aeiia; aea/aiiy ?
i?iaeooaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a c iiceoe??
a?aiiii?/ieo e?eoa???a; i?aai?caoe?th iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia iniia?
a?aiiii?/ieo aeiia ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e

3.Aeiaaaeaii, ui c iiceoe?? IA iaa/aeueia na?aaeiaeua ?icaeyaea?oueny a
aeaio ieaiao: ciai?oi? (o?ce/ia na?aaeiaeua, yea ioi/oth? ethaeeio) ?
aioo??oi? (yea aeoiao? ethaeeio – ineoieia?/iee ee?iao, ni?eeoaaiiy
oiui). I?aaeiaoii-iaoa??aeueio /anoeio iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua
noaiiaeyoue: aoc?anueea oa?eoi??y, aoae?ae?, iaa/aeuei? i?ei?uaiiy ?
?iai/? i?noey, aea ?ici?uai? OCI, AII, iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/a
onoaoeoaaiiy, iaae?, iai/i? i?eeaaee, ina?oethaaeueia aia?aoo?a ? o.i.

O aeine?aeaeaii? ciaeoea i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?aaii??i?noue aeei?enoaiiy
aeinyaiaiue ae?iaie/i? a?aiiii?ee aeey IA c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. Ia iniia? nenoaie aeaiaio?a, neeaaeiaeo oiia
i?aoe? o ae?iaie/?e noa??, iaa?oioiaaii ? ?ic?iaeaii nenoaiia
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaiaio?a oiia ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o
iaa/aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Eeaneo?eaoe?y aeeth/a? /ioe?e a?oie aeaiaio?a:
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/i?, ineoio?c?ieia?/i?, anoaoe/i? oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?.

4. Aecia/ai? e aenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iaiaai? ia aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy IA. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iaoiaee, ca
aeiiiiiaith yeeo i?iaeoeoeaii aea/a?oueny IA ae?eyoueny ia o?e a?oie:
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee iaoiae, caaaeuei? iaoiaee eiiieaeno iaoe i?i o/aiao
ae?yeuei?noue o nenoai? ina?oe ? cie?aia iaoiaee, ui i?eoaiaii?
iaaeaaia?/i?e a?aiiii?oe?. Aei inoaiiuei? a?oie iaoiae?a, ye? oe?iei e
aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaeeny o ae??oaii? eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue IA, ie
a?aeiineii: aea/aiiy iniaenoeo aeieoiaio?a, oaoi?ei-ineoieia?/ia
ianoaaeaiiy nenoaie aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo, niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
no?oeoo?ith o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a, aan?aea c
o/anieeaie iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, aieaooaaiiy e aenia?oia ioe?iea,
aiae?c aeeiiaii? ?iaioe, a?aiiii?/iee aenia?eiaio.

5.?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo iiai?noth i?aeoaa?aeeee
i?aaii??i?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? a?aiiii?caoe??
i?ioeano iaa/aiiy a caeeaaeao aeui? ina?oe. Aeine?aeaeaii e
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii a?aeiia?aei?noue aeayeeo aeae?a
ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o?ce/iei oa ineoieia?/iei
iiaeeeainoyi ethaeeie ia oii? aoiie, no?ano, aiioe?eiiai noaio.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui aeoea?caoe?y iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? ia iiaea ia?eoeny aac oaeineiiaeaiiy e?iaoe/ieo aeo?a.
Oaeineiiaeaiiy ?ooiaeo aeo?a (aeano?a, iic, a?aeiia?aeieo ?oo?a ?
eieiiioe?e) ni?ey? aeiiii?? aia?a?? oa /ano aeeeaaea/a, aeoea?co?
ni?eeiyooy nooaeaioaie ?ioi?iaoe??, i?aeaeuo? ?oi?e aiioe?eiee oiion.

