2

?INOEOOO AA?A?II? AEIIII?EE

OAeE 338.45:634.330.15.92

Ii?ic Ieaa Aaneeueiae/

AIA?AIAEEI?ENOAIIss

A N?EUeNUeEIIO AINIIAeA?NOA? OE?A?IE

(iaoiaeieia?y, aeeiai?ea, iioei?caoe?y)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.02 —

Aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e

OAAI O?aaia/oe Aaeaioei Ieoaeeiae/ —

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?inoeoooo
aeiiii?ee IAIO

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio OAAI

Eiaan Ieeiea A?eai?iae/ —

Aaia?aeueiee aee?aeoi? IAAO “Aa?i?ieii”

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

?oniae Iao?i Iaaeiae/ —

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee
n?euenueeiai

ainiiaea?noaa Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Noaeueiauoe Aioii Ieoaeeiae/ —

eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee,
i?aai?caoe?? ? ieaioaaiiy AIE

Oa?iii?euenueei? aeaaeai??
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo caieaono?ith OAAI,

a?aeae?e aeieia??,
caieaei?enooaaiiy oa ioe?iee caie?

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 15 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14
aiaeei? ia can?-aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.350.01 ii
caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI (252127, i. Ee?a-127, aoe.
Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 10, eiioa?aioe-cae).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 10 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Iae?e I.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?noi??y ? i?ia?an noni?euenoaa ia?ic?eaii
iia’ycai? c n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii, c i?iaeiaieue/ei caaacia/aiiyi
ethaenoaa ye iaeia?oith eiai aeeoo?aith iio?aaith. Oea coiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue aacia-?a?aiiai i?aeaeuaiiy a?aeaea/? oa aoaeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

sse na?ae/eoue i?aeoeea, i?aeianaiiy na?oiaiai aa?a?iiai naeoi?a
aeiiii?ee a ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO noie?ooy a?oiooaaeiny ia cia/iiio
c?inoaii? aeei?enoaiiy iaiiiiaethaaieo aia?ai?ano?n?a. I?ioa
ia?niaeoeai?noue oaeiai ?icaeoeo ??cei iaiaaeo?oueny c iaeyaeo ia
aeaaeae? c?inoath/o aeao?oeeoi?noue ?ano?n?a, ca?eueoaiiy canoinoaaiiy
yeeo iaeiicia/ii ioe?ith?oueny ye aeanoaa?e?coth/ee oaeoi? ?nioaaiiy
aeinenoai ? noni?euenoaa. A?eueoa oiai, aeineoue i?iaeaiaoe/iei, a
oi/i?oa, i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaei ? caaaeaiiy i?aeo?eiaiiy ia aenieiio
??ai? aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo no/aniiai na?oiaiai n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa o?eaaeee /an.

Aiaeii?ac o?aaeeoe?eia aia?aaoe/ia, a a?aeoae ? oaoiie?aoe/ia
iiaeaeue ?ioaineo?eaoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa iaieio/a
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeeo iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a, ye iia??oaiiy aeieia?/iiai
noaio aeiae?eey, aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oioiaiai iie?eao, ??ceiai iia??oaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a, cie?aia, aei cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?
?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iaieoeoaa. Oiio i?iaeaie aeiiii?? ?ano?n?a, iiooeo
aeueoa?iaoeaieo iai?yi?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia
iniia? ?aaeeeaeueiiai oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai oa
aia?aaoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy ? iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueieie. E??i oiai, aei
ia iaio aaaeeeaeo iaeaaeeoue ? i?iaeaia aeieiai-aeiiii?/ii? aaeaioaoe??
caiea?ianoaa Oe?a?ie aei oiia ?eieiaiai oa i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua ca
no/aniiai e?eciaiai noaio aeiiii?ee ? aeiia aeieia?/ii? aaciaee oa
iaiao?aeiino? ae?iaieoeoaa eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??.

Iaoeiaa aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia iaaeinoaoi?i ??aiai
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? i?eeeaaeieo ?ic?iaie o oeueiio ieai?,
iaiaeiicia/i?noth ioe?iie aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?ioean?a ye o na?oia?e, oae
? a?o/eciyi?e aa?iaeiiii?/i?e iaooe?. ?aeay aeieiai-aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oa ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aaeoc? c o?aooaaiiyi iaiao?aeiino?
cieaeaiiy eiai aia?ai?iiino? ana ua caeeoa?oueny i?aaeiaoii aeeneon?e, a
i?iaeaie, iaoiaee, niiniae ? iaoai?cie ?o i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? iaa?oue
ia aeine?aeaeothoueny iaeaaeiei /eiii.

Ca oiia c?inoath/i? neeaaeiino? oa aa??aaaeueiino? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ???aoe?iiaeueiino? a?ioiaeo ioe?iie aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ii?aoethaaiiy i?eioeeiiai
iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy ?ioaa?aeueii? ?ano?ni?iiino? aa?a?iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, cie?aia, eiai aia?ai?iiino? ye e?i?ooth/iai /eiieea, a
a?aeoae — ? aia?aia?aeaea/?. Oea a naith /a?ao iio?aao? ?ic?iaee oa
noai?aiiy aeineiiaei?, iiaii? ? caaa?oaii? iaoiaeieia?? e nenoaie
aiae?co oaiaeaioe?e aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ye iio?aeiiai iieacieea
eiai ?ano?ni- oa aia?ai?iiino?.

Cacia/ai? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy coiiaeee iaoo, caaaeaiiy ?
iai?yie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy ia?aaeeaie
nenoaiii-aia?aaoe/iiai aiae?co oaeiai neeaaeiiai i?e?iaeii-ae?iaie/iai
eiiieaeno, ye n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai, c oi/ee ci?o eiai aia?aaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ianaiia?aae aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy oa aia?aia?aeaea/?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaaea a iaa?oiooaaii? ? ?ic?iaoe?
aeiiii?/ieo i??i?eoao?a iiai? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iaoe?iiaeueiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia iniia?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy eiai aia?ai?ano?niiai ?
aeieia?/iiai iioaioe?ae?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai ae??ooaaeenue oae?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?, iaoiaee/i? ? i?aeoe/i? caaaeaiiy:

1. ?ic?iaea eiioeaioe??, iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue
aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ca eiai
aia?aaoe/ieie iieacieeaie.

2. Aecia/aiiy e?eoa???a oa aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
iioeiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ? a?aeoai?aiiy iioaioe?aeo no/anieo
aa?iaeinenoai a Oe?a?i?.

3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?eei-aeaiia?ao?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo
caiea?ianoaa oa aeeiai?ee aio?iiioaoiiaaiii? ae?yeueiino? a
aa?ieaiaeoaooao Oe?a?ie.

4. Aeyaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e oa caeiiii??iinoae aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iiai
?icaeoeo, a?aeoai?aiiy ? aoaeoeaiino? a?o/eciyiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a i?ioean? eiai ?ioaineo?eaoe??
c ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniiai? aeiiii?/i? caeiiii??iino?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aia?aaoe/ieo iioie?a ye aeeiai?/iiai i?ioeano ?icaeoeo a
nenoai? aeieiai-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei «nioe?oi — ae?iaieoeoai ia?aeiii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? — i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua».

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iee, nenoaiiee, aeieiai-aia?aaoe/iee, noaoenoe/iee,
iiiia?ao?/iee, aano?aeoii-eia?/iee, iieueiaee iaoiaee, a oaeiae iaoiaee
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? aa?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao
aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee noaoenoe/i?, ca?oi? oa
aei-a?aeeia? iaoa??aee aea?aeaaieo onoaiia, io?oe?ei? aeieoiaioe,
iaoeia? e ioae?oeenoe/i? aeaeaiiy, ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo iiiia?ao?/ieo,
iieueiaeo ? eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoeiao iiaecio iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ii oai?
aeena?-oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noaiiaeyoue:

· iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/iiai
aiae?co e ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa
ye eiiieaeno iniiaieo aia?aineeaaeath/eo oaeoi??a (aio?iiioaoiiaaiii? oa
niiy/ii? aia?a?? e aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo a?oio?a);

· ?ic?iaea iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo, oa?i?iieia?? oa iieaciee?a
aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa;

· aecia/aiiy, iaa?oiooaaiiy ? aeaoae?caoe?y e?eoa???a oa caaaeaiue
aeieiai-aeiiii?/ii? iioei?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa
c o?aooaaiiyi i?e?iaeieo ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia;

· ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ao?iniaeoeae aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iiai
?ic-aeoeo aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a,
i?i-aeoeoeaiino? oa aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, aei-na?aeo eiai ?ioaa?aoe?? aei na?oiaiai aa?a?iiai ?eieo;

· anoaiiaeaiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae aia?aaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo
a?o/eciyiiai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa c i?iaaaeaiiyi ia??iaeecaoe??,
a?aaeaoe?? oa ?iaeaenaoe?? ca o?iiieia??th eiai ?ioaineo?eaoe??;

· aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee oa caeiiii??iinoae aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
aio?iiioaoiiaaiieo ? i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa;

· ?ic?iaea aeieiai-aeiiii?/ieo ii?iaoea?a ? ia?aiao??a iioeiaeueiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy aa?iaeieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae oeyo?a oa caoiae?a ?o i?aeoe/iiai aeinyaiaiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe caaa?oaiiai nenoaiiiai
aiae?co aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie,
cae?eniaia eiai ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ca oeeie ia?aiao?aie ii??aiyii c
a?aeiia?aeieie iieacieeaie ?yaeo aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i na?oo.
Aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? ia? ?noioi? a?aei?iiino?
iaoiaeieia?/iiai ? iaoiaee/iiai ieaio uiaei aiaeia?a o ?in??, NOA oiui.
C?iaeai? ia iniia? nenoaiiiai aiae?co oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee iathoue
oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa? ? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue cia/ii iiaeeaeoe
?nioth/? oyaeaiiy uiaei caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ia no/aniiio aoai? oeea?e?caoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue coiiaeaia
i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noth iiaei aaiiie?oe/iei oiiaai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie,
iaiao?aei?noth iine?aeiaii? ? iaa?oioiaaii? ?ioaa?aoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aei na?oiaiai aa?ii?iaeiaieue/iai ?eieo.
Iaea?aeai? a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, iaa?oioiaai?
i?iiiceoe?? oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iioei?caoe?? aa?a?iiai
caieaei?enooaaiiy, no?oeoo?e ae?iaieoeoaa, eiai ?ano?ni-oaoiieia?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy oa aeieiai-aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ? iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy
noaeiai, aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaiiai, aenieiaoaeoeaiiai n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, yea caaacia/eoue ?icoe?aia eiai a?aeoai?aiiy ?
iiaeaeueoee aeeiai?/iee ?icaeoie. Oe? iaoa??aee, cie?aia, aoee
aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe?:

TH i?iaeoo eiioeaioe?? aia?aaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa a Oe?a?i?;

TH i?iaeoo iioei?caoe?? aa?a?iiai caieaei?enooaaiiy ? ia?niaeoea iiai
?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa E?ninoaiiai? ciie ia
i?eeeaae? ainiiaea?noa Oa?auainueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?.

Aeuacacia/ai? iaoa??aee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa a ?ioeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao ca aoaeueyeeo i?e?iaeieo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia.

