Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

A??IEE Einoyioei Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 577.32

AIA?AAOE*I? ? AeEIAI?*I? OA?AEOA?ENOEEE

NENOAIE AeIE-AIAeA

03.00.02 – a?io?ceea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999 Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ?aae?io?ceee oa aeaeo?ii?ee ?i. I.ss.
Oneeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iae??a Aieiaeeie? sseiae/,

?inoeooo ?aae?io?ceee oa aeaeo?ii?ee ?i. I.ss. Oneeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/

a?aeae?eo a?io?ceee (i. Oa?e?a).

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeeiaio Eaii?ae Iaoiiae/,

Naaanoiiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?

(i. Naaanoiiieue);

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Ni?ie?i A?eoi? Ieaenaiae?iae/, O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?

?i. A.?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo

iieaeoey?ii? a?io?ceee (i. Oa?e?a).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «29» ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 16-30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.13 o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio

oi?aa?neoao?, 310077, i. Oa?e?a, ie. Naiaiaee, 4, aoae. 7-4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe?

Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo: 310077, i. Oa?e?a, ie.
Naiaiaee, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «22» aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aaoao N.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O iao /an ?icoi?iiy a?ieia?/iiai cia/aiiy
ioeea?iiaeo eeneio (IE) o ooieoe?iioaaii? i?aai?ci?a noeioeth?
?ioaineai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoith
aeyaeaiiy aieeao ??cieo oaeoi??a (?ii-a?ae?aoiiai ioi/aiiy,
aei?ii?ithaaiiy oiui) ia no?oeoo?o, noaa?euei?noue, eiioi?iaoe?eio
?ooeea?noue ? o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? IE. Aea iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo
e?euee?noue io?eiaieo aeaieo, aeey iiaoaeiae a?eueo iiaii? ea?oeie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy IE o a?ieia?/ieo nenoaiao iaiao?aei? iiaeaeueo?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae IE. Ci?ia
eiioi?iaoe?eiiai noaio IE, a cia/eoue ? ?? a?ieia?/ieo ooieoe?e, ye ?
ci?ia noaio aoaeue-yei? nenoaie, iiaeiia ciaoiaeeoe aaeaeaaoia
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ci?i? aia?aaoe/ieo oa aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee IE. Oie
oaeo, ui a?ae?aoaoe?y a?ae?a?a? nooo?ao ?ieue o i?ioeanao
eiioi?iaoe?eii? ?ooeeaino? IE, aeeeeea? iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy aieeao
aiaeiiai ioi/aiiy ia aia?aaoeeo ? aeeiai?eo IE, cie?aia AeIE.

Noai ? noaa?euei?noue nenoaie ?noioii caeaaeeoue a?ae aieeao
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Iani?eyoeeaa ?aae?aoe?eia ianoaiiaea, yea
neeaeanue a aaaaoueio oi/eao na?oo, iniaeeai o cii? *i?iiaeeuenei? AAN,
a oaeiae a on?e Oe?a?i?, i?eiooo? a/aieo i?aoethaaoe iaae i?iaeaiith
aieeao ?aae?aoe?? ia i?aai?ci. I?e oeueiio aaeeeee ?ioa?an aeeeeeathoue
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aae?aoe?eieo o?aaeaiue aaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo. Aaaeeeaa
?ieue a i?ioeanao ?aae?aoe?eieo iioeiaeaeaiue AeIE iaeaaeeoue a?eueiei
?aaeeeaeai, ye? oi?iothoueny i?e ?aae?ie?c? aiaeiiai ioi/aiiy.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia oe? i?ioeane aieeaa? noai a?ae?aoii? iaieiiee AeIE,
yea, a naith /a?ao, iaoiiaeth? eiioi?iaoe?th AeIE. Iaeiae, ?ieue
a?ae?aoii? iaieiiee a i?ioeanao ?aae?aoe?eiiai iioeiaeaeaiiy AeIE i?e
??cieo ??aiyo a?ae?aoaoe?? inoaoi/ii ua ia aeyaeaia.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?acoeueoaoe yeeo i?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, ? /anoeiith
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe, yea aeeiio?oueny o a?aeae?e? a?io?ceee
?inoeoooo ?aae?io?ceee oa aeaeo?ii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie a iaaeao
aea?aeathaeaeaoieo oai “Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo iniaeeainoae
a?ae?aoiaaieo a?iiie?ia??a c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe??”
(oeo? “A?ai”, ? 01.96U006110, aeeiio?oueny ca iinoaiiaith Ath?i AOA IAI
Oe?a?ie a?ae 19 a?oaeiy 1995?., i?ioieie ?9), “Aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa
oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?aoii-caeaaeieo i?ioean?a noaa?e?caoe??
no?oeoo?e i?e?iaeieo oa iiaeaeueieo ioeea?iiaeo eeneio” (?2.4/759,
aeeiio?oueny ca i?iaeoii Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
c’ynoaaiiy aieeao a?ae?aoaoe?? ia aia?aaoeeo ? aeeiai?/i? aeanoeaino?
nenoaie AeIE-aiaea, a oaeiae ia noaa?euei?noue oe??? nenoaie, ui
ciaoiaeeoueny a oiiaao ae?? (- ?aae?aoe??. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe
ae??ooaaeenue oae? caaea/?:

Aenia?eiaioaeueia iaea?aeaiiy caeaaeiinoae aia?a?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe??
i?e?iaeieo AeIE ??ciiai AT/GC-neeaaeo ? iiaeaeueieo aeaini??aeueieo
iie??eaiioeeaioeae?a i?e ??cieo ??aiyo ai?noo aiaee a nenoai?.

?ic?aooiie aia?a?e ca’ycoaaiiy, /ano ae?aeaeo?e/ii? ?aeaenaoe??,
ia?aiao?a «a?eueiiai ia’?io», eiao?oe??io?a iiaa?oiaai? aeeooc?? aiaee a
a?ae?aoiiio ioi/aii? IE i?e ??cieo ??aiyo a?ae?aoaoe?? ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
aenia?eiaioaeueii iaea?aeaieo aeaieo.

Anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae noaa?eueiino? i?e?iaeii? AeIE a?ae aeice
ii?ii?iaiiy oa ??aiy a?ae?aoaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaea?aeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei?
cia/aiiy aia?a?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? iie?ia?ieo iao?eoeue i?e?iaeieo AeIE ?
iiaeaeueieo aeaini??aeueieo iie??eaiioeeaioeae?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae
??aiy a?ae?aoaoe?? oa ioeeaioeaeiiai neeaaeo. Ciaeaeaia e?i?eia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aia?a??th aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? IE oa ?? AT/GC-neeaaeii.
I?iaaaeaii aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th iieaeoe aiaee a?ae?aoii? iaieiiee AeIE ca
?o aia?aaoe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Anoaiiaeaii oie oaeo , ui aeanoeaino?
a?ae?aoiiai ioi/aiiy a?aeaeaathoue no?oeoo?o IE ia ??cieo ??aiyo ??
i?aai?caoe??. ?ic?aoiaaia cia/aiiy o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? AeIE o
??cieo eiioi?iaoe?eieo noaiao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue
iiaa?oi? AeIE iiaea neoaeeoe oa?aeoa?enoeeith ??cieo eiioi?iaoe?eieo
noai?a AeIE. Iiaoaeiaaii iiaeaeue iiaa?oiaai? aeeooc?? aiaee, ca’ycaii?
c iieaeoeith AeIE. Ia iniia? oe??? iiaeae? io?eiaii ioe?ii/i? cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??ioo aeeooc?? ca’ycaii? aiaee. Ciaeaeaii, ui iaea?eueo? ci?ie a
AeIE aiane?aeie ii?ii?iaiiy iathoue i?noea i?e iecueeeo ? aenieeo ??aiyo
a?ae?aoaoe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?ioean? ii?ii?iaiiy aiaeia ioi/aiiy
iieaeoee AeIE a caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo aiaee a c?aceo iiaea
a?ae?a?aaaoe iiaea?eio ?ieue, aenooiath/e ia ia?oiio aoai? a?ae?aoaoe??
ye noaa?e?caoi? no?oeoo?e AeIE, a i?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoai? ai?noo
aiaee a nenoai? – ye i?aeneethaa/ aeano?oeoeaii? ae?? ?aae?aoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaea?aeai? a ?iaio?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ?icoe?ththoue ?nioth/?
oyaeaiiy i?i aieea a?ae?aoaoe?? oa ii?ii?iaiiy ia o?ce/i? aeanoeaino?
nenoaie AeIE-aiaea. Caeaaeiino? aia?aaoe/ieo oa aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a
a?ae ai?noo aiaee iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ye oa?aeoa?enoeee
no?oeoo?iiai noaio a?ae?aoii? iaieiiee (oa AeIE o oe?eiio) aeey
iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a eiioi?iaoe?eii? aeeiai?ee AeIE, ye?
a?aeaeaathoue a?ieia?/io ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue aeaiiai a?iiie?ia?o. Ciaiiy
caeaaeiinoae aia?a?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? a?ae ai?noo aiaee aeey aeaio AeIE c
a?aeiiei AT/GC-neeaaeii ? aeey AeIE iaa?aeiiiai neeaaeo aeicaiey? ciaeoe
ioeeaioeaeiee neeaae inoaiiuei? aac i?iaaaeaiiy aei?iaeo aenia?eiaio?a.
O oie aea /an, ciath/e ioeeaioeaeiee neeaae AeIE, yea ian oe?eaaeoue, oa
caeaaeiino? aia?a?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? a?ae ai?noo aiaee aeey aeaio ?ioeo
a?aeiieo AeIE, iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe “aia?aaoe/iee niaeo?” aeaa?ae?aoaoe??
aeaii? AeIE. O?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue iiaa?oi? AeIE, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae
eiioi?iaoe?eiiai noaio iae?iiieaeoee, iiaea aooe canoiniaaia ye
oa?aeoa?enoeea aoi?eiii? no?oeoo?e AeIE. E??i oiai, cia/aiiy
o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? AeIE aoee aeei?enoai? a aeai?e ?iaio? i?e
iiaeaethaaii? iiaa?oiaai? aeeooc?? iieaeoe ca’ycaii? aiaee, ai i?e
aiae?c? aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a oaeiai oeio a?aooaaiiy o?aeoaeueieo
aeanoeainoae a?iiie?ia??a ? iaiao?aeiei. Ioe?ii/i? cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??io?a iiaa?oiaai? aeeooc?? aiaee i?e ??cieo ??aiyo a?ae?aoaoe??
AeIE ? iaiao?aeieie aeey iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae c ?iciiae?eaieie ia?aiao?aie
aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a ni?aoe?? aiaee ?
eiioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aoiae?a o AeIE. Oae? iiaeae? aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe
oa?iiaeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e nenoaie IE-aiaea c o?aooaaiiyi eiiia?aoeaiino?
ca’ycoaaiiy aiaee oa ?nioaaiiy a?noa?acenieo yaeu. Aeai?, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?ieue a?ae?aoii? iaieiiee a i?ioeanao ?aae?aoe?eiiai
o?aaeaiiy AeIE, iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a aeine?aeaeaiiyo iaoai?ci?a
aca?iiae?? AeIE c ??cieie a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieie iieaeoeaie, cie?aia c
oa?iaoeaaoe/ieie i?aia?aoaie ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ii? ae??, a oaeiae aeey
aeai?o ?aaeei?a caa??aaiiy aaiaoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a a oiiaao i?aeaeuaii?
?aae?aoe??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A iioae?eiaaieo ni?eueii c? ni?aaaoi?aie
iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa?:

o ?iaioao [1, 5, 10, 11] – a o/ano? a i?aeaioiaoe? ? i?iaaaeaii?
aenia?eiaio?a, a ia?iaoe?, aiae?c? e iaa?oiooaaii? iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a;

o ?iaioao [2, 4, 6-9] – a o/ano? a ?ic?iaoe? iiaeaeae, i?iaaaeaii?
?ic?aooie?a ? aiae?c? io?eiaieo aeaieo, iaa?oiooaaii? aeniiae?a;

o ?iaio? [3]– a o/ano? a i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o, a
ia?iaoe? e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aa?eoee a aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo, aoee i?aaenoaaeai?
ia:

III Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee “Oece/aneea yaeaiey a
eiiaeaine?iaaiiuo aauanoaao”, Oa?ueeia, 1997;

17th Discussion Conference on Surface and Interfacial Phenomena in
Macromolecular Systems, Prague, Czech, 1997;

NATO School on Hydration Processes in Biology: Theoretical and
Experimental Approaches, Les Houches, France, 1998;

II C’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai a?io?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa, Oa?e?a, 1998;

International Conference «Physics of Biological Systems», Kyiv, 1998;

nai?ia?? Oa?e?anueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy Oe?a?inueeiai a?io?ce/iiai
oiaa?enoaa, Oa?e?a, 1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a 11 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, o
oiio /ene? a 6 noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? a 5 oacao aeiiia?aeae ia
eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a e ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea?
151 noi??ieo, c ieo 25noi?. caeiathoue 29 ?ethno?aoe?e, 5noi?. – 7
oaaeeoeue, 20noi?. – nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (198
iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaaia
iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacaia eiai iiaecia, iaoeiaa oa
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue, iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i iniiai? ioae?eaoe?? ca oaiith
aeena?oaoe??, ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe, caaaeueio no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe??.

?icae?e 1 i?enay/aiee iaeyaeo iniiaieo iai?yie?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao ??cieo oaeoi??a ia no?oeoo?o,
noaa?euei?noue ? aeanoeaino? IE. O ia?o?e /anoei? ?icaeyiooi aieea noaio
?ii-a?ae?aoiiai ioi/aiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy aoi?eiii? no?oeoo?e IE ca aeaieie
??cieo iaoiae?a, ye? aeeth/athoue ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee aiae?c, iioe/io
i?e?ineii?th, niaeo?aeuei? iaoiaee, iaoiaee iaoeiiiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa
?io?. Aeaoaeueiee ?icaeyae oeeo aeaieo iieaco?, ui ?ii-a?ae?aoia
ioi/aiiy ?noioii aieeaa? ia no?oeoo?o IE ? iiaeiii ?icaeyaeaoenue ye
iaa?ae’?iiee no?oeoo?iee aeaiaio IE. Aeae? a iaeyae? iaaiai?th?oueny
i?iaeaia, yea noino?oueny aeine?aeaeaiue aia?aaoeee ? aeeiai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae nenoaie AeIE-aiaea. I?iaiae?ciaaii ?nioth/?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy aieeao
a?ae?aoaoe?? ia aia?aaoe/i? ? aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oe??? nenoaie.
Ia iniia? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aiaea a AeIE
aeae?ey?oueny nai?th aenieith ?ooeea?noth, ? iaa?oue eieaeueia
e?euee?nia ci?ia ?? ai?noo, aeeeeeaia i?ioeanaie iiaa?oiaai? aeeooc??,
iiaea ?iaeoeoaaoe iai?ioi? eiioi?iaoe?ei? ia?aoiaee. Oae? no?oeoo?i?
ia?aaoaeiae i?ecaiaeyoue aei ci?ie o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae AeIE. O
caeeth/i?e /anoei? iaeyaeo i?eae?eaii oaaao ?icaeyaeo i?iaeaie aieeao
aei?ii?ithaaiue ??cieo oei?a ia caieiaeai? c?acee IE, yea aeoaea
aaaeeeaa a aeieia?/ieo oiiaao, ui neeaeeny ia Oe?a?i? i?ney aaa??? ia
*i?iiaeeuene?e AAN. Ia iniia? aiae?co anueiai iaai?o ?nioth/eo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ?icae?e? 2 iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i c?acee, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaeenue a ?iaio?
(aieieia poly(A)(poly(U), poly(G)(poly(C), AeIE c Clostridium
perfringens (N-AeIE: AO/GC=2,23), AeIE c oeiona oaeyoe (O-AeIE:
AO/GC=1,38) oa AeIE c Micrococcus luteus (I-AeIE: AO/GC=0,39), ei?ioei
aeeeaaeaii iaoiaeeee i?eaiooaaiiy c?ace?a oa i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a.

O ?icae?e? 3 i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aia?aaoeee aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? nenoaie IE-aiaea i?e ??ciiio ai?no? aiaee,
ye? aoee iaea?aeai? iaoiaeaie aeeoa?aioe?eii? neaioth/i?
i?e?ieaei?eiao??? a ?cioa?i?/iiio ?aaeei? (O=303E) oa oa?iia?aa?iao???.
Ia ?en.1a i?aaenoaaeai? caeaaeiino? aia?a?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? E a?ae
ai?noo aiaee a c?aceo n (e?euee?noue iieaeoe aiaee, ye? i?eiaaeathoue ia
iaeei ioeeaioeae, oiaoi II2I/II) aai oae caai? “aia?aaoe/i? niaeo?e”
aiaee (aia?aaoe/i? ?cioa?ie aeaa?ae?aoaoe??), yea ca’ycaia ia iao?eoeyo
poly(A)(poly(U), poly(G)(poly(C) ? i?e?iaeieo AeIE c ??ciei
ioeeaioeaeiei neeaaeii. Caeaaeiino? E(n) aeey ??cieo a?ieia?/ieo
iao?eoeue iathoue noiaeo ye?nio iiaaae?ieo (ca aeeeth/aiiyi
poly(G)(poly(C)) – c? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo aiaee a nenoaiao
niinoa??aa?oueny iiiioiiia ciaioaiiy aia?a?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe??. I?e
oeueiio ? e?euee?ni? a?aei?iiino? – c? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo GC-ia? o
c?aceo aia?a?y aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? E(n) c?inoa?.

