I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

EE?ANUeEEE IAOEIAI-AeINE?AeIEE ?INOEOOO AI?AeAI?IEIA?? OA ?IOAEOe?EIEO
OAI?IA ?i. E.A. A?IIAOAANUeEIAI

IIAeAAAEAIEI AEEA IAAE?AIA

OAeE 616.931 — 022 — 036 — 084

AI?AeAI?IEIA?*I? INIAEEAINO? AeEOOA??EII? ?IOAEOe?? A IE?AIEO IAEANOssO
OE?A?IE OA OEssOE AAeINEIIAEAIIss NENOAIE AI?AeAI?IEIA?*IIAI IAAEssAeO

14.02.02 — ai?aeai?ieia?y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio ?inoeooo? oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a IIC
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oaaei?ia Aaeoa?ae ?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ai?aeai?ieia?? oa iaaee/ii?

ia?aceoieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai
?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eieani?eia Ieoaeei Ieoaeeiae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. aeaae. I.I.
Aiaiiieueoey,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ai?aeai?ieia??

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Iaae/aiei Aiaoie?e A?eai?iae/

cai?niee aieiaiiai nai?oa?iiai e?ea?y IIC Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe

?i. I.E. Ooieea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 30 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 11-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae — 26.614.02 i?e Ee?anueeiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? ai?aeai?ieia?? oa ?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia ?i.
E.A. A?iiaoaanueeiai (252038, i.Ee?a-38, oca?c I?ioan?a ss?,4)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo ai?aeai?ieia?? oa ?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia ?i.
E.A. A?iiaoaanueeiai (252038, i.Ee?a-38, oca?c I?ioan?a ss?,4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 25 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe E.N.
E?anthe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. A iei?oi?e /an, iacaaaeath/e ia cieaeaiiy
caoai?thaaiino?, i?iaeaia aeeooa??? caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiith.
Aeeooa??eia ?ioaeoe?y ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai
iaaeeei-nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Oea iia’ycaii c ai?aeai?/iei oa?aeoa?ii
?? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy, ?a?no?aoe??th aaaeeeo aeiaaee?a oa eaoaeueieo
iane?aee?a. No/ania ai?aeai?y aeeooa??? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?a?no?aoe??th
caoai?thaaiue na?aae i?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ua
a?eueoeo nioe?aeueieo ? aeiiii?/ieo caeoe?a.

I?ioyaii aaaaoueio ?ie?a ?aeeiei aoaeoeaiei caniaii ai?ioueae c
aeeooa???th ? ?ioiii?io?eaeoeea. Iaeiae, aaceiio?ieueii i?iaaaeai?
uaieaiiy ia caaacia/othoue aeinoaoiueiai ?ioi?oaoo (I. I. Aaniaa, 1997),
ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy ieoiii? aaae uaieaieo na?aae oai?eo ia
aeeooa??th. E??i oiai, uaieai? ia??aeei iathoue aaaeeee ia?aa?a oai?iae
oa aeaeiee iiie?athoue (A. Iaeaiaiei, A. Aaeacea, 1993). ?ai?oa
aeneiaeaia aeoiea, ui i?aaeeueii uaieai? ia iiie?athoue a?ae aeeooa???,
a caoai?thaaiiy a iniiaiiio ia? eaaeee ia?aa?a (E. A. Oaai?iaa, 1988),
ia nueiaiaei? iinooia?oueny ?io?e aeoioe?, ui uaieai?noue ia aeeeth/a?
aaaeeiai ia?aa?ao oa eaoaeueiiai e?ioey (A. A. Aeaieoianeay, 1995).
A?aeiii, ui ca?eueoaiiy iacaoeuaieo in?a na?aae uaieaieo iiaea aooe
iaoiiaeaia aeei?enoaiiyi iecueei?ioiiaaiieo i?aia?ao?a (A. Aaeacea,
1993; AE. E. Aiceaiiaa, 1996; E. I. *oaeia, A. A. Ien?the, 1997; E. A.
Ii?ic, 1997), a oaeiae ii?ooaiiyi ?aaeeio o?ainii?ooaaiiy oa caa??aaiiy
aaeoeei, a?aenooiii a?ae noai ?ioi?caoe?? (A. I. Naaeiaieeiaa n niaao.,
1993; A. ss. Oeaiaaa n niaao., 1995). Caa??aa?oueny aeooaeuei?noue
ioe?iee aieeao ia iai?oaeai?noue ? o?eaae?noue ?ioi?oaoo aei aeeooa???
/eiiee?a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (A. A. Ea?aeueiee, N. A. Ia?eiaa,
1991; I. A. Eiaeai, 1992; A. I. *a?aaeiee, 1997), ia?aianaieo
caoai?thaaiue (A. A. Oaaeianeay, E. I. *oaeiay, 1993; N. N. Ia?eeia n
niaao., 1998), canoinoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo e?ea?nueeeo ? a?ieia?/ieo
i?aia?ao?a (E. A. Oeeiiaiei n niaao., 1996) oa ?i.

Ia aeeeeea? noii?a?a, ui ci?ia a?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae ei?eiaaaeoa??e
aeeooa???, aieeioea ia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oai?iae. Ne?ae iiaiaeeoeny c
aeoieith aaoi??a (A. ss. Oeaiaaa n niaao., 1998; K. H. Engler, A.
Efstratiou, 1998), ui oe?iei canoiniaai? nueiaiaei? i?e?ia?ieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy caoaeieea aeeooa??? iaaeinoaoi? aeey ai?aeai?ieia?/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aiaieu ?ioaeoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, aeuaiaaaaeaia na?ae/eoue i?i caa?aaeaiiy aeooaeueiino?
i?iaeaie aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? ? aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue aaeineiiaeaiiy
nenoaie ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo ia iniia? iaaooeo ciaiue oa
aeina?aeo.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Aaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo ca
aeeooa??eiith ?ioaeoe??th ia iniia? iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy ??
ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1. Ioe?ieoe no/ani? ai?aeai?ieia?/i? i?iyae aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? oa ??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io cia/ou?noue.

2. Aeaoe ioe?ieo i?io?eaeoe/iei uaieaiiyi i?ioe aeeooa???, ye?
i?iaiaeeee aei?ineiio ianaeaiith.

3. Aecia/eoe aieea oaoiiaaiieo aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a ia noai
i?ioeaeeooa??eiiai ?ioi?oaoo.

4. Aea/eoe a?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa???
(aioea?ioeei?acenoaioi?noue, aaiie?oe/i?, aaiaaethoeioth/?, aaeaaceai?
aeanoeaino? oa ?i.) ? ioe?ieoe iiaeeea?noue ?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy ye
ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo ia?ea??a.

5. ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith nenoaie ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai
iaaeyaeo ca aeeooa??eiith ?ioaeoe??th c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo ??
iniaeeainoae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Io?eiai? iia? aeai? i?i ai?aeai?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino?
aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? (aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo ai?aeai??, a?eiaa ?
nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a caoai?thaaiiy, i?iyae naciiiino? oa ?i.) a ie?aieo
iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie, ia?aaaaeii no?aeiiai ?aa?iio, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny
aeieia?/ieie oiiaaie ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith ni?yiiaai?noth.

Aia?oa a oiiaao aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ieo oa?eoi??e Aeiiaano ? Oa?e?anueei?
iaeano? iieacaiee iaaaoeaiee aieea oaoiiaaiieo /eiiee?a iaoaeo?a?eiiai,
eienio?i?/iiai oa ?ioeo ae?iaieoeoa ia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioeaeeooa??eiiai
?ioi?oaoo.

Iiaeeaeaii oyaeaiiy uiaei a?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oee?eoethth/eo
ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa??? (aaiie?oe/ia, aaiaaethoeioth/a oa aaeaaceaia
aeoeai?noue) ? cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeei ?oiueiai oeioaaiiy c iaoith
aecia/aiiy ai?aeai?ieia?/ii? cia/ouino? aiaieu.

Iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue aaaaeaiiy a nenoaio ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai
iaaeyaeo ca aeeooa???th aeiaeaoeiaeo caoiae?a, ye? aecia/athoue
iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino? (aeei?enoaiiy a?ieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ei?eiaaaeoa??e ye ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo ia?ea??a, o?aooaaiiy
aieeao /eiiee?a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia noai ?ioi?oaoo).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee ai?aeai?ieia?/iee
aiae?c aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? ?c aecia/aiiyi “iiaeaeueieo” oa?eoi??e
(iaeanoae aai ?aa?ii?a), ui ae??ciythoueny aeieia?/ieie oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oiiaaie.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?aoiaaieo ?ici???a aeiiii?/iiai caeoeo, yeee ni?e/eiy?
aeeooa??y, aea? iiaeeea?noue ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieoe aeeooa??eio ?ioaeoe?th
ye iaaeeei-nioe?aeueio i?iaeaio.