Ca’ycie aeena?oaoe?? c ieaiiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie. A iniiao ?iaioe
iieeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe o?eaaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a, i?iaaaeaieo a
?inoeooo? caiea?ianoaa (1988-1996 ??.) oa a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee
OAAI (1997-1998 ??.).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeeny ca?aeii c oaiaoe/ieie ieaiaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ? aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c aeeiiaiiyi
aea?aeaaieo ? aaeocaaeo i?ia?ai: AeIOI “Aenieiaoaeoeai? i?ioeane
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeiaieuenoaa” oa “Ioi?iia ? a?aeoai?aiiy caiaeueieo
?ano?n?a Oe?a?ie”.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. An? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue
io?eiai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? o
ae?iaieoeoai. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? oa?eoee aei iaoeiaeo ca?o?a
eaai?aoi??? aa?iaeieia?? ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI: ca 1993 ?. (noi?.
47-52), 1994 ?. (noi?. 38-42), 1995 ?. (noi?. 44-49) oa aei caaaeaiiai
ca?oo ca 1991-1995 ??. (noi?. 57-60 oa 64-67). Ca?oe ui??/ii
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia a/ai?e ?aae? ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa ? aoee ioe?iai?
iiceoeaii. Iaeaaaeeea?o? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
can?aeaii? A?aeae?eaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai naea ?inoeoooo
aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee oaeiae aeeeaaeai? ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “?acaeoea eiiia?aoeee e
niaa?oainoaiaaiea oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia a AIE” (i. Iineaa, 1990),
“Iao/iia iaania/aiea AIE ONN?” (i. A?ea Oea?eaa, 1990), “Inaiaiea
eioaineaiuo oaoiieiaee aicaeaeuaaiey ca?iiauo eoeueoo?” (i. Aieaia?aae,
1990), “Iaoeia? ?ic?iaee — AIE” (i. Ieaei? Ai?ioa, 1993), “N?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie — i?iaeaie, no/ani?noue, ieioea”, “Iaoeia? iniiae
aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao”,
“I?iaeaiu eniieueciaaiey caiee a oneiaeyo ?aoi?ie?iaaiey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaaaeaiey caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu”
(Ee?a — *aaaie, 1993, 1994, 1995), “Aeieia?y Iie?nny: i?iaeaie,
no/ani?noue, iaeaooi?” (i. Eooeuee, 1993), ?V c’?caeo a?oioiciaaoe?a ?
aa?io?i?e?a Oe?a?ie (i. Oa?e?a, 1994), ? I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii
i?iaeai? ei?i?a (i. A?iieoey, 1994),”?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ?
ioi?iia caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a” ( i. Ee?a, 1994), “I?iaeaie AIE Oe?a?ie:
noai ? ia?niaeoeae” (n. Aeoaeyie, 1996), “I?iaeaie AIE Ea?iao” (n. A.
Aaeoa, 1997), V c”?cae? a?oioiciaaoe?a ? aa?io?i?e?a Oe?a?ie (i.
??aia, 1998), “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy aeinenoai”
(i. Aneai?y-Iiaa, 1998), “?aa?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo
nee AIE” (i. Ee?a, 1998).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?iaeo eiioeaioe?? aia?aaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
Oe?a?ie ?icaeyiooi ? noaaeaii a/aieie ?aaeaie ?inoeoooo a?oioiciaanoaa ?
aa?io?i?? OAAI (i?ioieie ? 9 a?ae 23.08.98), ?inoeoooo c?iooaaiiai
caiea?ianoaa OAAI (i?ioieie ? 13 a?ae 27.08.98).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iioae?eiaai? a iiiia?ao?yo “Aia?aaoe/ia aaiethoe?y n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie” ianyaii 15,2 ae.a?e., “Oai??y eieeaaiue
aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aa?iaeinenoai” ianyaii 17,0 ae.a?e., 8 noaooyo
(caaaeueiei ianyaii 5,0 ae. a?e.) o i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao, (4 ?c
ieo i?aeaioiaeai? aaoi?ii iaeiiin?aii), a ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo (0,6 ae.
a?e.), o 5 i?aea?aeii/eo oaiaoe/ieo ca??ieeao. Anueiai ii oai?
aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 40 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii 45,5
ae. a?e.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa, ianya yei?
noaiiaeoue 368 noi??iie, neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e ? aeiaeaoe?a. Aiia i?noeoue 52 oaaeeoe? ? 72
?enoiee. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e iae?/o? 269 aeaea?ae. No?oeoo?a ?iaioe ?
oaeith:

Anooi

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? oa i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe aia?aaoeee
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. 1.1. Aia?aaoe/ia nooi?noue aa?iaeinenoai.
1.2. Iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aia?aiaeei?enoaiiy a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?. 1.3. Ia?niaeoeae aeei?enoaiiy
aia?aiaeinenoaiieo /eiiee?a o no/aniiio n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.

?icae?e 2. Oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. 2.1. Iaoiaeieia?y
? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. 2.2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?icae?e 3. ?ao?iniaeoeaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai inai?iiy
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. 3.1. Aeeiai?ea aeaiia?ao?? oa caieacaaacia/aiiy. 3.2.
?noi?e/iee aiae?c.

?icae?e 4. Aiae?c aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie. 4.1. Aiae?c cao?aoieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai /eiieea. 4.2. Iniiai? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a
aa?iaeinenoaiao. 4.3. Aeeia-i?ea i?iaeoeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa. 4.3.1.
I?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineeiieoeoaa. 4.3.2. I?iaeoeoeai?noue oaa?eiieoeoaa.

?icae?e 5. Iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie. 5.1. Aoaeoeai?noue
aio?iiioaoiiaaiieo cao?ao. 5.1.1. Ooieoe?iiaeueiee aieea oaoi?/iiai
?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia eiai aoaeoeai?noue
i?ioyaii 50-80-o ?ie?a. 5.1.2. Aeeiai?ea aoaeoeaiino? caiea?ianoaa ca
oiia iaiaaeaiiai ?ano?niiai caaacia/aiiy (ia i?eeeaae? ainiiaea?noa
Oa?auainueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?). 5.1.3. Aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. 5.2. Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
i?e?iaeieo /eiiee?a. 5.2.1. O?ainoi?iaoe?y niiy/ii? aia?a??. 5.2.2.
Caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe?? aeei?enoaiiy ? a?aeoai?aiiy aia?aaoe/iiai
iioaioe?aeo a?oioo. 5.3. Aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee no/aniiai
caiea?ianoaa. 5.3.1. Aoaeoeai?noue ie?aieo aa?ioaoiieia?e (ia i?eeeaae?
ae?iuoaaiiy eoeo?oaece). 5.4. Aeeiai?ea noaeino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?. 5.5. Oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. 5.5.1. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
oa?aeoa?o oa o?iiieia?? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
Oe?a?ie ? NOA.

?icae?e 6. Iniiae iiaeaeueoi? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie (oai??y, i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa i/?eoaaiee
aoaeo). 6.1. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iioei?caoe?eieo caoiae?a. 6.2.
Iiaoaeiaa oa iniiai? iieacieee iiaeaethaaiiy ia i?eeeaae? ainiiaea?noa
Oa?auainueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?. 6.2.1. Iioei?caoe?y
eaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e. 6.2.2. ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y ?ineeiieoeoaa. 6.2.3.
Caaacia/aiiy ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo. 6.2.4.
Aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/i? ia?aiao?e oaoiieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa. 6.2.4.1. Aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. 6.2.5. Aa?o?nia
ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? iioei?caoe?eieo caoiae?a. 6.3. Ia?niaeoeae
aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai aieeao a aa?ieaiaeoaooao Oe?a?ie. 6.4. No?aoaa?y
?ioaineo?eaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ca no/anieo
oiia ? ia ia?niaeoeao.

Aeniiaee. I?iiiceoe?? . Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Aeiaeaoee.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? oa i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe i?iaeaie
aia?aiaeei?enoaiiy a aa?a?iiio ae?iaieoeoa?. I?e oeueiio
i?aee?aneth?oueny oi?aa?naeuei?noue aia?aaoe/ii? nooiino? aa?iaeinenoai
? iaa?oioiaai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?e nenoaii?e
ioe?ioe? ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aecia/aia ae??oaeueia aeiiii?/ia ?ieue
aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai /eiieea a no/aniiio ?ioaineaiiio n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?, yeee c?aooith aecia/a? eiai aoaeoeai?noue,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue, noae?noue, a oaeiae aeieia?/io neooaoe?th caaaeii.
I?eioeeiiaa noaia iii?oi?eiao iiaeiia ?aae?coaaoenue ca eaiaeoaooiei
?icaeyaeii i?iaeaie. ?aaeueia neooaoe?y uiaei aoaeoeaiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aei inoaiiueiai /ano
aecia/a?oueny ia?aaaaeii ??aiai oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/ii? ?ioaineo?eaoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai caaino?aiiy aeieia?/ieo
a?aeiinei ? i?iaeaie a?aeoai?aiiy iioaioe?aeo aa?iaeinenoai.

Caaaeueiith oaiaeaioe??th ?ioaineo?eaoe?? na?oiaiai n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa aaaaea?oueny ciaioaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino? ia oii? c?inoaiiy
cao?ao ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy ana a?eueoi? e?eueeino? iaiiiiaethaaieo
aia?ai?ano?n?a. I?iaiico?oueny iia??oaiiy neooaoe?? a iaeaooiueiio,
ine?eueee caeo/aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo ?ano?n?a i?iieneiaiai iioiaeaeaiiy
iaieio/a aaaea aei ciaioaiiy ?o ieoiiino?. E??i oiai, iiaeaeueoa
e?euee?nia ca?eueoaiiy cao?ao aia?ai?ano?n?a aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy
aeinoaoiuei aenieiai ??aiy ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe?? aeeeoo? iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a,
iaae ? a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo ??ai?a aio?iiioaoiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue a
aa?iaeinenoaiao.

Caaaeii i?eeeaaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy a oeueiio ieai? ? yaii
iaaeinoaoi?ie /a?ac a?aenooi?noue ?ioi?iaoe??, io?eiaii? ia
aeinoaoiueiio iaoiaeieia?/iiio ? iaoiaee/iiio ??ai?. Iioae?eiaai? aeai?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo ca?oa?aeieie oa a?o/eciyieie
a/aieie, iathoue cia/i? ?ica?aeiino?.

A oai?aoe/iiio ieai? ? ?aaeueiith iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai
iiai? iiaeae? noaeiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ca oiiae
aa?iii?eiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeieia?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo oa aeiiii?/ieo
/eiiee?a. Ia?niaeoeae aoaeoeaiiai ? aeieia?/ii aacia/iiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aa?a?ii? noa?e aaa/athoueny a iaaiiio iaiaaeaii?
aeei?enoaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo oa ?ioeo ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a, oaeineiiaeaii?
iaoeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, ui coiiaeth?oueny ye aeiiii?/ieie, oae ? aeieia?/ieie
aniaeoaie. I?e oeueiio aeieia?caoe?y aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa
?icaeyaea?oueny ye ia?eoeaii iaiao?aeiee aoai eiai ?icaeoeo a no/anieo
oiiaao. Nooi?noue i?ioeano iioei?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
iieyaa? a ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy caaeainiaaiino? a iueiio
aia?aaoe/ieo iioie?a. Inoaii? iiaea aeinyaaoeny ca aoaeue-yeeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia ianaiia?aae ye?nieie ci?iaie a no?oeoo??
aio?iiioaoiiaaiieo cao?ao ? oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/ieo i?eioeeiao
ae?iaieoeoaa, c?inoaii? eiai i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa aoaeoeaiino?,
i?aeo?eiaii? iiceoeaiiai a?aeoai?aiiy aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo a?oio?a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii iaoiaeieia?? oa iaoiaeeoe?, a oaeiae
oa?ae-oa?enoeoe? ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiao iaoiaeieia?? aeaii?
?iaioe noaiiaeoue aia?aaoe/ia nooi?noue an??? ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ye noeoiiino? i?ioean?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? ??ciiiai?oieo
aia?aaoe/ieo iioie?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?iaeoeoaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo
oe?iiinoae iaiao?aeii? e?eueeino? ? yeino?.

Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aa?iaeinenoai ye iaaiiai oa nai???aeiiai
eiiieaeno aia?ainenoaiieo /eiiee?a, aecia/aeueieie c yeeo ?
aio?iiioaoiiaaiia oa niiy/ia aia?a?y, aia?aaoe/iee iioaioe?ae a?oioo,
aea? iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? aeeiai?ee aia?aicao?ao ?
aia?aia?aeaea/?. I?e oeueiio aia?aaoe/ia oe?ia ae?iaieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? aeeth/a? cao?aoe ye
aio?iiioaoiiaaiii? aia?a??, oae ? aia?a?? i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a,
ianaiia?aae a?oioo ye iniiae caiea?ianoaa. Oea aeiaaa? ? aaeaeaaoiiai
aa?o?nii? ioe?iee.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai e?a?ie,
a oaeiae ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a oa ainiiaea?noa E?ninoaiiai? ciie (Oiainueeiai
?aeiio *a?eanueei? iaeano? oa ainiiaea?noa Oa?auainueeiai ?aeiio
Ee?anueei? iaeano?). Aoaeoeai?noue ie?aieo aa?ioaoiieia?e aea/aeanue ia
i?eeeaae? ae?iuoaaiiy eoeo?oaece a noaoe?iia?iiio aeine?ae? ?inoeoooo
caiea?ianoaa OAAI.

Aei aiae?co caeo/aeenue aeai? uiaei ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? a?aeiia?aeii
aeo?ao ia iaea?aeaiiy ia?aeiii? i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa ?
oaa?eiieoeoaa aac ?o iiaeaeueoi? ia?a?iaee oa ?ooo iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. ?acii c oei, ia aea/aeenue oae? i?ioeane, ye
?iciiae?e oa niiaeeaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, a oaeiae
ao?aoe inoaiiuei? ia an?o oaoiieia?/ieo noaae?yo.

C iaoith i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea ?ic?iaeaia a?aeiia?aeia nenoaia
aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iiai aiae?co oa ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii
ioe?ithaaoe cao?aoe aia?a?? aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy a
?ic?aooieo ia iaeeieoeth ia?aeiii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??
ca ui??/iith aeeiai?eith oaeoe/ieo caaaeueieo oa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ca
noaooyie cao?ao c o?aooaaiiyi ?o aia?aaoe/ieo aea?aaeaio?a, a oaeiae ca
aia?aaoe/iei ??aiai oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa, oiaoi ca /anoeith
oaoiiaaiieo iaiiiiaethaaieo cao?ao o caaaeuei?e ?o no?oeoo??. Aeeiai?ea
caaaeueii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ioe?ithaaeanue ca
na?aaeiuei??/iei ?ioaa?aeueiei iieacieeii aia?ai?iiino? ia?aeiii?
iniiaii? oa oe?iii? iia?/ii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??.
Aoaeoeai?noue aaeoc? aiae?coaaeanue ca caaaeueiith aia?aaoe/iith
aoaeoeai?noth cao?ao o ae?iaieoeoa?, a o. /. ca aeeoa?aioe?aeueiith ?o
aoaeoeai?noth, a oaeiae ca aoaeoeai?noth aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo
/eiiee?a, a naia: ca ?ioaineai?noth aeei?enoaiiy niiy/ii? aia?a?? oa
aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo a?oio?a. Noai a?aeoai?aiiy iioaioe?aeo a?oio?a
ioe?ithaaany oeyoii iiaoaeiae ui??/iiai aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cana?ae/eea neeaaei?noue
aeiiii?/ieo, aeieia?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo aniaeo?a ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ui
i?iyaey?oueny a aeiiii?/ii ia?aoe?iiaeueieo nenoaiao ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
aenie?e aia?ai?iiino? ? iecuee?e aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa,
iaaei?aaaeaii cia/i?e nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe??, iaaei??iiio
aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiio iaaaioaaeaii? ia aeinenoaie, aenie?e caeiyoino?
a?eueoino? eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a, iecuee?e i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?,
aeoeaiiio c?inoaii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oio?a oiui. Naia oiio eii/a
iaiao?aei? ?ic?iaea oa ?aae?caoe?y caoiae?a uiaei aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ii?
iioei?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co
?noi?eei-aeaiia?ao?/ieo aniaeo?a ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyiiai n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Cie?aia, i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ia?ic?eaia ?aei?noue
ieioeiai, no/aniiai ? iaeaooiueiai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie
aecia/a?oueny o??th ianoaaeiith, ui i? a ye?e ?io?e e?a?i? aa?a?ia
eoeueoo?a ? aa?a?ia ?noi??y ia iaee oaeiai ae??oaeueiiai aieeao ia
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe??. Iioe?aiiy caiea?ianoaa ye iniiae ?nioaaiiy
noni?euenoaa ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ca?aa?oueny ca o?iiieia??th
noaiiaeaiiy iaea?eueo aeaai?o na?oiaeo oeea?e?caoe?e.

Aeine?aeaeaii, ui aeo?aeiee aia?aaoe/iee aacen
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia oe?e oa?eoi??? noi?ioaaany
ca /an?a Ee?anueei? ?on? ? aeii?ioaaa iaeaea oeny/ie?ooy. ??cea
c?inoaiiy /enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy aei na?aaeeie O?O no. ? ae/a?iaiiy
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?icoe?aiiy iaae caiea?ianoaa noaee iniiaieie
ia?aaeoiiaaie i?eioeeiiai iiaiai oaoiieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo aaeoc?. Noaea
i?aeianaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ? ae?iaieoeoaa i?ney ?aoi?ie 1861 ?.
cia/iith i??ith ni?aiaaea? c aiaeia?/ieie oaiaeaioe?yie a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? NOA i?ney i?eeiyooy oai a oie aea /an caeiio i?i
“caiaeuei? iaae?ee”.

sse na?ae/eoue aiae?c, ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy iaea i?noea cia/ia
aeniain?y oe?a?inueei? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??,
ianaiia?aae ca?ia oa oeoe?o. N?euenueea ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie ana
aeoeai?oa ?ioaa?oaaeinue aei i?aeia?iaeiiai aa?ii?iaeiaieue/iai ?eieo.
I?ioa iaaeae? e?eca a noni?euenoa? ??cei ci?ieea neooaoe?th. Iaeiei c
iane?aee?a oeueiai noaea ao?aoa ?eieo caooo a oaeeo e?a?iao, ye
Aieeaiae?y, I?ia//eia, ?oae?y, O?aioe?y, Aaeeeia?eoai?y oa ?ioeo.

A?aoiaoth/e aeuaneacaia, aaoi? iaa?oioiao? iaiao?aei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo a i?ioean? ?aoi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ianaiia?aae c iaeyaeo ia ?yae iiceoeaieo a
aeieia?/iiio ieai? oa?aeoa?enoee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy
caie?, a oaeiae ia o?aaeeoe?eii aoaeoeai? niaoe?ae?caoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa
ca?ia oa eiai ?ioaa?aoe?th aei na?oiaiai aa?ii?iaeiaieue/iai ?eieo.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iiai
?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie. Aeine?aeaeothoueny
aeeiai?ea cao?ao aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy a i?ioean?
?ioaineo?eaoe?? aaeoc? i?ioyaii OO noie?ooy, no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a
aa?a?iiio ae?iaieoeoa? oa iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? eiai i?iaeoeoeaiino?.

A oai?aoe/iiio aniaeo? caeaoi?noue caaacia/eoe cai?ia?aiiaaiee
aia?aaoe/iee iioaioe?ae aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a ca?aene — ?
iiaeeea?noue aei cia/iiai eiai ca?eueoaiiy a ?ac? iio?aae —
?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?iaeeeaoi? aeeoo?caeaoiino? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ?
e?a?ie caaaeii. Caaaeueiith aeiiaith a na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? aoei e
caeeoa?oueny aacia?a?aia ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ianya?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ?
?acoeueoaoe aiae?co, ye? na?ae/aoue, ui a ?noi??? na?oiaiai n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa aein? ia aoei i?aoeaaeaio?a, eiee cao?aoe
aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy a oe?e aaeoc? ?noioii ciaiooaaeenue
a?aeiia?aeii aei iioeaaoe?e noni?euenoaa.

Caaaeueiith oaiaeaioe??th aei ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a aoei c?inoaiiy cao?ao ?
a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? Oe?a?ie, ui aeaeii ia ?en. 1.

Caneoaiao? ia oaaao aiae?c oaeiai ?icaeoeo i?ioeano a 20-o? ?iee, a
ia??iae i?neyai?iii? a?aeaoaeiae oa “eieaeoea?caoe??” naea. I?ioa
iaea?eueo aeeiai?/iei aoei ca?eueoaiiy caaaeueieo aia?aaoe/ieo cao?ao o
ia??iae 60-80-o ?ie?a. Oea noaei iane?aeeii ?noioieo ci?i a aa?a?i?e
iie?oeoe? oa ia?aaaaeaiiyi n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia
?iaeono??aeuei? oaoiieia??.

Oe? i?ioeane a?aeaeca?eaeththoue iaiaaaiiy noni?euenoaa aeiei??iii
ae??oeoe i?iaeiaieue/o i?iaeaio ca ?aooiie oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano a
aa?a?i?e noa??. Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui oae? iioeaaoe?? oa oeyoe ?o
?aae?caoe?? aoee aeii?ioth/eie a onueiio na?o?.

Iniiao oaeiai ?icaeoeo iiae?e aecia/aei ianaiia?aae c?inoaiiy
aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo aia?aaoe/ieo /eiiee?a oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ye
caniae iaoai?caoe??, iaeueii-ianoeeuei? iaoa??aee, aeaeo?iaia?a?y,
caniae o?i?caoe??, aoae?ae? ? nii?oaee ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy. *anoea
oeeo /eiiee?a o caaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? cao?ao iaea iaeiicia/ia iiceoeaia
ca?eueoaiiy (?en. 2).

Oaea i???ioaoe?y ia’?eoeaii coiiaeea ? oie oaeo, ui no/ania aa?a?ia
ae?iaieoeoai ca nai?th aia?aaoe/iith nooi?noth a?oioo?oueny ia?aaaaeii
ia ?ano?nao i?iieneiaiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oey caeiiii??i?noue aoaea
ia?aaaaeaoe ? o iaeaooiueiio.

Iaeii/anii c oaoiiaaiiei ?icaeoeii ae?iaieoeoaa a aa?a?i?e noa?? a oeae
/an a?aeaoeiny iaeneiaeueia aenoaineaia caeo/aiiy iioaioe?aeo
a?ieia?/ieo /eiiee?a aa?iaeinenoai, ui i?iyaeeiny a ca?eueoaii?
?ici?aiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue, c?inoaii? iiaie?a’y
oaa?ei, iioe?aii? i?inaiieo eoeueoo? ? ia??a. sse iieaco? i?aeoeea, ana
oea i?ecaaei aei ??ceiai iia??oaiiy aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? ? aiaeii/ac ia
aeaei i/?eoaaieo ae?iaie/eo oa aeiiii?/ieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeinyaioo? i?e
oeueiio iieacieee aeyaeeeny a ?yae? aeiaaee?a /e ia iaea?eueoeie a na?o?
? noaee yne?aaei i?eeeaaeii aeieia?/ii iaiaa?oioiaaii? ?ioaineo?eaoe??
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Aiae?coth/e i?ioeane ?icaeoeo aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa oiai /ano,
iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ca an??? neeaaeiino?
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo oiia o na?aaeei? 50-o ?ie?a aoa ia?aiee aa??aio
aia?aaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, i???ioiaaiee caaaeii
ia nenoaie cao?aeiiai oeio. Iaeiae, ye cana?ae/ea aeina?ae, iacaaaeath/e
ia aeinyaiaiiy cia/ii iaioeo cao?ao aia?a?? a ?ic?aooieo ia iaeeieoeth
ieiu?, iecueeee ??aaiue i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?eca?a aei ?noioii aeui?
aia?ai?iiino? i?iaeoeoe?? ii??aiyii c iieacieeaie, aeinyaiooeie a
?icaeiooeo e?a?iao na?oo. Oea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue aeoeaieie i?ioeanaie
aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oio?a, cia/ieie aeieia?/ieie i?iaeaiaie, iecueeei
oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/iei ??aiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a?aenooi?noth aaeaeaaoieo
aeiiii?/ieo iioeaaoe?e oa iaeaaeii?, aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaii?
aia?aaoe/ii? iie?oeee a aa?a?i?e noa??. Caoaaaeeii, ui aiaeia?/i? a
oe?eiio i?iaeaie iaaiee /an aeieeaee ? a ?ioeo aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo
e?a?iao. Aeiaeaii eeoa, ui o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? c ieo aiie aoee
nai?/anii ae??oai?.