6.?ic?iaeaii ? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy o?oaeii?noeino? ??cieo
aeae?a iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a. Iaa?oioiaaii e aecia/aii nenoaio
a?aiiii?/ieo oiia aaeineiiaeaiiy athaeaeaoo /ano aeeeaaea/?a oa
nooaeaio?a a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

Ia i?aenoaaao aiae?co iaaieo cao?ao /ano aeeeaaea/ai oa nooaeaioii ia
??ci? aeaee ?ia?o ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui ?aca?ae aeey ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/iai /ano iaaecae/aeii a?ae/ooi?. A?ae ??aiy
i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaaeaaia?/iei i?ioeanii ia canaaeao IA
caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee aaeineiiaeaiiy athaeaeaoo /ano, a e iaaeaaia?/ia
iaenoa?i?noue aeeeaaea/?a, iie?auaiiy yeino? i?aeaioiaee aeioneiee?a.

Aecia/ai? oeyoe e oiiae aaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino?
aeeeaaea/?a ? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a ia canaaeao
iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee.

7.?ic?iaeaii oa cai?iiiiiaaii eiiieaen caoiae?a c oaeineiiaeaiiy
a?aiiii?/ieo oiia iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, ?iai/iai i?noey ye
aeeeaaea/a oae ? nooaeaioa.

8.Aecia/aii oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy IA c iaoith inoaoi/ii?
iiaoaeiae ?? ye neeaaeiiai nenoaiiiai ia’?eoo.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? aeneiaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?th
I?i?noa?noao ina?oe Oe?a?ie uiaei ii/aoeo aaeineiiaeaiiy a?aiiii?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a nenoai? aeui? ina?oe.

Aei ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? a?aiiii?ee ie
a?aeiineii:

— i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe?;

— ?ic?iaeo ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a ? oi?i iaaeaaia?/ii? oa
nooaeaionueei? ae?yeueiino? c aeei?enoaiiyi OCI, AII, aeiiii?aeiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy oiui;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy iniaeno?nieo yeinoae iaaeaaiaa c iaoith
iaieiae?iiy iaaeaaia?/iith iaenoa?i?noth.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo.

?. Iiiia?ao?y:

1. Neeaeai N.A. Y?aiiiie/aneea iniiau o/aaiiai i?ioeanna a aunoae oeiea:
Iiiia?aoey. — E.: ?aaeaeoe?y «Atheaoaiy Aeui? aoanoaoe?eii? eii?n??
Oe?a?ie». — 1998?. — 222 n. – 12 ae?.a?e.

??. Iaoeia? noaoo?:

2. Neeaeai N.I. Aeoea?caoe?y i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a o
i?ioean? iaa/aiiy // Nioe?ae?caoe?y iniaenoino?: I?aeeaoaae?aeueiee
ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae / Ca caa. ?aae. A.E.Eainueei?. – IIO, 1998. –
N.151-159. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

3.Neeaeai N.A. Athaeaeao a?aiaie nooaeaioa // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee
a?niee. Iaaeaaia?ea. – 1998. — ? 103. – N.2-17. – 1 ae?.a?e.

4.Neeaeai N.I. Aeoiai? ai?iiy aeeeaaea/?a ye oaeoi? aeoea?caoe??
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a // Iaoeia? caienee: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
noaoae Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa / Oee. I.A.Aeieo?aiei, ?.I.Eia/eia, I.I.Nei?iaiaaoueei,
I.I.Neiiiaiei. – E.: IIO, 1998, Aei.3. — N.54-60. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

5.Neeaeai N.I. A?eueiee /an nooaeaioa // Nioe?ae?caoe?y iniaenoino?:
i?aeeaoaae?aeueiee ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae / Ca caa.?aae. A.E.Eainueei?.
– E.: IIO, 1998, Aei.3. – N.61-68. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

6.Neeaeai N.I. Aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae ni?eeiaiiy nooaeaioaie eaeoe?eiiai
iaoa??aeo // Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe: Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue / Ca caa. ?aae. i?io. A.?.?aaeieeiiaa ? i?io.
I.I.Ieeeothea. –Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998. – Aei. 8-9. – N.93-97. – 0,5
ae?.a?e.