C iaoith iioei?caoe?? ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo ca aeeooa??eiith
?ioaeoe??th cai?iiiiiaaii aaaaeaiiy a eiai nenoaio aeiaeaoeiaeo
caoiae?a, ui aeeth/athoue aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oee?eoethth/eo
ei?eiaaaeoa??e, a naia, no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?? ? ooaiiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
(aaeaaceai?noue, aaiie?oe/ia oa aaiaaethoeioth/a aeoeai?noue), a oaeiae
o?aooaaiiy aieeao oaoiiaaiieo /eiiee?a ia noai i?ioeaeeooa??eiiai
?ioi?oaoo.

Noai?aio aaoi?nueeo eieaeoe?y ooai?a ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa??? c iienii
?oi?o iniiaieo a?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ? ioi?ieaiiyi “ianii?o?a”.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??, ui iathoue i?aeoe/ia ni?yioaaiiy, a?aeia?aaeai?
a iin?aieeo “Aeeooa?ey: yieaeaieieiae/aneee iaaeci? e i?ioeeaeoeea”
(Oa?e?a, 1997), a ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio eeno? ? 56 IIC Oe?a?ie “Aca?iiae?y oa
aca?iica’ycie i?ae e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieie oa iaa/aeueieie
caeeaaeaie (?c caaacia/aiiy ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai aeaaiiieo//y iaa/aeueieo
eieaeoea?a)” (Ee?a, 1998), a oaeiae a ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/iiio
aeaeaii? “Ioeaiea aeeiaieee ?acaeoey yieaeaiee aeeooa?ee a Oa?ueeianeie
iaeanoe e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aa i?ioeeaeoeea” (Oa?e?a, 1998).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo Oa?e?anueeiai iaoeiaiai
iaaee/iiai oiaa?enoaa (1996, 1997, 1998 ??.); ?aa?iiaeuei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? a?a??i?no?a oa nai?oa?ieo e?ea??a
(Oa?e?a, 1996); XIII c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa
i?e?ia?ieia?a, ai?aeai?ieia?a oa ia?aceoieia?a ?i. Ae. E. Caaieioiiai
(A?iieoey, 1996); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeueiua aii?inu
i?ioeeaeoe/aneie iaaeeoeeiu” (Oa?e?a, 1996); tha?eaei?e eiioa?aioe??
Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a “Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu
oai?aoe/aneie e i?eeeaaeiie yieaeaieieiaee” (Oa?e?a, 1997); IX
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?eiaiaiea eaca?ia a
iaaeeoeeia e aeieiaee” (sseoa, 1997); iaeani?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu e iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey
i?ioeeaeoe/aneie iaoee e i?aeoeee” (Oa?e?a, 1997); X I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?eiaiaiea eaca?ia a iaaeeoeeia e
aeieiaee” (Oa?e?a, 1998); ae?oa?e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eaeae
Ianoa?a a ai?ueaa n eioaeoeeyie” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1998); I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “No?aoaaey e oaeoeea ai?ueau n eioaeoeeiiiuie
caaieaaaieyie” (Oa?e?a, 1998), ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Yieaeaieieiaey, yeieiaey e aeaeaia” (Oa?e?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 14 ?ia?o.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, 5 ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caaa?oaiiy,
aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeeaaeaia ia 172 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno, i?i?ethno?iaaia 23 oaaeeoeyie ?
10 iaethieaie. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 325 aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiaiee ianya aeine?aeaeaiue (aeecueei
85%) aeeiiaiee aaoi?ii naiino?eii, a o. /. i?iaaaeaii ?ao?iniaeoeaiee
aiae?c iaoa??ae?a a naie iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie c 1992 ?. aei 1997 ?., a
oaeiae ca 20 ?ie?a (1978-1997 ??.) ii Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?; cae?eniaii
ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy a 936 aiaieuao aeeooa??eii?
?ioaeoe??; aeae?eaii oa ?aeaioeo?eiaaii 104 eoeueoo?e ei?eiaaaeoa??e
aeeooa???, aea/aii a?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee 49 ooai?a; aeine?aeaeaii
na?ieia?/iei iaoiaeii 1255 ne?iaaoie e?ia? ethaeae ia iai?oaeai?noue
?ioi?oaoo aei aeeooa??? oa /anoeiai aei i?aaoeth. Aaoi? a?aea
aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o i?aeaioiaoe? aeaeaiiy iaoiaee/ieo aeieoiaio?a
oa iaoa??ae?a aei iioae?eoaaiiy.

Aeneiaeth?ii ue?o iiaeyeo eaiae. iaae. iaoe, no. aeeeaaea/o eaoaae?e
i?e?ia?ieia?? oa ?ioiieia?? O?OE AE.I. Iai?iie ca aeiiiiiao o
i?iaaaeaii? i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny a iaaeao ieaiiai? IAe? Oa?e?anueeiai
?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a “Iii?oi?eia ca noaiii caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy i?noa oa iaeano? a ca’yceo ?c caa?oaeiaiiyi iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua” (? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 0900014689), ?i?oe?aoeaii?
eiiieaenii? oaie IAe? “Ioe?iea aieeao i?e?iaeiia?aoai?thth/i?
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie ia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioaeoe?eieo ? ia?aceoa?ieo
oai?ia oa aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ?o i?io?eaeoeee” o ni?a?ia?oieoeoa? c
naiai?aecaeeaaeaie naie iaeanoae, ia?aaaaeii no?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie.

Ca ia??iae c 1995 ?. aei 1998 ?. aoei i?iaaaeaii oaeee ianya
aeine?aeaeaiue: cae?eniaii ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
1260 oai?eie ia aeeooa??th (?c caiiaiaiiyi ia eiaeiiai niaoe?aeueii
?ic?iaeaii? ea?oe aeiaeaoeiaeo a?aeiiinoae ? ianooiiei ?oi?i aiae?cii);
na?ieia?/ii ianoaaeaii 1124 iniae ia iai?oaeai?noue ?ioi?oaoo aei
aeeooa??? ? /anoeiai aei i?aaoeth; ?aeaioeo?eiaaii 104 eoeueoo?e
ei?eiaaaeoa??e ?c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi a?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee 49
ooai?a; i?iaaaeaii aeeiai?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy (4-?aciaa na?ieia?/ia
ianoaaeaiiy) ca iai?oaeai?noth ?ioi?oaoo aei aeeooa??? oa i?aaoeth o 131
aei?inei? iniae a ia??iae oo?iai? ?ioi?caoe??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo a aeai?e ?iaio? caaaeaiue aoa aeei?enoaiee
eiiieaen iaoiae?a.

1. Ai?aeai?ieia?/iee iaoiae ia?aaeaa/aa ca?? ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo
aeaieo o oai?eo ? iin??a oieneaaiieo ooai?a ei?eiaaaeoa??e. Aeei?enoai?
?noi??? oai?iae ? ea?oe ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy aiaieu aeeooa???,
noaoenoe/i? ca?oe, iieacieee ae?yeueiino? nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo ?
e?eoaaeueieo onoaiia (o. 1, o. 2, o. 18). ?acoeueoaoe
ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca oai?eie ia aeeooa??th
iieeaaeai? a iniiao ioe?iee ?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? cia/ouino?.
Aeei?enoaii iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie, ye? canoiniaothoueny a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio aiae?c? ?ioeo e?aiaeueieo ?ioaeoe?e (E. E.
Oaoaieia, I. E. Aeaayoiaa, 1980; E. E. Oaoaieia, 1982). Canoiniaai?
ea?oia?ao?/i? i?eeiie aea/aiiy caoai?thaaiino? (E. I. Neiye n niaao.,
1985).

