I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??

OA?EOIIIA IEAA AeAI?NAEIAE*

OAeE: 618.1 — 415; 146-446; 148 -006.37

AIAeII?IOACOAAIIss O AEIAAeEAO CEAI?A OEEEE NOAAIA

— o?aaiaoieia?y oa i?oiiaae?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai??
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, eao?aao

Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie,
aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Eaaaiaoeue A?oae?e
Ieeieaeiae/, caa?- aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith o?aaiaoieia?? oa
i?oiiaae?? ? 1

Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Uoieea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: canooiiee aee?aeoi?a Oe?a?inueeiai IAe? o?aaiaoi-

eia?? oa i?oiiaae??, noa?oee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe
Aa?aneiaiei Na?a?e

?aaiiae/;

I?ioani? eaoaae?e o?aaiaoieia??
oa i?oiiaae?? Ee?a-

nueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Aieioei

Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
i?oiiaae??

oa o?aaiaoieia?? ?iai?
i?ioani?a I.?.Neoaiea IIC

Oe?a?ie, i.Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «25» 05 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.606.01 «O?aaiaoieia?y oa i?oiiaae?y»
i?e Oe?a?inueeiio IAe? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? (252601, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Ai?ianueeiai, 27).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
IAe? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? (252601, i.Ee?a, aoe. Ai?ianueeiai,
27).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «20» 04 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaiii? A/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe
A.A.Oeauaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a o a?eueoino?
e?a?i na?oo ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue ethaeae iioeeiai a?eo. Ca aeaieie
A.A.Aaeea, A.A.Iiai?icithea, ?.I.Iiae?ooiyea (1996) a Oe?a?i? ia 1 n?/iy
1995 ?ieo 25,6% neeaaeaee ethaee, a?eii 55 ?ie?a oa a?eueoa, a 70 ?ie?a
oa a?eueoa iaee 8% ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

A?aeiii, ui ceai oeeee noaaia- oea ceai, oa?aeoa?iee aeey
ethaeae noa?oiai a?eo. Anoaiiaeaii (E.A.Ooiaaea, 1970; A.I.E??oeiai,
1972; ss.E.E?eaeai?anueeee, 1976, A.A.Eaieai, 1977), ui aei 60 ?ie?a
ceaie oeeee noaaia (ON) neeaaeathoue 3-4%, a i?ney 60-?ie?a — 60-62
a?aeon?o ceai?a aeiaaeo e?noie.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy, a oiio /ene? inoaineioac
??cieie o?enaoi?aie, ia aeaeue i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeeo oneeaaeiaiue, ye
iac?iuaiiy, iani?aaaei?e noaeia, anaioe/iee iae?ic aie?aee. Oea
iia’ycaii c iniaeeainoyie a?eiaeo ci?i ON (?.I.Iiae?ooiye, I.I.A?aaei,
1996), ii?ooaiiyie e?iaiiinoa/aiiy aie?aee, ?ic/aaeaiiyi aoa/anoi?
e?noeiai? oeaieie oeeee. Ao?eaiiy inoaii?ie ?ieaie aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy
aeicaieeei cia/ii ciaioeoe e?euee?noue oneeaaeiaiue, aea aiae?c aeaieo
e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue, ui ? oeae iaoiae ia caaacia/o? oe?eeiaeoiai ?o
oieeiaiiy.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui a?eueo?noue (70-90%) ceai?a o e?oi?o ethaeae,
iniaeeai ae?iie, ? iane?aeeii inoaiii?ioe/ieo ci?i o e?noeao. Oae
(A.A.Iiai?icithe, O.I.I?aee?naoeueeee, 1996) anoaiiaeaii, ui «nooi?iue
iinoa??iiy e?noeiai? nenoaie o iaoe??io?a c? ceaiaie ON cia/ii ia?aaeuo?
iiioeyoe?eiee noaiaea?o ia 8,5 ?ie?a o a?eia?e a?oi? 70-79 ?ie?a». ?io?
aeine?aeaeaiiy (A.A.Iiai?icithe, 1977) na?ae/aoue, ui «…ca ia??iae
a?ae 30 aei 80 ?ie?a i?ia?aeueia u?euei?noue eiiiaeoii? e?noeiai?
oeaieie cieaeo?oueny o ae?iie ia 27%, /ieia?e?a — 22%, a i?ia?aeueia
u?euei?noue aoa/anoi? oeaieie — a?aeiia?aeii ia 33% oa 25%.

Iia?aoeaiiio e?eoaaiith ceai?a oeeee noaaia ca aeiiiiiaith
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy i?enay/aia aeinoaoiy e?euee?noue i?aoeue (A.A.Eaiaeai,
A.I.Ee?oeiai, 1970; A.N.Eiaiaeeaa, A.A.Iaeaiaae, 1976; A.A.Aaeei,
A.A.?aoaoieeia, A.Oeoo?, 1979; A.I.Eaaaiaoe, 1979; A.I.Eaaiia, 1989;
I.Naeae, 1989; A.A.Iaaa?ia, 1990; I.?.Eineooia, 1996; A.A.Iiiia,
A.N.Oe?a?iaoeue, A.A.A?eiiiaeaiei, 1996; ss.E.E?eaeai?anueeee, 1997;
M.R.Wood, 1982; A.M.Reymond, J.Kohner, 1991; J.M.Lee, E.A.Salvati,
F.Betts, 1992; D.J. Knight, L.A.Rumaszewski, A.A.Amis, J.H.Miller, 1993
oa ?io?), a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? yeeo ioe?iththoueny ??ci? o??o?a?/i?
aeinooie, iniaeeaino? oaoi?ee ? ?acoeueoaoe ao?o/aiiy.

Aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie iaoiiaeaia oei, ui aeioaia? ia
aea/aii ?aioaaii-ii?oi-o?c?ieia?/i? aniaeoe noaio e?noeiai? oeaieie
aie?aee noaaia a ?ac? ceaio oeeee noaaia ? aieeao oeueiai noaio ia
e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy oai?eo, ui iaee inoaiii?ic. Aei
oeueiai /ano a?aenooiy ?aeeia oi/ea ci?o ia iieacaiiy aei
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy acaaae?, ia noai?aia nenoaia eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo
aei aeai?o oeio i?ioaca c o?aooaaiiyi a?eo ? aeoeaiino? iaoe??ioa,
nooiaiy inoaiii?ico oa oi?ie i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaiiai? e?noee.
Noia?a/eeaeie caeeoathoueny ieoaiiy iiiia?aoe?eiiai ?aaeeio, cie?aia
oa?i?i?a ii/aoeo iaaaioaaeaiiy iia?iaaii? e?ioe?aee. Ia ae??oai? ieoaiiy
aeoeaii? i?io?eaeoeee iiiia?aoe?eiiai iaa?yeo, ia?aa?oeeoey?ieo
ineo?eao?a oa ?ioeo iiaeeeaeo oneeaaeiaiue. I?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? aeai?
i?i canoinoaaiiy aioe?aci?aoeaii? oa?ai?? a ?ac? aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy ia
oe? inoaiii?ico.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iia’ycaia c IAe? eaoaae?e i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia?? ? 1 Ee?anueei?
iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Uoieea «
Oaeineiiaeaiiy aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy eoeueoiaiai noaeiaa.» Oeo? ?IO 6.96, ?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0196 EI 15577. ?iee aeeiiaiiy 1995-2000.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iie?auaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy o
aeiaaeeao ceai?a ON oeyoii aea/aiiy noaio e?noeiai? oeaieie aie?aee,
?ic?iaee ia oe?e i?aenoaa? aeeoa?aioe?eiaiieo iieacaiue ? eiiieaeniiai
niiniao iiiia?aoe?eiiai

e?eoaaiiy.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

aea/eoe noai e?noeiai? oeaieie aie?aee noaaia ca aeiiiiiaith
?aioaaiieia?/iiai iaoiaeo oa oeueo?acaoeiai? aeaineoiiao???;

aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i a aie?aoe? noaaia o aeiaaeeao
ceai?a oeeee noaaia a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy inoaiii?ico;

?ic?iaeoe aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? iieacaiiy aei canoinoaaiiy ??cieo oei?a
i?ioacoaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo, o?ce/iiai ? ?icoiiaiai noaio
iaoe??io?a, nooiaiy inoaiii?ico ? oi?ie i?ieneiaeueiiai a?aeae?eo
noaaia;

a?aei?aoethaaoe eiiieaenio nenoaio aei- oa iiiia?aoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy;

aea/eoe ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy, i?iaanoe aiae?c iiieeie oa oneeaaeiaiue,
oaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio ?o i?io?eaeoeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

aea/aii ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie a aieiaoe? noaaia;

aea/aii ?aioaaiieia?/i? ? aeaineoiiao?e/i? iieacieee noaio e?noeiai?
oeaieie aie?aee noaaia oa ?o ?ieue o aeai?? oeio i?ioaca ? niiniao
i?ioacoaaiiy (aacoeaiaioia, oeaiaioia);

aecia/aii aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? iieacaiiy aei ??cieo niinia?a
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo, aeoeaiino? iaoe??ioa, nooiaiy
inoaiii?ico oa oi?ie i?ieneiaeueiiai a?aeae?eo noaaia;

a?aei?aoeueiaaia oa aaeineiiaeaiiy eiiieaenia nenoaia aei- oa
iiiia?aoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy;

aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo nenoaio i?io?eaeoeee
iiiia?aoe?eiiai iaa?yeo oeyoii ii?aeiaiiai canoinoaaiiy i?aia?ao?a
nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai?? ei?ioei? oa i?ieiiaiai? ae?? (Oeiaaiceia oa
Aiiiaaiceia).