Aeeiai?ea i?iaeoeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a
Oe?a?i? aei ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a iaea caaaeii iiceoeaio oaiaeaioe?th (?en.
3).wmetafile8? ??·?? ???????? ???????yyy????????????
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»»»)))UUUMMMBBB999y|?yPPOe?“IiyiOeAEccOe©Iaea?eueoeie
oaiiaie c?inoaea i?iaeoeoeai?noue oaa?eiieoeoaa. Oi/a oaoiie?aoe/ia
iiaeaeue ?ioaineo?eaoe?? caiea?ianoaa ia i?ecaaea aei iaeiicia/ii
iinooiaeueiiai i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino? iniiaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, iiae?aiee ?icaeoie iaaiith i??ith
aei?aaaeaa naaa i?ioyaii ia?oeo 10-15 ?ie?a aeoeaiiai c?inoaiiy
?iaanoeoe?e o n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai. Iaaeae? ca?eueoaiiy cao?ao ia
coiiaeei ia?iuoaaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe??, a i?i?aooiee a oeueiio ieai? iaea?eueo yne?aai i?iyaeeeny c
iaeyaeo ia cia/iee iaaaoeaiee aieea iani?eyoeeaeo iiaiaeieo oiia o
ia?o?e iieiaei? 80-o ?ie?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy na?oiaiai c?inoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? oeueiai
i?ioeano iieeaaeaii a iniiao iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? iaeii/aniiai
c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? an??? aaeoc? a Oe?a?i? ca aiaeia??th c
e?a?iaie Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, /ee oa?eoi??aeueiee ?ano?n oaeiae
iaaecae/aeii iaiaaeaiee ? u?euei?noue ianaeaiiy yeeo ? oaeiae
aeinoaoiuei aenieith. Oaeee noeaia??e cia/ii a?ae??ciy?oueny,
iai?eeeaae, a?ae ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a NOA,
i?aeianaiiy yeiai aeinyaaeiny ca ?aooiie iaiaaeaii? e?eueeino? eoeueoo?
?ioaineaiiai oeio. Oea a naith /a?ao a?oiooaaeiny ianaiia?aae ia
anaa?/iiio ? cia/ii aeuiio, i?ae a Oe?a?i?, aeei?enoaii? ?ano?n?a
i?iieneiaiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Iaaii? oaaae caneoaiao? aiae?oe/ia ii??aiyiiy
iieaciee?a ?ineeiieoeoaa NOA ? Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, E?ninoaiiaeo aa?a?ieo
?aa?ii?a iaoi? aea?aeaae. Aiii aeaco? ia aeinoaoiuei iaaeeaeai?
iieacieee i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa aoaeoeaiino?, i?eiaeii? noiniaii ia?aeiii?
i?iaeoeoe??.

Iyoee ?icae?e i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iei oa i?eeeaaeiei aniaeoai
aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie c o?aooaaiiyi eiai
aia?-ai?iiino?. Aaoi?ii iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ioe?iee
?icaeoeo aaeoc? ca o?eaaeith aeeiai?eith ?? aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
(ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa cao?ao o ae?iaieoeoa?),
?ice?eaa?oueny aaiethoe?y aia?aaoeee a?o/eciyiiai n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Ii?yae c oeei, i?iaaaeaia ye?nia ioe?iea iniiaieo aoai?a
oaoiieia?/iiai aaeineiiaeaiiy aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Iieacaii, ui
o?aaeeoe?ei? oi/ee ci?o uiaei caeiiii??iinoae oeueiai i?ioeano
aeyaeeenue iaaei?aaaeaii ni?iuaieie ? a ?yae? aeiaaee?a iaaaeaeaaoieie
ae?eni?e neooaoe??. Oa?aeoa?enoeea aeine?aeaeaieo oaiaeaioe?e, ui iaee
i?noea a iaoe?iiaeueiiio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?
i?ioyaii OO noie?ooy, iaaaaeai? ia ?en.4.

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Ne???

???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E?? 
»»»)))UUUMMMBBB999y|?yPPOe?“IiyiOeAEccOe© Aiae?c
iieacaa, ui ca ia??iae 1913-1989 ??. i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? c?inea o 26 ?ac?a. I?e oeueiai c?inoaiiy
i?eiaaea? ia ae?oao iieiaeio 80-o ?ie?a. Iniiao i?ioeano aecia/eea
ia?ai???ioaoe?y aia?aaoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ia aeei?enoaiiy
oaeeo /eiiee?a, ye iaoai?caoe?y oa aeaeo?eo?eaoe?y aaeoc?.
Ooieoe?iiaeueiee aieea oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
Oe?a?ie ia eiai aoaeoeai?noue i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai aei
aenieiiaoai?ciaaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa (aai ae a?ae aia?aaoe/iiai ??aiy
oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo 40% ? aei 90% oa a?eueoa) i?ioyaii 50-80-o ?ie?a
noi?iaiaeaeoaaany i?aeaeuaiiyi canoinoaaiiy aeia?ea a?eueoa, i?ae o 20
?ac?a (c 6-8 aei 160 ea/aa N?E), ca?eueoaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino?
aa?iaeinenoai a na?aaeiueiio a 2,7 ?ace, c?inoaiiyi a?eueoa, i?ae o 3
?ace cao?ao ia iaeeieoeth ieiu? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue oa
aia?ai?iiino? iaeeieoe? ia?aeiii? i?iaeoeoe?? i?eaeecii a 1,2 ?ace,
ca?eueoaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? iaeaea o 10 ?ac?a, noaeei ciaioaiiyi
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa a na?aaeiueiio a 1,3 ?ace.

Oae? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo oaoiie?aoe/ii? iiaeae? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa aeeeoothoue iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo i?eioeeiiai iiai?
no?aoaa?? eiai ?ioaineo?eaoe??, yea ia?aaeaa/aoeia ianaiia?aae
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaeoc?, ooiaeaiaioii /iai, a naith /a?ao,
noaiooue i?eioeeiiai iia? ye?ni? ci?ie ye o oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/ieo, oae ?
a?iaeieia?/ieo iniiaao aaaeaiiy aa?a?ii? ae?yeueiino?. O ca”yceo c oeei
iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui a?aenooi?noue nai?/aniiai aeiiii?/iiai oa
aeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao ooieoe?iioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, a?aeiia?aeieo aeinoaoiuei iiaieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
noaei iaei??th ?c iniiaieo noa’?eoeaieo i?e/ei oiai, ui aa?a?ia iie?oeea
i?ioyaii 60-80-o ?ie?a ia caciaea aaeaeaaoii? ei?aeoe??, a ?iaanoeoe?? a
aa?a?i?e noa??, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?o ieoiiino?, i?iaeiaaeoaaee c?inoaoe.

Aiae?c ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyiiai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ca ia??iae
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie na?ae/eoue, ui ??cea (a 1,7 ?ace) ciaioaiiy cao?ao
o oe?e aaeoc? aiane?aeie ??ceiai iaae?iiy ianya?a aeei?enoaiiy
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea, ianoeoeeae?a, iaeueii-ianoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa
?ioeo oaoiiaaiieo ?ano?n?a i?ecaaei aei iaeaea aiaeia?/iiai ciaioaiiy
(a 1,5 ?ace) i?iaeoeoeaiino? aaeoc?, ui a iaio aeiaaeeao a?aeiia?aea?
iieacieeai 60-o ?ie?a. I?e oeueiio iaeaea aaea?/? ciaioeeanue
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?. Iaea?eueo caa?iceeaith oaiaeaioe??th ? iaae?iiy
ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ca oiia, eiee cao?aoe aeinyaee e?eoe/ii iecueeiai
??aiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo /eiiee?a iieacaa, ui
iaiaaaiiy ca?eueoeoe ae?iaieoeoai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??
aoaeue-yeith oe?iith, eiee aoaeoeai?noue caeo/aiiy oeeo ?ano?n?a acaaae?
ia a?aeanue aei oaaae, i?ecaaee aei oaeeo iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a ? yaeu,
ye iia??oaiiy iioaioe?eieo aeanoeainoae aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a uiaei
aeei?enoaiiy niiy/ii? aia?a??, ??cea ca?eueoaiiy i?ia?ae?caoe??
i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a?oio?a, aeaa?aaeaoe?y oa cieaeaiiy ?iaeth/ino?
inoaii?o.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui no?oeoo?a no/aniiai caiea?ianoaa aeicaiey?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe eeoa a?ae 45 aei 55% ?ano?no oa?eoi??? oa niiy/ii?
aia?a??, ui a 1,5-1,6 ?ace iaioa a?ae iiaeeeaiai. Aiaeii/an
ae?aeaeoe/i?noue /eiiee?a aia?aaoe/ii? aaiethoe?? aa?iaeinenoai ca oeeo
oiia noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue ? iiceoeaieie iane?aeeaie. Oae, ??cei
ca?eueoeeanue ?ioaineai?noue aeei?enoaiiy niiy/ii? aia?a?? ca ?aooiie
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ineeiieoeoaa. Aei iiceoeao i?aaii??ii
a?aeianoe oaeiae ? aoaeo cia/iiai iineaaeaiiy ui??/iiai aeao?oeeoo
i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a?oio?a o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?,
ui aoei coiiaeaii ianaiia?aae ??ceei c?inoaiiyi ianya?a canoinoaaiiy
i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea oa iaaiei i?aeaeuaiiyi o?iaeaeiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? (?en. 5). Nooo?ai ca?eueoeeanue i?e
oeueiio ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo a?oio?a.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyioo? ? iaa?oioiaai? aa?iaeieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, ae?iuoaaieo a Oe?a?i?. sse
na?ae/aoue aeai?, cao?aoe i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a, cie?aia ?ioaineai?noue
i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a?oioo i?e ae?iuoaaii? oaeeo
eoeueoo?, ye oeoe?ia? ao?yee, eoeo?oaeca, iai/?, ea?oiiey oa niiyoiee, o
2-3 ?ace ia?aaeuothoue aiaeia?/iee iieaciee i?e ae?iuoaaii?, iai?eeeaae,
ioaieoe?, y/iaith, aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ca no/anieo oiia caiea?ianoai a Oe?a?i? iineoue
yne?aai ae?aaeaio iaaaoeaio aia?aaoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue uiaei
i?aeo?eiaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo a?oio?a. Na?aaei?e ??aaiue
o?iaeaeiino? a?eueoino? i?inaiieo eoeueoo? ia ia?aaeuo? 5-7% a?ae
iaiao?aeii? aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy aacaeao?oeeoiiai aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino
a?oio?a ca ?aooiie iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aia?a?? i?aai?/ii? iane iin?a?a. Oea,
a naith /a?ao, aeiaaa? iino?eii c?inoath/iai caeo/aiiy aia?aaoe/ieo
?iaanoeoe?e i?iieneiaiai iioiaeaeaiiy aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy ?iaeth/ino?
a?oio?a, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia aeiiii?/ieo iieacieeao
ae?iaieoeoaa, a i?e a?eueo ocaaaeueiaiiio ?icaeyae? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
iacai?ioi?noue ca oaeiai ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo ciaioaiiy ?iaeth/ino?
a?oioo.