2. I?e?ia?ieia?/iee iaoiae, canoiniaaiee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ni?yiiaaiee
ia aeae?eaiiy ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa??? a?ae oai?eo ? aaeoa??iiin??a oa
ianooiia aea/aiiy ca?aeii c /eiieie ?ino?oeoeaii-iaoiaee/ieie
aeieoiaioaie c aaeoa??ieia?/ii? oa na?ieia?/ii? ?iaeeeaoe?? caoaeieea
aeeooa???. Aecia/aiiy aaiie?oe/ii? oa aaiaaethoeioth/i? aeoeaiino?
ei?eiaaaeoa??e i?iaiaeeeiny i?e?iiaoiaeii (A.I. Ieeeoei, 1986), /anoeiai
ca aeaniith iiaeeo?eaoe??th. Aaiie?oe/io aeoeai?noue aea/aee,
aeei?enoiaoth/e a?eo?ioeeoe aa?aia, ethaeeie 0 (I) oa A (II) a?oi
e?ia?, aaiaaethoeioth/o — c a?eo?ioeeoaie aa?aia. Aeey aeyaeaiiy
aaeaac?? aeei?enoaee iaoeai? a?eo?ioeeoe ethaeeie A (II) a?oie e?ia? ?
a?eo?ioeeoe aa?aia. Aea/aiiy aaeaaceaiiai i?ioeano (A.E. A?eeen n
niaao., 1985) a?oiooaaeiny ia ioe?ioe? iieaciee?a NIA (na?aaei?e
iieaciee aaeaac??), E (eiao?oe??io o/ano? a?eo?ioeeo?a a aaeaaceaiiio
i?ioean?) ? ?AI (?iaeaen aaeaaceaiino? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a). Aaeaaceai?noue
aaaaeaee iecueeith i?e NIA a?ae 0 aei 1,0, ?AIF1,75; na?aaeiueith i?e
NIA — 1,01-2,0, ?AI — 1,76-2,5; aenieith i?e NIA — 2,01-4,0, ?AI —
2,51-4,0. Aecia/aiiy aioea?ioeei/ooeeaino? ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa???
i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii noaiaea?oieo aeene?a aei 16 aioea?ioee?a:
iai?oeee?i, aii?oeee?i, ea?a?i?oeee?i, a?eo?ii?oeei, ieaaiaeii?oeei,
aeieneoeeee?i, eaaii?oeaoei, oao?aoeeee?i, no?aioii?oeei, eaiai?oeei,
ooceaeei, aaioai?oeei, ?eoaii?oeei, ?enoii?oeei, ienaoeeee?i,
iie?iaenei. Aea/ai? ca cacia/aieie ia?aiao?aie ei?eiaaaeoa??? aoee
aeeth/ai? aei aaoi?nueei? eieaeoe?? ooai?a.

3. ?ioiieia?/iee iaoiae a?oiooaaany ia canoinoaaii? caaaeueiii?eeiyoiai
na?ieia?/iiai oanoo — ?aaeoe?? ianeaii? aaiaaethoeiaoe?? (?IAA)
i?e?iiaoiaeii, c aeei?enoaiiyi aeeooa??eiiai oa i?aaoeaaiai
ae?aaiinoeeoi?a (ae?iaieoeoaa AI “A?iiaae” ?i. ?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa).
E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy ne?iaaoeiaeo ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a ??ciiiai?oieo eean?a
i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii ?aae?aeueii? aeeooc?? (G.Iancini, 1965).
?acoeueoaoe ioe?ithaaeeny ca oaaeeoeath (A. I. *a?aaeaaa n niaao.,1980).

4. Noaoenoe/iee iaoiae canoiniaoaaany c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeee, ui
?aeiiaiaeothoueny i?e aea/aii? ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo yaeu (O. TH. Eania?iaa,
1986; A. A. ?onaeiaa n niaao., 1991).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

Aiae?c aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?? aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? a ie?aieo
iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie

Aeai? ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai aiae?co aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? na?ae/aoue, ui
aaea a 80-o? ?iee noaea iii?oiith oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy caoai?thaaiino?.
A 1990 ?. o?eueee a o?ueio iaeanoyo ia aoee ca?a?no?iaai? aeiaaeee
aeeooa??? (Ee?anueea, E??iaia?aaenueea, Oa?niinueea). Ianoaaeie, ui
neeaeeny, i?ecaaee aei ai?aeai?? a 1991 ?., eiee caoai?thaai?noue, o
ii??aiyii? c 1990 ?., c?inea a 10 ?ac?a. A ai?aeai?/iee i?ioean (AI)
aoei aoyaiaii ianaeaiiy on?o aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oa?eoi??e Oe?a?ie.
Ai?aeai?y aeeooa??? a ia?oo /a?ao ioiieea aaeee?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?iieneia? oeaio?e e ?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiai? iaeano?.

Aeei?enoaiiy i?eioeei?a ea?oia?ao?/iiai aiae?co, aeaei ciiao oyaeoe
?ioaineai?noue AI a ?ic??c? iaeanoae ? a?aeie?aieoe oa?eoi??? oanoe
??ai?a o?aaeaiino? ianaeaiiy, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue oaeei ?ioa?aaeai
iieaciee?a aaaaoi??/ii? (1991-1997 ??.) caoai?thaaiino? (ia 100 oen.): I
— 1,3-2,3; II — 2,4-3,4; III — 3,5-4,5; IV — 4,6-5,6; V — 5,7-6,7; VI —
6,8-7,9 /iae. 1/.

Ia??aiii??i?noue i?iyao ?ioaineaiino? ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano
aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? (a?ae i?i?iaeueiiai 1,3-2,3 aei iaeneiaeueiiai
iieaciee?a 6,8-7,9), a oaeiae ??ci? aeieia?/i? oiiae oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia ni?yiiaai?noue iniaeeai iii?oia a iaeanoyo
no?aeiiai ?aa?iio. Oea aea? i?aenoaae aei aeai?o /anoeie c ieo aeey
niinoa?aaeaiiy ? iiaeeaeaiiai aiae?co aeeiai?ee ai?aeai??. Anueiai aeey
niinoa?aaeaiiy aoei acyoi n?i iaeanoae Oe?a?ie (A? E?ei, Aeiiaoeueea,
Caii??cueea, Eoaainueea, Iieoaanueea, Noinueea oa Oa?e?anueea), ui
iii?oii ae??ciyeeny nai?th nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith ni?yiiaai?noth.

Aeaye? ?c cacia/aieo oa?eoi??e oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue ye ia?aaaaeii
?iaeono??ei? — Aeiiaoeueea, Eoaainueea, Caii??cueea; ?io? (Oa?e?anueea,
Noinueea) — ye ?iaeono??eii-aa?a?i?; ? Iieoaanueea, a?eueoith i??ith,
i?ae ?io? iaeano?, — aa?a?ia. A?ae cacia/aieo iaeanoae a?ae??ciyeany A?
E?ei nai?th ?icaeiaiith aa?a?iith noa?ith aeiiii?ee, iayai?noth
?ae?aaoe?eieo cii ? iia’ycaiith c oeei ae?aaeaiith i?a?aoe??th
ianaeaiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui c i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy
o?aai?caoe?? oa?eoi??e c?inoa? caoai?thaai?noue i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy
(rxy=+0,82; m= ±0,16; t>3). E??i oiai, aeyaeaia iacia/ia caeaaei?noue
caoai?thaaiino? ia aeeooa??th aeeoae?a i?noa a?ae oaoiiaaiiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy oa?eoi??? (rxy =+0,62)

Aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?? a Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio oa a iaeanoyo, ca
yeeie aaeiny niinoa?aaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny iiae?aieie oaiaeaioe?yie
/iae. 2/. Iaeiae, o eiaei?e iaeano? aoee nai? iniaeeaino?, iia’ycai? ?c
aieeaii noeoiiino? oaeoi??a, ianaiia?aae, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o. Oae, a oiiaao iaea?eueo o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e c ae?aaeaieie
i?a?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie aoa a?eueo ?ioaineaiei ii/aoie ?icaeoeo
ai?aeai??. Oaea a 1993 ?. iaeaeu? iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? (ia 100
oen.) a?aecia/aii a A? E?ei (13,06), Caii??cuee?e (10,9), Oa?e?anuee?e
(9,8) iaeanoyo.

A oiiaao aa?a?ieo ? iaio o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e (Iieoaanueea, Noinueea
iae.) ?icaeoie ai?aeai?? aoa iia?euei?oei. A 1995 ?. a?aei?/aany ??no
caoai?thaaiino?, i?eoaiaiiee aeey an?o iaeanoae, ca yeeie niinoa??aaee.
I?e oeueiio, iaeieae/? iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? caeeoaeeny a
Iieoaanuee?e iaeano? (3,32 ia 100 oen. ian.), a iaeaeu?, ui ia?aaeuoaaee
iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? ii Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio, aoee a Aeiiaoeuee?e
(11,1), Caii??cuee?e (11,6), Noinuee?e (13,44) iaeanoyo ? A? E?ei
(13,45). Oeae ??e i?aaii??ii ?icoe?iththoue ye ia?aeiiiee o ?icaeoeo
ai?aeai?? aeeooa???, ine?eueee a?aeoiae? ii/eia?oueny cieaeaiiy
caoai?thaaiino?, oi/ a aeayeeo iaeanoyo a 1996 ?. ua caa??aaeeny aenie?
iieacieee: Aeiiaoeueea (7,9), Caii??cueea (8,9), Noinueea (12,3),
Eoaainueea (14,5).

