?INOEOOO CAIEA?IANOAA

OE?A?INUeEI? AEAAeAI?? AA?A?IEO IAOE

OEA*OE

NAssOINEAA IEAENAIAe?IAE*

OAeE: 631.5:631.582:631.615

AIA?AICAA??AATH*? OA I?E?IAeIIOI?III?

EI?IIA? N?AICI?IE IA IAE?I?IAAIEO

OI?OIAEUAO E?NINOAIO OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 06.01.01 – caaaeueia caiea?ianoai

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? caiea?ianoaa ia inooaieo caieyo ?inoeoooo
caiea?ianoaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe a 1996-1998 ??.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

i?ioani? NETHNA? ?aai Oeiio?eiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? caiea?ianoaa ia inooaieo caieyo

?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

i?ioani? AIEEI Iao?i ?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? n?aici?i

?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

A?IAA?AEAANUeEEE Aaneeue ?iiaiiae/,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oeaio?o
“Aiaei?aaoethth/? nenoaie” ?inoeoooo a?ae?ioaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe?? OAAI

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “15” /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 27.361.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
caiea?ianoaa OAAI, nio. *aaaie Ee?ai-Nayoioeinueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei?
iaeano?.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
caiea?ianoaa OAAI.

A?aeaoee ia aaoi?aoa?ao o aeaio i?ei??ieeao, caa??aieo ia/aoeith,
i?ineii iaaeneeaoe ca aae?anith: 255205, nio. *aaaie
Ee?ai-Nayoioeinueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?, ?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa
OAAI, a/aiiio nae?aoa?aa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “14” o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe E.I.E?aa/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe OAIE. Iiaeaeueoa aaaeaiiy caiea?ianoaa ia inooaieo
caieyo ia?aaeaa/a?, a ia?oo /a?ao, oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e iin?a?a. Aei
iei?oiueiai /ano aeei?enoaiiy iae?i?iaaieo a?oio?a ?icaeaaeinue
aenoaineaii, c ?icoe?aiiyi inooaieo ieiu ? io?eiaiiyi aeniei?
a?iaeaeiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ca ?aooiie iia?e?caoe??
i?aai?/iiai acioo a?oioo ? aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea, a ia?oo /a?ao
eae?eieo. Aei oiai ae, iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue aea/aiith ieoaiiy
ia?aeiiiai ieoeueoo?aiiy oa inai?iiy oeeo caiaeue, a?ae?aco i?ney
i?iaaaeaiiy iae?i?aoeaieo ?ia?o. Iaaei??ia iane/aiiy n?aici?i ia
inoooaaieo a?oioao i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie i?ecaiaeeei aei cia/ii? ao?aoe
oi?oiaiai ai?eciioo.

O ca’yceo c caaino?aiiyi aeieia?/ieo oa aia?aaoe/ieo i?iaeai a Oe?a?i?,
a iniia? no/anieo iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ii aeei?enoaiith iae?i?aoeaiiai
oiiaeo aea?aeaae eaaeeoue iieiaeaiiy, ca?aeii yeiai iniiaiei i??i?eoaoii
o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? ia i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao ?
iaeneiaeueia caa?aaeaiiy, iaeiie/aii? i?ioyaii oeny/ie?oue i?aai?/ii?
?a/iaeie, oa caaaeueia icaei?iaeaiiy aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a. Oiio, aaaaoueia
aaoi?aie i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoaiiy oi?oiaeu a nenoai? eoe?aieoeoaa i?ae
aeiaaio?eaae? n?iieine oa ianiaeua. C ?ioiai aieo, aa?o/e aei oaaae
cia/i? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy a inai?iiy oeeo a?oi?a, aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o
ne?ae oae, uia iaoe iaeneiaeueio a?aeaea/o. Ii?aeiaoe iaeii/ania
?ica’ycaiiy aeieia?/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai aeanoue ciiao
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo, a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieo, iaeiaia?ai?ieeo oa
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo nenoai caiea?ianoaa ia inooaieo caieyo.

Ioaea, iacaaaeath/e ia cia/iee iayaiee i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy
i?aaiiaaiieo a?oio?a, aeooaeueiei ? ia?aaeyae aeayeeo iieiaeaiue ?
oaoiieia?/ieo aniaeo?a, ?o oaeineiiaeaiiy ia no/aniiio aoai?, aai
?ic?iaee iiaeo c o?aooaaiiyi oe?eiai ?yaeo iac??eeo i?iaeai. Cie?aia,
oea noino?oueny aaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii oa aia?aaoe/ii aoaeoeaieo,
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo ei?iiaeo n?aici?i c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii, ye?
aeathoue iaeneiaeueiee aeo?ae i?iaeoeoe?? ia iaeeieoeth ao?aoe
i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie oi?oo.

CA’ssCIE ?IAIOE C IAOEIAEIE I?IA?AIAIE, IEAIAIE, OAIAIE. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue a eaai?aoi??? caiea?ianoaa ia inooaieo caieyo ?inoeoooo
caiea?ianoaa OAAI o ?aieao i?ia?aie ca oaiith: “?ic?iaeoe
aia?aicaa??aath/?, aeieia?/ii aacia/i? nenoaie caiea?ianoaa ia inooaieo
oi?oiaeo caieyo Iie?nny ? E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie ia 1996-2000 ?iee”,
? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0136018394.

IAOA AeINE?AeAEAIUe. Oaeineiiaeeoe no?oeoo?o iin?aieo ieiu ei?iiaeo
n?aici?i ia noa?ii?ieo oi?oiaeo a?oioao E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie oeyoii
?icoe?aiiy iin?a?a aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa oa i?ii?aeieo eoeueoo? c
o?aooaaiiyi ia?aiao??a aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, aeieia?/ii? aacia/iino?,
aeniei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? inooaiiai aaeoa?a a oe?eiio, oa iaeneiaeueiiai
caa?aaeaiiy i?aaiiaaiiiai oa?o oi?oo. I?iaanoe ?o eiiieaenio
aa?iaia?aaoe/io oa aeieiai-aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo ? cai?iiiioaaoe
ae?iaieoeoao iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeuei?.

A caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aoiaeeei:

ioe?ieoe aeioe?euei?noue cai?ie i?inaiii? eoeueoo?e iin?aaie i?ii?aeieo
c oi/ee ci?o caaaeueii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? aaeoa?a n?aici?iii? ieiu?;

aeine?aeeoe ci?ie a caao?’yiaiino? iie?a i?e ??ci?e no?oeoo?? iin?aieo
ieiu oa iane/aiiy n?aici?i iioe?nieie eoeueoo?aie;

aea/eoe aieea i?ii?aeieo eoeueoo? ia oeiaei/eii?noue ae?ioyieea;

aeyaeoe aieea ??cii? no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu ia ?ioaineai?noue
i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a a?oioiaeo aiaeao
oa a?oioicaoenio caeaoi?noue n?aici?i;

aeaoe aia?aaoe/io oa aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy
ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? caeaaeii a?ae no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu oa ??cieo aeae?a
oaeia?aiiy.

IAOEIAA IIAECIA aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? a oaeineiiaeaii? no?oeoo?e
iin?a?a oanoei?eueii? ei?iiai? n?aici?ie oeyoii nei?i/aiiy ieiu
i?inaiieo aei 1-ai iiey oa aaaaeaiiy i?ii?aeieo eoeueoo? i?e caa?aaeaii?
aeniei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? inooaiiai aaeoa?a a oe?eiio, cieaeaii?
aia?aicao?ao ia 15-20% oa ioi?ii? aeiae?eey. A oiiaao e?aiaa?aaeiiai
E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? iie?auaiiy ?iaeth/ino?
oi?oiaeu, cieaeaiiy caao?’yiaiino? iie?a oa caa?aaeaiiy i?aaiiaaiiiai
oa?o i?e ci?i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iieueiaiai ? eo/iiai ia??iae?a ia
noa?ii?ieo iae?i?iaaieo a?oioao.

I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss IO?EIAIEO ?ACOEUeOAO?A. Anaa?/ia ioe?iea
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeea ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ae?iaieoeoao
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaai? oa iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeuei?, uiaei aeo?ao i?aai?/ii?
?a/iaeie oa aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a ei?iia? n?aici?ie ? aeice i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?ea, ye? caaacia/othoue i?iaeoeoeaia ? aa?aaeeeaa aeei?enoaiiy
aoaeoeaii? ?iaeth/ino? inooaieo caiaeue, cieaeaiiy caao?’yiaiino? oa
oeiaei/eiiino? ae?ioyieea a 1,5-2 ?ace aa?ioaoi?/ieie iaoiaeaie,
aeathoue aeineoue aenieee (85-90 oe/aa nooeo ?a/iaei) ? noaa?eueiee
aeo?ae aenieiye?nii? i?iaeoeoe?? oa ni?eythoue ae??oaiith aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue /anoeiai aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? “Iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii canoinoaaiith
aenieiaoaeoeaii? oa aeieia?/ii aacia/ii? oaoiieia?? noai?aiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy eoeueoo?ieo n?iiein?a ? ianiaeu ia inooaieo i?aaiiaaiieo
a?oioao E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie”.

INIAENOEE AIANIE CAeIAOAA*A. Ca aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth aeena?oaioa
i?iaaaeai? iieueia? oa eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniaenoi caeiaoaa/ai
ocaaaeueiaii io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee, c?iaeaii
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaai? aeniiaee oa noi?ioeueiaaii i?iiiceoe?th
ae?iaieoeoao.