A?eueo aeaoaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ia?niaeoeae
aa?ioaoiiei-a?e (ia i?eeeaae? ae?iuoaaiiy eoeo?oaece) aecia/aoeiooueny
ianaiia?aae ii- eacieeaie aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ii? oa aeieia?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino?. ??cea aeia?aaeaeath/a ciaioaiiy ieoiiino? cao?ao
caeeoeoueny iaea?eueo e?i?ooth/ei /eiieeii ?o iaiaa?oioiaaiiai c?inoaiiy
o ae?iaieoeoa?.

A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy
aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee i?e aea/aii? oaei? aaaeeeai? i?iaeaie, ye noae?noue
aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ca iaeiinoaeiith aeoieith iaoeiaoe?a, oeae
iieaciee aoaea a iae-aooiueiio iaeiei ?c iaei??i?eoaoi?oeo. O ca’yceo c
oeei anoaiiaeai? oaiaeaioe?? uiaei ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ni?eyoeeaeo,
ii?iaeueieo oa aeno?aiaeueieo ?ie?a eieeaaiue i?iaeoeoeaiino?, ?o
caeaaeiino? a?ae aeeiai?ee cao?ao oa ye?nieo ci?i i?iaeoeoeaieo nee,
??aiy oaoi?/iiai iniauaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?. Ca an??? neeaaeiino?
i?iaiicoaaiiy oeeo iieaciee?a anoaiiaeaii cia/iee aieea ci?i
aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a aa?iaeinenoaiao ia noae?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ia iniia? aiae?co io?eiaieo aeaieo oa caeaaeiinoae ia i?eeeaae?
aaiethoe?? aa?iaeinenoai Oe?a?ie aaoi?ii aia?oa ii?aoeueiaai?
oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy i?i aeeiai?eo eieeaaiue aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Noi?ioeueiaaia oai??y “neioni?aee
aoaeoeaiino?” a?oioo?oueny ia ae?aeaeoe/iiio ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo
/eiiee?a, no?oeoo?ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ci?iao o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?, ye?ni?e aeeiai?oe?
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? iieiaeaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue noaa?e?caoe??
cao?ao ye ia?oiiniiae iiaeaeueoiai i?ia?ano aaeoc?. O ?iaio?
iaa?oioiaaia oaeiae iaiao?aei?noue oa oeyoe ??ceiai i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie a iaeaooiueiio.

A oinoiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaia iaoiaeieia?y iioei?caoe??
aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? oa aecia/ai? ia?niaeoeae eiai ?icaeoeo.
I?e oeueiio iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue oa iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? oeyoii aeinyaiaiiy aeieia?/ii? aeineiiaeino?
aa?iaeinenoai, iiceoeaiiai aaeaino a?aeoai?aiiy ?o aia?aaoe/ieo
/eiiee?a, yeiaeoe?oi? i???ioaoe?? ia ?nioth/o ?io?ano?oeoo?o oa
eaiaeoaooi? oiiae, aeaiia?ao?/iee oa oaoiieia?/iee iioaioe?ae,
iiaeeea?noue naiia?aeoai?aiiy a?eueoino? ?ano?n?a, iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia
?o aeei?enoaiiy. Iieacaii, ui i?aeianaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
Oe?a?ie a?oioo?oueny, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo e?a?i, ia aeeeth/ii
ni?eyoeeaiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. Iaeiae oea aeiaaa?
i?eioeeiiai ?ioi? o?einio?? ?o aeei?enoaiiy. I?e?iaeiee ?ano?niee
iioaioe?ae a ca’yceo c oeei ?icaeyaea?oueny ye cia/iee eiiiainoth/ee ?
noaa?e?coth/ee /eiiee o oiae? i?iaaaeaiiy aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiue ia nae?.

Iaaaaeaiee aeai?eoi iiaeaethaaiiy iioei?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee aeaoaeueiei ii?aoethaaiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo caoiae?a oa
aecia/aiiyi iniiaieo iieaciee?a ae?iaieoeoaa ia i?eeeaae? oeiiaeo
ainiiaea?noa Oa?auainueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?. ?ic?iaeaia
iiaeaeue iioeiaeue-iiai ia aeaiee /an aa??aioo aa?a?iiai
caieaei?enooaaiiy aeey ciie E?-ninoaio ? caaaeii Oe?a?ie. Iaa?ae”?iiei
? eia?/iei aoaiii iioei?caoe?? ? aeaaaeaiiy aeaa?aaeiaaieo ?
iecueeii?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu ??ee? ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue c
?ioaineaiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy oa ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa (oaae. 1).

Aaaeeeaei caoiaeii o oeueiio ieai? ne?ae aaaaeaoe ia?ai???ioaoe?th ia
ae?iuoaaiiy iaeicao?aoieo, iecueei?ano?ni- oa aia?ai?iieo eoeueoo? c
aenieei a?ieia?/iei (i?e?iaeiei) iioaioe?aeii i?iaeoeoeaiino?. Aeieiai-
aeiiii?/i? iaiaaeaiiy iioe?ththoueny i?e oeueiio noiniaii iaea?eueo
a?oioiaeniaaeeeaeo eoeueoo?, ae?iuoaaiiy yeeo iio?aao? aei oiai ae
i?aeaeuaiiai canoinoaaiiy ?ano?n?a. Aeuacacia/aia na?ae/eoue, ui
iaiao?aeii cia/ii iaiaaeeoe /anoeo i?inaiieo eoeueoo?, ianaiia?aae
oaeeo, ye oeoe?ia? ao?yee, eoeo?oaeca, niiyoiee oa ?io? ? a?aeiia?aeii
ca?eueoeoe iin?ai? ieiu? i?ae ca?iiaeie eieiniaeie eoeueoo?aie.

Oae? ci?ie aa?a?iiai caieaei?enooaaiiy oa ae?iaieoeoaa
i?ecaaaeooue, cie?aia, aei ??ceiai ciaioaiiy cao?ao i?aoe?, ianaiia?aae,
?o/ii?. Oae, o oeiiaeo ainiiaea?noaao E?ninoaio oeae iieaciee
ciaioeoueny iaeaea aaea?/?. Aaaeeeaei o ?iaio? ? aiae?c o??? ianoaaeie,
ui iiae?ai? aeieia?/i? iioeaaoe?? iathoue a?ioiao ieoii?noue o
iaeaeeae/? ?iee. I?aee?aneth?oueny iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaenii?
?aae?caoe?? aeuacacia/aieo caoiae?a.

Oaaeeoey 1 — No?oeoo?a iin?aieo ieiu a Oe?a?i?

Eoeueoo?e1996-1998 ??.2000 ?.iei. aa%iei. aa%1. Ca?iia?, anueiai,14,3
52,215,9 74,0 a o. /.: ioaieoey 6,323,0 8,037,3
y/i?iue 3,713,5 4,018,7 eoeo?oaeca 1,3 4,7 0,7 3,3
iaan 0,5 1,8 0,7 3,3 aeeoi 0,5 1,8 0,7 3,3
i?ini 0,2 0,7 0,4 1,9 a?a/ea 0,5 1,8 0,7 3,3
ca?iiaiaia? 1,3 4,7 0,7 3,32. Oaoi?/i?, anueiai, 2,0
7,3 1,3 6,1a o. /. niiyoiee 0,8 2,9 0,8 3,8 oeoe?ia? ao?yee
1,0 3,7 0,4 1,9 ?io? 0,2 0,7 0,1
0,43. Ei?iia?, anueiai,10,6 38,7 3,7 17,3a o. /. eoeo?oaeca
4,2 15,3 1,88,4 iaeii??/i? o?aae 2,4 8,8 0,41,9 aaaaoi??/i? o?aae
3,713,5 1,36,1 ei?aiaieiaee 0,3 1,1 0,20,94. Ea?oiiey, iai/?,

aaooaii?

0,5

1,8

0,5

2,3Anueiai iin?aii? ieiu?*27,4 100,021,4 100,0· — ca aeaieie ia
1998 ?. aeecueei 3 iei. aa a Oe?a?i? iacan?yi?

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeai? aeiionoei? ??ai? aio?iiioaoiiaaiieo
iaaaioaaeaiue a aa?ieaiaeoaooao Oe?a?ie. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iiaeeea?noue ?
iaiao?aei?noue a iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoeoe cao?aoe o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? a na?aaeiueiio ia 40% ii??aiyii
?c no/aniei, ui i?ecaaaea aei aeia?aaeaeath/iai i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa aeinyaiaiiy ia oe?e iniia? eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii?
aoaeoeaiino? a?o/eciyiiai aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa. O oeueiio cayceo
c?iaeaii ?ic?aooiee iioeiaeueieo e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a ? no?oeoo?e
cao?ao, yeeo ne?ae aeinyaoe o iaeaeeae/? ?iee ? ca yeeo iiaeeeaa
i?aeo?eiaiiy aeinoaoiuei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa aoaeoeaiino? aaeoc?.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia? e oa, ui cai?iiiiiaai? ci?ie aeaaeooue
iiae-eea?noue caaacia/eoe iiceoeaia a?aeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a.
Oea aoaea aeinyaiooi aia?oa ca inoaii? i?eiaei? 150-200 ?ie?a.
Caaacia/aiiy oaeiai iioaioe?aeo cao?ao aoaea nai???aeiei aeo?aeiei
noa?oiaei eai?oaeii aeey iiaeaeueoi? aeiiii?/ii oa aeieia?/ii
iaa?oioiaaii? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie, a
iniia? yei? iieyaaoeia ?aoe?iiaeueia ?ioaineaia aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a,
aeia?aaeaeath/a c?inoaiiy ?o ieoiiino?.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii?aoeueiaaia iiaeaeue a?aie/ii
aeiionoeii? ?ici?aiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue ? iane/aiino?
n?aici?i i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie. Aeaiee iieaciee ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
ooieoe?y iioaioe?aeo cao?ao o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, a eiai ci?ie
iiaeii? ei?aaoaaoeny c iaeyaeo ia iiaeeeaino? ?ano?nii-aia?aaoe/iiai
caaacia/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa. Oae, iei?, i?e e?eoe/ii iecueeeo cao?aoao o
caiea?ianoa?, oe? iieacieee ia iiaeooue ia?aaeuoaaoe a?aeiia?aeii 45 oa
10%. A ?ioiio ae ?ac?, ui ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo? no/ania i?aeoeea, oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai iia??oaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino ae?iaieoeoaa
oa cieaeaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino?. ?ic?iaeaiee aaoi?ii iioeiaeueiee aa??aio
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ia iaeaeeae/o
ia?niaeoeao iieyaa? a oiio, uia aeiaanoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiee iieaciee
?ici?aiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue o na?aaeiueiio aei 65%, a
/anoeo i?inaiieo eoeueoo? o no?oeoo?? iin?aieo ieiu — aei 20-22%.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie aei eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiiai ??aiy
a?eueoino? aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i ca oiiae iaiaaeaiiai
aia?ai?ano?niiai caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeeeaa eeoa
oeyoii ii?aoethaaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii?
iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia noai?aiiy aenii?oiiai i?iaeiaieue/iai oiiaeo.
Oaea no?aoaa?y aacoaaoeiaoueny ia i??i?eoaoiiio ca?eueoaii?
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeiaieue/iai e ei?iiaiai ca?ia. A ?acoeueoao?
aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?ii ii?aoeueiaaia a?aeiia?aeia eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ia ia??iae aei 2010 ?. I?aaenoaaeaia iiaeaeue
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa iaea?eueo iioeiaeueii ii?aeio?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeiiii?/ieo ? aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a ? aeinoaoiuei iiaii
a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai noaeiai ?icaeoeo ye i??i?eoaoiiai iai?yieo
na?oiaiai i?ia?ano (oaae. 2)

I?aeianaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie a OO? no. aoaea
coiiaethaaoenue ianaiia?aae i?eioeeiiaeie iiaiaaaaeaiiyie, a naia:
ye?nii iiaei ??aiai ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/eo /eiiee?a ? a?aeiinei, a ia
c?inoaiiyi aeieia?/ii iaaacia/iiai ? aeiiii?/ii iaaoaeoeaiiai
oaoiiaaiiiai iioaioe?aeo.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Aeiiii?/i? oa aeieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee

n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie

Iieacieee1986-1990 ??.1995-1997 ??.I?iaeoAia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue,
a?aeiini? iaeeieoe?1,61,92,3Aia?aaoe/i? cao?aoe,

oen. IAeae/aa n?eueainioa?aeue40,022,035,0I?iaeoeoeai?noue,

oen. IAeae/aa n?eueainioa?aeue65,042,080,0A?ioia? cao?aoe,
a?i./aa1720*680500?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa, %caeoeiaa*iaaeeaeaia
aei caeoeiaiai40-60A?aeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oiooaeao?oeeo aeecueei
17%aeao?oeeo aeecueei 55%iiceoeaia 105-110%Eiao?oe??io aeieia?/ii?
no?eeino? oa?eoi???0,660,670,75Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy niiy/ii?
?aae?aoe??