I?e aacoiiaiiio aieea? ia ?icaeoie ai?aeai?? nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a
(nooi?iue o?aai?caoe?? oa?eoi???, i?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane oa ?i.), aaeeea
cia/aiiy ana ae oaee ia? noai eieaeoeaiiai ?ioi?oaoo aei aeeooa???. A
Noinuee?e iaeano? aei ii/aoeo ai?aeai?? (1990 ?.) iacaoeuaieo a?ae
aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? aoei 38,9%, a a 1993 ?. ?oiy e?euee?noue noaea ua
aeuith — 50,8%, ui ia iiaei ia aieeiooe ia aeeiai?eo AI: a 1995?.
iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? aeinyaee 13,4 ia 100 oen. ianaeaiiy.

O ?iee ai?aeai?? aeeooa??? ia?aeaeueii c ?inoii caoai?thaaiino?
a?aecia/a?oueny ca?eueoaiiy /enea aaeoa??iiin??a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a
ia?o? ?iee ai?aeai?? a ie?aieo iaeanoyo (Noinueea, Eoaainueea) i?e
iecueeeo iieacieeao caoai?thaaiino? oa cia/i?e e?eueeino? iacaoeuaieo
in?a (30,2-50,8% — Noinueea iae. ? 27,6-29,3% — Eoaainueea iae.)
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oai?eo oa iin??a oieneaaiieo ei?eiaaaeoa??e aoei 1:2,5 —
1:3,0 ? 1:2,7 — 1:3,5 a?aeiia?aeii. C 1994 ?. a ia??iae ca?eueoaiiy
caoai?thaaiino? a oeo aea iaeanoyo ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oai?eo ? iin??a aaea
noaei 1:0,8 — 1:1,7. ? i?aenoaae i?eionoeoe, ui iieaciee ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
oai?eo ? iin??a ei?eiaaaeoa??e iieaco? ia no?eueee ni?aaaei? noaiiaeua,
ne?eueee noai ae?aaiinoeee aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe??. Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui
a ia??iae ai?aeai?? aeeooa??? a Oe?a?i? o ?yae? iaeanoae o ?iee iecueei?
caoai?thaaiino? iaea i?noea a?iiae?aaiinoeea aeeooa???.

Aiae?c naciiii? aeeiai?ee caoai?thaaiino? ia aeeooa??th na?ae/eoue, ui
oa?aeoa?ia aeey aeaii? ?ioaeoe?? in?iiuei-ceiiaa naciii?noue caa??aaeany
eeoa o Aeiiaoeuee?e, Caii??cuee?e ? iaioa — a Eoaainuee?e iaeanoyo.
Nai???aei?noue naciiiino? aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? i?iyaeeanue a Noinuee?e
iaeano? oa A? E?ei c aeaiia ia??iaeaie ?inoo caoai?thaaiino? (ainaie ?
iaaani?). Iii?oii ae??ciyeany naciii?noue aeeooa??? a Iieoaanuee?e
iaeano?, aea aoa aeyaeaiee iaoeiiaee ?? oa?aeoa? (ia ea?oaiue-/a?aaiue
i?eiaaeaei 57,7% aeiaaee?a caoai?thaaiue).

A eiaei?e ?c iaeanoae niinoa?aaeaiiy a?aecia/aii nai? iniaeeaino?
?iciiae?eo caoai?thaaiino? a ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oiao. Oae, a Oa?e?anuee?e
iaeano? na?aaeiuei??/ia caoai?thaai?noue o ae?oae i?ae /an ai?aeai??
aoea ieae/ith o 4,3 ?ace, i?ae o i?aee?oe?a, ? o 2,9 ?ace, i?ae o
aei?ineeo, ui a?aeiia?aeaei ?ioiieia?/i?e no?oeoo?? ianaeaiiy
(e?euee?noue iacaoeuaieo a?ae aeeooa???, iai?eeeaae o 1994 ?. aeinyaea
na?aae ae?oae — 10,2%, na?aae i?aee?oe?a — 20,3%, na?aae aei?ineeo –
43,7%). I?ioa, a Eoaainuee?e iaeano? c ii/aoeii ai?aeai?? a AI cia/iith
i??ith aoee caeo/ai? ae?oe, ui iaoiiaeaii aenieith ieoiiith aaaith
iacaoeuaieo na?aae ieo (55,7%). Aeniea caoai?thaai?noue ia aeeooa??th
i?aee?oe?a aoea iaeaea a on?o iaeanoyo niinoa?aaeaiiy, aea iaeaeua o
Aeiiaoeuee?e oa Oa?e?anuee?e iaeanoyo, ui cia/iith i??ith iia’ycaii c
aeoeaiith i?a?aoe??th oe??? eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy, oi?ioaaiiyi iaa/aeueieo
eieaeoea?a ia oii? iecueei? ?oiuei? caoeuaiino?.

A oe?eiio a Oe?a?i? o ?iee ai?aeai?? oai??ee 72,8% aei?ineeo, 19,7% —
ae?oae, 7,5% — i?aee?oe?a. Noiaea a?eiaa no?oeoo?a caoai?thaaiino? aoea
? a iaeanoyo niinoa?aaeaiiy, oi/ oe? iieacieee aa??thaaee a cia/ieo
iaaeao: ieoiia aaaa oai?eo aei?ineeo eieeaaeany a?ae 67,7% (Caii??cueea
iae.) aei 85,7% (Oa?e?anueea iae.); i?aee?oe?a — a?ae 6,3% (Aeiiaoeueea
iae.) aei 10,0% (Iieoaanueea iae.); ae?oae — a?ae 6,9% (Oa?e?anueea
iae.) aei 10,0% (Caii??cueea iae.). Cacia/aia iniaeea?noue, aacoiiaii,
iiynith?oueny caoeuai?noth ianaeaiiy ? ??ciiiai?oi?noth oaeoi??a, ui
aieeaathoue ia AI, ia?o ca ana nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. I?i oea oaeiae
na?ae/eoue oa, ui a a?eueoino? iaeanoae niinoa?aaeaiiy caoai?thaai?noue
aeeoy/iai ianaeaiiy aoea aeuith a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, i?ae o
i?nuee?e.

Aiae?coth/e noai uaieaiino? oai?eo ia aeeooa??th, a?aecia/eee, ui a
on?o iaeanoyo niinoa?aaeaiiy /?oei i?inoaaeoaaeany oaiaeaioe?y
ca?eueoaiiy na?aae ieo /enea uaieaieo ye n?euenueeeo, oae ? i?nueeeo
iaoeaioe?a. Aei 1997 ?. iieacieee uaieaiino? iaa?oue na?aae oai?eo
aeae?aoiaaieo in?a ca?eueoeeeny ? ia?aaeueee o aeayeeo iaeanoyo
(Caii??cueea, Iieoaanueea, Oa?e?anueea) 90%. Ia oa?eoi??yo
niinoa?aaeaiiy iaeaeuo eaoaeuei?noue ?a?no?oaaee a iaeanoyo c ii??aiyii
iecueeith caoai?thaai?noth (Iieoaanueea iae. — 5,4%). Ia ?ioeo
oa?eoi??yo oeae iieaciee eieeaaany a iaaeao 2,5% (Noinueea iae.) — 4,3%
(Aeiiaoeueea iae.). Iieacieee nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae aeeooa??? aoee a
iaaeao 0,2-0,3 ia 100 oen. ianaeaiiy, ui ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
iieaciee?a nia?oiino? ii Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio. Iaeiae, caaaeueio
oaiaeaioe?th, yea iia’ycaia c a?eueo aenieeie iieacieeaie nia?oiino?
ae?oae n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? (ii Oe?a?i? 0,5 ia 100 oen. ianaeaiiy),
aeyaeee o aeayeeo iaeanoyo: Aeiiaoeueea — 0,7; A? E?ei — 0,7;
Caii??cueea — 1,2. A?aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? eaoaeueiino? ? nia?oiino?
iaea?eueo a??ia?aeii iia’ycai? c iaaoaeoeaiei iaaeaiiyi iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ia?aaeon?i /a?ac i?ci? caa?oaiiy
ianaeaiiy aei e?ea??a.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? ia oa?eoi??yo c ?ioaineaiei
ia?aa?aii ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano (ia iiaeae? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?)

Oa?e?anueea iaeanoue aoea iaei??th c ia?oeo aea aeieeea ai?aeai?y
aeeooa???. Aaea a 1991 ?., o ii??aiyii? c 1990 ?., caoai?thaai?noue
ca?eueoeeanue ooo o 25,8 ?ac?a. Oey iniaeea?noue ii/aoeo ai?aeai??
aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe aeaio iaeanoue ye “iiaeaeueio” oa?eoi??th, ui
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ioaineaiei ?icaeoeii AI. A iaeano? a aeiai?aeai?/iee
ia??iae a?aecia/aeanue no?eea oaiaeaioe?yaei cieaeaiiy iiioeyoe?eiiai
?ioi?oaoo aei aeeooa???. A 1989?., oiaoi aei ii/aoeo ai?aeai??,
e?euee?noue iacaoeuaieo in?a aeinyaea 34,4%, a o. /. na?aae aei?ineeo —
54,3%, i?aee?oe?a — 22,8% oa ae?oae — 18,5%. Iaaii, oea o? ??ai?
ni?eeiyoeeaino? iiioeyoe?? aei aeeooa???, i?e yeeo iiaeeeaee ?icaeoie
ai?aeai??. Iaea?eueo iacaoeuaieie aeyaeeeny aei?ine?, ui coiiaeei
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioaeoe??, cia/iith i??ith, a oeeo a?oiao ianaeaiiy.