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoooeueoao?a. Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy
?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo
ee?i?ei-?aioaaii-ii?oieia?/ieo oa aeaineoiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiaaaeaii iayai?noue inoaiii?ico o iaoe??io?a o aeiaaeeao ceai?a oeeee
noaaia, ui nooo?ai aieeaa? ia aea?? oeio i?ioaca, niiniao i?ioacoaaiiy ?
ia e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? oa
iaa?oioiaai? iia? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy iieacaiue aei
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy o ?ac? ceai?a oeeee noaaia; iaa?oioiaaia
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia canoinoaaiiy oeaiaioiiai oa aacoeaiaioiiai niinia?a
iaeiiiiethniiai aaeiii?ioacoaaiiy; aecia/ai? iieacaiiy aei canoinoaaiiy
??cieo oei?a iaeiiiiethnieo i?ioac?a, a oaeiae aeey oioaeueiiai
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi a?eo, oi?ie i?ieneiaeueiiai a?aeae?eo
noaaia, nooiaiy inoaiii?ico oa aeoeaiino? iaoe??io?a. Aaeineiiaeaia
eiiieaenia nenoaia aei- oa iiiia?ioe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy. ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia
i?io?eaeoeee iiiia?aoe?eiiai iaa?yeo oeyoii ii?aeiaiiai canoinoaaiiy
i?aia?ao?a nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai?? ei?ioei? oa i?ieiiaiai? ae?? —
Oeiaaiceia oa Aiaaiceia.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie o i?aeoeeo. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoe/io ?iaioo ee?i?e eaoaae?
o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? ? 1 oa ? 2 Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Uoieea, Iaeanueeiai o?aaiaoieia?/iiai
oeaio?o, o?aaiaoieia?/ieo a?aeae?eaiue e?ea?aiue ? 6, ? 8, ? 28 i?noa
Ee?aa, i?nueei? e?ea?i? i?noa Eooeueea, a oaeiae a iaa/aeueiee
i?ioean eaoaae? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? EIAII ?i.I.E.Uoieea oa
Iaeanueeiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Caeiaoaa/ naiino?eii aea/ea oa
ia?iaea aeai? ?aioaaiieia?/ieo oa aeaineoiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei
noaio e?noeiai? oeaieie aie?aee noaaia a ?ac? ceai?a oeeee noaaia.
Aaoi?ii aecia/ai? oa iaa?oioiaai? aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? iieacaiiy aei
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy a ?ac? ceai?a oeeee noaaia a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo,
aeoeaiino? iaoe??ioa, nooiaiy inoaiii?ico ? oi?ie i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey
noaaiiai? e?noee; iieacaiiy aei aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai canoinoaaiiy
oeaiaioiiai oa aacoeaiaioiiai iaeiiiethniiai i?ioacoaaiiy; canoinoaaiiy
??cieo oei?a iaeiiiethnieo i?ioac?a. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi aaeineiiaeaii
niin?a aecia/aiiy aeiaaeeie oeeee i?ioaca. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi
aaeineiiaeaia eiiieaenia nenoaia aei- oa iiiia?aoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy.
Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii noaio ii?aeiaiiai canoinoaaiiy i?aia?ao?a nenoaiii?
aiceiioa?ai?? ei?ioei? oa i?ieiiaiaaii? ae?? (Oeiaaiceia ? Aiaaiceia)
aeey i?io?eaeoeee iaa?yeo i?ney aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? o aeiiia?aeyo
ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aa?eao?e/ii?
i?oiiaae??» Ee?a, 1996); ?? Oe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Inoaiii?ic: ai?aeaiieia?y, ee?i?ea, ae?aaiinoeea, i?io?eaeoeea oa
e?eoaaiiy» (Euea?a, 1997); Ae?oaiio Iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an?
?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1997); Oe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy noaeia?a» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997),
can?aeaiiy iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa o?aaiaoieia?a-i?oiiaae?a i?noa Iaeane oa
Iaeanueei? iaeano? (Iaeana, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 11 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, c yeeo 3 — o aeo?iaeao
«Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y» oa «*aniien». O?e iioae?eiaai? i?aoe? — naiino?ei?.

Iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

?aioaaii-ii?oiea?/i? oa aeaineoiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio e?noeiai?
oeaieie a ?ac? ceai?a oeeee noaaia;

Aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? iieacaiiy aei aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy a ?ac? ceai?a oeeee
noaaia; aea?? oeaiaioiiai aai aacoeaiaioiiai niiniao iaeiiiethniiai
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy; aea?? oeio i?ioaca a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo,
aeoeaiino? iaoe??ioa, oa nooiaiy inoaiii?ico oa a?ae oi?ie
i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaiiai? e?noee.

Oaeineiiaeaia nenoaia aei- oa iiiia?aoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy.

Ii?aeiaia canoinoaaiiy i?aia?ao?a nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai?? ei?ioei? oa
i?ieiiaiaaii? ae?? — Oeiaaiceia ? Aiaaiceia — aeey i?io?eaeoeee
iiiia?aoe?eiiai iaa?yeo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 112 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a
oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, yeee i?noeoue 229 aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??, cie?aia 97
— a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a ? aaoi??a e?a?i NIAe oa 132 — ?iicaiieo aaoi??a.
Aeena?oaoe?y ?ethno?iaaia 44 iaethieaie, 8 oaaeeoeyie.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

A iniia? ?iaioe eaaeaoue eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio
e?noeiai? oeaieie aie?aee, oeeee oa aa?oethaiai? ciie noaaia o aeiaaeeao
ceai?a oeeee noaaia. Aeey oeueiai i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?aiaaiia?ai 66
iaoe??io?a iioeeiai ? noa?a/iai a?eo. I?iaaaeai? oaeiae ii?oieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy 10 i?aia?ao?a i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaia e?noee
?aioiai iiia?eeo in?a, a?eii iiiaae 65 ?ie?a oa 18 i?aia?ao?a aie?aee
noaaia, aeaeaeaieo i?ae /an iia?aoe?? aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy. E??i oiai
i?iaaaeaii oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith aeaineoiiao?a
«Achilles+» o 8 /ieia?e?a oa 12 ae?iie i?ney aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy c
i?eaiaeo ceaio oeeee noaaia.

A ee?i?/iiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe ie ianoaaeeee 105 iaoe??io?a c?
ceaiaie oeeee noaaia ? 2 — ?c inaaaea?oicaie oeeee noaaia, i?e/iio 41
?noi??y oai?iae aoee a?o?aiei iaoa??aeii ( aei 1995 ?ieo), a 66
iaoe??io?a ie niinoa??aaee aaciina?aaeiuei. Na?aae ianoaaeaieo oai?eo
aoei 72 (67,3%) ae?iie ? 35 (32,7%) /ieia?e?a. Ca a?eii iaoe??ioe
?iciiae?eyeenue oae: aei 60 ?ie?a — 5 iaoe??io?a (4,6%), a?ae 61 aei 70
?ie?a — 53 (49,6%), a?ae 71 aei 80 ?ie?a — 30 (31,8%) ? iiiaae 80 ?ie?a
-15 (14%) iaoe??io?a. Na?aae ianoaaeaieo 107 oai?eo i?aoethaaee 47
(43,9%), i?e/iio 35 c ieo ca nai?i o?ce/iei oa ?icoiiaei noaiii aoee
cia/ii iieiaeoeie a?ae ianii?oiiai a?eo oa aaee aeoeaiee niin?a aeeooy.

A ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c 107 aiaeii?ioacoaaiue o aeiaaeeao
ceai?a oeeee noaaia (oaaeeoey 1), c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo oei?a i?ioac?a.

Oaaeeoey 1- E?euee?noueiia?aoe?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio i?ioaca.

? Oei i?ioaca
E?euee?noue iia?iaaieo oai?eo

1 I?ioac Io?a-Oe?OI 41-aei
1995 ?ieo

2 I?ioac Io?a Oe?OI 20-c
1995 ?ieo

3 I?ioac Ino?i-Io?a 2

4 Iaeiiiiethniee i?ioac 34:9 —
aacoeaiaioieo

o??ie «?iiaae»-Ee?a
25-oeaiaioieo

5 Oioaeueiee i?ioac o??ie 6 oeaiaioieo

«A?ioa?» -NOA

6 Oioaeueiee i?ioac o??ie «?iiaae»- 3 oeaiaioieo

Ee?a

7 Oioaeueiee i?ioac «Tiperloc» o??ie 1 oeaiaioiee

«Biomet» NOA

Anueiai
107:72 -aacoeaiaioieo

35-oeaiaioieo

Aeey ioe?iee iaea?eueo a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy
ie aeei?enoiaoaaee 6 ee?i?/ieo (caai?iiy ?aie, a?eue, eoeueaaiiy, ianya
?oo?a, iii?i?noue e?ioe?aee, oiaeueaa) oa 6 ?aiaaeieia?/ieo (e?cen aeoae
Aaeaina, e?cen iaaeiei i?aeee, a?aeoeeaiiy i?aeee a eaiae?, ineo?eaoe,
ceai i?aeee, caeo aie?aee i?ioaca) e?eoa???a; ?acoeueoaoe ioe?ithaaee ca
nenoaiith: «aeia?a», «caaeia?eueii», «iacaaeia?eueii».

C iaoith ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ii?aeiaii? ae?? i?aia?ao?a
nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai?? — Oeiaaiceia ? Aiaaiceia — aeei?enoiaoaaee oae?
e?eoa???: e?euee?noue e?ia? (aie), io?eiaii? c ae?aiaae?a;

o?eaae?noue (o aeiyo ) iaa?yeo a cii? iia?iaaiiai noaeiaa;
iieacieee ?aaeoeaiiai caiaeaiiy (a?ia?oai?y oe??e, a?ia?ai?y oe??e);
a?ae/oooy aieth; o?eaae?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? iia?iaaiiai noaeiaa.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

I?iaaaeai? ?aioaaiieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o 66 oai?eo c?
ceaiaie oeeee noaaia iieacaee, ui o 59% iaoe??io?a a?eii iiiaae 60 ?ie?a
iaee i?noea iciaee inoaiii?ico. I?e oeueiio 6 oa 5 noaae?? ca ?iaeaenii
N?iaa aeyaeai? o 53,8%, 4 oa 3 noaae?? — o 28, 2%, a a 2 oa 1 noaae?? —
o 18% iaoe??io?a. Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui o 36,2% iaoe??io?a
?aioaaiieia?/ia anoaiiaeaia cieeiaiiy iaeeo o?aaaeoe aie?aee oa oeeee
noaaia, iaeaea oe?eeiaeoa cieeiaiiy o?eeooieea Oi?aea, oe?eeiaeoa
cieeiaiiy i?eaeaoeiaeo o?aaaeoe ? /anoeiaa aai nooe?eueia cieeiaiiy
aeoaiiiae?aieo o?aaaeoe oeeee oa aaeeeiai aa?oethaa noaaia. I? oeueiio
aeuaiaaaaeai? iciaee inoaiii?ico a?eueoa aecia/aeenue o aeiaaeeao c
ai?iieiiiae?aiith oi?iith i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaia.

Aeai? ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue 10 i?aia?ao?a
i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaia a?ae ?aioiai iiia?eeo in?a a?eii iiiaae 65
?ie?a oa 18 aie?aie noaaia, aeaeaeaieo i?ae /an iia?aoe??
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui o ethaeae iioeeiai a?eo noaoiiae?aeueia
e?noea, e?noeia? ia?aeeaaeeie oa eiiiaeoiee aee? e?noee cia/ii
iioiioothoueny, oiaoi e?noeiaa iana i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaia
ciaioo?oueny, ui ? aieiaiith ii?oieia?/iith iciaeith inoaiii?ico.

Aeai? oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee nooo?aa
cieaeaiiy i?ia?aeueii? u?eueiino? oa i?oeiino? e?noeiai? oeaieie, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue inoaiii?ico o oai?eo c? ceaiaie oeeee noaaia.
Cia/i?o? iciaee inoaiii?ico aeyaeai? a in?a a?eii 70-75 ?ie?a ? a?eueoa
ca iayaiino? ai?iieiiiae?aii? oi?ie i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaia.

Aeai? i?iaaaeaieo ?aioaaiieia?/ieo, ii?oieia?/ieo oa
aeaineoiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue niiioeaee ian ia?aaeyiooe iieacaiiy aei
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy o aeiaaeeao ceai?a oeeee noaaia. E??i oiai ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aeaee iai i?aenoaae a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae iioe?aii? oi/ee
ci?o i?i canoinoaaiiy eeoa iaeiiiiethniiai aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy, iaaeoi
aacoeaiaioiiai.

A?aoiaoth/e aeuacaaaeaia, ie aecia/eee aeeoa?aioe?eiaai?
iieacaiiy aei aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy o aeiaaeeao ceai?a oeeee noaaia. Aeey
oeueiai ie acyee ca e?eoa??? oae? iieacieee: a?e iaoe??ioa, noai
e?noeiai? oeaieie, oi?ia i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaia, aeoeai?noue
iaoe??ioa ( aeoeaiee o iiaoo?, i?aoeth?, caeia?oueny
noni?eueii-ei?eniith ae?yeuei?noth).

Aaaaea?ii, ui aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy o iaoe??io?a c? ceaiaie oeeee
noaaia iiaeiii canoiniaoaaoenue o o?ueio aa??aioao: iaeiiiiethnia
aacoeaiaioia, iaeiiiiethnia oeaiaioia ? oioaeueia oeaiaioia.

Iieacaiiyie aei ??cieo aeae?a aiaeii?ioacaaaiiy iathoue aooe:

aei iaeiiiiethniiai aacoeaiaioiiai a?e 70 ?ie?a ? a?eueoa;
noaoue: ae?iee/

aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy /ieia?ee;

iaae?aeueiee aai /a?acoeeeiaee ceai

ON; a?aenooi?noue inoaiii?ico

aei iaeiiiiethniiai oeaiaioiiai a?e 65 ?ie?a ? a?eueoa;
noaoue: ae?iee/

aai oioaeueiiai oeaiaioiiai /ieia?ee;

aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy iaae?aeueiee aai
/a?acoeeeiaee ceai ON ;

inoaiii?ic

aei oioaeueiiai oeaiaioiiai a?e 65 ?ie?a ? a?eueoa;
noaoue: ae?iee/

aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy /ieia?ee;

iaae?aeueiee aai /a?acoeeeiaee ceai ON;

inoaiii?ic aai eiai a?aenooi?noue; aenieee

nooi?iue aeoeaiino? iaoe??ioa

E??i oiai, a ?ac? canoinoaaiiy iaeiiiethniiai
i?ioacoaaiiy ne?ae a?aoe aei oaaae oi?io i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaia:
eiee oi?ia oeee?iae?e/ia — ?aeiiaiaeo?ii ?aeiiaiaeo?ii ?iieaiooaaoe
i?ioace oeio Io?a, «I?oai», a eiee oi?ia ai?iieiiiae?aia — a?iiaoai?/ia
iaeaei?aaaeai?oa canoiniaoaaoe i?ioac?a oeio «Protec», «?iiaae» aai
?io? i?ioace c iiae?aiith oi?ith i?aeee.

A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui ceaie oeeee noaaia — oea iaoaeia?y
e?oi?o ethaeae, ie aei iia?aoe?? i?iaiaeeee nooe?eueia ianoaaeaiiy. Oae,
i?ae /an ee?i?ei-?ino?oiaioaeueiiai ianoaaeaiiy 66 oai?eo aecia/aii
iayai?noue ?oai?/ii? oai?iae na?oey o 21 iaoe??ioa, aoa?ineea?ioe/iiai
ai?oiea?ae?ineea?ico — o 11, o?ii?/iiai aaiaoeoo e aaiaoioieaoeenoeoo —
o 15, oeoe?iaiai ae?aaaoo — o 6, iaee??iiy oa ?ioeo caoai?thaaiue — o 3
oai?eo. On?i iaoe??ioai aei iia?aoe?? i?iaaaeaii oa?aiaaoe/io
ei?aeoe?th.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue aeyaeaiith iiaeeeaeo i?e/ei
aeieeiaiiy a iiaeaeueoiio ai?eii-caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue.
I?e?ia?ieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy (n?yiiy ?c caao, iino, aeioee) 39 iaoe??io?a
aeyaeei iayai?noue St. Aureus ?acii c aeaieie i?i i?aeaeuaio /ooeea?noue
aei aioea?ioee?a o 7 oai?eo.