AI?IAAOe?ss ?ACOEUeOAO?A AeENA?OAOe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo
iieiaeeo a/aieo oa niaoe?ae?no?a ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI (1996–1998
??.), ia can?aeaiiyo eaai?aoi??? caiea?ianoaa ia inooaieo caieyo
(1996–1998 ??.) ? iaoiaee/ii? eii?n?? ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI.
Ae?iaie/a ia?aa??ea cai?iiiiiaaieo ei?iiaeo n?aici?i i?iaaaeaia a
Iaioeeuenuee?e aeine?aei?e noaioe?? ssaioeinueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei?
iaeano?.

IOAE?EAOe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeaieo a aeena?oaoe??,
iioae?eiaaii 5 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeue a oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo oa iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 162 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/a? 38 oaaeeoeue, 4 a?ao?ee ? 15 aeiaeaoe?a.
Neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ae?iaieoeoao. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ioiieth? 212 iaeiaioaaiue, a
oiio /ene? 22 ?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeae?ae

Iiaeaii ei?ioeee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c ieoaiue caaaeueii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaiiaaiieo a?oio?a oa iniiaieo i?eioeei?a iiaoaeiae ia
ieo n?aici?i a ??cieo a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo ciiao. ?icaeyioo? i?iaeaie
iie?auaiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo, ca?eueoaiiy o?iaeaeiino? eoeueoo?,
ciaioaiiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? oi?oo, aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, aeieia??, oiui.
Aecia/aii ieoaiiy, ye? iio?aaothoue ia?aaeyaeo oa iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

OIIAE OA IAOIAeEEA I?IAAAeAIIss AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Iiaiaeii-ee?iaoe/i? oa a?oioia? oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iao?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue i?ioyaii 1996 – 1998 ?ie?a a e?aiaa?aaei?e
/anoei? E?ninoaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie ia caieaaieo inoooaaieo a?oioao
Iaioeeuenueei? aeine?aeii? noaioe?? ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI (caieaaa
??/ee Noi?e) ssaioeinueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?.

O?eaaeee noaoe?iia?iee aeine?ae ii aea/aiith n?aici?i caeeaaeaiee a 1987
?ioe? ia ea?aiiaoiiio (17–35% NaCO3) oi?oiaeu?, inieiai – i/a?aoyiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy. Aeeaeia i?aai?/iiai ai?eciioo — 2,5–3,0 i.

Ee?iao aanaeio ??/ee Noi?e iii??ii-eiioeiaioaeueiee. Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa
oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y, ca aaaaoi??/ieie aeaieie iaoai?ieia?/ii? noaioe??
i. ssaioeia, ?ici?uaii? ia a?aenoai? 1 ei a?ae i?noey i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue, aei??aith? 6,7?N.

O?eaae?noue aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, noaiiaeoue 199 aei?a. Noia aeoeaieo
oaiia?aoo? neeaaea? 2500-2620?, oiae? ye aeey ae?iuoaaiiy iniiaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? iaiao?aeii 1200-2000?.

Na?aaeiuei??/ia e?euee?noue iiaae?a ca 1996, 1997, 1998 ?iee aoea aeuith
a?ae ii?ie (518 ii) ia 16,1, 53,7 oa 38,2%. Oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei ca
ia??iae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue oaeiae ia?aaeuoaaa
na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/i? iieacieee (6,7°N) ia 0,3-1,6°N. A?ae?ioa?i?/iee
eiao?oe??io ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae a 1996 ?ioe? noaiiaea 1,6, a 1997 –
2,28 ? a 1998 – 1,65.

Ine?eueee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia a?oioao c ?aaoeueiaaiei
aiaeiei ?aaeeiii, a oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei aoa aeecueeei aei ii?ie, oi
iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iiaiaei? oiiae i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue aoee a iniiaiiio ni?eyoeea? aeey ?inoo ? oi?ioaaiiy
o?iaeath n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?.

I?ia?aia, iaoiaeeea iieueiaeo oa eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iieueia?
aeine?aeaeaiy i?iaiaeeeenue ca noaiith iaaaaeaiith a oaaeeoe? 1.

Oaaeeoey 1 Noaia noaoe?iia?iiai aeiaaio?eaaeiai aeine?aeo ia inooaieo
oi?oiaeuao

Aa??aio aeine?aeo Iiea, eoeueoo?a, nenoaia ia?ia?oeo a?oioo

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 Aaaaoi??/i? o?aae a?aeiia?aeiiai ?ieo Ei?iia? ao?yee ii aeen-eoaaiith
ia 10-12 ni Eoeo?oaeca ia neein, aeeneoaaiiy ia 10-12 ni + caeoaeaiiy

1-ai ?ieo 2-ai ?ieo 3-ai ?ieo 4-ai ?ieo ia 2 oeine, o?aco-aaiiy, i?aiea
ia 25-27 ni + i?neyoe?nia ?aaeueea ie?eia

2 1-ai ?ieo 2-ai ?ieo 3-ai ?ieo 4-ai ?ieo ia 1 oe?n,o?aco-aaiiy, i?aiea
ia 25-27ni +i?neyoe?niee ai?io c a?anii Ei?iia? ao?yee ii aeeneo-aaiith
ia 10-12 ni Ai?io c a?a-nii, aeeneo-aaiiy ia 10-12 ni + ?aaeueea ie. c
niiyoieeii + caeoaeaiiy

3 Aaaaoi??/i? o?aae (aacci?ii? iin?ae)

1-ai ?ieo 2-ai ?ieo 3-ai ?ieo 4-ai ?ieo 5-ai ?ieo 6-ai ?ieo +
ia?acaeo-aeaiiy

4 Eoeo?oaeca ia neein (aacci?ii? iin?ae)

Iiaoi?i?noue aeine?aeo o?e?aciaa. Iin?aia ieiua ae?eyiee noaiiaeoue 42
i2, iae?eiaa – 25 i2. I?ia?aeuei? aeia?eaa a oi?i? ai?a/ii? nae?o?e,
noia?oinoaoo a?aioeueiaaiiai oa eae?eii? nie? aiineeeny ca noaiith
iaaaaeaiith a oaaeeoe? 2.

Aeia?eaa aiineee ia aaaaoi??/ieo o?aaao o?e/? ca aaaaoaoe?th (i?ae
eiaeiee oe?n), a i?ae iaeii??/i? eoeueoo?e – iaeii?aciai ia?aae n?aaith.
?aaeei neiooaaiiy aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa o?eoe?niee, a oaco ii/aoeo
eiein?iiy.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ??aiyie a?oioiaeo aiae i?iaiaeeee i?ioyaii
aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo o 8-ie aiaeii??ieo eieiaeycyo, ?ici?uaieo ii
ia?eiao?o

aeine?aeo, aea?/? ia aeaeaaeo.

Oaaeeoey 2 Noaia oaeia?aiiy eoeueoo? o aeine?ae?

Eoeueoo?a Aeaee oa aeice aeia?ea ii aa??aioao

1 2 3 4

Aaaaoi??/i? o?aae ii oeinao 1 Aac aeia?ea K 60 ? 60 E 60 N 60 P 60 K 60

Oa ae K 60 K 60 N 45 K 60

3 -“- K 60 K 60 N 45 K 60

Anueiai ia o?aaao -“- E 180 ? 60 E 180 N 150 ? 60 E 180

Ei?iia? ao?yee oa eoeo?oaeca ia neein

-“-

K 180

P 60 K 180

N 90 P 60 K 180

Iaeii??/i? eoeue-oo?e nooe?eueiiai niiniao n?aae

-“-

K 60

N 60 K 60 I?neyae?y aeia?ea a n?aici?i?

O aeine?ae? canoiniaoaaee ?aeiiaiaeiaaio aeey oi?oiaeo a?oio?a
oaoiieia?th ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Aea?ieio
aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa o?acoaaee (AeO-75A+OAI-0.9), i?aee (AeO-75A+IAI-75) c
iiia?aaei?i aenoooaaiiyi ?? i?ioyaii 3–5 aei?a ? aeeneoaaee
(AeO-75A+AAeO-3.0).

Iiaeeaiee ?aaeei a?oioo aea/aany ia an?o aa??aioao oaeia?aiiy a i?iiio
(0-30 ni) oa?? a?oioo. A?aea?? c?ace?a aeey aiae?co i?ae eoeueoo?aie
iniiaiiai iin?ao i?iaiaeeee a o?e no?iee: ia?oee – i?ney n?aae i?inaiieo
eoeueoo?, a ia o?aaao – a ia??iae aeoiaeo a o?oaeo, ae?oaee i?ae
i?inaiieie — /a?ac i?nyoeue i?ney ia?oiai, i?ae aaaaoi??/ieie o?aaaie –
i?ney ae?oaiai oeino, o?ao?e — a ia??iae cae?aiiy iaeii??/ieo eoeueoo? ?
o?aoueiai oeino o?aa. Ia iin?aao i?ii?aeieo eoeueoo? – a?ae?aco i?ney
iin?ao oa a ia??iae cae?aiiy a?iaeath.