Oea iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i i?aeaeuaiiy oa?iinoaa?eueiino? nenoaie IE-aiaea,
yeui i?eeiyoe aei oaaae oa, ui a?ae?aoia iaieiiea a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao
?ieue o noaa?e?caoe?? no?oeoo?e IE. Ia ?en.1a i?aaenoaaeaii caeaaei?noue
iaaeeeoeiai? aia?a?? a?ae?aoaoe?? (E (aaee/eie, yeo c?o/i?oa
aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e ?icaeyaeaii? i?ioeano ni?aoe?? aai aeani?aoe??) a?ae
ai?noo aiaee n oa a?aeiiniiai ai?noo GC-ia? (O) o c?aceo. (E(n)
aei??aith? E(n)–E0, aea A(n) – aenia?eiaioaeueii iaea?aeaia aia?a?y
aeaa?ae?aoaoe??, E0=40,5eAeae/MH2O – na?aaeiy aia?a?y aca?iiae??
aiaea-aiaea a ia’?ii?e oac?. C? c?inoaiiyi ai?noo aiaee a c?aceao IE
cia/aiiy iaaeeeoeiai? aia?a?? a?ae?aoaoe?? ciaioothoueny. Ni?eueiee
aiae?c eaei?eiao?e/ieo aeaieo ? ?acoeueoao?a, ui aoee iaea?aeai? ca
aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo ?*-niaeo?ineii??, aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe a caeaaeiino?
(E(n,O) aeae?eueea iaeanoae ai?noo aiaee (?en.1a). O ia?o?e iaeano?
(/i?i? e?oaeee) iieaeoee aiaee iaea?eueo i?oeii ca’ycai? c AeIE
(iaeanoue iiiia?ae?aoiiai oa?o). O ae?oa?e iaeano? (a?ee e?oaeee)
iieaeoee aiaee i?iyaeythoue iaioee nooi?iue ca’ycoaaiiy (iaeanoue
oi?ioaaiiy A-eiioi?iaoe??). A inoaii?e iaeano? (/i?ii-a?ee e?oaeee)
aiaea oaeiae ia? iaaaeeeee nooi?iue ca’ycoaaiiy ? neeaaea? oo /anoeio
a?ae?aoii? iaieiiee IE, yea a?aeiia?aea? ca oi?ioaaiiy A-eiioi?iaoe??. O
oiae? aiae?co iaea?aeaieo aeaieo oaeiae aoei ciaeaeaii e?i?eio
caeaaei?noue aia?a?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? AeIE A (AeIE) a?ae ioeeaioeaeiiai
neeaaeo, yeo iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe o aeaeyae?:

A (AeIE) = (1–O)A (AO) + OA (GC) , (1)

aea O – a?aeiiniee ai?no GC-ia? a no?oeoo?? AeIE; A (AO), A (GC) –
aia?a?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? IE, ye? neeaaeathoueny o?eueee c AO-, aai c
GC-ia? a?aeiia?aeii. C iaoith ia?aa??ee oe??? caeaaeiino? c
aeei?enoaiiyi aeaieo aeey N- oa I-AeIE o oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? ai?noo aiaee
aoei ?ic?aoiaaii ia?aiao? O O-AeIE aeey O-AeIE, cia/aiiy yeiai iiaeia
ii??aiyoe c oaea a?aeiiei cia/aiiyi a?aeiiniiai ai?noo GC-ia? a O-AeIE
(O=0,42). Ia?aiao? O O-AeIE ciaoiaeeee c ??aiyiiy:

, (2)

) ca?aa?oueny c aeia?aeeiaeie aeaieie. E??i oiai, ciath/e ioeeaioeaeiee
neeaae aeaii? AeIE, O, aia?aaoe/i? ?cioa?ie aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? aeaio ?ioeo
AeIE (A1 ? A2), a oaeiae ?o ioeeaioeaeiee neeaae (O1 ? O2), iiaeia
?ic?aooaaoe “aia?aaoe/iee niaeo?” aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? AeIE (A), yea ian
oe?eaaeoue:

(3)

?acoeueoaoe oaeiai ?ic?aooieo aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie. I?e oeueiio, ii??aiyiiy iaea?aeaieo
?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo aeey iie?ioeeaioeae?a poly(dA)(poly(dT) oa
poly(dG)(poly(dC) c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie aeey
iie??eaiioeeaioeae?a poly(A)(poly(U) oa poly(G)(poly(C) iieacaee, ui
i?e?iaea iiiii??ieo eaiie (?eaiioeeaioeae aai aeaciene?eaiioeeaioeae),
ye? aoiaeyoue aei no?oeoo?e IE, i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia aia?a?th
aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? IE.

C? c?inoaiiyi n ooee i?yieo (A(O) (E(n)) ci?ith?oueny. Iiaeia aeae?eeoe
aea? iaeano? ??cii? iiaaae?iee caeaaeiino? (E/(X (n) – iaeanoue
oaoaaiiy, aea i?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo aiaee a nenoai? IE-aiaea i?eaeecii
aei n=6 ooee i?yieo A(O) ciaioo?oueny i?aeoe/ii e?i?eii oa iaeanoue, aea
cia/aiiy (E/(X iaeaea ia ci?iththoueny (n>6). O i?ioean? caieiaeaiiy
c?acea AeIE aei n=6 ni?aothoueny iieaeoee aiaee, ye? noai?ththoue
iiiia?ae?aoiee oa? c i?oeieie ca’yceaie, i?e oeueiio ii/eia?oueny
oi?ioaaiiy oii?yaeeiaaii?, ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e AeIE. O aeai?e iaeano?
cia/aiue n a?aeiiniee aia?aaoe/iee aeeaae c aieo iieaeoe aiaee, ui
ca’ycai? c GC-ia?aie, o caaaeueio iaaeeeoeiao aia?a?th a?ae?aoaoe??
(aia?a?th aeaa?ae?aoaoe??) ciaioo?oueny. I?e iiaeaeueoiio c?inoaii?
ai?noo aiaee o c?aceo ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aia?aaoe/ieie aeeaaeaie c
aieo iieaeoe aiaee, ye? ca’ycai? c GC- ? AO-ia?aie, caeeoa?oueny
i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiei. Oaeei /eiii, aia?aaoe/i? ia?aiao?e ca’ycaii? aiaee
? iaea?eueo /ooeeaeie aei ci?ie ioeeaioeaeiiai neeaaeo a iaeano?
oi?ioaaiiy iiiia?ae?aoiiai oa?o.

?acoeueoaoe oa?iia?aa?iao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aoee i?iaaaeai? ia
c?aceao NaAeIE (o aeaeyae? aiaeii? aeenia?n??) a ?cioa?i?/iiio ?aaeei?
(O=370N), aeiiiaiththoue aeai? c i?e?ieaei?eiao???.

Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe /ioe?e noaie aiaee a
c?aceo AeIE, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeanue: neeueii ca’ycaia aiaea (ai?no aiaee
n<6), ia?o? i?eaeecii o?e iieaeoee yei? iathoue iaea?eueoee nooi?iue ca’ycoaaiiy c iao?eoeath AeIE; aiaea, yea ia? na?aaei?e nooi?iue ca’ycoaaiiy (n=6-12); neaai ca’ycaia aiaea (n noaiiaeoue a?ae 12 aei 22-30) oa a?eueia aiaea (n>30).