Aeeiai?ea caoai?thaaiino? ia aeeooa??th ianaeaiiy iaeano? a ia??iae
ai?aeai?? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany aeaiia i?aeeiiaie (1993 ? 1995 ??.), eiee
?ioaineai? iieacieee aeinyaee iaeneiaeueieo ??ai?a (a?aeiia?aeii 9,8 ?
9,7 ia 100 oen.). Ia ii/aoeo ai?aeai?? a AI aoee caeo/ai? ae?oe oa
aei?ine?. Na?aae ae?oae iaea?eueo o?aaeaiith aoea a?oia 7-14 ?ie?a
(50,0%). C 1992 ?. ?a?no?othoue caoai?thaaiiy na?aae aei?ineeo an?o
a?eiaeo a?oi, a oiio /ene? ? noa?oeo ca 60 ?ie?a. A oe?eiio na?aae
aei?ineeo iaea?eueo o?aaeaiith aoea a?eiaa a?oia 40-49 ?ie?a (2,2-23,9
ia 100 oen.). Ca /an ai?aeai?? a?aecia/aeany aeniea caoai?thaai?noue
i?aee?oe?a (4,3-10,9 ia 100 oen.). Oaiie ?inoo caoai?thaaiino? i?nueeiai
ianaeaiiy cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaee oae? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?.
Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy /enea oai?eo i?nueeeo ? n?euenueeeo iaoeaioe?a noaiiaeei
1:0,5.

Iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? o ?iee ai?aeai?? na?ae/aoue i?i ??
in?iiuei-ceiiao naciii?noue c iacia/ieie ia??iaeii i?aeeiio c aa?aniy ii
a?oaeaiue (?iaeaen naciiiino? — 1,0; eiao?oe??io naciiiino? — 50,0% ?
eiao?oe??io naciiiiai i?aeeiio — 14,7%).

Iciaee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeeooa??eio ?ioaeoe?th c
ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo iiceoe?e, na?ae/aoue i?i caoai?thaai?noue ia
aeeooa??th ianaeaiiy iaeano? on?o a?eiaeo a?oi, iniaeeai in?a iaea?eueo
aeoeaiiai a?eo. A cia/iiio a?aenioeo aeiaaee?a oai?iaa i?iyaeyeany a
na?aaeiueiaaaee?e (26,8%) ? aaaee?e (21,0%) oi?iao, oneeaaeiaiiyie oa
caeeoeiaeie yaeuaie. Na?aaeiuei??/ia eaoaeuei?noue neeaea 4,1% (a 1991
oa 1995 ??. — 8,6% oa 6,3% a?aeiia?aeii).

Ianiaa ?ioi?caoe?y aei?ineeo i?ioe aeeooa???, yea i?iaiaeeeany a
iaeano? c ii/aoeo ai?aeai?? (1991-1992 ??.), i?eaaea aei iiceoeaii?
ci?ie ?ioiieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e ianaeaiiy. Oae, ieoiia aaaa aei?ineeo, ui
iaee caoeni? oeo?e 1:40 oa aeua, a 1997 ?. neeaea 73,5% i?ioe 42,5% a
1990 ?., oiaoi c?inea a 1,7 ?ac?a.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae aoei aea/aiiy aeioe?eueiino? oa
aoaeoeaiino? oo?iai? ?ioi?caoe?? aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy. Aeeiai?/ia
(i?ioyaii ?ieo) niinoa?aaeaiiy ca a?oiith iaeii?aciai uaieaieo aei?ineeo
AAeI-I aiaoieneiii ?c ai?noii 2 Lf (nooaeaioe 18-20 ?ie?a) aeicaieeei
anoaiiaeoe aeaa aaaeeeaeo iieiaeaiiy: 1) i?iaaaeaiiy oo?iai? ?ioi?caoe??
aei?ineeo nooo?ai ia iicia/eeiny ia iie?ioaii? iieaciee?a caoeuaiino?
uaieaieo; 2) o ia??iae i?iaaaeaiiy iicaieaiiaeo i?io?eaeoe/ieo uaieaiue
aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe na?ieia?/iee ne?ei?ia, yeee iaaeanoue
iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe ni?eeiyoeeaeo aei aeeooa???.

Ia??iaee ?inoo caoai?thaaiino? ia aeeooa??th oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny
ca?eueoaiiyi ieoiii? aaae oieneaaiieo ooai?a a 3,6 ?ac?a, ii??aiyiii c
aeiai?aeai?/iei ia??iaeii, na?aae yeeo o 5 ?ac?a — a?iaa?o gravis oa a
1,6 ?ac?a — a?iaa?o mitis. I?iaaaeaii iiaeeaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae oee?eoethth/eo ei?eiaaaeoa??e c aecia/aiiyi
?oiuei? aaiie?oe/ii?, aaiaaethoeioth/i? oa aaeaaceaii? aeoeaiino?.
Iieacaii, ui oieneaaii? ooaie iaa?oue a iaeiiio aiaieu? ia
i?aaenoaaeythoue iaeii??aeii? a?oie i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ca aeacaieie aeua
iciaeaie. Cie?aia, ooaie c aenieith aaeaaceai?noth /ano?oa aeyaeythoue o
oai?eo, i?ae o iin??a. Aeoiaey/e c aaoa?iaaiiino? iiioeyoe??
ei?eiaaaeoa??e ca iciaeaie aaeaaceaiino?, aaiie?oe/ii? oa
aaiaaethoeioth/i? aeoeaiino?, iiaeia aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe ie?ai? oeie. Ia
oe?e i?aenoaa? cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeei oeioaaiiy ei?eiaaaeoa??e /oaae.
1/.

Oaaeeoey 1 – Noaia oeioaaiiy ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa???

Oeie ei?eia-aaeoa??e

OanoeAaiie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue aei a?eo?ioeeo?aaaiaaeth-oeioth/a

aeoeai?noue aaeaaceai?noueaa?aiaethae.0 (I)ethae.A
(II)iecueeana?aaeiyaenieaA——————+A———+—+—N+————+—D—++++ Oeae i?eioeei
oeioaaiiy ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa???, yeee cai?iiiiiaaiee iaie, iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey aeyaeaiiy aeaea?ae ?ioaeoe??, a oaeiae ye
aeiaeaoeiaee e?eoa??e iinoaiiaee ae?aaiico “oai?ee” aai “iin?e”.

Aieea aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a ia noai i?ioeaeeooa??eiiai ?ioi?oaoo
ianaeaiiy

?yae oa?eoi??e Oe?a?ie c aenieei ??aiai ?iaeono??aeueiiai ?icaeoeo
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iayai?noth aa?aneaieo oaoiiaaiieo /eiiee?a, ui ?
coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy ?oiueiai aieeao ia noai
i?ioeaeeooa??eiiai ?ioi?oaoo. Aea/aiiy ?ioi?oaoo o uaieaieo i?ioe
aeeooa??? ia iaio 3 ?ac?a i?iaaaeaii a ia??iae 6-12 i?nyoe?a i?ney
inoaiiueiai uaieaiiy a oiiaao Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? (i. Ia?aiiaenuee) oa
Aeiiaano (i. Ae/aanuee, i. Ia??oiieue), oiaoi ia oa?eoi??yo io?oe?eii
aeciaieo ye aeieia?/ii iaaacia/i?, ca?aeii c iayaieie
aeieiai-a?a??i?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Ianoaaeaii 612 aei?ineeo in?a,
ye? iaoeathoue a aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ieo i?noeyo, oa 512 in?a — aeeoae?a
a?aeiinii “/enoeo” ?aeii?a (Iineianueeee ?aeii i. Oa?eiaa, i. Aia/ainuee
Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iacaeaaeii a?ae oiia i?iaeeaaiiy aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy,
iieacieee “ioeueiaiai” ai?noo aioeoienei?a (AO) aei aeeooa???
(na?iiaaaoeai?) o aeeoae?a Ae/aanueea, Ia??oiiey, Ia?aiiaenueea (25,8%)
iaei a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae iieaciee?a a?oie ii??aiyiiy (ianaeaiiy
a?aeiinii “/enoeo” ?aeii?a — 23,4%, t<3). Ieoiia aaaa in?a, a?aeiinii caoeuaieo (0,01-0,09 II/ie) aeaui a?ae??ciyeany, oeae iieaciee aoa aeuei a oiiaao aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ieo (42,6%), i?ae ia “/enoeo” oa?eoi??yo (35,5%) (t<3). Iaeiae, iieacieee, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue caoeniei oeo?ai, oiaoi ai?no AO a?aeiia?aea? 0,1 II/ie ? aeua, iaaeoi a?ae??ciyeeny: 41,0% - ia “/enoeo” oa?eoi??yo; 31,6% - ia aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ieo (t>3).
Oeae nooo?aee oaeo na?ae/eoue, ui a oiiaao a?aenooiino? aai iacia/iiai
aieeao oaoiiaaiieo aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a oi?io?oueny a?eueo iiaiioe?iiee
?ioi?oao a?aeiinii ??ai?a ai?noo AO aei aeeooa???. I?i oea ae na?ae/eoue
? a?eueo aeniea /anoioa aeyaeaieo in?a c “ioeueiaei” ??aiai AO na?aae
aeeoae?a Oa?eiaa (30,7%), oi/ ianoaaeai? iaoeaioe? a?aeiinii “/enoi?”
oa?eoi??? i?noa ii??aithaaeeny ?c n?euenueeei ianaeaiiyi (16,5%) (t>3).
O n?euenueeiio ?aeii?, aacoiiaii, iani?eyoeeaee aeieia?/iee aieea,
iicia/a?oueny iaioa, i?ae iaa?oue o a?aeiinii “/eno?e” cii? i?noa
Oa?eiaa.