(eeae OA?), %1,00,71,3I?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?,

a?aeiini? iaeeieoe?240150400Cao?aoe i?aoe?,

ethae.-aiae./aa n?eueainioa?aeue46,040,025,0 * — a oe?iao ia
na?aaeeio 1998 ?.

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia no?aoaa?y ?ioaineo?eaoe?? a?o/eciyiiai
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Aiia iieyaa? a iinooiia?e ia?ai???ioaoe?? ia
?i-oaeaeooaeuei? /eiieee ?ioaineo?eaoe??, noaa?e?caoe?? aia?aaoe/ieo
aeeaaeaiue o ae?iaieoeoai, ca?eueoaii? cao?ao ia iaoei?ii? ?ic?iaee, a
oaeiae o i?aeaeuaii? ?ie? ethaeeie ye ae??oaeueiiai oaeoi?o ? iaoe
ae?iaieoeoaa. C ?ioiai aieo, naia ca?eueoaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ?iaanoeoe?e
aaciina?aaeiuei a a?ieia?/i? oa aeieia?/i? iniiae aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aeanoue iiaeeea?noue iaaeeceoenue aei iaeneiaeueii? ?aae?caoe??
iioaioe?aeo oa?eoi??? ? /ano, iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?
a?aeoai?thaaoe aia?ai?ano?ni? /eiieee, ui i?eioeeiiai aecia/aoeia
nooi?noue ? ia?niaeoeae aeaiiai i?ioeano.

AENIIAEE

1. Ni?yiiaai?noue oa ?ioaineai?noue o?ainoi?iaoe??
aia?aaoe/ieo iioie?a aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai ? i?e?iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy a
i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ?
aecia/aeueieie /eiieeaie aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aa?iaeinenoai.

2. Caaacia/aiiy c?inoath/eo i?iaeiaieue/eo iio?aa noni?euenoaa aeiaaa?
iioeiaeueiiai ae??oaiiy neeaaeieo aeiiii?/ieo, aeieia?/ieo oa
aia?aaoe/ieo i?iaeai ?icaeoeo aa?a?ii? noa?e. ?noioia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie a iei?oi?o oiiaao
iaiiaeeeaa aiane?aeie ae?? oe?eiai ?yaeo iani?eyoeeaeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a, nenoaiii? e?ece a
aeiiii?oe? ? noni?euenoa?, yea ana ua ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei iiaeeaeaiiy,
a oaeiae /a?ac a?aenooi?noue oe?eani?yiiaaii? aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii?
iie?oeee. Ana oea, ?acii acyoa, i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeniaaeaiiy e
aeaa?aaeaoe?? i?e?iaeieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ano?n?a, iaae?iiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino?, a a?aeoae ? aoaeoeaiino? aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

3. Ia?oa cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie i?eiaei ia ia??iae i?ney ?aoi?ie 1861 ?. ? aoea
iia’ycaia c ?icaeoeii ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? ?icoe?aiiyi oa?eoi??aeueieo
iaae caiea?ianoaa. Inoaii? ae/a?iaei na?e iioaioe?ae aei ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy. Nooo?a? ci?ie a aa?a?iiio ae?iaieoeoa? a oeae /an, cie?aia,
c?inoaiiy o?iaeaeiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, a?aeaoaaeeny ca oiia iiaeaeueoiai ??ceiai
c?inoaiiy /enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy. Oea noaei iaeiei c iniiaieo /eiiee?a
iiooeo iiaeo, a?eueo ?ioaineaieo oi?i n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?.

Ae?oaa oaeey i?aeianaiiy aaeoc? noaea ?acoeueoaoii
“noieei?inueeeo” ?aoi?i, a oaeiae caaaeueiiai i?aeianaiiy aeiiii?ee
?in?enueei? ?iia??? ia ii/aoeo iioi/iiai noie?ooy. A oeae ia??iae
aeoeaio ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaee oae? i?ioeane, ye oi?ioaaiiy eeano
naeyi-caieaaeaniee?a, noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai oa iaoeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

*?oea ? iine?aeiaia ia?ai???ioaoe?y a?o/eciyiiai n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ia ia?aaaaeath/ee ?icaeoie ?ineeiieoeoaa ii??aiyii c
oaa?eiieoeoaii a?aeaoeanue aieiaiei /eiii a inoaii? 150-200 ?ie?a.
Cia/ia aeniain?y aa?a?ii? i?iaeoeoe??, ae?iaeaii? a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae
aeineoue aoaeoeaia ?ioaa?aoe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa aei na?oiaiai aa?ii?iaeiaieue/iai ?eieo noaee iiaeeeaeie
caaaeyee ia?iuoaaiith ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia.

4. Aia?aaoe/iee ?icaeoie aa?a?ii? noa?e a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaaany c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? ca
aiaeia?/ieie oaiaeaioe?yie a aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao na?oo.
Aeeiai?ea aio?iiioaoiiaaiieo cao?ao coiiaethaaeanue ia’?eoeaieie oa
noa’?eoeaieie /eiieeaie, cae?enithaaiith iie?oeeith oa noaiii aeiiii?ee
ia eiaeiiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai?. Oae, c na?aaeeie 50-o ?ie?a iei?oiueiai
noie?ooy a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? aeoeaii a?aeaoaaany i?ioean
c?inoaiiy cao?ao aiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy canoinoaaiiy aeei?enoaiiy
cania?a iaoai?caoe??, a a?aeoae — ? iaeueii-ianoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a,
ae?iaieoeoaa ? canoinoaaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea ? iae?i?aio?a,
i?enei?aieo oaii?a o?i?caoe??, aeaeo?eo?eaoe??, aoae?aieoeoaa nii?oae
ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy, aeeth/ath/e e ???eaaoe?eii-iae?i?aoeaia
aoae?aieoeoai.

5. Caaaeii oaoiiaaiiee aoai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
i?ioiaeea ca aecia/aeueii? ?ie? aeei?enoaiiy iaiiiiaethaaieo
aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a i?iieneiaiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Aei aieiaieo
iane?aee?a oaeiai iai?yio ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa ne?ae
a?aeianoe oaeiae ci?ie oa?aeoa?o oi?aae?iiy a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?, a naia: ia?ao?ae a?ae aeei?enoaiiy aeieia?/ieo
aeanoeainoae aenoaineaieo aa?iaeinenoai aei aeoeaiiai aieeao ia
ae?iaie/i-a?aeoai?thaaeuei? i?ioeane i?e ?ioaineaieo nenoaiao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

6. ??aaiue aia?aaoe/ii? aeoeaiino? noni?euenoaa a aa?ieaiaeoaooao
iaa aecia/aeueiee aieea ia ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue. I?e oeueiio, a naith
/a?ao, i?ioy-aii ae?oai? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy naia oaoiiaaii? oaeoi?e
?ioaineo?eaoe?? coiiaethaaee oa?aeoa? aeaii? caeaaeiino?. C?inoaiiy
caaaeueieo aio?iiioaoiiaaiieo cao?ao a aa?a?iiio ae?iaieoeoa? c 11 oen.
IAeae ia 1 aa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue i?e iaiaoai?ciaaiiio
aenoaineaiiio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? a 10-20 ?ieao
OO noie?ooy aei 40 oen. IAeae/aa o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 80-o ?ie?a
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue a?aeiia?aeiei ca?eueoaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? aaeoc? —
c 19 oen. aei 67 oen. IAeae/aa. Naia a oeae /an aoei aeinyaiooi
iaeaeuiai ??aiy ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aa?a?ii? noa?e, ui aea? i?aenoaae
?aeaioeo?eoaaoe oeae ia??iae ye aena?a?/iee noai aia?aieiiaa?n?? a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa aa?a?ieo ?aa?ii?a E?ninoaio
(Oiainueeiai ?aeiio *a?eanueei? iaeano?) o ae?oa?e iieiaei? noie?ooy
aecia/eea c?inoaiiy eiai i?iaeoeoeaiino? a?eueoa, i?ae oaea?/?: c ??aiy
iecueeiiaoai?ciaaiiai, aenieii?aoeacao?aoiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a na?aaeei?
50-o ?ie?a — 48 oen. IAeae/aa aei 106 oen. IAeae/aa — iaea?eueoiai
iieacieea i?iaeoeoeaiino?, aeinyaiooiai i?ioyaii 1987-1990 ??.

7. Oaoiie?aoe/ia iiaeaeue ?ioaineo?eaoe?? caiea?ianoaa aecia/eea
aeineoue ??ci? oaiie c?inoaiiy o?iaeaeiino? iniiaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Noiniaii a?eueoino? c ieo ne?ae
eiinoaooaaoe ae/a?iaiiy iioaioe?aeo i?iaeoeoeaiino? ca aeaieo oiia
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai oa iaoeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, a
oaeiae ca ?nioth/eo nenoaiieo aeieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a ? a?aeiia?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo iioeaaoe?e. Oeae ia??iae
i?eiaaea? ia 70-o? ?iee. Iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy noeoiieo aia?aaoe/ieo
cao?ao i?ecaaei aei aenieiai ? noaa?eueiiai ??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
caiea?ianoaa a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 80-o ?ie?a, i?ioa ia coiiaeei
iiaeaeueoiai caaaeueiiai ca?eueoaiiy. Aiaeii/ac iiae?ai? ci?ie
aio?iiioaoiiaaiii? ae?yeueiino? aeyaeeenue iani?iiiaeieie onoiooe aai
oi/a a ?noioii ciaioeoe iaaaoeaiee aieea iani?eyoeeaeo iiaiaeieo oiia
ia?oi? iieiaeie 80-o ?ie?a ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

8. Aeeiai?ea aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aio?iiioaoiiaaiieo cao?ao
a aa?a?iiio ae?iaieoeoa? Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii OO noie?ooy oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue
neeaaeieie, iaaeeaeaieie aei neioni?aeieo caeaaeiinoae,
caeiiii??iinoyie. N?euenueea ainiiaea?noai aenoaineaiiai oeio,
aia?aaoe/iith iniiaith ae?iaie/i? aeiyeueiinoi yeiai ? i?aoey ethaeae oa
aeei?enoaiiy oyaeiai? ooaeiae, iaei iaeiaioo aia?aaoe/io aiaeaea/o
oaoiieiai/ieo cao?ao. Iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy aia?aia?aeaea/? aoee
aeinyaioo? a ia??iae iaoaiicaoei? iniiaieo o?oaeii?noeeo ae?iaie/eo
i?ioeania o ?ineeiieoeoa? a e?ioe? 50-o — ia ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a
iioi/iiai noie?ooy. Iiaeaeueoa eiai iioaineoieaoeiy iaeii/anii ?c
c?inoaiiyi cao?ao coiiaeee noaea ciaioaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi ae?iaieoeoaa.
Caaaeii aiaeia?/i? caeaaeiino? aoee anoaiiaeai? a?aeiinii aeeiai?ee
aeeoa?aioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino? noeoiieo aia?aaoe/ieo cao?ao.
A?aenooi?noue oaiaeaioe?? uiaei a?eueo ?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a noaea iaeiei c iaea?eueo nooo?aeo i?i?aooie?a
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee a oeae ia??iae. Cia/ia c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe? a?aeaoaaeiny ca oiia iaae?iiy oaii?a ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, ui, i?e iacaaeiaieaii? iiieoo ia
oeth i?iaeoeoe?th, ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe iiceoeaiith oaiaeaioe??th.