7. Neeaeai N.I. Aeeiaiiea i?aoeacaeaoiinoi nooaeaioia oa aieea ia ia?
?aoeiiiaeueii? i?aaiicaoei? iaa/aiiy // Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa
iaoeiai-aeineiaeii? ?iaioe / Ca caa. ?aae. i?io. A.?. ?aaeieeiiaa ?
i?io. I.I.Ieeeothea. — Oa?e?a, 1997. — Aei.3 — N.205-216. – 0,7 ae?.a?e.

8.Neeaeai N.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoi?nueeeo yeinoae nooaeaio?a //
Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai–aeine?aeii? ?iaioe: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue / Ca caa. ?aae. i?io. A.?.?aaeieeiiaa ? i?io. I.I.Ieeeothea.–
Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997. – Aei. 3.– N.199-205. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

9. Neeaeai N.I. Iaoeia? iniiae eiio?ieth ciaiue nooaeaio?a // Caniae
iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue / Ca
caa.?aae. i?io. A.?.?aaeieeiiaa ? i?io. I.I.Ieeeothea. — Oa?e?a, 1998. –
Aei.6. — N.234-241. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

10.Neeaeai N.I. Iaaeaaia?/ia ioe?iea ye oiiaa aaeaioaoe?? nooaeaio?a aei
oiia aoc?anueeiai iaa/aiiy // Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue / Ca caa. ?aae. i?io. A.?.?aaeieeiiaa ?
i?io. I.I.Ieeeothea. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998. – Aei. 8-9. – N.138-142. –
0,4 ae?.a?e.

11.Neeaeai N.A. Iiiyoea e nouiinoue y?aiiiieee eae iaoee //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Iaaeaaia?ea na?aaeiuei? oa aeui?
oeiee. – 1998. — ?70. – N.1-8. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

12.Neeaeai N.A. I?eioeeiu iao/iie i?aaiecaoeee iaaeaaiae/aneiai o?oaea
// I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Iaaeaaia?ea na?aaeiuei? oa aeui?
oeiee. — 1996?. — ?71. — N.92-95. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

13. Neeaeai N.I. I?ioan?eia naiii?ciaiiy — oiiaa noaiiaeaiiy
niaoe?ae?noa // Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue / Ca caa.?aae. i?io. A.?.?aaeieeiiaa ? i?io.
I.I.Ieeeothea. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998. – Aei.6. — N.209-214. – 0,5
ae?.a?e.

14. Neeaeai N.I. Ineo?/iee noai nooaeaio?a o ia?o? aei? iaa/aiiy o aoc?
// Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue / Ca caa.?aae. i?io. A.?.?aaeieeiiaa ? i?io. I.I.Ieeeothea. –
Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997. — Aei.3. — N.194-199. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

15.Neeaeai N.A. ?acaeoea ?a/aauo oiaiee nooaeaioia i?e acaeiiii iao/aiee
// I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Iaaeaaia?ea na?aaeiuei? oa aeui?
oeiee. – 1998. — ?70. – N.68-77. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

16.Neeaeai N.I. Naiiaeoiaaiiy iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa // Caniae
iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue / Ca
caa.?aae. i?io. A.?.?aaeieeiiaa ? i?io. I.I.Ieeeothea. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO,
1998. Aei.8-9. – N.36-41. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

17.Neeaeai N.A. Niaoeeo?n “Iao/iay i?aaiecaoeey iaaeaaiae/aneiai o?oaea”
a yeiiiie/aneii aoca // Iaoea ? no/ani?noue. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. – E.:
?CII, 1998. *.O. – N.144-149. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

18. Neeaeai N.A. Nouiinoue e niaea?aeaiea iaaeaaiae/aneie y?aiiiieee //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Iaaeaaia?ea na?aaeiuei? oa aeui?
oeiee. — 1998?. — ?70. — N.8-16. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

19.Neeaeai N.A. Nouiinoue iao/iie i?aaiecaoeee iaaeaaiae/aneiai o?oaea
// I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Iaaeaaia?ea na?aaeiuei? oa aeui?
oeiee. – 1998. — ?71. – N.81-91. – 0,5 ae?.a?e.

???. Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??:

20.Neeaeai N.A. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey o/aaiui
i?ioeannii aoca ia iniiaa iaaeaaiae/aneie y?aiiiieee: Iaoiaee/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey i?aiiaeaaaoaeae e nooaeaioia aoca. – E?eaee ??a, —
aeaeaaie/ee eiiieaen “E?eaaanaaoiiaoeea”. — 1995. – 1,5 ae?.a?e.