Niaoe?aeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei ai?noo ne?iaaoeiaeo ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a
(A, M, G) o 263 aei?ineeo, ye? iaee iaeiaeiaee aiaiiac uaieaiino?,
iieacaei, ui ye ia “/enoeo”, oae ? ia “a?oaeieo” oa?eoi??yo o in?a, yeeo
ianoaaeoaaee, a?aecia/a?oueny iiieaeaiee ai?no ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a o
ii??aiyii? c ieaei?ie iaaeaie ii?ie. I?e oeueiio, a oiiaao aeieia?/ii
iaaacia/ieo oa?eoi??e oeae oaiiiai aoa a?eueo ae?aaeaiee, ui
a?aeia?aaea? aieea iaaaoeaieo oaoiiaaiieo /eiiee?a ia neioac ii?iaeueieo
?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a. Iniaeeai a oiiaao aeieia?/ii “a?oaeii?” oa?eoi???
a?aecia/aii cieaeaiiy ai?noo IgG, ui, a naith /a?ao, iicia/a?oueny ia
oi?ioaaii? ?ioi?oaoo a?eueo iecueei? iai?oaeaiino? (cie?aia, ia aeyaeaii
in?a, ye? iathoue AO aei aeeooa??? ia ??ai? 1,0 II/ie ? aeua).

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee yaio caeaaei?noue
iai?oaeaiino? i?ioeaeeooa??eiiai ?ioi?oaoo a?ae ai?noo ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a,
ia yeee aieeaathoue aeieia?/i? oiiae.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia cia/aiiy aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? oa oeyoe
aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo

Ioe?iea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? cia/ouino? aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe??
i?iaaaeaia ia iniia? aiae?co ?? ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo i?iya?a o 239
oai?eo, ca?a?no?iaaieo o Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano? i?ioyaii iaeiiai
eaeaiaea?iiai ?ieo. E??i oiai, i?iaiae?coaaii oaanue eiiieaen
i?ioeai?aeai?/ieo caoiae?a o 936 aiaieuao aeeooa??? o ca’yceo ?c
caoai?thaaiiyie aai iin?enoaii.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyioo? iieacieee, ui cia/iith i??ith aecia/athoue
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io cia/ou?noue aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe??:
caoai?thaai?noue, nia?oi?noue, eaoaeuei?noue. Iaaeeei-nioe?aeueiee
aniaeo i?iaeaie iia’ycaiee oaeiae ?c caeo/aiiyi aei ai?aeai?/iiai
i?ioeano ianaeaiiy an?o a?eiaeo a?oi ?, cia/iith i??ith, in?a aeoeaiiai
i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo. Ia??aeei ?a?no?othoueny aeiaaeee c?
na?aaeiueiaaaeeei oa aaaeeei ia?aa?aii oai?iae (a?ey 50,0%), c
oneeaaeiaiiyie, ui i?eaiaeyoue aei iaiao?aeiino? o?eaaei? ?aaa?e?oaoe??.
?noioio ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? iieaciee?a nioe?aeueii? cia/ouino? a?ae?a?a?
iin?enoai, ui ia?aaeuo? caoai?thaai?noue o ?iee ai?aeai?? a 2-3 ?ace.

?ic?aoiaaii aaee/eio aeiiii?/ieo caeoe?a a?ae iaeiiai aeiaaeeo
caoai?thaaiiy ia aeeooa??th. Aiia neeaea a oe?iao ia ii/aoie 1997 ?.
1030.58 a?i., ci?ithth/enue a?ae 764.66 (eaae? oi?ie) aei 1513.90
(aaaee? oi?ie) /oaae. 2/.

Oaaeeoey 2. – Aeiiii?/i? caeoee a?ae caoai?thaaiino? ianaeaiiy ia
aeeooa??th

(o ?ic?aooieo ia iaeei aeiaaeie oai?iae)

A?oie oai?eo ca aaaee?noth ia?aa?ao

Aeo?aoe ia iaaee/i? caoiaee (a?i.)Caeoee a?ae oei/aniai? iai?a-
oeacaeao- iino?

Noia?i? aeiiii?/. caeoeeaiaoe.iie?ee. ianeoaiaoaaiiyaini?oa-e?caoe?y

i?ioeai?-aeai?/i? caoiaee?acii (i?yi? aeo?aoe)

a?i.

o.i.A (55)39.7712.4103.8855.9658.01 513.9605.6A
(92)29.8541.5103.8675.2488.81 164.0465.6A
(146)18.06321.3103.8443.16321.5764.66305.9Na?aaeiy

caaaeaia25.8463.8103.8593.4437.181030.6412.2I?ei?oea:1) aaee/eie aeo?ao
?ic?aoiaai? o a?eaiyo ia ii/aoie 1997 ?.

2) A — aaaee? oi?ie; A — na?aaeiueiaaaeeee ia?aa?a; A —
eaae? oi?ie

Na?aaeiuei??/ia aaee/eia caeoe?a a?ae aeaiiai caoai?thaaiiy neeaea 805
646.80 a?i. (ca iaoa??aeaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co
aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? a Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?). Iaaaaeai? aaee/eie
aeiiii?/ieo caeoe?a aoaeooue ei?enieie i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai aiae?co aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? ia ??cieo oa?eoi??yo.

Aiae?c ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?? aeeooa??? 90-o ?ie?a iieacaa, ui
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo (AI)
ca oe??th ?ioaeoe??th, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ?ai?oa, iio?aaothoue
aaeineiiaeaiiy. A?oiooth/enue ia eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiiyo i?i AI ca
?ioaeoe?eieie oai?iaaie ye nenoaie ?, a?aoiaoth/e no/ani? iniaeeaino?
aeeooa???, a oaeiae aeina?ae, iaaooee a ia??iae ai?aeai??, i?iiiio?oueny
?icaeyaeaoe AI ca aeeooa???th ye nenoaie aacia?a?aiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
ai?aeai?/iei i?ioeanii ?ioaeoe?? a on?o oi?iao eiai i?iyaeaiiy, a oiio
/ene? ? iin?enoaa, ui caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy ? ieaioaaiiy
aoaeoeaieo i?io?eaeoe/ieo oa i?ioeai?aeai?/ieo cania?a. Nenoaio AI
iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe o aeaeyae? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? noaie, yea
aeeth/a?:

1) i?aenenoaio eiiieaeniiai ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy
(niinoa?aaeaiiy), eoaee aoiaeyoue aeiee (aeaiaioe), ye? aecia/athoue
ni?yiiaai?noue ooieoe?thaaiiy nenoaie ai?aeiaaeyaeo a oe?eiio;

2) ?ioi?iaoe?eii-ae?aaiinoe/io i?aenenoaio, yea aeeth/a? aeaa iai?yiee —
i?aai?caoe?eiee (ca??, nenoaiaoecaoe?y ? ia?aaea/a ?ioi?iaoe??) oa
aiae?oe/iee (ae?aaiinoe/iee);

3) i?aenenoaio oi?aae?iiy (aai i?aenenoaia i?eeiyooy ??oaiue).