O a?oioiaeo c?aceao aecia/aee ai?no i?o?aoiiai acioo – ca
A?aiaeaaeue-Eyaeo, ?ooiieo oi?i oinoi?o – ca Ia/ea?iei, iai?iiiai eae?th
o aoaeaai?a/i?e aeoyaeoe? ia iieoiaiaaiio oioiiao??. O ?ineeiieo c?aceao
o?iaeath aecia/aee ai?no caaaeueiiai acioo ca iaoiaeii A?icao?aa a
iiaeeo?eaoe?? Oeaia, oinoi?o — ia oioieaei?eiao??, eae?th — ia
iieoiaiaaiio oioiiao??. Aieia?noue a?oioo aecia/aee oa?iinoaoii-aaaiaei
iaoiaeii. Ciioaoi?/iee aiae?c ei?i?a i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii ?io?a/a?aiii?
aeaeo?ineii?? ia ?io?a/a?aiiiio aiae?caoi?? NIR 4500.

I?ae /an aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei i?iaiaeeee oaiieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
oacaie ?icaeoeo. Iaeii/anii ?c cae?aiiyi o?iaeath aeeiioaaee no?oeoo?iee
aiae?c eoeo?oaece oa ei?iiaeo ao?ye?a.

Aeey aecia/aiiy a?aenioeo caaeaae? ?ineei a ?acoeueoao? iioeiaeaeaiiy
ae?ioyieeii i?iaiaeeee iae?e aonoioe noiyiiy eoeo?oaece a oaco 5-7
eenoe?a, a ei?iiaeo ao?ye?a — a oaco iiyae 3-? ia?e ni?aaaei?o eenoe?a
oa ia?aae cae?aiiyi o?iaeath. Aeeiioaaee oaeiae ?iceiiee ii aecia/aiith
ca?aaeaiino? i?iiai oa?o a?oioo (25?25*30 ni) ae?ioyieeii i?ae
i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie oa aaaaoi??/ieie o?aaaie a aeaio iiaoi?iinoyo
aeine?aeo ca iaoiaeeeith A. A. Aeie?ia (1975). Oaeaee?noue
a?ii?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie aea/aee iaoiaeii aie?eaoe?e.

Caao?’yiai?noue aecia/aee ia iin?aao iniiaieo eoeueoo? oeyoii
i?ae?aooieo ao?’yi?a ia ae?eyieao ?ici??ii 0,25 i2. Ia i?inaiieo
eoeueoo?ao iae?e ao?’yi?a i?iaiaeeee ia ii/aoeo oa a e?ioe? aaaaoaoe??,
a ia iin?aao o?aa — ia?aae eiaeiei oeinii. I?iaeoia iie?eooy a?oioo
?ineeiaie, aea/aee ca iaoiaeeeith Ae. I. ?ioeiaaia (1988?.), c
aeei?enoaiiyi eaaae?ao-n?oee.

Aeiiii?/io oa aia?aaoe/io ioe?ieo aeaiaio?a oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ? n?aici?i i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii
“Iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii cao?aoao i?aoe? ? cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa ia
inooaieo caieyo…” I.N. Ai?aeeithe, N.Ae. Nieieiaa (1976?) oa
“Aia?aaoe/iiai aiae?co ?ioaineaieo oaoiieia?e a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?” I.E. Iaaeaaaeianueeee, I.?.
?aaiaiei (1988?). Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aiae?coaaee
iaoiaeii iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee ca A. A. Aeini?oiaei (1973?.) c
aeei?enoaiiyi AII.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aiaeiee ?aaeei a?oioo. Iaeaeeae/a aei iiaa?oi? a?oioia? aiaee
ciaoiaeeeenue aaniith (45-48 ni). I?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? aiie
iiieaeoaaeenue ? ia?aaoaaee ia aeeaei? iioeiaeuei?e aeey aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aa ? aeaui caaeuai?e, a ie?ai? ia??iaee, aeey i?inaiieo eoeueoo?.

Cieaeaiiy aieiaino? i?iiai oa?o iaioa ieaeiuei? iaae? iioeiaeueieo
iieaciee?a (60-65% IA) cao?eniaaii ia aoei, a ia?aaeuaiiy aa?oiueiai
iioeioio (80-82% IA) ?iiae? niinoa??aaeinue.

Iacaaaeath/e ia i?aea?? aeineoue ??ciiiai?oieo ca noia?iei
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiyi eoeueoo? oa ??cieo aa?icaoiae?a, /?oei? caeaaeiino?
i?ae n?aici?iaie aai ie?aieie eoeueoo?aie ii aieiaino? i?iiai oa?o ia
niinoa??aaeinue. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui iae?i?aoeaia nenoaia
caaacia/o? ?aaoethaaiiy aiaeiiai ?aaeeio a?oioo a iaiao?aeieo iaaeao.

Iiaeeaiee ?aaeei a?oioo. Iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith io?eiaiiy noaa?eueii
aenieeo o?iaea?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ? iayai?noue a
a?oio? aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? ?ooiieo niieoe acioo, oinoi?o, eae?th oa
?ioeo aeaiaio?a aeeaeaiiy ?ineei i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? ?, iniaeeai, a
e?eoe/i? ia??iaee niiaeeaaiiy ?o ?ineeiaie.

Aaniyi? caiane i?o?aoiiai acioo i?ae iin?aaie aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ia?oiai
?ieo a 3-4 ?ace aeu? ii??aiyii c ?o e?euee?noth a i?iiio oa?? a?oioo ia
o?aaao 4-ai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy (oaae. 3).

Oaaeeoey 3 Aeeiai?ea iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei i?ae iniiaieie eoeueoo?aie a oa??
a?oioo 0-30 ni a na?aaeiueiio ca 1996-1998 ??., ia ia 100 a nooiai
a?oioo

Aa??aio NI3 ?2I5 E2I

aeine?aeo oaeia?aiiy O?aaaiue Aa?anaiue O?aaaiue Aa?anaiue O?aaaiue
Aa?anaiue

Aaaaoi??/i? o?aae 1-ai ?ieo

1 Aac aeia?ea

E180

?60E180

N150?60E180 39,6

32,6

31,3

37,9 18,0

20,5

15,6

16,9 8,7

9,7

10,1

11,4 3,6

4,6

5,1

4,9 7,6

10,2

15,6

18,0 6,0

12,2

8,6

10,1

2 Aac aeia?ea

E180

?60E180

N150?60E180 22,8

32,1

33,6

36,7 21,2

22,9

17,0

20,4 8,5

8,5

9,4

10,0 4,4

4,6

5,1

6,1 9,5

15,0

16,0

21,7 5,0

7,0

9,9

9,0

3 Aac aeia?ea

E180

?60E180

N150?60E180 29,8

37,6

39,2

41,5 13,1

20,0

15,8

22,2 7,1

8,1

9,1

10,5 2,7

3,6

4,4

4,7 7,3

16,9

16,1

18,1 7,7

14,8

19,6

14,3

Aaaaoi??/i? o?aae 3-ai ?ieo

1 Aac aeia?ea

E180

?60E180

N150?60E180 12,3

16,6

19,5

32,4 7,8

8,6

9,8

14,5 6,4

7,9

8,0

8,7 4,5

4,9

5,5

5,3 8,2

13,7

16,9

18,9 5,7

16,6

18,6

11,2

2 Aac aeia?ea

E180

?60E180

N150?60E180 16,8

17,1

18,4

27,7 6,6

14,4

8,9

14,7 4,4

5,3

7,2

7,8 4,0

3,1

3,7

4,6 7,2

20,5

21,1

19,9 11,2

20,3

18,3

13,1

3 Aac aeia?ea

E180

?60E180

N150?60E180 16,4

18,4

17,5

28,1 6,6

5,1

4,6

14,1 7,4

7,0

6,8

8,4 3,7

4,8

4,4

4,6 6,0

21,7

21,9

22,4 7,7

16,8

20,1

14,0

Ei?iia? ao?yee

1 Aac aeia?ea

E180

?60E180

N90?60E180 64,7

63,8

69,0

65,0 42,9

64,4

50,2

61,2 7,0

6,3

8,4

8,9 5,1

5,0

5,8

6,2 13,9

28,1

20,6

28,8 9,1

21,1

16,4

14,9

2 Aac aeia?ea

E180

?60E180

N90?60E180 58,9

59,6

67,2

60,7 57,9

62,6

66,9

67,1 7,3

6,6

9,3

8,4 3,9

6,4

7,7

5,7 21,3

35,1

31,9

23,8 8,0

12,9

9,7

9,3

Eoeo?oaeca ia neein

1 Aac aeia?ea

E180

?60E180

N90?60E180 71,0

73,5

79,2

86,2 27,7

37,2

37,8

48,4 7,3

7,6

8,4

8,6 5,5

4,5

6,2

5,2 13,7

25,1

28,3

32,1 5,2

9,9

19,4

16,0

4 Aac aeia?ea

E180

?60E180

N90?60E180 74,8

72,1

70,2

85,4 30,4

36,3

38,4

40,6 9,0

8,7

8,3

8,7 3,5

3,2

6,5

6,7 15,3

28,6

29,3

31,7 10,7

16,9

13,7

17,4

Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oa?aeoa?io aeey oi?oiaeo a?oio?a caeaaei?noue i?ae
no?ieii aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith oa ?ioaineai?noth i?o?eo?eaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, a ?acoeueoao? /iai e?euee?noue i?o?ao?a ciaioo?oueny c 30-40
ia a ia?oee ??e aei 18-20 ia ia o?ao?e. Ae?iuoaaiiy i?inaiieo eoeueoo?
ni?ey? iaeiie/aiith i?o?aoieo oi?i acioo aei 65-80 ia/100 a a?oioo.