Ana aeuacaaaeaia aeiaaaei i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? aeiiia?aoe?eii?
i?aeaioiaee, o neeaae yei? ie aeeth/eee:

C iaoith i?io?eaeoeee ai?eii-caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue i?ecia/aeenue
aioea?ioeee. C 1997 ?ieo ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e oa iaoeo
ee?i?ei-i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oai?iio ca aiaeeio aei iia?aoe??
iaeii?aciai aaiaeeee aeico aioea?ioeea oeaoaeinii?eiiaiai ?yaeo.

Aeey i?io?eaeoeee iiiia?aoe?eiiai iaa?yeo oa iie?auaiiy ?aia?aoeaieo
i?ioean?a ia 2-3 aeiae aei iia?aoe?? i?ecia/aee i?aia?aoe nenoaiii?
aiceiioa?ai??.

C iaoith caaacia/aiiy ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiainoai?aiiai
ooo/iiai noaeiaa oai?eo iaa/aee a?aeiia?aeiei o?ce/iei ai?aaai ia
caei?iaiio eoeueoiaiio noaeia? — aeoeaiiio a?aeaaaeaiith, caeiaiith oa
?ioaoe?eiei ?ooai.

A?aoiaoth/e eaa?euei?noue ineo?ee ethaeae iioeeiai a?eo, ca 2-3 aei? aei
iia?aoe?? i?ecia/aeany naaeaoeaia oa?ai?y.

sse na?ae/eoue aeina?ae, cacia/ai? aoaie i?aeaioiaee cia/ii
i?enei?ththoue aaeaioaoe?? oai?iai oa ooo/iiai noaeiaa aei iiaeo oiia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

C iaoith i?aeai?o a?aeiia?aeiiai ?ici??o i?aeee oa aie?aee
i?ioaca ie aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiaeeeo Nii?ioii c aeayeei oneeaaeiaiiyi.
Inoaii? iieyaaei a oiio, ui i?ae /an ?aioaaiia?ao?? ie canoiniaoaaee
noaiaea?oio (o??ie «Biomet») ?aioaaiieiio?anio i?oeo ?ici??ii 50 ii.

C 1995 ?ieo iia?aoe?? aeeiioaaeenue i?ae aiaeio?aoaaeueiei
ia?eicii (45 iaoe??io?a) ? ia?eaeo?aeueiith aianoac??th (21 iaoe??io).

Aei 1995 ?ieo iia?aoe?y aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy aeeiioaaeanue ca
aeiiiiiaith ia?aaeiuei-eaoa?aeueiiai aai eaoa?aeueiiai iia?aoe?eiiai
aeinooio, a c 1995 ?ieo ie ei?enooaaeenue ia?aaaaeii (57 iaoe??io?a)
caaeiuei-eaoa?aeueiei aeinooiii. Eeoa a 9 aeiaaeeao aoa canoiniaaiee
ia?aaeiuei-eaoa?aeueiee aeinooi i?ae /an ?iieaioaoe?? oioaeueieo
i?ioac?a.

Oaoi?ea ?iieaioaoe?? a?aeiia: iaia’yceiaa aeei?enoaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo ?ino?oiaio?a aeey oi?ioaaiiy eaiaeo o noaaiia?e e?nooe?
a?aeiia?aeii aei ?ici??o i?aeee i?ioaca. O aeiaaeeao inoaiii?ico,
iaa?oue a ?ac? ?iieaioaoe?? iaeiiiethniiai i?ioaca o??ie «Eiiaae» ie
iaia’yceiai canoiniaoaaee e?noeiaee oeaiaio ia?ee «Palacor» (I?ia//eia)
aai «Rostal» (?niai?y), ye? iathoue iaiaeiaeiaee oa?i?i iie?ia?ecaoe??.
Oae, iie?ia?ecaoe?y oeaiaioo «Palacor» a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioyaii 5-7
oaeeei, a oeaiaioo «Rostal» — 2-3 oaeeei. Oeae oaeo o?aaa a?aoe aei
oaaae ? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe iai?ioeyoe?? ii ?iieaioaoe?? i?ioaca a?aeiia?aeii
oeei oa?i?iai, iai’yoath/e, ui iie?ia?ecaoe?y ii/eia?oueny a?ae iiiaioo
ci?ooaaiiy ??aeeie c ii?ioeii.

Aei ii/aoeo oeaiaiooaaiiy a eaiae noaaiiai? e?noee aaiaeeii
e?noeiaee ei?ie aeiaaeeie i?aeee i?ioaca; iio?i a eaiae aaiaeeii
iie?aoeeaiiao o?oaeo aeey aeoiaeo iia?o?y, a a i?ieneiaeueiee a?aeae?e
noaaia — aioea?ioeee oeaoaeini?eiiaiai ?yaeo o aeaeyae? ii?ioeo.

A ?ac? ?iieaioaoe?? iaeiiiiethniiai i?ioaca o??ie «?iiaae»
aaaeeeaei iiiaioii ? aea?? aeiaaeeie oeeee i?ioaca. Iaaeoi aeiaaa oeeea
iiaea ni?e/eieoe ceai caaeiuei? no?iee i?ieneiaeueiiai a?aeae?eo
noaaiiai? e?noee i?ae /an ai?aaeaiiy aie?aee i?ioaca a caiaaeeio (
iniaeeai ia oe? inoaiii?ico). Iaaeoi ei?ioea oeeea i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aoaeoo «yiee», eiee ciaioo?oueny a?aenoaiue i?ae i?noeyie ii/aoeo ?
i?ee??ieaiiy i’yc?a. Oea iiaea aooe iaei??th c i?e/ei caeoo aie?aee
i?ioaca.

C iaoith i?io?eaeoeee aeuacacia/aieo oneeaaeiaiue ie
?aeiiaiaeo?ii oaeee cao?ae. I?ney oeaiaiooaaiiy oa ?iieaioaoe?? i?aeee
i?ioaca i?aeaiaeeii oeeeo aei eoeueoiai? caiaaeeie. sseui i?ae /an
o?aeoe?? ocaeiaae in? ?ic?aiooi noaaia e?ae oeeee i?ioaca ia?aaoaaa ia
e?i??, ui c’?aeio? aa?oi?e oa ieaei?e e?ae caiaaeeie aai ciai? a?ae ia?
— aeei?enoiao?ii aie?aeo i?ioaca ?c na?aaeeiith aai aeiaaith oeeeith.
Eiee ae e?ae oeeee ?icoaooaaany o eoeueoia?e caiaaeei?, oi
aeei?enoiao?ii aie?aeo i?ioaca c ei?ioeith oeeeith. ?acoeueoaoe
aei??thaaiue cai?iiiiiaaiei iaie niiniaii oe?eeii caa??aaeeny c
aeiiia?aoe?eieie ?ic?aooieaie ii noaiaea?oieo ?aioaaiia?aiao.

Iai?ee?ioe? iia?aoe?? i?ney iaia’yceiaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy
oe?eino? iaeuea?io?ioaioa?ieo i’yc?a aaiaeeee 2-3 aeoeaieo ae?aiaaea ia
3-5 ae?a. Ii iia?aoe?? ia 2-3 aei? iaeeaaeaany aea?ioaoe?eiee a?iniaee
«/ia?oie».

Iiiia?aoe?eia e?eoaaiiy, yea ie iiae?eeee ia o?e aoaie, aoei
ni?yiiaaia ia ?aiith iia?e?caoe?th e?oiuei? ethaeeie, caaacia/aiiy
caeaoiino? oe??? ethaeeie aei naiiianeoaiaoaaiiy, a aeayeei iaoe??ioai —
iiaeeea?noue iiaa?iooeny aei aeeiiaiiy i?ioan?eieo /e
noni?eueii-ei?enieo iaia’yce?a.