21. Neeaeai N.A. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia
n?aaenoaaie iaaeaaiae/aneie y?aiiiieee: Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. –
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22.Neeaeai N.A. Y?aiiiiecaoeey o/aaiie n?aaeu eae aaaeiue oaeoi?
eioaineoeeaoeee i?ioeanna iao/aiey: Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae aocia. – E?eaee ??a. 1996. – aeaeaaie/ee eiiieaen
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23.Neeaeai N.A. Nenoaia ya?enoe/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee, noeioee?othueo
niiioaiioth ?a/ue: Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey i?aiiaeaaaoaeae e
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IV.Iaoa??aee eiioa?aioe?e, oace:

24.Neeaeai N.A. Y?aiiiie/aneee aniaeo niaa?oainoaiaaiey o/aaiiai
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25.Neeaeai N.A. I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaaeaaiae/aneiai o?oaea ia
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aani?a?uaiiai ia?aciaaiey: Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. – ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1996. – N.109-110.
– 0.1 ae?.a?e.

26.Neeaeai N.I. I?iaeaie aeoea?caoe?? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
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27.Neeaeai N.I. I?eioeei nenoaiiino? o aeine?aeaeaiiyo iaaeaaia?/ii?
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28.Neeaeai N.I. A?aiiii?/iee i?aeo?ae ye iaoiae oaeineiiaeaiiy
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30.Neeaeai N.A. Y?aiiiiecaoeey o/aaiie n?aaeu – aaaeiue oaeoi?
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Aiioaoe?y

Neeaeai N.I. A?aiiii?/i? iniiae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o aeu?e oeie?. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee.
–Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. –
Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aecia/aiith ?ie? ? cia/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ii?
a?aiiii?ee aeui? oeiee ye aaeoc? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
iaaeaaia?/ia a?aiiii?ea – oea aaeocue no/anii? iaaeaaia?ee, eio?a
caeia?oueny eiiieaeniei aea/aiiyi ? i?iaeooaaiiyi ae?yeueiino?
aeeeaaea/a oa nooaeaioa a nenoai? “aeeeaaea/ – nooaeaio – iaa/aeueia
na?aaeiaeua” c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ?? aoaeoeaiino?. ?ic?iaeaia ? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaia eiioeaioe?y a?aiiii?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, yea ?
neeaaeiaith a i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?ii? iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii aoco. A
iniiao i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii aoco caeeaaeaii
oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue a?aiiii?caoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy. Aenia?eiaioaeueii
aeiaaaeaii aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae?. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo ae?yeueiino? aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaaeaaia?/ia a?aiiii?ea, iaa/aeueiee i?ioean,
a?aiiii?/i? oiiae, iaa/aeueia na?aaeiaeua, ooieoe?iioth/a nenoaia.

Aiiioaoeey

Neeaeai N.A. Y?aiiiie/aneea iniiau o/aaiiai i?ioeanna a aunoae oeiea. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. –
Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei.I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. – Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ii?aaeaeaieth ?iee e cia/aiey iaaeaaiae/aneie
y?aiiiieee aunoae oeieu eae io?anee iaaeaaiae/aneie iaoee.
Iaaeaaiae/aneay y?aiiiieea – yoi io?aneue a nia?aiaiiie iaaeaaiaeea,
eioi?ay caieiaaony eiiieaeniui eco/aieai e i?iaeoe?iaaieai
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aiiaeaaaoaey e nooaeaioa a nenoaia “i?aiiaeaaaoaeue –
nooaeaio – o/aaiay n?aaea” n oeaeueth iaania/aiey aa yooaeoeaiinoe.
?ac?aaioaia e iao/ii iainiiaaia eiioeaioeey y?aiiiiecaoeee o/aaiiai
i?ioeanna, eioi?ay yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey
o/aaiui i?ioeannii a aoca. A iniiao i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey o/aaiui
i?ioeannii aoca caeiaeaia oai?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue y?aiiiiecaoeee
i?ioeanna iao/aiey. Yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aia yooaeoeaiinoue
i?aaeeiaeaiiie iiaeaee. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou aiaae?aiu a i?aeoeeo
aeayoaeueiinoe aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaaeaaiae/aneay y?aiiiieea, o/aaiue i?ioeann,
y?aiiiie/aneea oneiaey, o/aaiay n?aaea, ooieoeeiie?othuay nenoaia.