Aiane?aeie iayaiino? a oi?oiaeo a?oioao caieaae ??/ee Noi?e i?ioa?e?a
a?a?ai?oo, aeineoue aaaaoiai ia oinoi?, yeee a i?ioean? ieoeueoo?aiiy
oeeo a?oio?a caeo/a?oueny aei aeei?enoaiiy, caaacia/ai?noue i?iiai oa?o
i?ae o?aaaie ?ooiiei oinoi?ii aoea ia?aaaaeii na?aaeiueith oa ia aeayeeo
aa??aioao i?aeaeuaiith aac iaaii? caeiiii??iino? i?ae aa??aioaie
aeine?aeo.

E?euee?noue iai?iiiai eae?th, ca ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, i?ae
iniiaieie eoeueoo?aie iiai?noth caeaaeaea a?ae canoinoaaiiy i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?ea. Oae, i?ney aaniyiiai aianaiiy a?oio iaa ia?aaaaeii na?aaeith —
16–24 ia ia 100 a a?oioo, a ainaie na?aaeith oa iecueeo caaacia/ai?noue.
Ca ia??iae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue iie?auaiiy caaacia/aiino? a?oioo
eae??i, iacaaaeath/e ia aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo eae?eieo aeia?ea, ia
niinoa??aaee, ui aeaco? ia iiaia aeei?enoaiiy eiai ?ineeiaie. Aiae?c
iiaeeaiiai ?aaeeio aa??aio?a aeine?aeo iieacaa, ui a n?aici?i? 2 c
iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? i?o?aoiiai acioo oa
/anoeiai oinoi?o a aeoeaiiio oa?? a?oioo iaeiie/oaaeinue aeaui iaioa,
i?ae o ia?o?e, yea iane/aia aeaiia i?inaiieie. Aeei?enoaiiy oi?oiaeo
a?oio?a i?ae aacci?iieie iin?aaie eoeo?oaece i?ecaiaeeei aei ca?eueoaiiy
ai?noo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a i?iiio oa??.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii eiio?ieth ca ai?noii iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o
a?oioiaeo aiaeao iieacaee, ui ia?aaeuaiiy a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae cao?eniaaii ia aoei. I?o?aoiiai
acioo a a?oioiaeo aiaeao aoei a 2-3 ?ace a?eueoa i?ae aaaaoi??/ieie
o?aaaie 1-ai ?ieo oa i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie, i?ae i?ae o?aaaie noa?oeo
?ie?a (6,1-7,5 ia/e aiaee).

A oe?eiio, niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iiaeeaiei ?aaeeiii a?oioo i?ioyaii 1996 —
1998 ?ie?a aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui noa?ii?i? i?aaiiaaii?
a?oioe a n?aici?i? aeia?a caaacia/ai? oinoi?ii-acioieie aeaiaioaie
aeeaeaiiy ? iiaaii – eae?eieie.

Aieea aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a ia i?e?ia?ieia?/i? i?ioeane oa
i?ia?ae?caoe?th oi?oiaeu. ?ioaineai?noue i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a
aecia/a? oaeaee?noue oaii?a i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie oi?oo.

I?ae aaaaoi??/ieie o?aaaie 1-ai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy ao?a/a?oueny aei 74%
ee?oeiaeie. Iniaeeai aenie? iieacieee (72,3-74,4%) niinoa??aathoueny a
ia?oee ??e i?ae o?aaaie, ye? aen?yi? i?ney aeaio i?inaiieo eoeueoo?
(n?aici?ia 1). A ae?oa?e n?aici?i?, aea iieueiaee ia??iae aeeth/a? iaeio
i?inaiio eoeueoo?o ? iaeei ??e iin?a iaeii??/ieo oa i?ii?aeieo,
a?aei?/a?oueny ciaioaiiy aaee/eie i?ia?ae?coe?? ia 2-4%. C? noa??iiyi
o?aainoith /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny caoooaiiy aeoeaiino? a?oioiai?
i?e?ioei?e. Oae, ia o?aaao 3-ai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy i?ia?ae?caoe?y aoea
na?aaeiueith – 34,2-48,4%, ia o?aaao 5-ai ?ieo – neaaeith – 24,5-30,5%,
a i?e aeei?enoaii? o?aa a?eueoa 10 ?ie?a ?iceeaaeaeiny iaioa 20%
ee?oeiaeie.

?ici?thaaiiy aea?ieie o?aa ? iin?a i?inaiieo eoeueoo? i?eaiaeeoue aei
i?aeaeuaiiy oaii?a i?ia?ae?caoe??, aiane?aeie /iai ao?aoe ee?oeiaeie
ca?eueoothoueny aei 76-79%. I?e aacci?iiiio ae?iuoaaiiy eoeo?oaece ia
neein ?ioaineai?noue i?ia?ae?caoe?? iaeaeua – 84-86%.

I?aaeeueiei ii?aeiaiiyi eo/iiai oa iieueiaiai ia??iae?a iiaeia aeineoue
nooo?ai ?aaoethaaoe ?ioaineai?noue i?ia?ae?caoe?? oi?oo, iia?e?coth/e
i?e?iaeio ?iaeth/?noue aeaieo a?oio?a oa caiia?aath/e iai?iaeoeoeaiei
ao?aoai i?aai?ee. Oiio, iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiei niiniaii aeei?enoaiiy
noa?ii?ieo oi?oiaeu ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia ieo ei?iiaeo n?aici?i c
ei?ioeei (aei 1-2 ?ie?a) iieueiaei ia??iaeii.

I?ii?aei? eoeueoo?e a n?aici?iao. Aen?aaiiy ?aaeueee ie?eii? oa ai?ioo c
a?anii ii ieanoo aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa aeicaiey? cieceoe iaaaoeaiee aieea
aea?ieie ia iine?aeoth/? eoeueoo?e. ?ici?thaaiiy ieanoa aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aa ni?ey? iaeiie/aiith a a?oio? cia/ii? e?eueeino? iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei,
? a ia?oo /a?ao acioo. Aen?aaiiyi o n?aici?i? a oeae ia??iae i?ii?aeieo
eoeueoo?, noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey aeei?enoaiiy ?o ?ineeiaie oa
caiia?aaiiy ao?aoai o a?oioia? aiaee. Ae?iuoaaiiy i?neyoe?nieo eoeueoo?
ni?ey? iaea?aeaiith aeiaeaoeiai a?ae 250 aei 550 ? a?eueoa oe/aa caeaii?
iane i?e i?i?iaeueieo aeicao i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea, aai e acaaae? aac
ieo. I?ii?aei? eoeueoo?e ? aoaeoeaiei aa?ioaoi?/iei iaoiaeii ai?ioueae c
ae?ioyieeii. ?ici?uaiiy i?ney aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ?aaeueee ie?eii? c
niiyoieeii aai ai?ioo c a?anii aea? ciiao cieceoe /enaeuei?noue
oe?aeieea c 25-30 aei 8-10 oo/i2.

Caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a caeaaeii a?ae aa?ioaoi?ee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?-nueeeo eoeueoo?. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui
?ici?uaiiy i?ney 1-ai oeino aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ai?ioo c a?anii o ae?oa?e
n?aici?i? ni?ey? cieaeaiith e?eueeino? noiae?a ao?’yi?a ia ei?iiaeo
ao?yeao a 2,1 ?ace ii??aiyii c n?aici?iith 1, aea o?aae
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ia aeaa oeine ? i?ney ieo aen?aaeanue ?aaeueea ie?eia
c niiyoieeii. Ia iiaoi?ieo iin?aao eoeo?oaece ia ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe??
ia?aoiaoaaeinue 188 oo/i2 noiae?a ao?’yi?a, ui a 2 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae
i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?? a n?aici?i?. Caao?’yiai?noue o?aa, ?ici?uaieo a
n?aici?iao, ia 5-10% ieae/a ii??aiyii c ae?iuoaaieie a aacci?iieo
iin?aao. Aen?aaiiy a ae?oa?e n?aici?i? i?ioyaii ?ieo ai?ioo c a?anii oa
?aaeueee ie?eii? c niiyoieeii ni?ey? cieaeaiith caao?’yiaiino?
iine?aeoth/eo eoeueoo? ia 15-20% ? a?eueoa. Ioaea, aaaaeaiiy a
n?aici?iao ia inoooaaieo a?oioao i?ii?aeieo iin?a?a ? aeineoue ae??aei
a?ieia?/iei iaoiaeii ai?ioueae c ao?’yiaie.

I?iaeoeoeai?noue n?aici?i caeaaeii a?ae aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a.
?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue
n?aici?i ?noioiee aieea ia? nenoaia oaeia?aiiy oa no?oeoo?a iin?aieo
ieiu. I?ia?aeuei? aeia?eaa i?aeaeuoaaee aeo?ae iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei c
iaeeieoe? ieiu? (a na?aaeiueiio): eae?ei? ia 37-47%, oinoi?ii-eae?ei? –
ia 46-56% oa acioii-oinoi?ii-eae?ei? — ia 58-69% (oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4 Ca?? nooeo ?a/iaei, ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue oa ia?ao?aaiiai
i?ioa?io caeaaeii a?ae aa??aioo aeine?aeo oa oaeia?aiiy‚ oe/aa

(na?aaei? ca 1996-1998 ??.)