Ia 1 aoai? (14-15 ae?a ii iia?aoe??) i?ecia/aeenue aioea?ioeee
oeaoaeinii?eiiaiai ?yaeo, a iaoe??ioai, o yeeo aei iia?aoe?? i?ae /an
ianoaaeaiiy aoee aen?yi? i?e?iae c iina /e caaa, ia caaaeath/e ia
aeiiia?aoe?eio i?io?eaeoeeo, aeiaeaoeiai aaiaeeee aioea?ioee (iai?eeaae,
aaioai?oeei) aiaeie?ioaeueii o 1 i?aeiaeueoeaaee i?ii?aeie nooii? o?e/?
ia aeiao i?ioyaii 3-5 ae?a.

Ie aia?oa caii/aoeoaaee ii?aeiaia canoinoaaiiy i?aia?ao?a
nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai?? ei?ioei? oa i?ieiiaiaaii? ae?? (Oeiaaiceia oa
Aiaaiceia) a eiiieaen? iiiia?aoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy a ?ac?
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy o aeiaaeeao ceai?a ON. Noaia i?ecia/aiiy aicei?a aoea
oaeith: i?ioyaii 3-5 ae?a aei iia?aoe?? iaoe??ioe iaea?aeoaaee Oeiaaicei
ii 5 oaaeaoie o?e/? ia aeaiue ca 30 oaeeei aei ?ae? (c iaia’yceiaei
caieaaiiyi iiaiith neeyieith eei’y/aii? aiaee). Ii iia?aoe?? i?ioyaii
3-5 ae?a Oeiaaicei i?ecia/aee ii 3 oaaeaoee ia aeiao. Iio?i ia?aoiaeeee
aei i?ecia/aiiy Aiaaiceia ii 5 oaaeaoie aea?/? ia aeiao i?ioyaii 10-12
ae?a.

Anueiai i?aia?aoe nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai?? aeei?enoai? i?ae /an
e?eoaaiiy 34 oai?eo, cyeeo i?eeiaee eeoa Aiaaicei, 21 i?eeiaee Oeiaaicei
oa Aiaaicei, a a eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? (20i?oe??io?a) nenoaiia
aiceiioa?ai?y ia canoiniaoaaeanue. On?i oai?ei (e??i eiio?ieueii? a?oie)
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy aeeiioaaeinue ?c canoinoaaiiyi i?ioaca «?iiaae».

Ioe?ithth/e ?acoeueoaoe nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai??, ie iaea?aeaee
aeai?, ye? aeiaaee ia?aaaao ii?aeiaiiai canoinoaaiiy Oeiaaiceia ?
Aiaaiceia. Oae, o iaoe??io?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie e?euee?noue e?ia?,
io?eiaii? c ae?aiaae?a, aei??aithaaea 450^_ 50ie. Ia aeiao (ia?o? 2-3
aei?). A ?ac? canoinoaaiiy Aiaaiceia e?euee?noue e?ia? aei??aithaaea
370(50ie. , a a ?ac? ii?aeiaiiai canoinoaaiiy Oei?aiceia ? Aiaaiceia —
ia ia?aaeuoaaea 200(50 ie. A?eue a ?ac? ii?aeiaiiai canoinoaaiiy
Oei?aiceia ? Aiaaiceia cieeaa ia 3-5 ae?a ?ai?oa, i?ae o aeiaaeeao
i?ecia/aiiy eeoa Aiaaiceia ? ia 5-7 ae?a ?ai?oa, i?ae o iaoe??io?a
eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Iaa?ye a ?ac? ii?aeiaiiai canoinoaaiiy i?aia?ao?a
nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai?? cieeaa ia 5 aeiao, a ?ac? i?ecia/aiiy eeoa
Aiaaiceia — ia 7 aeiao, a a eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? o?eaaa 9-10 ae?a. A ?ac?
ii?aeiaiiai canoinoaaiiy Oei?aiceia ? Aiaaiceia ?ooe a noaeia?
a?aeiiaethaaeenue aei 7-8 aeiy, a oie /an ye a eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? ?ooe
a?aeiiaethaaeenue aei 14-15 aeiy aei iia?aoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, ii?aeiaia canoinoaaiiy Oei?aiceia ? Aiaaiceia
cia/ii i?aeaeueei aoaeoeai?noue iiiia?aoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy ca ?aooiie
i?ioeiaa?yeiai?, i?ioecaiaeueii? oa aieaoaioaaeueii? ae??, ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue oaeaeei a?aeiiaeoe ooieoe?th iia?iaaiiai noaeiaa.

I?ioyaii ? aoaio c iaoith i?io?eaeoeee ia?aa?oeeoey?ieo
ineo?eao?a iaoe??ioai i?ecia/aeinue aaaaeaiiy ei?oeeinoa?i?ae?a: ii 5-7
ia. Aeaeniia aai

Aeaenaiaiaoaciia a iaaeaoeaoaaoey?io iaeanoue (anueai 3-4 ?i’?eoe??) Ia
oeueiio aoai? i?ecia/aeenue e?eoaaeueia o?ceoeueoo?a ? ianaae. I 2
aeaiue ii iia?aoe?? oai?iio aeicaieyee n?aeaoe o e?aeeo, ia 3-4 aeaiue —
i?ae?eiaoenue o ieeeoe?, a c 4-5 aeiy — ciaeeoe ia ieeeoeyo aac
iaaaioaaeaiiy iia?iaaii? e?ioe?aee. Ia 14-15 aeaiue ii iia?aoe?? ci?iaee
oae ? i?oe??ioa ia?aaiaeeee ia aiaoeaoi?ia e?eoaaiiy.

I?ioyaii ?? aoaio (aei 3 i?nyoe?a) o?eaaei a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe??
iia?iaaii? e?ioe?aee oa e?eoaaiiy aioe?aci?aoeaieie i?aia?aoaie ca
iayaiino? inoaiii?ico. Oiniiaen oa I?aeaeueoeee i?ecia/aee ca?aeii c
?ino?oeoe??th. Iiaia iaaaioaaeaiiy iia?iaaii? e?ioe?aee i?ney
oeaiaioiiai iaeiiiethniiai aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy i?ioacii «?iiaae» ii/eiaee
/a?ac 6 oeaei?a.

O?ao?e aoai iaoe??ioe, ye i?aaeei, i?iaiaeeee a noaoe?iia?ieo
oiiaao ca 9-11 i?nyoe?a ii iia?aoe??, eiee e??i
ee?i?ei-?aio?aiieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy i?ecia/aeenue ianaae, EOE,
iaae?eaiaioicia ?, ca iaiao?aeiino?, aioe?aci?aaoeaia oa?ai?y.

Iao? niinoa?aaeaiiy oa aeina?ae eaoaae?e
i?oiiaae??-o?aaiaoieia?? ?1 Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe na?ae/eoue, ui i?iaaaeaiiy ??? aoaio a ee?i?oe?
aea? iiaeeea?noue a?aei?aoethaaoe oiaeo, iineeeoe i’yce ?, oaeei /eiii,
ciaioeoe e?euee?noue oneeaaeiaiue oa iie?aueoe a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe.

Iao? ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaee, ui
i?enoinoaaiiy e?oiuei? ethaeeie aei iiaeo oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iia?iaaii? e?ioe?aee ? aaeaioaoe?y i’yc?a oa a?eynoaeiaieo oeaiei aei
ooo/iiai noaeia? a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioyaii 10-12 i?nyoe?a.

O ca’yceo c oeei ie ioe?ithaaee iaeaeeae/? oa a?aeaeaeai?
?acoeueoaoe ie?aii: iaeaeeae/? — iai?ee?ioe? ia?oiai?ieo, a a?aeaeaeai?
— i?ioyaii 3-5 ?ie?a.Aeey ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a iaaeii?ioacoaaiiy ie
aeei?enoaee iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? eeai?/i? (6) oa ?aioaaiieia?/i? (6)
iciaee-e?eoa???.

Ioe?ithth/e iaeaeeae/? ?acoeueoaoe iaaeii?ioacoaaiiy o
aeiaaeeao ceai?a ON ii 12 e?eoa??yo o 107 iaoe??io?a ie io?eiaee
«aeia??» ?acoeueoaoe o 51% iaoe??io?a, «caaei?euei?» — o 42,1% ?
iacaaeia?euei? o 6,7 oai?eo. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iaea?eueoa
«iacaaeia?eueieo» ?acoeueoao?a i?eiaaea? ia i?ioac Io?a-Oe?OI (4 c 7
aeiaaee?a).