Aeae? a ?iaio? i?iaiaeeoueny aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iieaeoe aiaee a
a?ae?aoiiio ioi/aii? AeIE ca ?oi?ie aia?a?yie ca’ycoaaiiy. Aeae?ey?oueny
aeae?eueea oei?a oeaio??a a?ae?aoaoe??, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny ca
oa?aeoa?ii e aia?a??th ca’ycoaaiiy. ?icaeyaeathoueny i?ioeane ni?aoe??
(a?ae?aoaoe??) o?ueio oei?a: a) ni?aoe?y eaiaith??anueeeie oeaio?aie
ca’ycoaaiiy, ye?, iaaooue, ?icoaoiaai? ia acioenoeo iniiaao
(a?ae?aoaoe?y c iane/aiiyi); a) ni?aoe?y aai???anueeeie oeaio?aie
ca’ycoaaiiy, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia eao?ii-oinoaoieo a?oiao (a?ae?aoaoe?y
aac iane/aiiy); a) ioeueoeoa?iaa ni?aoe?y (a?ae?aoaoe?y iiia?aaeo
caeiyoeo oeaio??a ca’ycoaaiiy). Oaeiae a?aoiao?oueny, ui iieaeoee aiaee,
ni?aiaai? ca ??cieie oeiaie, aiinyoue aia?aaoe/iee aeeaae o
noaa?e?caoe?th eiaeiiai c eiioi?iaoe?eieo noai?a, a yeeo iiaea ?nioaaoe
AeIE (a iaeano? ai?noo aiaee, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny, oea –
iaoii?yaeeiaaiee noai, A- ? B-oi?ia AeIE). Aeey caaaeueii? a?eueii?
aia?a?? ca’ycoaaiiy (G(n) ia?ii:

(4)

– ooeai? aaee/eie aia?aaoe/iiai aeeaaeo a noaa?e?caoe?th m-i?
eiioi?iaoe?? c aieo iieaeoe aiaee, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue a a?ae?aoaoe??
k-ai oeio (k=L, H, ML; m=A, B, U).

o iaaeao eiaeiiai oeio ni?aoe?? iieaco?, ui aiaea, ca’ycaia ia
eaiaith??anueeeo oeaio?ao ia?aaaaeii ni?ey? noaa?e?caoe?? A-oi?ie, o oie
/an ye aiaea, ca’ycaia ia aai???anueeeo oeaio?ao – noaa?e?caoe??
A-oi?ie. Oea ocaiaeaeo?oueny c oyaeaiiyie i?i oa, ui a?ae?aoaoe?y
acioenoeo iniia ? oinoaoieo a?oi a?ae?a?a? aaaeo/o ?ieue o noaa?e?caoe??
A- ? B-oi?i AeIE a?aeiia?aeii. Iieaeoee aiaee, ca’ycai? a ioeueoeoa??,
iaea?eueo aaaeeea? aeey noaa?e?caoe?? ye A-, oae ? A-oi?ie, ii??aiyii c
iaoii?yaeeiaaiei noaiii. Oea ?acoeueoao oiai, ui iniiaia oi?ioaaiiy
ioeueoeoa?iai? /anoeie a?ae?aoiiai ioi/aiiy eaea i?e aaeeeiio ai?no?
aiaee a AeIE.

Cia/aiiy caaaeueii? a?eueii? aia?a?? ca’ycoaaiiy c? c?inoaiiyi ai?noo
aiaee a nenoai? ciaioothoueny. Oea aeaco? ia oie oaeo, ui aeiey iieaeoe
aiaee, a?aeiinii i?oeii ca’ycaii? c oeaio?aie ia?aeiii? a?ae?aoaoe??
(eaiaith??anuee? ? aai???anuee? oeaio?e) ia iao?eoe? AeIE, ciaioo?oueny
/a?ac ca?eueoaiiy neaai? (aoi?eiii?) ni?aoe?? aiaee, oiaoi
ioeueoeoa?iai? ni?aoe??.

O ?icae?e? 4 i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae aiaee, ca’ycaii? ia iao?eoeyo ??cieo IE. O?nia
aca?iicaeaaei?noue aia?aaoe/ieo oa aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeicaieeea
iai ?ic?aooaaoe cia/aiiy ??cieo aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iia?euei?noue aiaee a a?ae?aoiiio ioi/aii? IE.

Caeaaei?noue /ano ae?aeaeo?e/ii? ?aeaenaoe?? aeeiie?a aiaee (d a?ae
ai?noo aiaee n a c?aceo aoea io?eiaia c ??aiyiiy, ui ca’yco? oeae
ia?aiao? c iaaeeeoeiaith aia?a??th a?ae?aoaoe?? (E(n):

, (5)

aea (d0 – cia/aiiy aeey ia’?iii? aiaee i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??, yea
noaiiaeoue 0,9•10–11n; O – oaiia?aoo?a a a?aaeonao Eaeuea?ia; R – aaciaa
noaea.

Caeaaeiino? (d(n) aeey IE ??ciiai ioeeaioeaeiiai neeaaeo, ye? aoee
?ic?aoiaai? c ??aiyiiy (5), i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en.1a. Aiie iathoue ye?nii
noiaeee aeaeyae (ca aeeeth/aiiyi poly(G)(poly(C)). C ?en.1a aeaeii, ui
ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo a?ae?aoaoe?? (n<6) cia/aiiy (d oaeaeei oaoaathoue (i?eaeecii ia ii?yaeie), a i?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? n iinooiiai iaaeeaeathoueny aei cia/aiiy (d aeey ia’?iii? aiaee ((d0). Io?eiaiee ?acoeueoao ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie, ye? aeacothoue ia ia?ic??ciaiiy o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ia?eoa??eii? /anoeie a?ae?aoiiai ioi/aiiy IE oa aeanoeainoae ia’?iii? aiaee. C ?en.1a oaeiae aeaeii, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo GC-ia? a c?aceo IE cia/aiiy /ano ae?aeaeo?e/ii? ?aeaenaoe?? aeeiie?a aiaee (d(n) ciaioothoueny. Ua iaeiei aeeiai?/iei ia?aiao?ii, ?ic?aoiaaiei c io?eiaieo caeaaeiinoae E(n), ? “a?eueiee ia’?i” Vf, yeee caeiathoue iieaeoee aiaee a a?ae?aoi?e iaieiioe? IE. O aeiaaeeo nenoaie IE-aiaea oaeee ia?aiao?, ye ” a?eueiee ia’?i” iaoiiaeth? oa?aeoa? iieaeoey?ieo nee ca’ycoaaiiy iieaeoe aiaee c aaeni?aoe?eieie oeaio?aie aeiii?iiai oa aeoeaioi?iiai oei?a, a oaeiae iiyae ia a?iiie?ia?ieo iao?eoeyo ?aaoey?ii oii?yaeeiaaieo no?oeoo? iieaeoe aiaee. O cai?iiiiiaai?e iiaeae? “a?eueiee ia’?i” Vf aecia/a?oueny ye ??cieoey i?ae caaaeueiei ia’?iii a?ae?aoii? iaieiiee V oa caai?iiaiei ia’?iii B, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e O, caaaeueiiai ia’?io V ? /enea iieaeoe N. Ooo Vf i?aaenoaaey? niaith ia’?i, a yeiio iiaeooue cae?enithaaoeny o?aineyoe?? iaca’ycaieo iieaeoe aiaee, a caai?iiaiee ia’?i B a?aeiia?aea? ia’?io, a yeiio o?aineyoe?ei? ?ooe ? oneeaaeiaieie aiane?aeie aiaeiaaiai ca’ycoaaiiy iieaeoe aiaee. Iiaia oaieioa aeia?thaaiiy aiaee c iiaa?oi? a?iiie?ia?o (aia?a?y aeaa?ae?aoaoe??) E a ?ic?aooieo ia iaeei iieue iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia o oaeiio aeaeyae?: E = RT ln[(Vi –Bi )/(Va –Ba)]+P(Vi –Va) , (6) aea ? – oene iane/aii? ia?e; Vi, Va – iiey?i? caaaeuei? ia’?ie iane/aii? ia?e ? a?ae?aoii? aiaee a?aeiia?aeii; Bi, Ba – caai?iiai? ia’?ie aeey aiaee a noai? ia?e ? a a?ae?aoi?e iaieiioe? a?aeiia?aeii. Noai ?aaeueiiai aaco (ia?e) cae/aeii iieno?oueny caaaeueiei a???aeueiei ??aiyiiyi noaio: PVi /RT = 1+B/Vi+C/Vi2+((( . (7) Aeey /anoeiiiai a?aooaaiiy i?aeiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e i?e ?ic?aooieo “a?eueiiai ia’?io” (Vf =Va–Ba) ie aeei?enoiaoaaee ia?o? aeaa /eaie a???aeueiiai ?yaeo (7). C o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui a iaeano? iecueeeo oene?a aiaeyieo ia? aeeiiothoueny oiiae Vi((Bi e Vi((Va, oiaoi ni?aaaaeeeaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaciaeo caeii?a, ia?ii: . (8) Ii??aithth/e caeaaeiino? Vf(n), ye? aoee io?eiai? c ??aiyiiy (8) aeey c?ace?a IE ??ciiai ioeeaioeaeiiai neeaaeo (?en.2), iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aiaea a a?ae?aoi?e iaieiioe? poly(G)(poly(C) ciaoiaeeoueny a a?eueo “noeniooiio” noai? ii??aiyii c a?ae?aoieie iaieiieaie poly(A)(poly(U) oa i?e?iaeieo AeIE. ?c ?en.2 aeaeii, ui a iaeano? na?aaei?o cia/aiue n aeey on?o c?ace?a niinoa??aa?oueny a?aeiinia ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? c?inoaiiy “a?eueiiai ia’?io”. Oe? iniaeeaino? a caeaaeiinoyo Vf(n) iiaeooue aooe iia’ycai? c ia?aoiaeii IE c iaoii?yaeeiaaiiai noaio a ni??aeueio eiioi?iaoe?th. A oeueiio i?ioean?, i/aaeaeii, eaea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iieaeoe aiaee aei aioo??oi?o iaeanoae no?oeoo?e ioeea?iiai? eeneioe ? no?oeoo?ecaoe?y a?ae?aoii? iaieiiee, a ia i?inoa aaeeoeaia ca?eueoaiiy ?? ia’?io. Iaei??th c iniiaieo o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aca?iiae?? a?ae?aoiiai ioi/aiiy c iieaeoeith AeIE ? eiao?oe??io iiaa?oiaai? aeeooc?? aiaee. Aoei cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue o?aineyoe?eii? aeeooc?? ni?aiaaii? aiaee ii iao?eoe? AeIE. sse iniiao aeey aeaii? a?ao/anoi? iiaeae? aoei acyoi i?aeo?ae, cai?iiiiiaaiee O?aieaeai a oai??? ?aaeueieo e?enoae?a oa ??aeei. Aeey iienaiiy i?ioeano aeeooc?? ?icaeyiaii iie?ia?io iao?eoeth o aeaeyae? a?ao/anoi? no?oeoo?e c ia??iaeii a?ao, yeee aei??aith? a (?en.3). O oae?e no?oeoo?? aia?aaoe/ia iaiaeii??aei?noue iiaa?oi? aeieea? aiane?aeie ia??iaee/iino? a ?icoaooaaii? aeaiaio?a a?iiie?ia?ii? iao?eoe? (?en.3). Aoaeaii aaaaeaoe, ui eiaeia ca’ycaia iieaeoea aiaee ?icoaoiaaia o aoce? a?ao (i?noea ca’ycoaaiiy). I?ioean aeeooc?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioean ca?eueiaiiy iaeiiai i?noey ca’ycoaaiiy c iiaeaeueoei caeiyooyi iieaeoeith aiaee iaeaeeae/iai i?noey ca’ycoaaiiy. I?eiono?ii, ui w=n/N ?iia??i?noue oiai, ui i?noea ca’ycoaaiiy ? caeiyoei iieaeoeith aiaee, aea N – caaaeueia /enei i?noeue ca’ycoaaiiy a c?aceo AeIE, n – /enei caeiyoeo i?noeue ca’ycoaaiiy. A ?ioa?aae? /ano t i?noea ca’ycoaaiiy ? caeiyoei i?ioyaii /ano toc=wt, a /enei iiae?e ca’ycoaaiiy aiaee M aei??aith? wt/(, aea ( – /an aeeooy iieaeoee aiaee a ca’ycaiiio noai? aai o?eaae?noue ?nioaaiiy i?noey ca’ycoaaiiy caeiyoei. Oiae?, (tr= t/M = (/w – na?aaei?e /an i?ae ca?eueiaiiyi iaeiiai i?noey ca’ycoaaiiy ? caeiyooyi iieaeoeith aiaee ?ioiai i?noey ca’ycoaaiiy aai na?aaei?e /an, ai?iaeiaae yeiai o?eaa? ia?ai?uaiiy iieaeoee aiaee i?ae aeaiia oeaio?aie ca’ycoaaiiy, yea aei??aith? a, oiaoi /an o?aineyoe??. I?eionea?oueny oaeiae, ui i?ioean aeeooc?? o?eaa? ca?aeii c caeiiii O?ea. Aa?o/e aei oaaae oie oaeo, ui aaee/eia na?aaeiueiai eaaae?aoa ci?uaiiy iieaeoee c ii/aoeiaiai iieiaeaiiy ai?iaeiaae /ano (tr ? o?eniaaiith (a naia a2), ?, i?eioneath/e, ui ia?aoiaee a i?ioeeaaeieo iai?yieao ? noaoenoe/ii iacaeaaeieie, ia?ii =a2=2D 1(tr , oiaoi:

(9)

Aiaeia?/ii aeiaaeeo iaeiii??ii? aeeooc?? iiaeia ?icaeyiooe i?ioeane
aeaii??ii? ? i?inoi?iai? aeeooc??, aeey yeeo eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc??
ae?aaeathoueny ye D2=a2/4(tr e D3=a2/6(tr a?aeiia?aeii. Aeaeii, ui
eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc?? aeey caaea/ ??cii? ?ici??iino? a?ae??ciythoueny
o?eueee /eneiaei eiao?oe??ioii. Oeae eiao?oe??io noaiiaeoue 1/2d, aea d
– ?ici??i?noue aeeooc?eii? caaea/?. O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo ia?ii:

. (10)

I?e ?icaeyae? i?ioeano aeeooc?? ca’ycaieo iieaeoe aiaee ii iiaa?oi? AeIE
aeieea? ieoaiiy i?i aea?? ?ici??iino? caaea/?. Aea?? aeaii??ii?
aeeooc?eii? caaea/? i?aaenoaaey?oueny iaei?aeoiei, ine?eueee a?aeiii, ui
iieaeoea AeIE ia? aeoaea neeaaeio no?oeoo?o iiaa?oi?. Aeey iienaiiy
oaeeo neeaaeieo ia’?eo?a aaiaeeoueny iiiyooy ianooaaii? aai o?aeoaeueii?
(oaonaei?oiai?) ?ici??iino? ia’?eoa D ? ia’?eo, yeee ia? o?aeoaeuei?
aeanoeaino?, oiaoi ? ?iaa??aioiei a?aeiinii ianooaaoaaiiy, iaceaa?oueny
o?aeoaeii. O?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue cae/aeii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
oiiieia?/ii? ? ?? cia/aiiy eaaeaoue a iaaeao ?ioa?aaeo 2 ( D ( 3, aea
aeaye? ni?aaioe iathoue o?aeoaeueio ?ici??i?noue a?eueoo, i?ae 3.

Aeey ioe?iee o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? iiaa?oi? iieaeoee AeIE
aeei?enoiaoaaany iaoiae, yeee iieyaa? a oyaiiio i?ieaooaaii? i?iaii?
/anoeiee (eoeueee) ocaeiaae iiaa?oi? iieaeoee AeIE ? ?ic?aooieo ieiu?
aeinooiii? iiaa?oi? aeey i?iaieo eoeueie ??cieo ?aae?on?a. Aoei aea?aii
o?e cia/aiiy ?aae?on?a i?iaieo eoeueie: r1=1,5A; r2=3,0A; r3=4,5A. Aeey
aeaio ??cieo ?aae?on?a i?iaii? eoeueee ia?ii:

D = – (ln(N(d))/( lnd , (11)

aeey A- ? A-AeIE, ye? noaiiaeyoue 3 ? 2,5 a?aeiia?aeii. O?aeoaeueia
?ici??i?noue iiaa?oi? AeIE ia? ??ci? cia/aiiy aeey A-e A-oi?ie. *a?ac
oa, ui cia/aiiy ieiu? aeinooiii? iiaa?oi? aecia/athoueny oeiii
eiioi?iaoe?? AeIE, o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue iiaa?oi? AeIE iiaea
?icaeyaeaoeny ye oa?aeoa?enoeea aoi?eiii? no?oeoo?e AeIE ? a?aeaeaaoe ??
aeeiai?/io iiaaae?ieo, oiaoi ci?io eiioi?iaoe?eiiai noaio.

, ia?ii ??aiyiiy aeey io?eiaiiy eiao?oe??ioa iiaa?oiaai? aeeooc??
iieaeoe aiaee:

. (12)

7), A-oi?ia (AA=78-90%, n=8-15), A-oi?ia (AA>92%, n>16). A ?ioa?aaeao
n=7-8 ? n=15-16 a?aeaoaathoueny eiioi?iaoe?ei? ia?aoiaee ?c A-iiae?aii?
oi?ie a A-oi?io oa c A- a A-oi?io AeIE a?aeiia?aeii. Oe? ?ioa?aaee aoee
aeeo/ai? c ?icaeyaeo, oiio ui no?oeoo?a AeIE a oeeo ?ioa?aaeao ?
i?ieeaith.

Aaee/eie ( aoee ?ic?aoiaai? ?c ??aiyiiy (5), a yeiio eiao?oe??ioii ? (0
– /an i?ae iine?aeiaieie o?aineyoe?eieie ?ooaie iieaeoe aiaee a ia’?ii?e
oac? i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? (2,5•10–10 n). Cia/aiiy /ano aeeooy
iieaeoe aiaee a ca’ycaiiio noai? noaiiaeyoue 1,3•10–8 – 3,3·10–10 n a
?ioa?aae? ai?noo aiaee, yeee aeine?aeaeoaaany.