Aa??aio aeine?aeo Ca??, oe/aa

Nooeo ?a/iaei I?e??no +,- aei aa-??aioo 1 Ei?ii-aeo iaeeieoeue I?e??no
+,- aei aa-??aioo 1 Ia?ao-?aaiiai i?ioa?io I?e??no +,- aei aa-??aioo 1

Aac aeia?ea

1

2

3

4 52,7

53,3

53,8

60,3 —

+0,6

+1,1

+7,6 39,6

35,9

26,9

58,7 —

-3,7

-12,7

+19,1 3,71

4,18

3,30

3,46 —

+0,47

-0,41

-0,25

K

1

2

3

4 81,8

80,6

80,0

82,6 —

-1,2

-1,8

+0,8 54,9

54,2

39,9

80,4 —

-0,7

-15,0

+25,5 5,28

5,27

4,91

4,73 —

-0,01

-0,37

-0,55

PK

1

2

3

4 86,7

84,5

85,6

86,4 —

-2,2

-1,1

-0,3 61,9

58,2

42,8

83,7 —

-3,7

-19,1

+21,8 5,49

5,70

5,25

4,95 —

+0,21

-0,24

-0,54

NPK

1

2

3

4 96,5

94,9

99,7

81,7 —

-1,5

+3,1

-14,7 62,5

63,3

50,2

79,2 —

-0,8

-12,3

+16,7 6,26

6,49

6,15

4,68 —

+0,23

-0,11

-1,58

Aacci?iia ae?iuoaaiiy aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa caaacia/o? aeineoue aenieee
aeo?ae nooeo ?a/iaei i?e aianaii? iiaiiai i?ia?aeueiiai oaeia?aiiy –
99,7 oe/aa (aeea.oaae.4). Aen?aaiiy eoeo?oaece ia neein a aacci?iieo
iin?aao aea? iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaoe ia aa??aioao c aianaiiyi eae?eieo
oa oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea 82,6-86,4 oe/aa nooeo ?a/iaei. N?aici?ie 1
oa 2, ca aeaiei iieacieeii, aeaui iinooiathoueny ia aa??aio? aac aeia?ea
ii??aiyii c aacci?iieie iin?aaie o?aa oa eoeo?oaece ia neein, aea
aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo ooe?a aeicaiey? caanoe oeth ??cieoeth aei
i?i?ioio.

I?e ae?iuoaaii? o?aa a aacci?iieo iin?aao (aa??aio aeine?aeo 3)
iaea?aeaii iaeiaioee ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue (26,9-50,2 oe/aa), ui,
aacoiiaii, iiynith?oueny aeineoue iecueeei ?o ai?noii a caeai?e ian?
o?aa. Iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieie ca aeaiei iieacieeii ? aaci?ii? iin?ae
eoeo?oaece ia neein (aa??aio aeine?aeo 4). Ia oaeia?thaaieo aa??aioao
aiie caaacia/othoue ca?? 80,4-83,7 oe/aa ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue. N?aici?ie
1 ? 2, ca aeaiei iieacieeii, caeiathoue i?ii?aeia iieiaeaiiy ?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeineoue aenieei aeoiaeii ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue –
54,2-63,3 oe/aa.

Ae?iuoaaiiy eoeo?oaece ia neein a iiaoi?ieo iin?aao (aa??aio aeine?aeo
4) caaacia/o? iaeiaioee aeo?ae ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io 4,73-4,95 oe/aa.
Aacci?ii? iin?ae aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa (aa??aio 3) iathoue aeayeo ia?aaaao
ca aeaiei iieacieeii – 4,91-6,15 oe/aa. Iaeaeuee ca?? ia?ao?aaiiai
i?ioa?io cao?eniaaii a n?aici?i? 1,2 – a?aeiia?aeii: 5,28-6,26 oa
5,27-6,49. I?e/iio, ia?aaaao ia? ae?oaa n?aici?ia (i?e??no noaiiaeoue –
0,21-0,23 oe/aa), aiane?aeie iane/aiiy ?? aenieia?eeiaeie i?ii?aeieie
eoeueoo?aie.

Ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo? a n?aici?iao ia? ?yae ia?aaaa ca iieacieeaie
i?iaeoeoeaiino?. Ii-ia?oa, ca o?iaeaei?noth nooeo ?a/iaei ia
oaeia?thaaieo aa??aioao n?aici?ie ia iinooiathoueny aacci?iiei iin?aai.
Ii-ae?oaa, aiie iinooiathoueny iiaoi?iei iin?aai eoeo?oaece, aea
ia?aaaaeathoue o?aae ca aeoiaeii ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue. Ii-o?ao?, iathoue
iaeaeuee aeo?ae ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io. Aeaaaeaiiy c no?oeoo?e iin?a?a
iaei??? i?inaiii? eoeueoo?e ? aen?aaiiy ia oiio iie? iaeii??/ieo
i?ii?aeieo caaacia/o? ??aiioe?iio i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaeeieoe? ieiu?.

A?oioicaoenia caeaoi?noue n?aici?i. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui
iaeaeuith a?oioicaoeniith caeaoi?noth oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aacci?ii?
iin?ae aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, oae ye na?aaeiueicaaaeaiee a?aenioie
i?iaeoiiai iie?eooy ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae a ieo 97,1. Aeineoue
iecueeee aeaiee iieaciee i?e aen?aaii? eoeo?oaece ia neein a iiaoi?ieo
iin?aao – 56,8%. Ei?iia? n?aici?ie iaeneiaeueii iane/ai? i?ii?aeieie
eoeueoo?aie aeathoue ciiao caoeuaoe i?aaiiaaii? a?oioe a?ae iiaeeeaeo
i?iya?a aeaoeyoe?? a iaea?eueo a?ic?eii-iaaacia/i? ia??iaee
(ea?oaiue-o?aaaiue oa na?iaiue-aa?anaiue), oae ye i?iaeoia iie?eooy
a?oioo ?ineeiaie i?e ?o cai?iaaaeaeaii? ca aaaaoaoe?th noaiiaeoue
82,5-85,6%.

Aeiiii?/ia oa aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea ei?iiaeo n?aici?i. Iaeaeua aa?o?noue
i?iaeoeoe?? iaea?aeaia i?e ae?iuoaaii? eoeo?oaece ia neein a aacci?iieo
iin?aao (oaae. 5). Oea iiynith?oueny aeineoue aenieith oe?iith (1,27
a?i/oe caeaii? iane) oa cia/iith o?iaeaei?noth (a?eueoa 500 oe/aa
caeaii? iane) aeaii? eoeueoo?e. Aea aiane?aeie aaeeeeo cao?ao, 251–415
a?i/aa, ia ae?iuoaaiiy eoeo?oaece, iniaeeai i?e canoinoaaii? aeia?ea,
/enoee i?eaooie ciaioo?oueny c 2-ai aei 4–ai aa??aio?a ? ye iane?aeie
cieaeo?oueny ?aioaaaeuei?noue.

Aen?aaiiy aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa a aacci?iieo iin?aao aea? ciiao cia/ii
nei?ioeoe (aei 103–290 a?i/aa) noeoii? aeo?aoe, aea e aa?o?noue
ae?iuaii? i?iaeoeoe?? i?e oeueiio iaaeniea – 221–536 a?i/aa. Oiio,
/enoee i?eaooie c 1 aa neeaaea? 118 – 246 a?i, a ?aioaaaeuei?noue
aei??aith? – 85–121%. ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue, na?ae/aoue, ui
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ? ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo? a
nenoai? n?aici?i (oaae. 5).

Oaaeeoey 5 Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iuoaaiiy ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?
caeaaeii a?ae no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu oa aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea,
a na?aaeiueiio ca 1996 – 1998 ??.

Aa??aio Aa?o?nue ae?iua-ii? i?i-aeoeoe??, a?i/aa Cao?a-oe ia iaeei aa,
a?i Nia?aa?o?noue, a?i/oe *en-oee i?e-aooie, a?i/aa ??aaiue
?aioa-aaeue-iino?, %

aein-e?aeo oaeia-?aiiy

ei?ii-aeo iaee-ieoeue ia?a-o?aaii-ai i?i-oa?io ei?ii-i?ioa-?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue

1

1

2

3

4 365

570

659

660 167

238

270

339 4,2

4,3

4,4

5,4 45,0

45,1

49,2

54,2 4,3

4,4

4,6

5,4 198

352

370

321 119

139

143

95

2 1

2

3

4 367

571

624

623 140

209

223

285 3,9

3,9

3,8

4,5 33,5

39,7

39,1

43,9 3,6

3,9

4,0

4,7 227

362

401

338 162

173

180

119

3 1

2

3

4 221

366

474

536 103

169

214

290 3,8

5,0

5,0

5,8 31,2

34,8

42,3

47,2 3,4

4,1

4,5

5,2 118

197

260

246 115

117

121

85

4 1

2

3

4 519

643

646

668 251

308

352

415 4,3

3,8

4,2

5,2 72,5

62,2

71,1

88,6 5,4

4,7

5,3

6,6 268

335

294

253 107

109

84

61

Iaeaeuee /enoee i?eaooie c iaeeieoe? ieiu? iaea?aeaii o n?aici?i? c
iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith (ei?iiaeie ao?yeaie), iaeneiaeueii
iane/ai?e i?ii?aeieie iin?aaie, ia oii? aianaiiy oinoi?ii-eae?eiiai
oaeia?aiiy – 401 a?i. Ia oeueiio ae aa??aio? a?aei?/aii naiee aenieee
??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? – 180%. Iaaaeee? noeoii? cao?aoe (140–285
a?i/aa) i?e aenie?e o?iaeaeiino? iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei c iaeeieoe? ieiu?
(oaae. 5) caaacia/eee iaeieae/o, na?aae aiaeia?/ieo aa??aio?a,
nia?aa?o?noue iaeiiai oeaioia?a: ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue – 3,8 a?i,
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io – 39,1 a?i oa ei?iii?ioa?iiaeo iaeeieoeue – 4,0
a?i.