Annotation

Skidan S.O. Ergonomic fundamentals of teaching process at higher school.
– Manuscript.

Dissertation for Doctor’s Degree of Pedagogics by speciality 13.00.01. –
Theory and History of Pedagogics. – National Teacher’s Training
University named after M.P.Dragomanov. – Kiev, 1999.

The present dissertation investigates the place and significance of
pedagogical ergonomics as a branch of pedagogic science. It’s the first
time that the subject matter, objectives and main issues of pedagogical
ergonomics as well as methods of ergonomic research have been specified.

It follows from the undertaken investigation that pedagogical ergonomics
is a branch of pedagogics which is concerned with studying and creating
conditions for effective teaching within the interactive frame “teacher
– student – teaching environment”, the teacher and student being its
active tools and teaching environment having an integral function.

Indissoluble synthesis of human factor and agents of teaching
environment is one of the most important attributes of pedagogical
ergonomics and determines its substance as a branch of pedagogics.

Pedagogical ergonomics seeks to increase the effectiveness of teaching,
ensuring physical fitness and a strong sense of moral values for all the
participants of teaching process.

The status of pedagogical ergonomics is determined by the fact that it
mainly deals with the place, inner links and interaction of the elements
in the functional frame “teacher – student – teaching environment”. The
effectiveness of the frame is understood as its ability to attain the
assigned goal under specified conditions.

The results of the research demonstrate that the substance of
pedagogical ergonomics lies in the formation and operation of its
frames. Owing to this fact, a comlex and systematic approach is a
methodological bases for ergonomical research. The specific methodology
of this complex ergonomical study makes a wide use of a variety of
methods: phychological, social, mathematical, statistical, ergonomical,
etc.

Ergonomical analyses of teaching process at higher school reveals that
in general it is characterized by a low level of ergonomization, which
has been verified in the course of the certifying experiment.

The findings presented in this theoretical research enable to interpret
ergonomization as an integral element of teaching process at higher
school. Its ergonomic conception has been elabotated and scientifically
grounded. In line with the conception, both didactic and ergonomic
matters, contribute to the effectiveness of teaching.

A theoretical model of ergonomization is laid as a foundation for
organization and administration of teaching process at higher school.
The model assumes the study and projection of teaching process, students
and teacher’s activity, teaching environment in the view of ergonomical
principles, criteria, recommendations.

The research has proved that one of the key factors for reaching stable
and dynamic functioning of ergonomic frames is the concept of
reliability, applied to audio-visual aids in complience with ergonomic
criteria. The system of reliability criteria related to audio-visual
aids has been worked out. It is likely to find its practical
application.

Fundamentals of pedagogigal ergonomics are seen as a complex of the
latest pedagogical achievements concerning to teaching process, teachers
and students’ activity, teaching environment, audio-visual aids and
innovations. According to the research any element of teaching process
acquires its content and assessment if presented in the frame “teacher –
student – teaching environment”. Ergonomization provides the
participants of teaching process with such conditions which are up to
human phychophysiological abilities and comply with ergonomic
requirements regarding mental activity.

The present state of higher education offers ample scope for
activization of ergonomical research. Effectiveness of teaching grows
considerably, provided that it’s organized and administrated on the
principles of ergonomics. The research proves that didactic objectives
can be succefully attained by means of long-term and expedient
ergonomical approach.

The dissertation views the main task of pedagogical ergonomics in
providing pedagogical science with wide-range opportunities, aimed at
the study of teaching process, perfection of teachers and students’
activity, teaching environment, improvement of organization and
administration of teaching process.

Key words: Pedagogical ergonomics, teaching process, ergonomical
conditions, teaching environment, functional frame.

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