Caeaaei?noue cia/aiue eiao?oe??ioa iiaa?oiaai? aeeooc?? D a?ae AA,
?ic?aoiaaia c ??aiyiiy (12) c a?aeiia?aeieie cia/aiiyie ia?aiao??a,
i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.4a. Aaee/eia eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc?? D iiiioiiii
c?inoa? a eiaei?e naeoe?? a?ao?ea. Oaeo iiaaae?ieo oe??? caeaaeiino?
iiaeia iiynieoe oaeoii ciaioaiiy /anoee iieaeoe aiaee, “neeueii”
ca’ycaieo c AeIE, aiane?aeie iineeaiiy ioeueoeoa?iai? ni?aoe??, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaeeie aia?a?yie ca’ycoaaiiy.

noaiiaeoue 1, a ia?aiao? a?ao a a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo a?aeiia?aea?
na?aaeiueiio ci?uaiith iieaeoee aiaee a iai?yieo in? ni??ae?). Aeey
ioe?iee cia/aiue eiao?oe??ioa iiaeiaaeiuei? aeeooc?? D1 iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoaoe ??aiyiiy (9).

Caeaaei?noue D1 ai?noo aiaee a nenoai?, n, (aai a?ae AA) ye?nii noiaea
ia caeaaei?noue aeey caaaeueiiai aeiaaeeo aeeooc?? (?en.4a), iaeiae,
cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa iiaeiaaeiuei? aeeooc?? ia?aaeuothoue cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc?? ocaeiaae o?aeoaeueii? iiaa?oi?. Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny
aiane?aeie oiai, ui noia?ia aeeooc?y i?noeoue aeeooc?ei? i?ioeane ii
iiaa?oi? a on?o iai?yieao (o oiio /ene? e iia?eueio iiia?a/io
aeeooc?th), ioaea, noia?iee i?ioean eaea iia?euei?oa i?ae i?ioean
iiaeiaaeiuei? aeeooc??.

Iao? cia/aiiy D1 ocaiaeaeothoueny c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie o
a?aeiia?aeieo ?ioa?aaeao, ui aeaeii c ?en.4a. I/aaeaeii, ui i?e
ca?eueoaii? ai?noo aiaee a nenoai? AeIE-aiaea cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa
aeeooc?? iiaeii? iinooiiai ca?eueooaaoeny, iaaeeaeath/enue aei cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc?? aeey ?ic/ei?a AeIE. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
aeaeyaeii o?aouei? a?eee caeaaeiino? D (aai D 1) a?ae AA, aea aoaea
niinoa??aaoeny iai?ee?ioe? aeo?ae caeaaeiino? D (aai D 1) aei iane/aiiy
(?en.4a,a).

O ?icae?e? 5 iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?ii?iaieo c?ace?a
oeionii? NaAeIE a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeice ii?ii?iaiiy (aeniiceoe?ei?
aeice aei??aiththoue 270e?, 540e?, 1080e? ? 2484e?) oa nooiaiy ?o
caieiaeaiiy (0, 32, 56, 65, 81 ? 90% AA). Aiae?c noaio AeIE i?iaiaeeany
iaoiaeaie aaeue-aeaeo?ioi?aco ? aeaineoiiao???, ye? aeicaieythoue
iaea?aeaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ?iciiae?e o?aaiaio?a aeaa?aaeiaaii? AeIE ca
iieaeoey?ieie ianaie (aeiaaeeiaie o?aaiaio?a).

O aeiaaeeo ii?ii?iaiiy c?ace?a c i?i?iaeueiith aeicith (270e?)
niinoa??aa?oueny i?ioyaeia ciia i?a?aoe?? o?aaiaio?a AeIE aeey on?o
cia/aiue AA (0, 32, 56, 65, 81 ? 90%). Oaeiae niinoa??aathoueny /?oei
aecia/ai? nioae, ?icoaoiaai? a iaeano? nioae eiio?ieueii? AeIE.
?iciiae?e iieaeoey?ieo ian a on?o ii?ii?iaieo AeIE i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaee.
I?e ca?eueoaii? aeniiceoe?eii? aeice ii?ii?iaiiy c?ace?a AeIE
niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iecueei- oa aenieiiieaeoey?ieo
o?aaiaio?a AeIE (? ciaioaiiy ai?noo o?aaiaio?a ia?a?nii? aeiaaeeie). I?e
oeueiio aeey c?ace?a c AA 56% oa 65% i?ioyaei?noue ciie i?a?aoe??
iaeiaioa ii??aiyii c ?ioeie. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i a?aeiinii a?eueoo
?aae?aoe?eio no?ee?noue aeaieo c?ace?a.

O c?aceo AeIE, ii?ii?iaii? c aeniiceoe?eiith aeicith 270e? i?e 0% AA,
i?enooi? o?aeoe?? AeIE a ?ioa?aae? aeiaaeei 2322-23131 ia? iniia. I?e
ca?eueoaii? aeice ii?ii?iaiiy ia aeaeo?ioi?aa?aiao c?ace?a AeIE
ca?eueoo?oueny i?ioyaei?noue ciie i?a?aoe?? oeeo AeIE, niinoa??aa?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y aei ci?uaiiy iiceoe?? nioae iaeneiaeueieo iieaeoey?ieo ian o
a?e ?o ciaioaiiy oa iia?eueoaiiy. I?e oeueiio ?ioaineai?noue nioae, yea
a?aeiia?aea? iaeneiaeueiiio ai?noo o?aaiaio?a a eiio?ieuei?e AeIE,
ciaioo?oueny ? i?aeoe/ii cieea?. Iaeneiaeueiee ai?no o?aaiaio?a AeIE c
iaea?eueoeie ? iaeiaioeie iieaeoey?ieie ianaie niinoa??aa?oueny a
c?aceo, yeee aoa ii?ii?iaiee c aeniiceoe?eiith aeicith 2484e?.
Aiae?coth/e ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aenia?eiaio?a oa aeaieo, ui aoee io?eiai?
?ioeie aeine?aeieeaie, iiaeia c?iaeoe oaeee aeniiaie: o i?ioean?
ii?ii?iaiiy aieiaeo c?ace?a AeIE aiaea a nenoai?, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny,
iaaii, a?ae?a?a? iiaea?eio ?ieue. Nii/aoeo i?e iaaaeeeiio ai?no? aiaee o
c?aceo (aei 66-76% AA) iieaeoee ca’ycaii? aiaee ii a?aeiioaiith aei AeIE
aenooiathoue ye noaa?e?coth/? aaaioe. I?e iiaeaeueoiio caieiaeaii?
c?acea, eiee ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue iieaeoe aiaee, ui neaai ca’ycai?
c AeIE, aiaeia ioi/aiiy ni?ey? aeano?oeoe?? AeIE, ca?eueooth/e ??
/ooeea?noue aei ae?? ?aae?aoe??.

Aeniiaee

Aeyaeaii, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi a?aeiiniiai ai?noo GC-ia? o neeaae? IE
aca?iiae?y iieaeoe aiaee c a?ae?aoii-aeoeaieie oeaio?aie iineeth?oueny.
Oea i?iyaey?oueny o ca?eueoaii? aia?a?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? a?iiie?ia?ieo
iao?eoeue. I?e oeueiio ci?ia ai?noo GC-ia? a?ae 0 aei 100% i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ca?eueoaiiy iaaeeeoeiai? aia?a?? a?ae?aoaoe?? i?eaeecii ia 50%.
Niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae ciaioaiiy aeeiai?/ii? ?ooeeaino? iieaeoe aiaee a
a?ae?aoiiio ioi/aii? ioeea?iiaeo eeneio (ia-?aiao?e (d, Vf). C
i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo aiaee a c?aceao IE cia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ?
aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a a?ae?aoii? iaieiiee iaaeeaeathoueny aei cia/aiue
oeeo ia?aiao??a aeey ia’?iii? aiaee.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?aeai? aia?aaoe/i? ia?aiao?e iiaeooue neoaeeoe
e?euee?niith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ia?aeiii? no?oeoo?e AeIE. Iieacaii, ui
aia?a?y aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? i?e?iaeii? AeIE e?i?eii caeaaeeoue a?ae
ioeeaioeaeiiai neeaaeo ? i?aaenoaaey?oueny o aeaeyae? noie iiey?ieo
aeeaae?a aia?a?e aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? iie?ioeeaioeae?a AO- ? GC-oeio.
I?iaeaiiino?iaaii iiaeeea?noue ciaoiaeaeaiiy ioeeaioeaeiiai neeaaeo
aeaii? AeIE ? ?? aia?a?e aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? ca a?aeiiei iaai?ii cia/aiue
aeaieo ia?aiao??a aeey aeaio ?ioeo AeIE.