Iane/aiiy ia?oi? n?aici?ie aeaiia i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie aea? ciiao
ca?eueoeoe aa?o?noue ae?iuaii? i?iaeoeoe??, ia an?o aa??aioao
oaeia?aiiy, ii??aiyii c ae?oaith ia 5 – 6%, aea i?e oeueiio c?inoathoue
? cao?aoe ia 15 – 20%. Oiio /enoee i?eaooie ia 8 – 15%, a ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? ia 24 – 43% ieae/ee a n?aici?i? 1 ii??aiyii c
n?aici?iith 2. A?aeiia?aeii e nia?aa?o?noue iaeeieoe? i?iaeoeoe?? aeua
ia 10 – 20%.

I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee, a na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue, iieacaee,
ui iaeaeuee aeo?ae noeoiii? aia?a?? c iaeiiai aaeoa?a cao?eniaaii i?e
ae?iuoaaii? aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa a aacci?iieo iin?aao 104,0–201,6 AAeae.
I?e iecueeeo aia?aicao?aoao – 27,6–43,9 AAeae/aa, iin?ae o?aa
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaeaeuei eiao?oe??ioii aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? –
3,77–5,57. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui oaoiieia?y ?o ae?iuoaaiiy cia/ii
i?ino?oa ? ii??aiyii iecueeiaia?aicao?aoia, a o?iaeaei?noue aeineoue
aeniea (81,7-86,4 oe/aa nooi? ?a/iaeie).

Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? aen?aaiiy eoeo?oaece ia neein a aacci?iieo iin?aao
na?ae/eoue, ui ooo oaeiae aeineoue aenieee aeo?ae aia?a?? – 98,6–141,6
AAeae/aa, aea e cia/i? aia?aicao?aoe – 57,1–71,2 AAeae/aa. Oiio,
eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? iecueeee 1,73–2,22.

N?aici?ie 1, 2 caeiathoue ii aeine?aeaeoaaieo iieacieeao i?ii?aeia
iieiaeaiiy. Ca aeoiaeii noeoiii? aia?a?? aiie iinooiathoueny o?aaai ia
an?o aa??aioao, a eoeo?oaec? eeoa ia eiio?ie? (aac aianaiiy aeia?ea).
A?aeiia?aeii eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? a ieo iaioee, i?ae
i?e ae?iuoaaii? o?aa (aa??aio aeine?aeo 3), oa cia/ii aeuee ii??aiyii c
eoeo?oaecith (aa??aio aeine?aeo 4).

Aeeeth/aiiy c n?aici?ie 2 iaei??? i?inaiii? eoeueoo?e ? cai?ia ??
i?ii?aeieie, ai?ioii c a?anii oa ?aaeueeith ie?eiith c niiyoieeii,
ni?eyei ciaioaiith aia?aicao?ao ?, ye iane?aeie, c?inoaiith eiao?oe??ioa
aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ii??aiyii c n?aici?iith 1, ia e?aueo aa??aioao
ia 19–25%. Iaeneiaeueiei a iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo a?i aoa a ae?oa?e
n?aici?i? ia aa??aio? canoinoaaiiy oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea – 4,10.

Ioaea, i?ia?aoe aeiiii?/iee oa a?iaia?aaoe/iee aiae?c, iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui iaea?eueo aea?aeiei, c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o, ?
ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo? a nenoai? n?aici?i.

Ia inooaieo a?oioao E?ninoaiiai? ciie, iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aea? oe?e
aeiic? ei?iiaa n?aici?ia c 2-o ??/iei iieueiaei ia??iaeii, iane/aia
iaei??th i?inaiiith (ei?iiaeie ao?yeaie) eoeueoo?ith oa iin?aaie
i?ii?aeieo ia oii? aianaiiy oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea.

AENIIAEE

1. Aenieii?iaeoeoeaia, aia?aicaa??aath/a oa i?e?iaeiioi?iiia
aeei?enoaiiy noa?ii?ieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oio?a E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie
caaacia/o?oueny cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ei?iiaeo n?aici?i c ei?ioeei (aei 1–2
?ie?a) iieueiaei ia??iaeii, iaeneiaeueii iane/aieo i?ii?aeieie
eoeueoo?aie oa i?i?iaeueii (aei 1-ai iiey) — iin?aaie i?inaiieo. Oae?
n?aici?ie, i?e canoinoaaii? ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo aeic i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea,
caaacia/othoue i?iaeoeoeai?noue inoooaaieo a?oio?a ia ??ai? 80-95 oe/aa
nooeo ?a/iaei oa 54-63 oe/aa ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue, ae??ooth/e iaeii/anii
aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie.

2. Inoooaaeueii-caieiaeoaaeueia nenoaia caaacia/oaaea ?aaoethaaiiy
aiaeii-iia?o?yiiai ?aaeeio (65-80% IA) oa i?aeo?eiaiiy ??ai?a a?oioiaeo
aiae ia aeine?aeieo ae?eyieao ca ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aaaaeii a
iioeiaeueieo iaaeao aeey ae?iuoaaiiy iniiaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?.

3. E?euee?noue i?o?ao?a, ciaiooaaeanue c 30-40 ia a ia?oee ??e
ae?iuoaaiiy o?aa aei 8-12 ia/100 a a?oioo ia /aoaa?oee. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oa?aeoa?io aeey oi?oiaeo a?oio?a caeaaei?noue i?ae
no?ieii aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith oa ?ioaineai?noth i?o?eo?eaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a. Aianaiiy i?ae aaaaoi??/i? o?aae 150 ea/aa acioo i?eaiaeeoue
aei ca?eueoaiiy i?o?aoieo oi?i a i?iiio oa?? a?oioo a na?aaeiueiio ia
10-25 ia. ?ioaineaiee ia?ia?oie i?ae i?inaii? eoeueoo?e ni?ey?
iaeiie/aiith acioo a iaaeao 50-70 ia ia 100 a nooiai a?oioo. Iaeii??/i?
i?ii?aei? eoeueoo?e aoee iiai?noth caaacia/ai? i?o?aoieie oi?iaie acioo
aiane?aeie i?neyae?? aeia?ea a n?aici?i? oa i?ia?ae?caoe?? oi?oo.

4. Eae?eiee ?aaeei a?oioo, ca ia??iae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue,
caeaaeaa, aeeeth/ii, a?ae canoiniaoaaieo aeic i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea. Ia
aa??aioao aea aiie ia aiineeenue, ai?no aeaiiai aeaiaioo ia?aaoaaa ia
??ai? iecueei? caaacia/aiino? ? neeaaeaa 5,2-11,3 ia/100 a nooiai
a?oioo. Canoinoaaiiy eae?th a aeic? 180 ea/aa ni?eyei ca?eueoaiith eiai
caian?a a i?iiio oa?? aei 16,0-21,5 ia oa c?inoaiith o?iaeaeiino? ia
38–82%.

Ai?no oinoi?o ciaoiaeeany ia?aaaaeii a iaaeao na?aaeiuei? oa aeniei?
caaacia/aiino? (4,4 – 11,3 ia/100 a a?oioo) ? ci?ithaaany aac iaaii?
caeiiii??iino?. Aianaiiy 60 ea/aa oinoi?ieo aeia?ea ni?eyei ca?eueoaiith
eiai caian?a ia 3-5 ia.

5. Ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o a?oioiaeo aiaeao i?ae iaeii??/ieie
eoeueoo?aie oa aaaaoi??/ieie o?aaaie a ia?oee ??e ?o ae?iuoaaiiy aoa
iaeaea a 2 ?ace a?eueoee, i?ae i?ae o?aaaie noa?oeo ?ie?a. Aianaiiy
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ia i?ecaiaeeei aei ia?aaeuaiiy aeiionoeieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e ca ai?noii iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a a?oioiaeo aiaeao i?ioyaii
aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo.

6. A?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue a?oioo aecia/aeanue iaai?ii ae?iuoaaieo o
n?aici?iao eoeueoo?. Iaeaeuee nooi?iue i?ioaacii? aeoeaiino? i?iiai oa?o
a?oioo niinoa??aaany i?ae iaeii??/ieie eoeueoo?aie a na?aaeei?
aaaaoaoe?? ? neeaaeaa 62,3–80,0%, a oeae aea ia??iae i?ae o?aaaie aeaiee
iieaciee ciaoiaeeany ia ??ai? 24,3–56,9%. C? noa??iiyi o?aainoith
nooi?iue i?ioaacii? aeoeaiino? cieaeo?oueny.

7. ?iceeaaeaiiy ee?oeiaeie i?ae i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie noaiiaeei 75-80%,
i?ae o?aaaie 3-4-ai ?ieo — 42-48%. Iane/aiiy n?aici?ie eeoa iaei??th
i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith cieaeo? ?ioaineai?noue i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?ae
o?aaaie ia?oiai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy ia 2-4%. Iaea?eueoa ?iceeaaeaiiy
ee?oeiaeie (84-86%) i?ioiaeeoue a i?iiio oa?? i?ae iiaoi?ieie iin?aaie
eoeo?oaece ia neein.