9. No?oeoo?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a Oe?a?ie uiaei iioaioe?eieo
iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy niiy/ii? aia?a?? ?noioii iia??oeeenue
i?ioyaii ia?oi? iieiaeie iei?oiueiai noie?ooy. A iiaeaeueoiio oe?
oaiaeaioe?? aoee caaaeii a?eueo eiina?aaoeaieie. Aieiaiith iciaeith
ci?i, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO noie?ooy, ne?ae aaaaeaoe
ye?nio o?ainoi?iaoe?th aia?aaoeee ?ineeiieoeoaa, yea i?ecaaea aei
??ceiai i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy niiy/ii? aia?a??.
Iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy inoaiiuei? aoei aeinyaioo? ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a
ca ?aooiie c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? caiea?ianoaa, ui iiaeia a?aeianoe
aei aaciina?aaeiueiai ?acoeueoaoo ca?eue-oaiiy ??aiy eiai oaoi?/iiai
iniauaiiy.

10. Oaiaeaioe?y aei ciaioaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo a?oio?a a
aa?iaeinenoaiao ? iaeiei c iniiaieo i?ioe??/ ?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe??
i?ioyaii O?O-OO noie?oue. No?oeoo?a oa ?ioaineai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeueieo ?a-no?n?a o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie coiiaeee
iino?eiee cia/iee aeenaaeain i?ae cao?aoieie ? a?aeoai?thaaeueieie
aia?aaoe/ieie /eiieeaie, ui a naith /a?ao i?ecaaei aei cieaeaiiy
a?aeoai?aiiy iioaioe?aeo ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a. Oaoiiaaiiee oa?aeoa?
?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa i?eca?a aei c?inoaiiy
i?ia?ae?caoe?? a?oio?a, yea aeinyaea iaeneioio a na?aaeeie 50-o ?ie?a,
a a?aeoae — ? aei iaae?iiy ?o i?e?iaeii? ?iaeth/ino?. Iaeiae, iiaeaeueo?
iiceoeai? ci?ie uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy oa
a?aeoai?aiiy aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo a?oio?a aoee coiiaeai?
c?inoaiiyi ??aiy aio?iiioaoiiaaiieo cao?ao ? oaoiieia?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy, canoinoaaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea ? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
aaeoc?.

11. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie c ii/aoeo
noie?ooy ? aei ae?oai? iieiaeie 80-o ?ie?a (ii??aiyii c 1913 ?.)
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue ca?eueoaiiyi /enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy o 1,5 ?ace,
?ici?aiino? oa?eoi??? — iaeaea a 1,4; aeei?enoaiiy aia?a??
aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy — iaeaea a 4, caaaeueii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? — a 3,6, u?eueiino? ? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?eiieoeoaa
a?aeiia?aeii a 2 oa 5,5, i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? — a?eueo, i?ae o 26,
/anoee i?inaiieo eoeueoo? (? /i?ieo ia??a) — o 5, ?ioaineaiino?
i?ia?ae?caoe?? aoiono a?oioo — a 1,8, eiai a?aeiiaeaiiy — a 3,1,
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy niiy/ii? aia?a?? — a 4 ?ace. Aeieeee oae?
neeaaeia? oaoiieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy aaeoc?, ye ?? iaoai?caoe?y,
o?i?caoe?y, aeaeo?eo?eaoe?y. Ieiua n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue ca
oeae /an ciaioeeanue ia 7%. Aia?ai?ii?noue ia?aeiii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? i?e oeueiio i?aeoe/ii ia
ci?ieeanue

12. Aia?aaoe/ia nooi?noue e?ece 90-o ?ie?a o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
Oe?a?ie iieyaa? ianaiia?aae o ??ceiio — a 1,7 ?ace — ciaioaii? cao?ao a
aaeoc? ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea,
ianoeoeeae?a, iaeueii-ianoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?ioeo oaoiiaaiieo
?ano?n?a. Oea i?ecaaei aei cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa a 1,5 ?ace. Ocaaaeueiai? iieacieee a iaio aeiaaeeao
ciaioeeenue aei ??aiy e?ioey 60-o ?ie?a. I?e oeueiio iaeaea aaea?/?
aiaea i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?. Iniaeeai iani?eyoeeaee noai neeaany a
oae?e aeiiii?/ii a?aceea?e aaeoc?, ye oaa?eiieoeoai. E??i oeueiai, ??cei
caaino?th?oueny i?iaeaia a?aeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a. Ca iaci?iii?
neooaoe?? i?iaiice ?icaeoeo aaeoc? iiaeooue aooe iaaecae/aeii
iaao?oieie.

13. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a Oe?a?i? aoaea
coiiaethaaoenue ianaiia?aae aeiiii?/ieie e aeieia?/ieie iiaeeeainoyie oa
iioeaaoe?yie a aa?a?i?e noa??. Aenieee ??aaiue cao?ao o no/aniiio
aa-?a?iiio ae?iaieoeoa? ia? cia/ii iaioo ia?niaeoeai?noue o ca’yceo c
??ceei cieaeaiiyi ?o aoaeoeaiino?. Aeooaeueiei ? yeiaeoe?oa aeei?enoaiiy
iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaea?ae i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea. AEi?noeith aeiiaith
canoinoaaiiy aoaeue-yei? oaoiieia?? iiaeiia noaoe iaiao?aei?noue
aeinyaiaiiy noaeiai iiceoeaiiai a?aeoai?aiiy aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo
a?oio?a.

14. Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aa?a?iiai naeoi?a Oe?a?ie iieyaathoue o cai?i?
i?ia?aeieo oaoiiaaiieo e?euee?nieo ye?nieie, ?ioaeaeooaeueieie /eiieeaie
?ioaineo?eaoe??, noaa?e?caoe?? aia?aaoe/ieo ?iaanoeoe?e o n?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai oa ca?eueoaii? /anoee cao?ao ia iaoei?ii? ?ic?iaee, a
oaeiae o i?aeaeuaii? ?ie? ethaeeie ye aecia/aeueiiai /eiieea e iaoe
ae?iaieoeoaa. C ?ioiai aieo, ia?niaeoeaiei ne?ae aaaaeaoe ca?eueoaiiy
cao?ao naia a aeieiai-a?ieia?/io iniiao ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a, ui aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue ?noioii i?aeaeueoe ye i?iaeoeoeai?noue, oae ? aoaeoeai?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aa?iaeinenoai. Ia»?eoeaiith ia?aaeoiiaith oaeeo ci?i
iiaeiii noaoe noai?aiiy iaa?oioiaaii? no?oeoo?e ? ianya?a cao?ao, ye?
a?aeiia?aeaee a ??aith aeiiii?/iiai ? iaoeiai-?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa oa aoee ni?iiiaei? caaacia/eoe i?iaeiaieue/o aaciaeo
e?a?ie. Ca oiiae noai?aiiy aoaeoeaiiai iioeaaoe?eiiai aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio ainiiaea?thaaiiy oea i?ecaaaea aei ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy cao?ao
aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy a na?aaeiueiio ia 40% ii??aiyii c
iei?oi?i.

I?IIICEOe?? UIAeI I?AEOE*IIAI AEEI?ENOAIIss

?ACOEUeOAO?A AeINE?AeAEAIIss

A no/anieo oiiaao cae?eniaiiy aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie iioei?caoe?y
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai caieaei?enooaaiiy, no?oeoo?e ae?iaieoeoaa oa
iaiaaeaiiai ?ano?ni-oaoiieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ? iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeie,
?aaeueieie ? aeaoaaeie caoiaeaie oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth a?oio?a,
noae?noth, i?iaeoeoeai?noth oa aoaeoeai?noth n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aeae-uaiiyi ??aiy eiai aeieia?/ii? aaciaee. Aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeueii-oao-i?/ieo, aia?aaoe/ieo oa o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aeioe?eueii
neiioeaio?oaaoe ia aeieia?/ii no?eeeo ? ?iaeth/eo caieyo aeey oiai, uia
?noioii i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ? eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue a?o/eciyiiai
n?euenueeiai ainii-aea?noaa.

C oe??th iaoith iaiao?aeii a iaeaeeae/?e ia?niaeoea? cae?enieoe
oae? caoiaee:

1. ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y (?aiaoo?ae?caoe?y) aa?a?iiai caieaei?enooaaiiy.

Iniiao ci?i noaiiaeoue aaeaioaoe?y caieaei?enooaaiiy aei
?aeue?oieo oa a?oioiaeo iniaeeainoae eaiaeoaoo?a, i?iaaaeaiiy
oii?yaeeoaaiiy aiaeiioi?iiii? ciie oiui. Caaaeii ne?ae ciaioeoe
?ici?ai?noue caiaeueiiai oiiaeo ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue,
iaiaaeeaoe ?o ??aaiue a Oe?a?i? caaaeii a?aeiia?aeii 40 ? 65%, a o. /. a
E?ninoaio — 60% ? 80%. Iio??aii aeinyaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?e?iaeieo, a
o./. i?e?iaeieo ei?iiaeo oa?aeue aei i?ieo caiaeue a Oe?a?i? a?ae 1:1,8
aei 1:1,1. A cii? E?ninoaio ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oa?eoi??? aaciina?aaeiueiai
i?iaeeaaiiy ianaeaiiy, i?e?iaeieo, a o./. i?e?iaeieo ei?iiaeo oa?aeue, a
oaeiae i?ieo caiaeue aeiaanoe a?aeiia?aeii aei ni?aa?aeiioaiiy 1:2:4.
Oea aeiaaaoeia aeaaaeaiiy c ??ee? caaaeii ii Oe?a?i? aei 9 iei. aa.
Cie?aia, 4,7 iei. aa c oe??? ieiu? iathoue aooe ia?aaaaeai? a
i?e?iaeiioi?iii? ciie, a 4,3 iei. aa ne?ae o?ainoi?ioaaoe a n?iiaeao? ?
ianiaeua. Iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe ieiu? e?n?a o 1,5 ?ace, n?iiaeaoae ?
ianiaeu — o 1,6 ?ace.

2. Ci?ie a no?oeoo?? aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iniiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith oeeo ci?i ia? aooe anaa?/ia
aaeaioaoe?y n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aei aeiiii?/ieo, aeieia?/ieo oa
aia?aaoe/ieo iaiaaeaiue ? iioeaaoe?e aeey oiai, uia ae?iaeyoe
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th.

A i?aeoe/iiio ieai? a ca’yceo c oeei iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe /anoeo
ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? o iin?aieo ieiuao caaaeii ii Oe?a?i? aei 72-75%,
ianaiia?aae ca ?aooiie eieiniaeo eoeueoo?, iaiaaeeaoe /anoeo i?inaiieo
eoeueoo? aei 20-22%. A E?ninoaiia?e cii? ne?ae aeiaanoe /anoeo ca?iiaeo
eieiniaeo ? ca?iiaiaiaeo eoeueoo? o no?oeoo?? iin?aieo ieiu aei 60-70%,
a oaoi?/ieo — iaeneioi aei 12%, a o./. oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a — aei 10%. O
oe?eiio a oe?e cii? i?inaii? eoeueoo?e ia iiaeii? ia?aaeuoaaoe 25% ieiu?
i?ieo caiaeue. Aiaeii/ac aeioe?eueii aeiaanoe ieiu? i?neyaeieaieo oa
i?neyoe?nieo iin?a?a, a o. /. neaea?ao?a, aei 25-30% ??ee?.