Ni?eueiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo iaoiaeaie i?e?ieaei?eiao???
oa oa?iia?aa?iao???, a oaeiae aeaieo ?*-niaeo?ineii??, iieacaa
iiaeeea?noue aeae?eaiiy a a?ae?aoiiio ioi/aii? AeIE o?ueio i?aenenoai,
ye? iii?oii a?ae??ciythoueny ca aia?aaoe/ieie aeanoeainoyie iieaeoe
aiaee (iaeano? ai?noo aiaee n(6II2I/II, 6(n(12II2I/II, 12(n(22II2I/II).

Iaea?aeaii cia/aiiy ia?oe?aeueieo aia?a?e ca’ycoaaiiy aeey ??cieo
oeaio??a a?ae?aoaoe??, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iieaeoee aiaee,
ni?aiaai? ca ??ciei oeiii, aa?ooue o/anoue o noaa?e?caoe?? iiaeeeaeo
eiioi?iaoe?? AeIE ??ciith i??ith. Oaeei /eiii, anoaiiaeaii, ui
aeanoeaino? a?ae?aoiiai ioi/aiiy a?aeaeaathoue no?oeoo?o IE ia ??cieo
??aiyo ?? i?aai?caoe??.

Iiaoaeiaaii a?ao/anoo iiaeaeue iiaa?oiaai? aeeooc?? aiaee a a?ae?aoiiio
ioi/aii? AeIE. Ia iniia? aeaii? iiaeae? iaea?aeaii ioe?ii/i? cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc?? ca’ycaii? aiaee a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ai?noo aiaee
a AeIE. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy a?ae?aoaoe?? AeIE eiao?oe??io aeeooc??
c?inoa?, i?e oeueiio iaeneiaeuei? ? i?i?iaeuei? cia/aiiy
a?ae??ciythoueny iaeaea ia o?e ii?yaeee.

Ciaeaeaia cia/aiiy o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? aeey A- ? A-eiioi?iaoe?e
AeIE, ye? aei??aiththoue a?aeiia?aeii 3,0 ? 2,5. Aeaiee ia?aiao?
a?aeia?aaea? ci?io eiioi?iaoe?eiiai noaio AeIE ? ? oa?aeoa?enoeeith
aoi?eiii? no?oeoo?e AeIE.

I?e aea/aii? noaa?eueiino? nenoaie AeIE-aiaea a oiiaao ae?? (-?aae?aoe??
aeyaeaii, ui c?acee AeIE, ii?ii?iai? i?e iii??iiio ai?no? aiaee (56% ?
65% AA), aeaiiino?othoue iaea?eueoo ?aae?aoe?eio no?ee?noue.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?ioean? ii?ii?iaiiy aiaeia ioi/aiiy iieaeoee AeIE
a?ae?a?a? ??cio ?ieue a caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo aiaee a c?aceo,
aenooiath/e ia ia?oiio aoai? (aei 66-76% AA) ye noaa?e?caoi? no?oeoo?e
AeIE, a i?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoai? ai?noo aiaee a nenoai?, ni?eyth/e
i?aeneeaiith ?? aeano?oeoe??.

NIENIE IIOAEEEIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Ae?iee E.I., Aanai A.E., Oanoiiaeiaa A.A., Iaeaaa A.ss. Yia?aaoe/aneea e
aeeiaie/aneea naienoaa aiaeu a aeae?aoiie iaiei/ea AeIE // A?ni. Oa?e.
oi-oo. – 1998. – ?410.A?io?ce/iee a?ni. Aei.1. – N.41-49.

Ae?iee E.I., Oienoi?oeia I.A. ?an/ao o?aeoaeueiuo ?acia?iinoae aeey
?acee/iuo eiioi?iaoeee AeIE // Aano. i?iaeai aeie. e iaae. – 1998. – ?2.
– N.5-15.

E?anieoeueea A.A., Aanai A.?., A??iee E.I. Aieea (-?aae?aoe?? ia
no?oeoo?iee noai AeIE, ui aoea ii?ii?iaia i?e ??cieo nooiaiyo aieiaino?
// A?ni. Oa?e. oi-oo. – 1998. – ?410.A?io?ce/iee a?ni. Aei.1. –
N.116-123.

Virnik K. M., Tolstorukov M. Ye., Maleev V.Ya. Surface diffusion of
bound water in hydrate surroundings of DNA // A?ni. Oa?e. oi-oo. – 1998.
– ?422. A?io?ce/iee a?ni. Aei.2. – N.23-28.

Ae?iee E.I., Iaieea?neay A.Ae., Eenaoeeee E.I., Ei?cianeay I.A.
Oa?iia?aaeiao?e/aneee aiaeec aiaeiuo aeenia?nee ye/iiai eaoeeoeia e
Na-AeIE // Oe?. aeioei. aeo?iae. – 1998. – O.70. –N.85-90.

Virnik K. M., Tolstorukov M. Ye. Binding energy differentiation of water
molecules in DNA hydration shell // A?ni. Oa?e. oi-oo. – 1998. – ?422.
A?io?ce/iee a?ni. Aei.2. – N.35-38.

Ae?iee E.I., Aanai A.E., Iaeaaa A.ss., Oanoiiaeiaa A.A. Aeeiaie/aneea
naienoaa iieaeoe aiaeu aeae?aoiie iaiei/ee aenie?aeueiuo
iieeioeeaioeaeiuo eiiieaenia e AeIE // O?oaeu 3-e Iaaeae. eiio.
“Oece/aneea yaeaiey a oaa?aeuo oaeao”. – Oa?ueeia. – 1997. – N.119.

Virnik K.M., Tolstorukov M.Ye., Maleev V.Ya. Estimation of the diffusion
coefficients of water bound to the DNA surface // Proc. 17th Discussion
Conf. “Surface and Interfacial Phenomena in Macromolecular Systems”. –
Prague (Czech Republic). – 1997. –P5.

Virnik K., Tolstorukov M., Hackl E. Physical properties of water
molecules bound to DNA. Theoretical study // NATO School on “Hydration
Processes in Biology: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches”. – Les
Houches (France). – 1998. – P1(15).

Aanai A.?., A??iee E.I., Iae??a A.ss., Oanoiiaeiaa A.A. Aia?aaoe/i? oa
aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aiaee a a?ae?aoieo iaieiieao i?e?iaei?o AeIE
// Oace aeiiia?aeae II C’?caeo Oe?a?inueeiai aiioice/iiai oiaa?enoaa
(OAOO-98). – Oa?e?a. – 1998. – C.17.

Aanai A.E., Ae?iee E.I., Iaeaaa A.ss., Oanoiiaeiaa A.A. Yia?aaoeea
aeae?aoaoeee ioeeaeiiauo eeneio e aeeiaieea naycaiiie aiaeu // Proc.
Conf on «Physics of Biological Systems» (PBS 98). – Kyiv. – 1998. –
P.42.

Aiioaoe?y

A??iee E.I. Aia?aaoe/i? ? aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaie AeIE-aiaea.
– ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.02 – a?io?ceea. –
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, i. Oa?e?a, 1999.

I?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? ? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ?
aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee nenoai ioeea?iiaa eeneioa-aiaea c ??ciei
ioeeaioeaeiei neeaaeii. Ciaeaeaii e?i?eio aca?iicaeaaei?noue i?ae
aia?a??th aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? ioeea?iiai? eeneioe oa ?? AT/GC neeaaeii.
Cai?iiiiiaaii a?ao/anoo iiaeaeue aeeooc?? ca’ycaii? aiaee acaeiaae
iiaa?oi? iieaeoee AeIE c o?aooaaiiyi ?? o?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae. Ia
iniia? oe??? iiaeae? aoei io?eiaii ioe?ii/i? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a
aeeooc?? aiaee a a?ae?aoiiio ioi/aii? AeIE. ?ic?aoiaaii cia/aiiy
o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? AeIE o ??cieo eiioi?iaoe?eieo noaiao. I?e
aeine?aeaeaii? aeanoeainoae nenoaie AeIE-aiaea a oiiaao ae??
(-?aae?aoe?? ciaeaeaii, ui a i?ioean? ii?ii?iaiiy aiaeia ioi/aiiy
iieaeoee AeIE o caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy ai?noo aiaee iiaea aenooiaoe ye
noaa?e?caoi?ii no?oeoo?e AeIE, oae ? i?aeneethaa/ai aeano?oeoeaii? ae??
?aae?aoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ioeea?iia? eeneioe, AeIE, a?ae?aoaoe?y, aia?aaoeea,
aeeiai?/i? aeanoeaino?, aeeooc?y, o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue,
(-?aae?aoe?y.