Aeacai? no?oeoo?i? /anoeie AI aca?iica’ycai? i?ae niaith ?
ooieoe?iiothoue a iaaeao ?aeeii? nenoaie /iae. 3/. O noai? ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeaiaioe iaaeyaeo, ye? ?aaeueii iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
a no/anieo oiiaao.

sse ?acoeueoao i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, c iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy
ai?aeiaaeyaeo ca aeeooa???th, i?iiiio?oueny aianoe aeiiiaiaiiy a eiai
nenoaio (aeei?enoaiiy a?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa???
ye ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo ia?ea??a, o?aooaaiiy iaaaoeaiiai aieeao /eiiee?a
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua oa ?i.), ui ia o?eueee ia noia?a/eoue
i?aeoeoe? i?ioeai?aeai?/ii? ?iaioe, a e aea? iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeueoe ??
aoaeoeai?noue.

AENIIAEE

1. Iieacaii, ui o no/anieo oiiaao aeeooa??eia ?ioaeoe?y caa??aa?
cia/aiiy iaei??? c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iaaeeei-nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai.
Nioe?aeueia cia/aiiy ?ioaeoe?? iaoiiaeaia iiaeeeainoyie ?? ai?aeai?/iiai
iioe?aiiy, caeo/aiiyi a ai?aeai?/iee i?ioean i?aoeacaeaoieo ?
nioe?aeueii aeoeaieo a?oi ianaeaiiy, iniaeeainoyie ee?i?/iiai oa?aeoa?o
(aaaeeei ia?aa?aii oa oneeaaeiaiiyie, cia/iei ??aiai eaoaeueiino?).
Aeiiii?/i? caeoee, ?ic?aoiaai? ia iaeei aeiaaeie caoai?thaaiiy,
neeaaeathoue 1030,58 a?i. aai 412,2 o.i. (a oe?iao ia 1997 ?.)

2. Ia iniia? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ioe?iee ai?aeai?/iiai
i?ioeano aeeooa??? a ie?aieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino?
aaaaoi??/ii? aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo ai?aeai??, a?eiai? oa nioe?aeueii?
no?oeoo?e caoai?thaaiino?, naciiiino? oa ?ioeo i?iya?a ?ioaeoe??, ye?
coiiaeai? aieeaii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, aeieia?/ieo oa iaaee/ieo
/eiiee?a (nooi?iue o?aai?caoe??, oaoiiaaiia caa?oaeiaiiy, noai
uaieaiino? oa caoeuaiino?).

3. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui ?icaeoie no/anii? ai?aeai??
aeeooa??? a?aeaoany ia oe? no?eeiai cieaeaiiy eieaeoeaiiai ?ioi?oaoo. Ca
?iee i?iaaaeaiiy ianiai? ?ioi?caoe?? aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy (1991-1997
??.) ia oa?eoi??? niinoa?aaeaiiy (Oa?e?anueea iae.) e?euee?noue in?a ?c
caoenieie oeo?aie aioeoieneio c?inei (a?ae 42,5% aei 73,5%), oiaoi a 1,7
?ac?a. I?ioa, oo?iaa iaeii?aciaa ?ioi?caoe?y aei?ineeo 18-20 ?ie?a
AAeI-I aiaoieneiii ?noioii ia aieeioea ia iieacieee caoeuaiino?
uaieaieo. Oea aecia/a? aeioe?euei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aaeaaeoeeiaeueiiai
na?ieia?/iiai eiio?ieth, yeee iaaeanoue iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe
ni?eeiyoeeaeo aei aeeooa??? a?oi ?eceeo.

4. Aecia/aii iaaaoeaiee aieea aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a oaoiiaaiiiai
oa?aeoa?o (iaoaeo?a?eiiai, eienio?i?/iiai oa ?ioeo ae?iaieoeoa) ia ai?no
ii?iaeueieo ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a oa oi?ioaaiiy i?ioeaeeooa??eiiai ?ioi?oaoo.
I?i oea noaoenoe/ii a??ia?aeii (t>2) na?ae/eoue aeua ieoiia aaaa (41,0%)
in?a ?c caoenieie oeo?aie aioeoienei?a na?aae iaoeaioe?a aeieia?/ii
“/enoeo” ?aeii?a ii??aiyiii c ianaeaiiyi “caa?oaeiaieo” oa?eoi??e
(31,6%).

5. A?aecia/aia a?aei?ii?noue oee?eoethth/eo ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa??? ca
iciaeaie aaiie?oe/ii?, aaiaaethoeioth/i? oa aaeaaceaii? aeoeaiino?. Oea
iiaea aooe iieeaaeaia a iniiao i?eioeeio aeiaeaoeiaiai ?o oeioaaiiy c
iaoith aeyaeaiiy aeaea?ae ?ioaeoe?? oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ae?aaiico
“oai?ee” aai “iin?e”

6. Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia ? cai?iiiiiaaia n?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia noaia
nenoaie ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo ca aeeooa???th, yea aeeth/a?
aeiaeaoeia? caoiaee, cie?aia, nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/io ioe?ieo oa?eoi???,
aea/aiiy a?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa??? oa ?i.

IA?AE?E ?IA?O, UI IIOAE?EIAAI? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oaaei?ia Y.E, Eaeaoiee A.A, Iiaeaaaeaiei A.I. Ioeaiea nia?aiaiiie
yieaeaieieie/aneie neooaoeee ii aeeooa?eeiie eioaeoeee// Iaoa?.
?aaeiiaeueiie iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. aeaeaienoia e naieoa?iuo a?a/ae,
iinayuaiiie 100-eaoeth ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey i?ioanni?a A.I. AEaaioeineiai
“Iaaeeoeeineay yeieiaey, yieaeaieieiaey e aeaeaia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu”.
— Oa?ueeia. — 1996. — N. 107-110.

2. Ioeaiea ninoiyiey i?ioeaiaeeooa?eeiiai eiioieoaoa o aeae?aoe?iaaiiuo
a?oii ianaeaiey Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoe /E.A.Aa?acoa, AE.I. Iaieia, I.A.
Eieieieiaa, A.A. Eaeaoiee, E.A. Oaaei?iaa, A.I. Iiaeaaaeaiei// Iaoa?.
?aaeiiaeueiie iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. aeaeaienoia e naieoa?iuo a?a/ae,
iinayuaiiie 100-eaoeth ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey i?ioanni?a A.I. AEaaioeineiai
“Iaaeeoeeineay yeieiaey, yieaeaieieiaey e aeaeaia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu”.
— Oa?ueeia. — 1996. — N. 110-112

3. Ioeaiea aic?anoiie no?oeoo?u caaieaaaaiinoe ianaeaiey aeeooa?eae a
aeeiaieea /Y.E. Oaaei?ia, A.I. Iiaeaaaeaiei, A.A. Eaeaoiee, E.A.
AEaeaiiaa// Iaoa?. iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. “Aeooaeueiua aii?inu
i?ioeeaeoe/aneie iaaeeoeeiu” — Oa?ueeia. — 1996. — N. 100-104.

4. Ai?aeai?ieia?/iee iaaeyae ca aeeooa??eiith ?ioaeoe??th a Oa?e?anuee?e
iaeano? /A.?. Oaaei?ia, AE.I. Iai?ia, A.A. Eaeaoiee, A.I. Iiaeaaaeaiei,
A.A. A??iue// Iaoa?. XIII c’?caeo Oe?a?inueeiai iaoe. oiaa?enoaa
i?e?ia?ie., ai?aeai?ie. oa ia?aceoie. ?i. Ae.E. Caaieioiiai “Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie i?e?ia?ieia??, ai?aeai?ieia??, ia?aceoieia?? oa i?io?eaeoeee
?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia” — Ee?a — A?iieoey. — 1996. — N. 112.

5. Aeeyiea eiioiiei??aeoeee ia ninoiyiea eiioieoaoa i?ioea aeeooa?ee
/TH.A. Eenaiei, I.I. Iieiae/aiei, ?.O. Aaeaaa, A.E. Iae?aiei, A.I.
Iiaeaaaeaiei// Iaoa?. thaee. eiio., iina. 60-eao. eaoaae?u
yieaeaieieiaee e iaae.ia?aceoieiaee OEOA “Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu
oai?aoe/aneie e i?eeeaaeiie yieaeaieieiaee”. — Oa?ueeia. — 1997. — N.
72-74.

6. Iiaeaaaeaiei A.I. Iaeioi?ua aniaeou eco/aiey iinoaaeoeeiaeueiuo
iaoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia a ia?eiae ianniaie eiioiecaoeee ianaeaiey
i?ioea aeeooa?ee.// Iaoa?. thaee. eiio., iina. 60-eao. eaoaae?u
yieaeaieieiaeee e iaaeia?aceoieiaee “Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu oai?aoe/aneie
e i?eeeaaeiie yieaeaieieiaee”. –Oa?ueeia. –1997. — N. 82-84.

7. Oaaei?ia Y.E., Iiaeaaaeaiei A.I., Eaeaoiee A.A. I?iaeaia eioaeoeee,
oi?aaeyaiuo n?aaenoaaie niaoeeoe/aneie i?ioeeaeoeee// Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
iaaeeoeeineee aeo?iae. — 1998. — ?4. — N. 100-103.