AEi?noeith e iaia”yceiaith aeiiaith an?o aa?ioaoiieia?e ia? noaoe
caaacia/aiiy noaeiai ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo
a?oio?a. I?e oeueiio ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia iaioa 40% ianya?a iia?/ii?
i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa ye i?aai?/iiai aeia?eaa, caaacia/eaoe eiai
/anoeo a caaaeueiiio aaeain? aia?aaoe/iiai a?aeoai?aiiy iioaioe?aeo
?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a aei 5-10%.

4. I??i?eoaoiee ?icaeoie ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

?ic?iaeoe ? cae?enieoe Iaoe?iiaeueio i?ia?aio ?icaeoeo
ca?iiaiai ain-iiaea?noaa a Oe?a?i? ye i??i?eoaoii? aaeoc? ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa ia ia??iae aei 2010 ?. Iine?aeiaia ?aae?caoe?y caoiae?a
uiaei ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oa ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa
aeanoue iiaeeea?noue aeiaanoe a ia?niaeoea? aei 2010 ?. na?aaeiuei??/i?
aaeia? cai?e ca?ia aei 75-80 iei. o.

5. Iineeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca aoaeoeai?noth
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

C iaoith ia’?eoeaii? oa nai?/anii? ioe?iee ?aaeueiiai noaio a
ia?iae-iiio ainiiaea?noa?, cie?aia, a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?,
iaiao?aeii noai?eoe Neoaeao no?aoaa?/iiai aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, ooieoe?? yei? iieyaaoeiooue o iii?oi?eiao,
aiae?c? oa ieaioaaii? aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??.

Iaiao?aeiei oaeiae ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?icoe-?aiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. C oe??th
iaoith a a?cian-ieaiao aai ae ?ioeo ia?niaeoeaieo ieaiao ?icaeoeo
noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy iaia’yceiaei ia? aooe ieaioaaiiy
iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie a?aeiia?aeieo caoiae?a. ?o caoaa?aeaeaiiy oa
eiio?ieue ca iaooeeueiei aeeiiaiiyi a aa?ioaoiieia?yo iiaeii?
cae?enithaaoeny i?e?iaeiioi?iiieie neoaeaaie i?noeaai? aeaaee.

NIENIE INIIAIEO IOAE?EAOe?E CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Anueiai ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 40 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
caaaeueiei ianyaii 45,5 ae.a?e.

Iiiia?ao??

1. Ii?ic I.A. Aia?aaoe/ia aaiethoe?y n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
Oe?a?ie.- E.: ?AA OAAI, “A?IIE”, 1997.- 263 n.

2. Ii?ic I.A., Ii?ic I.I., ?iaaeuenueeee N.A., Ii?iciaa N.A. Oai??y
eieeaaiue aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aa?iaeinenoai // Ca ?aae
I.A.Ii?ica.- A?iieoey: ?aciiain, 1998. — 294 n. (a o./. aaoi?a n. 1-119,
145-218, 265-294).

Noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

3. Ii?ic I.A., Ii?ic I.I. Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aio?iiiaaiii?
aia?a?? a aa?inenoaiao Oe?a?ie // Aeiiii?ea AIE.- 1995.- ?6.- N. 45-52,
a o./. aaoi?a — n. 46-52.

4. Ii?ic I.A., I?aeaai?iaeoeaa ?.I., Aaa?eo A.I., Ieoaeeia A.I.
Aoaeoeai?noue oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy eoeo?oaece o i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao
E?ninoaio // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. — 1997.- ?11.- N. 13-18, a o. /.
aaoi?a — n. 13-17.

5. Ii?ic I.A. Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?: ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c // Aeiiii?ea AIE.-
1997.- ?11.- N. 60-66.

6. Ii?ic I.A. Noae?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa //
Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie.- 1998.- ?3.- N. 78-83.

7. Ii?ic I.A. Aeeiai?ea aeiiii?/ii? ?iaeth/ino? aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a Oe?a?ie
// Aa?i?ieii. — 1998.- ?3-4.- N. 23-26.

8. Ii?ic I.A. Aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea i?ia?aneaiino? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie // Aeiiii?ea AIE.- 1998.- ?7.-
N.34-38.

9. Ii?ic I.A. Aa?ieaiaeoaooe Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae aeiiii?/ii?
?iaeth/ino? // Athe. ?inoeoooo n.-a. i?e?ia?ieia??.- *a?i?a?a, 1998.-
?2.- N. 18-21.

10. Ii?ic I.A. I?eioeeie iiaoaeiae ? ia?aiao?e iioei?ciaaii? iiaeae?
caieaei?enooaaiiy a aa?ieaiaeoaooao E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie // Aa?io?i?y ?
a?oioiciaanoai / i?aea?aeii/ee oai.iaoe.ca. — Oa?e?a, 1998. — N.
196-197.

11. Ii?ic I.A., Aaa?eo A.I., Noeoaiia A.O. Aeieiai-aa?iiii?/i? aniaeoe
ae?iuoaaiiy eoeo?oaece a oiiaao i?ai?/iiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie // Athe.
?i-oo eoeo?oaece. Aei.77.- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1993.- N. 41-42, a o./.
aaoi?a n. 41.

12. Ii?ic I.A., I?aeaai?iaeoeaa ?.I., Aaa?eo A.I. Aieea ?ioaineo?eaoe??
oa a?ieia?caoe?? ia o?iaeae ca?ia eoeo?oaece ? eiai aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea
// Caiea?ianoai / I?aea?aeii/ee oai. iaoe. ca.- Aei. 69.- *aaaie, 1994.-
N. 38-40, a o./. aaoi?a — n. 38-390,3 ae.a?.

13. Ii?ic I.A. Aia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue aio?iiiaaiieo aeo?ao a
i?ioean? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oeiiaeo ae?iaie/eo aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie AIE Ea?iao / I?aea?aeii/ee oai. iaoe. ca.- Aei.5.-
A.Aaeoa, 1996.- N. 32-37.

14. Ii?ic I.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?aiianiiai?io ye iieacieea
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aa?iaeinenoaie // Aeieia?y Iie?nny: i?iaeaie,
no/ani?noue, iaeaooi? / Iaoa?. i?aeia?. iaoe. eiio. — Oa?e?a-Eooeuee,
1993. — N. 6-9.

15. Ii?ic I.A. Aeieiai-aia?aaoe/iee aiae?c oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy
eoeo?oaece // Iaoa?. IV c?caeo a?oioiciaaoe?a oa aa?io?i?e?a Oe?a?ie. —
Oa?e?a, 1994. — N. 48-49.

16. Ii?ic I.A., ?iaaeueneee N.A., Ii?ic A.A. Yeieiai-yia?aaoe/aneea
iniiau iioeiecaoeee nia?aiaiiuo aa?ieaiaeoaooia Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu //
I?iaeaiu eniieueciaaiey caiee a oneiaeyo ?aoi?ie?iaaiey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaaaeaiey caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu /
Iaoa?.iaaeaeoia?.iao/.eiio.- Eeaa-*aaaiu, 1995.- N.126-128, a o./.
aaoi?a n.126-127.

17. Ii?ic I.A. Aoaeoeai?noue aia?aiaeei?enoaiiy a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie // ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ? ioi?iia caiaeueieo
?ano?n?a / Iaoa?. i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?ae. eiio.-Ee?a, 1994. — N.45-47.

18. Ii?ic I.A. Iioei?caoe?y aa?a?iiai caieaei?enooaaiiy a eaiaeoaooao
E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy caa?aaeaiiy ? a?aeiiaeaiiy
noaiiaeo aeinenoai / Iaoa? i?aeia?. iaoe. eiio. — Aneai?y-Iiaa, 1998. —
N. 340-342.

Ii?ic I.A. Aia?aiaeei?enoaiiy a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
Oe?a?ie (iaoiaeieia?y, aeeiai?ea, iioei?caoe?y). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.02 — Aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
? AIE.- ?inoeooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI, Ee?a, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino?
aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo ?ioaineo?eaoe?? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie. Noi?ioeueiaaii oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa
i?eeeaaei? iieiaeaiiy eiiieaenii? ioe?iee aoae-oeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aa?iaeinenoai ca aia?aaoe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoe-eaie aeei?enoaiiy
aa?i?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo, a oaeiae i?iaiae?ciaaii
?n-oi?eei-aeaiia?ao?/i? /eiieee aia?aaoe/ii? aaiethoe?? a?o/eciyieo
aa?i-eaiaeoaoo?a. ?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
?ioaineo?eaoe??, aoae-oeaiino? oa aeieia?/ii? aaciaee n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Iaa?oioiaaii e?eoa???, caaaeaiiy, iai?yie oa iaoiaee
aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ii? iioei?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa Oe?a?ie a oiiaao cae?eniaiiy aa?a?ii? oa caiaeueii?
?aoi?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai,
aia?aiaeei?en-oaiiy, aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo, aoaeoeai?noue, ?ioaineo?eaoe?y,
iioei?caoe?y.

Ii?ic I.A. Eniieueciaaiea yia?aee a naeueneii oicyenoaa Oe?aeiu
(iaoiaeieiaey, aeeiaieea, iioeiecaoeey).- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.02 — Yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e
AIE.- Einoeooo aa?a?iie yeiiiieee, Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeiaaiu caeiiiia?iinoe
yeiiiieei-yia?aa-oe/aneiai ?acaeoey eioaineoeeaoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa
Oe?aeiu. Noi?-ioee?iaaiu oai?aoe/aneea, iaoiaee/aneea e i?eeeaaeiua
iieiaeaiey eiii-eaeniie ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
aa?iyeinenoai ii eo yia?aaoe/aneei oa?aeoa?enoeeai eniieueciaaiey
aa?i?ano?niiai iioai-oeeaea, a oaeaea i?iaiaeece?iaaiu
enoi?eei-aeaiia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u yia?aaoe/aneie yaiethoeee
iaoeeiiaeueiuo aa?ieaiaeoaooia. ?ac?aaioaia eiioeaioeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy
eioaineoeeaoeee, yooaeoeaiinoe e yeiei-ae/aneie aaciianiinoe naeueneiai
oicyenoaa. Iainiiaaiu e?eoa?ee, caaea-iey, iai?aaeaiey e iaoiaeu
yeiiiieei-yeieiae/aneie iioeiecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa Oe?aeiu a oneiaeyo i?iaaaeaiey aa?a?iie e caiaeueiie
?aoi?iu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai,
eniieueciaaiea yia?aee, aeeiaieea ?acaeoey, yooaeoeaiinoue,
eioaineoeeaoeey, iioeieca-oeey.

Moroz O.V. Uses of energy in agriculture of the Ukraint
(methodology, dynamic, optimization).- Manuscript.

The thesis is submitted for the Scientific Degree of Doctor of
Economic Sciences of the speciality 08.07.02. — Economics of
Agricultural and A?N- Institute of Agricultural Economics of Ukrainian
Academy of Agricultural Sciencis, Kyiv,. 1998.

In the dissertation regularities of economic-energetic development
of Ukrainian agriculture are studied. Theoretical, methodical, and
applied propositions are formulated on the integrated estimation of
agroecosystems efficiency by the energetic characteristics of their
potential agronomic resources usage. Besides, historical-demographic
factors of energetic evolution of nationfl landscapes are analyzed.
Concept is developed of agriculture intensification, efficiency, and
ecological safety increase. Criteria, objectives, directions, and
methods are substantiated for agricultural production in the Ukraine
optimization in the conditions of agriculture and land reformation.

Key words: agricultural production, energy uses, development
dynamic, efficiency, intensification, optimization.

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