Aiiioaoeey

Ae?iee E. I. Yia?aaoe/aneea e aeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaiu
AeIE-aiaea.– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.02 – aeioeceea. –
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, a.Oa?ueeia, 1999.

I?iaaaeaiu yenia?eiaioaeueiua e oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey
yia?aaoe/aneeo e aeeiaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee nenoai ioeeaeiiaay
eeneioa-aiaea n ?acee/iui ioeeaioeaeiui ninoaaii. Iaia?oaeaia eeiaeiay
acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo yia?aeae aeaaeae?aoaoeee ioeeaeiiaie eeneiou e aa
AT/GC ninoaaii. I?aaeeiaeaia ?aoaoi/iay iiaeaeue aeeooocee naycaiiie
aiaeu aaeieue iiaa?oiinoe iieaeoeu AeIE n o/aoii aa o?aeoaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae. Ia iniiaa aeaiiie iiaeaee auee iieo/aiu ioeaii/iua
cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioia aeeooocee aiaeu a aeae?aoiii ie?oaeaiee AeIE.
?ann/eoaiu cia/aiey o?aeoaeueiie ?acia?iinoe AeIE a ?acee/iuo
eiioi?iaoeeiiiuo ninoiyieyo. I?e enneaaeiaaiee naienoa nenoaiu
AeIE-aiaea a oneiaeyo aeaenoaey (-?aaeeaoeee iaia?oaeaii, /oi a
i?ioeanna iaeo/aiey aiaeiia ie?oaeaiea iieaeoeu AeIE a caaeneiinoe io
o?iaiy niaea?aeaiey aiaeu iiaeao aunooiaoue eae a ea/anoaa noaaeeecaoi?a
no?oeoo?u AeIE, oae e oneeeoaey aeano?oeoeaiiai aeaenoaey ?aaeeaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou, AeIE, aeae?aoaoeey, yia?aaoeea,
aeeiaie/aneea naienoaa, aeeooocey, o?aeoaeueiay ?acia?iinoue,
(-?aaeeaoeey.

SUMMARY

Virnik K.M. Energetic and dynamic characteristics of DNA-water system. –
Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 03.00.02 – biophysics. –
Kharkov State University, Kharkov, 1999.

Nucleic acid functioning occurs due to their conformational mobility
that can be influenced by numerous factors. One of the most important
factors determining the secondary structure and properties of a nucleic
acid, DNA particularly, is hydration surroundings. Changing water
content in a DNA sample can cause reversible transitions of the
disorder-order, order-order types. The transitions are closely
coordinated with a rearrangement of the DNA hydration shell that
consists of water molecules sorbed in a hydration process.

A state of any system and its transition from one state to another one
may be described with using thermodynamic parameters. Therefore, studies
of DNA energetic parameters and dynamic ones closely related with them
are an important part of research of the structure, conformational
dynamics and properties of DNA.

In this paper results of experimental and theoretical investigations of
energetics and dynamic properties of nucleic acid-water systems with
various nucleotide compositions are presented. The experimental
dependencies of the dehydration energy values of the polymer matrices on
the hydration level and nucleotide composition have been obtained. It is
found that an interaction between the water molecules and
hydration-active centers on a nucleic acid matrix increases as the
GC-pair content increases in the nucleic acid. That results in
increasing the dehydration energy of the biopolymer matrix. While the
water content is growing in the nucleic acid samples (independent on
their nucleotide composition) the dehydration energy values decrease and
tend to the mean value of the water-water interaction energy in a bulk
phase. This attests small distinguishability of the energetic
characteristics of bulk water and an outer part of the nucleic acid
hydration surroundings. A joint analysis of the results obtained by
using microcalorimetry and thermogravimetry techniques, and
IR-spectroscopy data of other researchers has shown that in the DNA
hydration surroundings one can distinguish three subsystems in each of
which the water molecules differ noticeably in their energetic
properties from the water molecules of the other subsystems. It has also
been found that the dehydration energy of a natural DNA can be presented
as a sum of molar contributions of the dehydration energies of the
AT-and GC-type polynucleotides. Results of the partial binding energy
calculations for different hydration centers on DNA suggest that the
water molecules, sorbed after different type, take part in stabilizing
an individual conformation of DNA differently. Thus, the energetic
parameters obtained can be considered not only as a measure of the water
molecules and DNA matrix interaction but also as a quantitative
characteristic of the DNA primary structure.

A close relationship of energetic and dynamic characteristics allows us
to calculate the values of dynamic parameters characterizing mobility of
water in the nucleic acid hydration surroundings as dielectric
relaxation time of the water dipoles, “free volume” occupied by the
water molecules in the hydration shell, water molecule lifetime in a
bound state. It has been found that dynamic mobility of the water in the
nucleic acid hydration surroundings decreases as the GC-pair relative
content increases in the sample.

A lattice model of bound water diffusion along a DNA surface with taking
into account the DNA fractal features has been proposed. On the basis of
the model we have estimated values of the water diffusion coefficients
in the DNA hydration surroundings. Also, values of a fractal dimension
for A-and B-form of DNA have been obtained. They differ and, therefore,
fractal dimension can be considered as a characteristic of DNA secondary
structure and indicates dynamics of its conformational state.

Dynamic properties of the nucleic acid hydration surroundings and a
process of its formation can be described completely enough on a basis
of using experimental and calculation methods. Such a systematic
approach represents a real perspective for further studies of the
hydration surrounding role in processes of stabilization and
conformational transitions of nucleic acid-water systems.

One of the most highly active and prevalent environmental factors
influencing stability of a DNA-water system is (-radiation. The fact
that water content plays a fundamental role in determining structure of
the DNA-water system makes a study of (-radiation influence on the
stability of the system at different hydration levels very important. A
degree of the destructive changes in a wetted DNA increases with growth
of an irradiation dose, in other words the stability of the DNA-water
system decreases. DNA samples irradiated at 56 and 65% relative humidity
demonstrate extreme resistance to irradiation. The most dramatic changes
in molecular mass distribution have been observed for DNA samples
irradiated at 0 and 90% relative humidity. In the irradiation process
the DNA hydration surroundings can play different role that depends on
the water content in the sample. On the first stage (up to 66-76%
relative humidity) it acts as a stabilizer of the DNA structure and
then, while the water content in the system increases further, as a
promoter of increasing the DNA destruction.

Key words: nucleic acids, DNA, hydration, energetics, dynamic
properties, diffusion, fractal dimension, (-radiation.

PAGE 7

?enoiie 1

?en.1. Caeaaeiino? aia?a?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? A oa /ano ae?aeaeo?e/ii?
?aeaenaoe?? iieaeoe ca’ycaii? aiaee (d aeey ioeea?iiaeo eeneio ??ciiai
ioeeaioeaeiiai neeaaeo a?ae ai?noo aiaee (a) ? iaaeeeoeiai? aia?a??
a?ae?aoaoe?? a?ae ai?noo aiaee oa a?aeiiniiai ai?noo GC-ia? O o c?aceo
(a).

Oaaeeoey 1

Cia/aiiy a?eueii? aia?a?? ca’ycoaaiiy aeey ni?aiaaieo ca ??cieie oeiaie
iieaeoe

aiaee, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue o noaa?e?caoe?? iiaeeeaeo eiioi?iaoe?eieo
noai?a NaAeIE

Oei noaa?e?ciaaiiai eiioi?iaoe?eiiai noaio (m)

Oei ni?aoe?? (k) A-oi?ia B-oi?ia Iaoii?yaeei-aaiee noai

L 4,0 3,7 3,6

H 2,0 2,2 1,9

ML 0,2 0,2 0,01

?enoiie 2

?en.2. Caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo aiaee ia?aiao?a “a?eueiiai ia’?io”
a?ae?aoiiai ioi/aiiy aeey ioeea?iiaeo eeneio ??ciiai AT/GC-neeaaeo.

?enoiie 3

?en.3. Noaia iiaeae?. 1 – iieaeoea AeIE, 2 – i?noea ca’ycoaaiiy, yea
caeiyoi iieaeoeith aiaee, 3 – a?eueia i?noea ca’ycoaaiiy.

?enoiie 4

?en.4. Caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??ioa iiaa?oiaai? aeeooc?? acaeiaae
o?aeoaeueii?

iiaa?oi? AeIE (a) ? eiao?oe??ioa iiaeiaaeiuei? aeeooc?? (a) a?ae AA (?
ai?noo aiaee). Caoo?eoiaai? ieiu? a?aeiia?aeathoue ?ioa?aaeai
eiioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aoiae?a.

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