8. Eco/aiea aaeaaceaiuo niiniaiinoae ooaiiia ei?eiaaaeoa?ee aeeooa?ee
?acee/iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey /AE.I. Iaieia, A.I. Iiaeaaaeaiei, E.A.
Oaaei?iaa, I.A. Eeiai, C.E. sseiaeaaa, A.A. A?eiue// Iaoa?. thaee.
eiio., iina. 60-eao. eaoaae?u yieaeaieieiaee e iaaeia?aceoieiaee
“Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu oai?aoe/aneie e i?eeeaaeiie yieaeaieieiaee”. –
Oa?ueeia. 1997. — N. 91-93.

9. Oaaei?ia A.?, Iai?ia AE.I., Iiaeaaaeaiei A.I. Aeeiai?ea ai?aeai?/iiai
i?ioeano aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? ? no/ani? iniaeeaino? a?eiai? no?oeoo?e
caoai?thaaiino?// Aeeoy/? ?ioaeoe??: Oe?. i?aea?aeii/a ca. — E., 1998. —
Aei.24. — N. 3-8.

10. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aeaenoaey aaeee-iaiiiaiai eaca?a ia
aicaoaeeoaeue aeeooa?eeiie eioaeoeee e ia?niaeoeau aai i?eiaiaiey i?e
ea/aiee aaeoa?eiiineoaeae /AE.I. Iaieia, N.A. Ae?theiaa, I.A. Eaeaoiee,
A.I. Iiaeaaaeaiei, A.A. A?aaeia// Iaoa?. X Iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-i?aeo.
eiio. “I?eiaiaiea eaca?ia a iaaeeoeeia e aeieiaee” — Oa?ueeia. — 1998. —
N. 17.

11. Iiaeaaaeaiei A.I. Ioeaiea aeeiaieee oi?ie?iaaiey eiioieoaoa e
aeeooa?ee e noieaiyeo o eeoe, i?eaeouo ii i?eioeeio oo?iaie
eiioiecaoeee// I?iaeci?. — 1998. — ?14. — N.53.

12. Iiaeaaaeaiei A.I. Aeeooa?eeiay eioaeoeey eae iaaeeei-nioeeaeueiay
i?iaeaia// A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. — 1998. — ?8.- N.79 —
85.

13. Oaaei?ia Y.E., Iiaeaaaeaiei A.I., Iaieia AE.I. Yooaeoeaiinoue
eiioiii?ioeeaeoeee aeeooa?ee a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo// Iaoa?. aoi?.
Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Eaeae Ianoa?a a ai?ueaa n eioaeoeeyie” —
N.-Iaoa?ao?a. — 1998. — N.190.

14. Aeeyiea yeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia ninoiyiea i?ioeaiaeeooa?eeiiai
eiioieoaoa ianaeaiey /Y.E. Oaaei?ia, A.I. Iiaeaaaeaiei, AE.I. Iaieia e
ae?.// Iaoa?. ?aaeiiae. iao/.-i?aeo eiio. “Yieaeaieieiaey, yeieiaey e
aeaeaia”. — Oa?ueeia. – 1998. – N.46-48.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iiaeaaaeaiei A.I. Ai?aeai?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? aeeooa??eii? ?ioaeoe?? a
ie?aieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie oa oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.02.02 — ai?aeai?ieia?y. — Ee?anueeee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ai?aeai?ieia?? oa ?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia ?i.
E. A. A?iiaoaanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A ?iaio? aia?oa aea/aii iniaeeaino? ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai i?iyao aeeooa???
a naie iaeanoyo, ia?aaaaeii no?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie, ye?
ae??ciythoueny aeieia?/ieie oiiaaie oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith
i???ioaoe??th. Iieacaii iaaaoeaiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioeaeeooa??eiiai ?ioi?oaoo aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy oaoiiaaiieo /eiiee?a
(iaoaeo?a?eiiai, eienio?i?/iiai oa ?ioeo ae?iaieoeoa). Iiaeeaeaii
aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?? ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa??? oa ?oi? ooaiia?
oa?aeoa?enoeee. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeei oeioaaiiy ei?eiaaaeoa??e
aeeooa??? c iaoith aecia/aiiy ai?aeai?ieia?/ii? cia/ouino? aiaieu.
Iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai
iaaeyaeo ca aeeooa???th ? cai?iiiiiaaii ?? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueio
noaio, yea aeeth/a? aeiaeaoeia? caoiaee (aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
oee?eoethth/eo ei?eiaaaeoa??e aeeooa???, a naia, no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?? oa
ooaiiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee, o?aooaaiiy aieeao /eiiee?a na?aaeiaeua ia noai
i?neyaaeoeeiaeueiiai i?ioeaeeooa??eiiai ?ioi?oaoo), aeei?enoaiiy yeeo
aea? iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai
iaaeyaeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeeooa??y, caoai?thaai?noue, ?ioi?oao, aeieia?y,
ei?eiaaaeoa???, ai?aeai?ieia?/iee iaaeyae.

A I I I O A Oe E ss

Iiaeaaaeaiei A.I. Yieaeaieieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe aeeooa?eeiie
eioaeoeee a ioaeaeueiuo iaeanoyo Oe?aeiu e iooe oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
nenoaiu yieaeaieieiae/aneiai iaaeci?a. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.02.02 — yieaeaieieiaey. — Eeaaneee
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo yieaeaieieiaee e eioaeoeeiiiuo
aieaciae ei. E.A. A?iiaoaaneiai IC Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa aia?aua eco/aiu iniaaiiinoe yieaeaieieiae/aneiai i?iyaeaiey
aeeooa?ee a naie iaeanoyo, i?aeiouanoaaiii ainoi/iiai ?aaeiia Oe?aeiu,
ioee/athueony ii yeieiae/aneei oneiaeyi e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie
i?eaioaoeee. Iieacaii iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
i?ioeaiaeeooa?eeiiai eiioieoaoa ac?ineiai ianaeaiey oaoiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia
(iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai, eienioeie/aneiai e ae?oaeo i?iecaiaenoa). Oaeoaeaiu
eco/aiey no?oeoo?u iiioeyoeee ei?eiaaaeoa?ee aeeooa?ee e eo ooaiiiauo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao. I?aaeeiaeai i?eioeei oeie?iaaiey ei?eiaaaeoa?ee
aeeooa?ee n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey yieaeaieieiae/aneie cia/eiinoe i/aaa.
Iainiiaaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue oniaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu
yieaeaieieiae/aneiai iaaeci?a ca aeeooa?eae e i?aaeeiaeaia aa
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiay noaia, aeeth/athuay aeiiieieoaeueiua
ia?ii?eyoey (eco/aiea iniaaiiinoae oee?eoee?othueo ei?eiaaaeoa?ee
aeeooa?ee, a eiaiii, no?oeoo?u iiioeyoeee e ooaiiiauo oa?aeoa?enoee,
ioeaiee aeeyiey oaeoi?ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia ninoiyiea
iinoaaeoeeiaeueiiai i?ioeaiaeeooa?eeiiai eiioieoaoa), eniieueciaaiea
eioi?uo aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe nenoaiu
yieaeaieieiae/aneiai iaaeci?a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeooa?ey, caaieaaaaiinoue, eiioieoao, yeieiaey,
ei?eiaaaeoa?ee, yieaeaieieiae/aneee iaaeci?.

ABSTRACT

Podawalenko A.P. Epidemiological features of diphtheria infection in
some regions of Ukraine and ways of epidemiological supervision system
improvement.

Thesis for academic degree of Candidate of Scince (Medicine) in
speciality 14.02.02. – epidemiology. Kiev L.V. Gromashevskiy Scientific
Research Institute of Epidemiology and Infections diseases, Ministry of
Health of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

For the first time in the work there were studied diphtheria
epidemiological manifestations features in aspect of 7 territories of
Ukraine, mainly eastern and soutern, which were differentiated on
ecological conditions and social economic orientation. It is shown a
negative influence of technogenic factors (metallurgical, coalchemical
and other manufactures) on antidiphtherical immunity formation in adult
population. Ihere were presented more deeply ideas of diphtheric
Corynebacteria population structure and their strain characteristics. It
was proposed a principle of diphtheric Corynebacteria typing to
determine epidemiological value of the focus. It was grounded the
purposefulness of epidemiological supervesion after diphtheria system
improvement and it was priposend its structural functional pattern
including additional measures (study of Diphtheria agent circulation
peculiarities, its population structure and strain characteristics,
evalution of environemental factors influence on postvaccine
antidiphtheric immunity status); application of them gives opportunity
to increase its efficiency.

Key words: diphtheria, morbidity, immunity, ecology, Corynebacteria,
epidemiological supervision.

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