8. Iaeneiaeueia iane/aiiy eo/ii-ei?iiaeo n?aici?i i?ii?aeieie
eoeueoo?aie aeicaiey? iie?auoaaoe ieano aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, cieaeoaaoe
caaaeueio caao?’yiai?noue, aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeaiaioe aeeaeaiiy c a?oioo a
ia??iae i?ae ae?iuoaaiiyi iniiaieo eoeueoo?, caiia?aath/e aeieaaiith ?o
a a?oioia? aiaee oa iaea?aeoaaoe aeiaeaoeiai a?ae 250 aei 550 ? a?eueoa
oe/aa caeaii? iane.

9. Aen?aaiiy a n?aici?i?, i?ney aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, ai?ioo c a?anii aai
?aaeueee ie?eii? c niiyoieeii cieaeo? e?euee?noue ae?ioyiee?a c 25-30
aei 8-10 oo/i2, ui caiaeeoue aei i?i?ioio iioeiaeaeaiiy iine?aeoth/eo
i?inaiieo eoeueoo? oeei oe?aeieeii aac canoinoaaiiy o?i?/ieo i?aia?ao?a.

10. Ia iiaoi?ieo iin?aao eoeo?oaece ia neein ia?aoiaoaaeinue 188 oo/i2
ao?’yi?a, ui a 2 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?? a n?aici?i?.
Caao?’yiai?noue aacci?iieo iin?a?a aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa oaeiae aoea aeuith
ia 5-10%, ii??aiyii c ?ici?uaieie a n?aici?iao.

11. A?aeoeeaiue o ?ino? ? ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?
i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?o a ??cieo n?aici?iao ia niinoa??aaeinue. Aianaiiy
aeia?ea (?60E180) oa ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo? a n?aici?iao ca?eueoo? /anoeo
ea/ai?a a caeai?e ian? eoeo?oaece ia 4% oa ei?aiaieiae?a a o?iaea?
ei?iiaeo ao?ye?a ia 6,6% ii??aiyii c iaoaeia?thaaiei aa??aioii.
Aeei?enoaiiy aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, a?eueoa /ioe?ueio ?ie?a, i?ecaiaeeoue
aei cia/iiai c?inoaiiy (47–59%) o o?aainoi? /anoee ian?yieo eiiiiiaio?a,
a?acoeueoao? /iai i?iaeoeoeai?noue iin?a?a cieaeo?oueny ia 25–40%.

12. Aianaiiy eae?eieo aeia?ea i?aeaeuo? ca?? nooeo ?a/iaei ia 47%,
ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ia 37% oa ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io ia 38%. Canoinoaaiiy
oinoi?ieo ooe?a ca?eueoo? aeo?ae nooeo ?a/iaei ia 6%, ei?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue ia 10% ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io – 6%, a oaeia?aiiy acioii
aeaaaei i?eaaaeo a?aeiia?aeii ia: 8,5%; 3% ? 10%. Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
n?aici?i, iane/aieo aenieia?eeiaeie i?ii?aeieie eoeueoo?aie (ai?io c
a?anii oa ?aaeueea ie?eia c niiyoieeii), ni?ey? c?inoaiith aeoiaeo
ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ia 13-16 oe/aa, ii??aiyii c aacci?iieie iin?aaie
o?aa oa ca?eueoaiith cai?o ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io ia 1,3-2,5 oe/aa, i?ae
i?e ae?iuoaaii? eoeo?oaece ia neein a iiaoi?ieo iin?aao.

13. Ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo? a ??cieo n?aici?iao ia ye?ni? iieacieee ei?io
ia aieeaaei, aea i?aea?? a?aeiia?aeii? no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu aeicaiey?
ci?ieoe caaaeueiee aeo?ae iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei c iaeeieoe? n?aici?iii?
ieiu? ia 5 – 15% ? a?eueoa. Io?eiaiee ei?i, ia an?o aa??aioao aeine?aeo,
a?aeiia?aeaa ciioaoi?/iei aeiiaai.

14. Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ei?iiaeo n?aici?i c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii,
iaeneiaeueii iane/aieo i?ii?aeieie eoeueoo?aie, ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith ?o
a?oioicaoenii? caeaoiino? ia 26–28% ii??aiyii c iin?aaie i?inaiieo
eoeueoo?.

15. Iaeaeuee /enoee i?eaooie 401 a?i/aa i?e ??ai? ?aioaaaeueiino? 180%
oa nia?aa?oino? iaeiiai oeaioia?a ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue 3,8 a?i ia oii?
aianaiiy oinoi?i-eae?eieo aeia?ea ia? n?aici?ia c oaeei iaai?ii
eoeueoo?: 1-3 iiey — aaaaoi?/i? o?aae; 4 – aaaaoi??/i? o?aae ia iaeei
oe?n + ai?io c a?anii; 5 – ei?iia? ao?yee; 6 – ai?io c a?anii + ?aaeueea
ie?eia c niiyoieeii + caeoaeaiiy.

Aeacaia n?aici?ia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny e iaeaeuei eiao?oe??ioii
aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? 4,1.

I?IIICEOe?ss AE?IAIEOeOAO

Ia caieaaieo noa?ii?ieo a?oioao E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie aeey noai?aiiy
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a c iaeneiaeueiei aeoiaeii aenieiye?nieo
ei?i?a oa nooo?aei cieaeaiiyi i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie,
iaea?eueo aia?aicaa??aath/ei oa aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaiei ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
ei?iiaeo n?aici?i c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii oa iaeneiaeueiei
iane/aiiyi i?ii?aeieie iin?aaie c oaeei iaai?ii eoeueoo?: 1-3 iiey –
aaaaoi??/i? o?aae, 4 – aaaaoi??/i? o?aae ia iaeei oe?n + ai?io c a?anii,
5 – ei?iia? ao?yee, 6 – ai?io c a?anii + ?aaeueea ie?eia c niiyoieeii +
caeoaeaiiy noi?oeith aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, ia oii? aianaiiy
oinoi?ii-eae?eieo i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea (?60 E180) i?ae iniiai?
eoeueoo?e, a acioieo i?ae aaaaoi??/i? o?aae, ii/eiath/e c 2-ai ?ieo ?o
aeei?enoaiiy a aeic? aei N150 ea/aa. I?e aenie?e i?iaeoeoeaiino? o?aa
eo/iee ia??iae o n?aici?i? iiaea aooe i?iaeiaaeaiee aei 5-6 ?ie?a.

IOAE?EAOe?? II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Nethna? ?.O., Aeaienaiei I.?., Oea/oe N.I., I?iiaiei I.I.,
Ieeeothe I.A. Aieea i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ? iieueiaiai ia??iaeo ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa o n?aici?iao ia inoooaaieo
i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI.-
E., 1996.- Aei. 2. – N. 16-22 (ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue).

2. Nethna? ?.O., Aeaienaiei I.?., Oeiiuoe I.N., Eiaeeinueeee A.I.,
I?iiaiei I.I., Ieeeothe I.A., Oea/oe N.I. Iiia?aaeieee ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei?iiaeo n?aici?i ia inoooaaieo oi?oiaeo a?oioao
E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI.- E.,
1996.- Aei. 2. – N. 38-45 (i?iaaaeaii aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa
noi?ioeueiaaii aeniiaee).

3. Nethna? ?.O., Aa?aoiia A.A., Iiaianaiei I.A., Ieeeothe I.A.,
Oea/oe N.I. Ae?ioyieee. Cieaeaiiy oeiaei/eiiino? aa?ioaoi?/ieie
caoiaeaie ia i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao // Caoeno ?ineei.- E.: ?5, 1997.- N.
26-27. (i?iaiaeeeenue iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaii io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe).

4. Oea/oe N.I., Iaoaethe A.A., Iaiooa ?.A., Naoeee I.?. Ci?ia iiaeeaiiai
?aaeeio oi?oiaeo a?oio?a i?ae aieeaii nenoaie oaeia?aiiy aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aainoi?oie a eo/ii-ei?iiaeo n?aici?iao // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue ?inoeoooo
caiea?ianoaa OAAI.- E., 1998.- Aei. 2. – N. 28-34 (aeeiiai? aa?io?i?/i?
aiae?ce oa noi?ioeueiaai? aeniiaee).

5. Oea/oe N.I., Iaoaethe A.A. Aieea iiia?aaeiee?a ? ??cieo ii?i
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?inaiieo eoeueoo? a ei?iiaeo
n?aici?iao c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue ?inoeoooo
caiea?ianoaa OAAI.- E., 1998.- Aei. 2. – N. 45-49 (i?iaaaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a E?ninoaiia?e cii?).

6. Nethna? ?.O., Aa?aoiia A.A., Ieeeothe I.A., A?eoeae A.A.,
Iiaianaiei I.A., Oea?aiei I.I., Eiaeeinueeee A.I., Ei?ae C.A., Oee?aiia
A.I., Aa?an A.I., Oea/oe N.I., ?aaaoei N.I. Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
canoinoaaiith aenieiaoaeoeaii? aia?aicaa??aath/i? oa aeieia?/ii
aacia/ii? oaoiieia?? noai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy eoeueoo?ieo n?iiein?a ?
ianiaeu ia inoooaaieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie. – E.:
Ii?a-i??io, 1997. – 16 n. (i?ae?a?aii iaoa??aee ii caaaeuei?e
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? inoooaaieo a?oio?a).

AIIOAOe?ss

Oea/oe N.I. Aia?aicaa??aath/? oa i?e?iaeiioi?iii? ei?iia? n?aici?ie ia
iae?i?iaaieo oi?oiaeuao E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainii-aea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.01.- caaaeueia
caiea?ianoai.- ?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI, Ee?a, 1999.

A ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii oaeineiiaeaiith
ei?iiaeo n?aici?ie c ei?ioeei (aei 2-o ?ie?a) iieueiaei ia??iaeii, yeee
aeeth/a? eeoa iaeio i?inaiio eoeueoo?o.

O aeiaaio?eaaeiio aeine?ae? ia noa?ii?ieo oi?oiaeo a?oioao aea/aee
aiaeiee ? iiaeeaiee ?aaeeie a?oioo, aieea no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu ia
i?ia?ae?caoe?th, aeeiai?eo /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a oa ao?’yi?a. Ca
ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaaaeaia ioe?iea ei?iiaeo n?aici?i ca cai?ii
nooeo ?a/iaei, ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue oa ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io. Aecia/aia
?o a?oioicaoenia caeaoi?noue.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo aeioe?eueiei ca aeiiii?/ii?, aeieia?/ii? oa
aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia oi?oiaeo a?oioao ei?iiaeo
n?aici?i c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii, yeee aeeth/a? iaeio i?inaiio
eoeueoo?o – ei?iia? ao?yee oa iaeneiaeueia iane/aiiy iin?aaie
i?ii?aeieo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: n?aici?ia, aieia?noue a?oioo, iiaeeai? ?a/iaeie,
i?e?ia?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue, i?ii?aei? iin?ae, ao?’yie,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ye?noue, aeieia?y, aoaeoeai?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oea/oe N.A. Yia?ainaa?aaathuea e i?e?iaeiio?aiiua ei?iiaua naaiiai?iou
ia iaeei?e?iaaiiuo oi?oyieeao Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.01.- iauaa
caieaaeaeea.- Einoeooo caieaaeaeey OAAI, Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth
ei?iiauo naaiiai?ioia n ei?ioeei (aei 2-o eao) iieaaui ia?eiaeii,
eioi?ue aeeth/aao iaeio i?iiaoioth eoeueoo?o.

A aeeeoaeueiii iiuoa ia noa?iiaoioiuo oi?oyieeao Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu
i?iaiaeeeinue eco/aiea aiaeiiai e ieoaoaeueiiai ?aaeeiia ii/au. Ca aiaeu
i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee aeaaeiinoue iaoioiiai neiy ii/au i?aauaaea a
iioeiaeueiuo (65-80% IA) i?aaeaeao. Ianiio?y ia iaee/ea ?aciuo ca
noia?iui aiaeiiio?aaeaieai ?anoaiee, nouanoaaiiie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie eoeueoo?aie eee naaiiai?ioaie ii aeaiiio iieacaoaeth ia
ioia/aeinue.

Iaaethaeaiey ca ieoaoaeueiui ?aaeeiii iiaeoaa?aeaeatho oa?aeoa?ioth aeey
i?aaiiaaiiuo ii/a caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo ia?eiaeii eniieueciaaiey
o?aainoiaa e eioaineaiinoueth ieo?eoeeaoeeiiiuo i?ioeania. A ?acoeueoaoa
eiee/anoai ieo?aoia a iaoioiii neia iiae iiiaieaoieie o?aaaie
oiaiueoaeinue n 30-40 ia/100 a ii/au a ia?aue aiae aei 8-12 ia
/aoaa?oue. Eioaineaiay ia?aaioea ii/au iiae i?iiaoiua eoeueoo?u
i?eaiaeeo e iaeiieaieth ieo?aoiiai acioa a i?aaeaeao 50-70 ia/100 a
ii/au. Eaeeeiue ?aaeei oi?oyieeia a iaoeo enneaaeiaaieyo caaenae
eneeth/eoaeueii io aianaiey niioaaonoaothueo ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee.
Eiee/anoai oinoi?a e eaeey eciaiyeinue aac ii?aaeaeaiiie caeiiiia?iinoe.

Eco/aiea eioaineaiinoe iee?iaeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoe iieacuaaao, /oi
?aceiaeaiea eeao/aoee iiae i?iiaoiuie eoeueoo?aie auei a i?aaeaeao
75-80%, a ia o?aaao 3-4-ai aiaea iieueciaaiey – 42-48%.

Ianuuaiea ei?iiauo naaiiai?ioia i?iiaaeooi/iuie eoeueoo?aie oeo/oaao
ieano iiiaieaoieo o?aa e aeaao aeiiieieoaeueii io 250 aei 550 oe/aa
caeaiie iannu. E?iia yoiai, iinaa ii ieanoo iiiaieaoieo o?aa ai?ioa n
ianii eee ?aaeueee ianee/iie n iiaenieia/ieeii oiaiueoaao eiee/anoai
i?iaiei/ieea n 25-30 aei 8-12 oo/i2, a oaeaea iauoth cani?aiiinoue
iinaaia iineaaeothueo eoeueoo? a 1,5-2,0 ?aca.

Au?aueaaiea eoeueoo? a nenoaia naaiiai?ioia eiaao ?yae i?aeiouanoa ii
iieacaoaeyo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Ai-ia?auo, ii o?iaeaeiinoe nooeo
aauanoa (80,6-96,4 oe/aa) ia oaeia?yaiuo aa?eaioao naaiiai?iou ii/oe ia
onooiatho iiaoi?iui iinaaai ioaeaeueiuo eoeueoo?. Ai-aoi?uo, ii auoiaeo
ei?iiauo aaeeieoe (54,2-63,3 oe/aa) iie onooiatho aanniaiiui iinaaai
eoeo?ocu, ii i?aauoatho o?aau. A-o?aoueeo, eiatho aunoea iieacaoaee ii
o?iaeaeiinoe ia?aaa?eaaaiiai i?ioaeia (5,27-6,49 oe/aa), /ai iiaoi?iua
iinaau iiiaieaoieo o?aa (4,91-6,15 oe/aa) e eoeo?ocu (4,73-4,68 oe/aa).
Auaaaeaiea ec no?oeoo?u iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae iaeiie i?iiaoiie e caiaia aa
iaeiieaoieie i?iiaaeooi/iuie iaania/eaaao ?aaiioeaiioth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aaeoa?a naaiiai?ioiie ieiuaaee.

Iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie naaiiai?ioaie ii ea/anoaaiiui iieacaoaeyi ei?ia
nouanoaaiiie ?acieoeu ia caoeene?iaaii. Ei?i ia anao aa?eaioao iiuoa
ioaa/ae ciioaoie/aneei o?aaiaaieyi.

I?e aaaaeaiee naaiiai?ioia n /aou?iy iieyie iiiaeaoieo o?aa e
aeaooeaoiei iieaaui ia?eiaeii i?iaeoiia iie?uoea ii/au ninoaaeyao
82,5-85,6%, a i?e aenaaaiee i?iiaoiuo – 56,8%, iiyoiio naaiiai?iou
eiatho aieueoea ii/aicaueoiua naienoaa, /ai iiaoi?iua iinaau iaeiieaoieo
eoeueoo?.

Iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciui ca yia?aaoe/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie ioeaieie
yaeyaony aaaaeaiea ei?iiauo naaiiai?ioia n oaeei iaai?ii e /a?aaeiaaieai
eoeueoo?: 1-3 iiey iiiaieaoiea o?aau; 4 — iiea iiiaieaoiea o?aau ia
iaeei oein + ai?io c ianii; 5 — ei?iiaua ei?iaieiaeu; 6 – ai?io n ianii
+ ?aaeueea ianee/iay n iiaenieiooii + caeoaeaiea. Ia oiia aianaiey
oinoi?ii eaeeeiuo oaeia?aiee auoaoeacaiue naaiiai?io iaania/eaaao 401
a?i/aa /enoiai aeioiaea i?e o?iaia ?aioaaaeueiinoe 180%, naaanoieiinoe 1
oe ei?iiauo aaeeieoe 3,8 a?eaaiue. Eiaoeoeeaio yia?aaoe/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe ninoaaeyao — 4,1.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naaiiai?io, aeaaeiinoue ii/au, ieoaoaeueiua aeaiaiou,
iee?iaeieiae/aneay aeoeaiinoue, i?iiaaeooi/iua iinaau, ni?iyee,
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue, ea/anoai, yeieiaey, yooaeoeaiinoue.

ABCTRACT

Tkatchuk S.O. Anergy Saving and natural protecting fodder crop rotations
on drained peat-soils in the Lisostep Zone of Ukraine. Manuscripts.

Dissertation to earn tne Scientific Degree of Candidat of Agricultural
Sciences witn specialization. 06.01.01 — General Agriculture. Institute
of Agriculture of the UAAS. Kyiv. 1999.

The results of researches on development of fodder rotation with short
(up to 2 years) field period which includes one tilled crop is presented
in the work.

The water and nourished regimmes, influence of structure of the crops
sowed on the intensity of mineralization, the dinamics of pests and
weeds has been researched in longterm experiment conducted on
oldploughed peat-soils of Ukrainian Lisostep Zone.

During the research period where the fodder rotations were evaluated on
the indicators of dry substances, forage unites and protein. The soil
protection ability of fodder rotation where determined too.

To Summerise: the most expedient from ecological, energetical and
economical points of view,- is an introduction of fodder rotations which
includes one tilled crop – the forredge beets and maximum satiation of
rotation with repeat sowed crops.

Key words: crop rotations, moisture of soil, nutrients, mikrobiological
activity, repeat sowed crops, weeds, productive, quality, ecology,
efficiency.

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