A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy o aeiaaeeac ceai?a ON
ioe?iai? o 71 oai?iai, c yeeo iia?oaaee ?c canoinoaaiiyi i?ioac?a
Io?a-Oe?OI ? INO?I-Io?a oa 39 — yeeo iia?oaaee ?c canoinoaaiiyi
iaeiiiiethnieo i?ioac?a «?iiaiae», «Biomet», «Tiprcol». Ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui c ianoaaeaieo o a?aeaeaeai? (3-5 ?ie?a) oa?i?ie, 27
iaoe??io?a i?aoethaaee (9 aeeiioaaee o?ce/io, a 18 — ?icoiiao i?aoeth).

Ioe?ithth/e a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ii 12
ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/ieo e?eoa??yo, ie iaea?aeaee «aeia??» ?acoeueoaoe o
70,4% iaoe??io?a, «caaeia?euei?» — o 22,5 % iaoe??io?a ?
«iacaaeia?euei?» — o 7,1 iaoe??io?a. Ci?ie a?aenioe?a a?aeaeaeaieo
?acoeueoao?a o ii??aiyii? c iaeaeeae/ei iiyniththoueny oae. Nooo?a?
ci?ie o e?eueeino? «aeia?eo» ? «caaeia?eueieo» ?acoeueoao?a noaeiny
caaaeyee i?iaaaeaiith eo?n?a ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy i?ioyaii
ia?oiai ?ieo iia?aoe??. Aeayea ca?eueoaiiy «iacaaeia?eueieo»
?acoeueoao?a iia’ycaia c oei, ui iaeaeeae/? ?acoeueoaoe ioe?ithaaeenue o
107, a a?aeaeaeai? — o 71 iaoe??ioa, oi/a aaniethoia e?euee?noue
«iacaaeia?eueieo» ?acoeueoao?a aoea i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaith a iaio
aeiaaeeao (7 ?c 107 oa 5 ?c 71).

Ie aaaaea?ii ca aeioe?eueia i?aee?aneeoe, ui a ?ac?
canoinoaaiiy i?ioaca «?iiiae» o 23 c 29 iaoe??io?a ie iaea?aeaee
«aeia?ee» ?acoeueoao. O a?eueoino? i?oe??io?a (18) i?ae /an
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy aoa canoiniaaiee e?noeiaee oeaiaio, ui
iaoiiaethaaeinue a?eii iaoe??o?a, iayai?noth inoaiii?ico oa
ai?iieiiiae?aiith oi?iith i?ieneiaueiiai e?ioey noaaiiai? e?noee.

Aiae?coth/e an? oneeaaeiaiiy, ie o 9 oai?eo a?aecia/eee
iiaa?ciaa ?icoiaeaeaiiy oe??yieo oa?a, yea e?ea?aeiaaia i?ioyaii 20-25
ae?a ? ia aieeioei ia iaeaeeae/ee oa a?aeaeaeaiee ?acoeueoaoe.

Ioe?ithth/e iaeaeeae/? oa a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe, ie
iaea?aeaee «iacaaeia?eueiee» ?acoeueoao o 7 oai?eo: c ieo o 4 aeiaaeeao
aoa canoiniaaiee i?ioac «Io?a-Oe?OI», o 2-aacoeaiaioiee iaeiiiiethniee
i?ioac «?iiaiae» ? a 1 — aacoeaiaioiee oioaeueiee i?ioac «?iiaiae».

Aiae?coth/e «iacaaeia?euei?» ?acoeueoaoe, ie a?aecia/eee oae?
oneeaaeiaiiy: ianoaa?euei?noue i?aeee i?ioaca Io?a-Oe?OI — iaeia oai?a;
caeo aie?aee i?ioaca Io?a-Oe?OI — iaeia oai?a; ceai i?aeee i?ioaca
Io?a-Oe?OI-iaeia oai?a ? iaeia oai?a (O-i ?.ss., 82 ?ie?a, ?noi??y
oai?iae ? 1950) iiia?ea ia 4 aeaiue ii iia?aoe?? a?ae o?iiaico eaaaiaai?
a?oa???. E??i oiai o iaei??? iaoe??ioee aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy i?ioacii
«?iiaiae» oneeaaeithaaeiny ia?aaioeeoey?ieie ineo?eaoaie. Ua a iaeiiai
oai?iai aeieeea ianoaa?euei?noue i?aeee i?ioaca «?iiaiae» ia oe?
inoaiii?ico. ? ua a iaei??? oai?i? aeieeea ianoaa?euei?noue /aoee
aacoeaiaioiiai oioaeueiiai i?ioaca «?iiaiae» ia oe? inoaiii?ico ?
i?ciuei? o?ii?/ii? ?ioaeoe??. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?ioac aoa aeaeaeaiee ?
iaoe??iea aioo?oueny aei ?aa?c?eiiai aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy.

Aiae?c i?e/ei ?icaeoeo oneeaaeiaiue iieacaa, ui o 4 oai?eo
ianoaa?euei?noue i?aeee, /aoee oa ceai i?aeee i?ioaca aeieeee ia oe?
inoaiii?ico, eiee aoei canoiniaaia aacoeaiaioia aiaei?ioacoaaiiy ? ia
canoiniaoaaeanue aioe?aci?aaoeaia oa?ai?y.

Ia caaa?oaiiy ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui o aeiaaeeeao ceai?a ON
iiaeia iaea?aeoaaoe iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe eeoa a ?ac? aeio?eiaiiy
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo iieacaiue, a?aeiia?aeii? oaoi?ee oa eiiieaeniiai
e?eoaaiiy ?c canoinoaaiiyi i?aia?ao?a nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai??.

A?aoiaoth/e /anoo iayai?noue inoaiii?ico o e?oi?o ethaeae a ?ac?
ceaio ON ne?ae a?aeaeaaaoe ia?aaaao oeaiaioiiio i?ioacoaaiith c
iaia’yceiaei i?ecia/aiiyi aioe?aci?aaoeaii? oa?ai??. Iaia’yceiaei ne?ae
aaaaeaoe i?aaaeaiiy eo?n?a ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy a oiiaao ee?i?ee,
ui cia/ii iie?auo? a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe.

AENIIAEE

?aioaaiieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe, ui 59% a?eii o
aeiaaeeao ceai?a oeeee noaaia iathoue iciaee inoaiii?ico. I?e oeueiio o
53,8 iaoe??io?a anoaiiaeaii 605 noaae?th, o 28,2% — 4-3 noaae?th, a o
18% — 2-1 noaae?th inoaiii?ico ca N?iaoii.

Ii?oieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeee cia/ia iioiioaiiy noaoi?ae?aeueii?
e?noee, e?noeiaeo ia?aeeaaeei ? eiiiaeoiiai oa?o, ui ? aieiaieie
iciaeaie inoaiii?ico o iaoe??io?a a?eii iiiaae 65 ?ie?a o ?ac? ceaio
oeeee noaaia.

Oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiy ca aeiiiiiaith aeaineoiiao?a «Acniles+» o
iaoe??io?a a?eii iiiaae 65 ?ie?a i?ney aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy o aeiaaeeao
ceai?a oeeee noaaia aeiaaei nooo?aa cieaeaiiy i?ia?aeueii? u?eueiino? oa
i?oeiino? e?noeiai? oeaieie.

Ia i?aenoaa? ee?i?/ieo, ?aiaaiieia?/ieo, ii?oieia?/ieo oa
aeaineoiiao?e/ieo aeaieo anoaiiaeii, ui iae?ath/e niin?a i?ioacoaaiiy ?
oei i?ioaca a ?ac? ceaie oeeee noaaia, ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe a?e, noai
e?noeiai? oeaieie, oi?io i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaiiai? e?noee oa
aeoeai?noue iaoe??io?a.

Aacoeaiaioia iaeiiiiethnia aiaeii?oacoaaiiy iieacaia oai?ei a?eii 70
?ie?a ? a?eueoa a ?ac? iaae?aeueieo aai /a?acoeeeiaeo ceai?a oeeee
noaaia aac iciae inoaiii?ico. Oeaiaioia iaeiiiiethnia aai oeaiaioia
oioaeueia aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy iieacaia oai?ei a?eii 65 ?ie?a ? a?eueoa a
?ac? iaae?aeueieo aai /a?acoeeeiaeo ceai?a oeeee noaaia ca iayaiino?
iciae inoaiii?ico.

Oeaiaioia oioaeueia aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy iieacaia oai?ei a?eii 65
?ie?a ? a?eueoa c aenieei nooiaiai aeoeaiino?.

A ?ac? oeee?iae?e/ii? oi?ie i?ieneiaeueiiai e?ioey noaaiiai?
e?noee iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe i?ioace oeio Io?a-Oe?OI, o??ie «I?oai»,
Ino?i-Io?a, a a ?ac? ai?iieiiiae?aii? oi?ie — i?ioace oeio «?iiaae».

Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia ii?aeiaiiai canoinoaaiiy i?aia?ao?a nenoaiii?
aiceiioa?ai?? ei?ioei? oa i?iiaiaaii? ae?? (Oei?aiceia ? Aiaaiceia)
nooo?ai iie?auo? ?acoeueoaoe aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy ca ?aooiie
i?ioecaiaeueii?, i?ioeiaa?yeiai? oa aieaoaioth/i? ae??, ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue oaeaeei ? ye?nii a?aeiiaeoe ooieoe?th iia?iaaii? e?ioe?aee.

Canoinoaaiiy a ?ac? ceai?a oeeee noaaia o e?oi?o ethaeae
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo iieacaiue aei aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy, e?noeiaiai oeaiaioo,
aioe?aci?aaoeaii? oa?ai??, i?aia?ao?a nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai?? ei?ioei?
oa i?ieiiaiai? ae?? (Oei?aiceia ? Aiaaiceia), ye? canoiniaothoueny
ii?aeiaii oa iiiia?aoe?eii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?ioyaii ia?oiai ?ieo
aeicaieeei io?eiaoe o a?aeaeaeai? oa?i?ie niinoa?aaeaiiy — 70,4%
aeia?eo, 22,5% caaeia?eueieo ? 7,1% iacaaeia?eueieo ?acoeueoao?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

Aaiaa? A.O, Eoeaaeaiei A.A., Oa?eoiiia I.Ae. Yiaeii?ioace?iaaiea
oaciaaae?aiiai nonoaaa // Iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneay eiioa?aioeey
o?aaiaoieiaia-i?oiiaaeia E?uia, 1996.- sseoa.-N.104

Eaaaiaoe A.I., Oa?eoiiia I.Ae. Yiaeii?ioace?iaaiea oaciaaae?aiiai
nonoaaa o eeoe noa?oeo aic?aniuo a?oii // Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y
«Aeooaeuei? i?aeaie aa??aoe/ii? i?oiiaae??»: ca??iee iaoa??ae?a.-Ee?a,
1996.-n.52

Oa?eoiiia I.Ae., Ie?ioie/aiei I.A. Nenoaiiay yiceiioa?aiey a oeaeyo
i?ioeeaeoeee ineiaeiaiee i?e oeaiaioiii iaeiiiiethniii
yiaeii?ioace?iaaiee oaciaaae?aiiai nonoaaa // Ae?oaee Iaoe?iiaeueiee
eiia?an ?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie: iaoa??aee eiia?ano.- Ee?a, 1997.-
N.159-160.

Oa?eoiiia I.Ae. Aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy i?e ia?aeiiao oeeee noaaia ia oii?
inoaiii?ico // ?? Oe?a?inueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y:
«Inoaiii?ic: ai?aeaiieia?y, ee?i?ea, ae?aaiinoeea, i?io?eaeoeea oa
e?eoaaiiy»: ca??iee iaoa??ae?a.- Ee?a, 1997.-N. 145-146.

Oa?eoiiia I.Ae. Iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiy oeaiaioo i?e iaeiiiiethniiio
aiaeii?ioacoaaii? eoeueoiaiai noaeiaa // Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y
«Aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy noaeia?a», Ee?a-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997, N.

Eaaaiaoeue A.I., Oa?eoiiia I.Ae. Nenoaiia aiceiioa?ai?y i?e
iaiaeii?ioacoaaii? eoeueoiaiai ? eie?iiiai noaeia?a // Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y «Aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy noaeia?a», Ee?a-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1997, n.29-31.

Eaaaiaoeue A.I., Eiiooai A.I., Oa?cia A.?., Oa?eoiiia I.Ae. Nenoaiia
aiceiioa?ai?y a o?aaiaoieia??-i?oiiaae?? // Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y, 1997.- ?
9-10.-n.50-51

Eaaaiaoeue A.I., Oa?eoiiia I.Ae., Iiaiaeyaaa A.A. Ia?aeiie oeeee
noaaiiai? e?noee ? inoaiii?ic // Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y, 1997, ? 9-10,
n.45-47.

Oa?eoiiia I.Ae., Eiaaeue/oe I.A., Ii?eoea A.A. Iieacaiey e
yiaeii?ioace?iaaieth i?e ia?aeiiao oaeee aaae?aiiie einoe. // Iaoeia?
i?aoe? ni?a?ia?oiee?a EIAII oa ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ?8 i. Ee?aa, 1998,-
Ee?a.- n.37-38.

Oa?eoiiia I.Ae. Ioeaee e ineiaeiaiey i?e yiaeii?ioace?iaaiee ii iiaiaeo
ia?aeiiia oeeee aaae?a // Iaoeia? i?aoe? ni?a?ia?oiee?a EIII oa
ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 8 i. Ee?aa, 1998,- Ee?a,- n.39-40

Eaaaiaoe A.I., Oa?eoiiia I.Ae. Yiaeii?ioace?iaaiea e?oiiuo nonoaaia //
Oe?. Iaae./aniien, 1998.- ? 6/8.- n.42-47.

Oa?eoiiia I.Ae. Aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy o aeiaaeeao ceai?a oeeee
noaaia.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.21 -o?aaiaoieia?y oa i?oiiaae?y.-
Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Uoieea,
Ee?a, 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiyi yeino? e?eoaaiiy
ceai?a oeeee noaaia ca aeiiiiiaith iia?aoe?? aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy. A
aeena?oaoe?? ?aioaaiieia?/iei, ii?oieia?/iei oa aeaineoiiao?e/iei
iaoiaeaie anoaiiaeaii ci?ie e?noeiai? oeaieie, oa?aeoa?i? aeey
inoaiii?ico o 59% in?a a?eii 65 ?ie?a ? a?eueoa o aeiaaeeao ceai?a
oeeee noaaia. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? aecia/ai? aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? iieacaiiy
aei aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi a?eo, nooiaiy inoaiii?ico, oi?ie
i?ieneiaeueiiai a?aeae?eo noaaia oa aeoeaiino? iaoe??ioa. Aeiaaaeaii
iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy e?noeiaiai oeaiaioo a ?ac? iaeiiiiethniiai
i?ioacoaaiiy ca iayaiino? inoaiii?ico.

Oaeineiiaeai? ie?ai? aeaiaioe oaoi?ee iaeiiiiethniiai
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy.. Cai?iiiiaaii eiiieaenio iaoiaeeeo iiiia?aoe?eiiai
e?eoaaiiy. Aia?oa ii?aoeueiaaii e canoiniaaii niin?a i?io?eaeoeee
iiiia?aoe?eiiai iaa?yeo o aeiaaeeao aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy ii?aeiaii? ae?? i?aia?ao?a nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai?? ei?ioei?
oa i?ieiiaiaaii? ae?? — Oei?aiceia ? Aiaaiceia. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
i?aoe? ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy o ee?i?eao i?ae /an
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy o aeiaaeeao ceai?a oeeee noaaia.

Ee?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia 107 iaoe??ioao,
?aioaaiieia?/i? — ia ?aioaaiia?aiao 66 iaoe??io?a, aeaineoiiao?e/i? — ia
20 iaoe??ioao ? ii?oieia?/i? — ia 28 i?aia?aoao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oeeea noaaia, ceai, inoaiii?ic, iaeiiiiethnia
aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy, iieacaiiy aei aiaeii?ioacoaaiiy, e?noeiaee oeaiaio,
i?io?eaeoeea oneeaaeiaiue, i?aia?aoe nenoaiii? aiceiioa?ai??, eiiieaenia
iiiia?aoe?eia e?eoaaiiy.

Oa?eoiiia I.Ae. Aiaeii?ioace?iaaiea i?e ia?aeiiao oaeee aaae?a. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ca niaoeeaeueiinoueth 14.01.21 -o?aaiaoieiaey e
i?oiiaaeey. — Eeaaneay iaaeeoeeineay aeaaeaiey iineaaeeieiiiiai
ia?aciaaiey ei. I.E.Uoieea, Eeaa, 1999

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inii iiauoaieyi ea/anoaa ea/aiey
iaoeeaioia n ia?aeiiaie oaeee aaae?aiiie einoe ioo?i
aiaeii?ioace?iaaiey. A iniiao ?aaiou iieiaeaiu eiiieaeniua enneaaeiaaiey
ninoiyiey einoiie oeaie aieiaee, oaeee e aa?oeeaeueiie iaeanoe i?e
ia?aeiiao oaeee aaae?a. Aeey yoiai i?iaaae?i aiaeec ?aioaaiia?aii 66
iaoeeaioia iiaeeeiai e noa?/aneiai aic?anoa; ii?oieiae/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey 10 i?aia?aoia i?ieneiaeueiiai eiioea aaae?aiiie einoe
aiacaiii oia?oeo eeoe a aic?anoa noa?oa 65 eao e 18 i?aia?aoia aieiaee
aaae?a, iieo/aiiuo ai a?aiy iia?aoeee yiaeii?ioace?iaaiey. E?iia oiai
i?iaaaeaii oeueo?acaoeiaia enneaaeiaaiea n iiiiuueth aeaineoiiao?a
«Achilles+» o 20 iaoeeaioia iinea yiaeii?ioace?iaaiey.

A eeeie/aneii ?acaeaea ?aaiou ioeaiaiu aeeaeaeoea e ioaeae?iiua
?acoeueoaou 107 yiaeii?ioace?iaaiee, ec ieo 97 — iaeiiiiethniuo
(Io?-OeEOI, Inoei-Io?-63; «Eiiaae»-Eeaa-34) e 10 oioaeueiuo. Auiieiaii
72 aacoeaiaioiuo e 35 oeaiaioiuo yiaeii?ioace?iaaiee. Ii aic?anoo
iaoeeaiou ?ani?aaeaeeeenue oae: aei 60 eao — 5 iaoeeaioia (4,6 %); io 61
aei 70 eao — 53 (49,6%) ; io 71 aei 80 eao — 30 (31,8%) e noa?oa 80 eao
— 15 iaoeeaioia (14%).

I?iaaae?iiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi 59% iaoeeaioia a
aic?anoa noa?oa 60 eao eiaee ianoi i?eciaee inoaiii?ica. I?e yoii 6 e 5
ii eiaeaeno Neiaoa auyaeaiu o 53,8 %, 4 e3 noaaeee — o 28, 2%, a 2 e1
noaaeee — o 18 % iaoeeaioia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi o 36, 2 5 iaoeeaioia
?aioaaiieiae/anee ii?aaeaeyeinue en/aciiaaiea iaeuo o?aaaeoe aieiaee e
oaeee aaae?a, ii/oe iieiia en/aciiaaiea o?aoaieueieea Oi?aea, iieiia
en/aciiaaiea i?eaeaoi/iuo o?aaaeoe e /anoe/iia eee iieiia en/aciiaaiea
aeoaiia?aciuo o?aaaeoe oaeee e aieueoiai aa?oaea. Oeacaiua auoa i?eciaee
inoaiii?ica aieueoa au?aaeaiu n ai?iieiia?aciie oi?iie i?ieneiaeueiiai
ioaeaea aaae?a.

Aeaiua ii?oieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi
o ethaeae iiaeeeiai aic?anoa noaoiiae?aeueiay einoue, einoiua
ia?aeeaaeeiu e eiiiaeoiue neie einoe cia/eoaeueii enoii/athony e, oaeei
ia?acii, einoiay ianna i?ieneiaeueiiai eiioea aaae?a oiaiueoaaony, /oi
yaeyaony iniiaiui ii?oieiae/aneei i?eciaeii inoaiii?ica.

Aeaiua oeueo?acaoeiaiai enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee nouanoaaiiia
nieaeaiea ieia?aeueiie ieioiinoe e i?i/iinoe einoiie oeaie, /oi oaeaea
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaee/ee inoaiii?ica, eioi?ue aieueoa au?aaeai o eeoe
70-75 eao n ai?iieiia?aciie oi?iie i?ieneiaeueiiai eiioea aaae?a.

An? eceiaeaiiia aeaei aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?aaioaoue
aeeoa?aioeeaeueiua iieacaiey a o??o aa?eaioao: iaeiiiiethniia
aanoeaiaioiia, iiiiiiethniia oeaiaioiia, oioaeueiia oeaiaioiia
yiaeii?ioace?iaaiea. Iaeiiiiethniia aanoeaiaioiia i?ioace?iaaiea
iieacaii eeoeai 70 eao e noa?oa i?e iaaeeaeueiuo eee /?acoaa/iuo
ia?aeiiao oaeee aaae?a i?e ionoonoaee inoaiii?ica. Iaeiiiethniia
oeaiaioiia eee oioaeueiia oeaiaioiia i?ioace?iaaiea iieacaii eeoeai 65
eao e noa?oa i?e iaaeeaeueiii eee /?acoaa/iii ia?aeiia oaeee aaaeaa i?e
iaee/ee inoaiii?ica. Oioaeueiia oeaiaioiia i?ioace?iaaiea iieacaii a
aicianoa 65 eao e noa?oa i?e iaaeeaeueiii eee /?acoaa/iii ia?aeiia oaeee
aaae?a i?e aunieie noaiaie aeoeaiinoe iaoeeaioa.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiey aaoi?ii oniaa?oainoaiaaia iaoiaeeea
ii?aaeaeaiey aeeeiu oaeee i?ioaca, oniaa?oainoaiaaia eiiieaeniay nenoaia
iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ea/aiey e aia?aua ?ac?aaioaia noaia ni/aoaiiiai
i?eiaiaiey i?aia?aoia nenoaiiie yiceiioa?aiee ei?ioeiai e
i?ieiiae?iaaiiai aeaenoaey Oeiaaiceia e Aiaaiceia aeey i?ioeeaeoeee
iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai io?ea.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaae?iiiai eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey
ioaeae?iiua ?acoeueoaou ioeaiaiu eae «oi?ioea» o 70,4% iaoeeaioia,
«oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua» — o 22,5% e «iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua» — o 7,1%
iaoeeaioia.

Ec ineiaeiaiee onoaiiaeaiu neaaeouea: ianoaaeeueiinoue iiaeee
i?ioaca (2), ianoaaeeueiinoue /aoee i?ioaca «Eiiaae» (1), auaeo aieiaee
i?ioaca Io?a-OeEOI (1) , ia?aeii iiaeee i?ioaca Io?a-OeEOI (1),
ia?aaa?oeeoey?iua inneoeeaou (1) e iaeia aieueiay oia?ea io
o?iiaiyiaieee e?ai/iie a?oa?ee. Noaaeoao oeacaoue, /oi ianoaaeeueiinoue
iiaeee, /aoee, auaeo aieiaee e ia?aeii iiaeee i?ioaca aicieeee ia oiia
au?aaeaiiiai inoaiii?ica.

Eeth/aaua eiaa: oaeea aaae?a, ia?aeii, inoaiii?ic, iaeiiiethniia
yiaeii?ioace?iaaiea, iieacaiea e aiaeii?ioace?iaaieth, einoiue oeaiaio,
ineiaeiaiey, i?aia?aou nenoaiiie yiceiioa?aiee, eiiieaeniia
iineaiia?ioeeiiiia ea/aiea.

Kharitonov O.D. The endoproosthetic appliance in cases of fractures
of nesk of shin.- Manusccript.

The thesis to obtain science degree of a candidate of medical
scilence on specialisation 14.01.21 — traumatology and orthopaedic.-
Kyiv Medical Academy of postgraduate education named after P.L.
Shchupica, Kyiv,1999.

The thesis is devoted to the issues of imporovement of fractures
of neck of shin cure quality with the help of endoprostesic applicance
operation.In the thesis via radiological, morfological and
densitometrical mehods were determined the chages of bone tissue that
are usial for osteoporosic in 59 persent of persons, with the age of 65
or more years in cases of fractures of neck of shin. On this basis were
determined the deferential results with the regard to endoposthetic
applicance in considerstion to the age, the level of osteoporosis, the
form of proximal separation of snin bone of diffegent types of unipolar
prosthetics/ There was approved the necessity to the bone’s cement in
case of unipolar prosthetic apppliance upon osteoporation existence.

There were modified separate units of unipolar endoproostthetic
appliance technique. There was proposed the complex method of
post-operation remedy. For the first time was experinced and
implemented’ the method of phophylastic of post-operation oedema in
cases of systemic ensimotherapeutic of short and long effect —
Flogensima and Vobensima. The principal results of work have found theit
practical implementation in clinics during endoprostetic applicance in
cases of fractures of neck of shin.

The clinical researches have been made on 107 patients,
radiological — on radiographs of 66 patiens, densitometrical — on 20
patients and morfological — on 28 mixtures.

Key words: neck of shin, fracture, osteoporosis, unipolar
endoprosthetic appliance, evidences to endoprostetic appliance,
prophylactic of complications, mixtures of systemic ensimotherapeutic,
post-operation complex remedy.

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