17

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Iaiueoia TH??e Aaeaioeiiae/

OAeE 621.357.2

AEAEO?INEIOAC IAOAEIIENEAeIEO NENOAI IA NIEAAAO

CAE?CA C IAOITH IAeA?AEOAAIIss IAEICIIOOAAIEO

AIIAeIEO IAOA??AE?A

niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.17.03 oaoi?/ia aeaeo?io?i?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?Aae?a/iee Ai?en
?aaiiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oaoi?/ii? aeaeo?io?i??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?Caaeoaeianueeee
Aieiaeeie? Ieaenaiae?iae/,Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?ceeeeaiaeeaeao
oaoi?/ieo iaoeEoeauoe Oaoyia Na?a??aia,Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo o?i??, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo aaeueaaiio?i?? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “21”aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050.03 o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica,
21.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai

iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “10” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Naoiaiei I.Ae. 17

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?icaeoie aaeueaaiio?i?/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi aeiia aei aeieia?/ii? aaciaee,
iaoiiaeaii? iaiao?aei?noth caiia?aaiiy caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua i?iieneiaeie noieaie. Aeieia?/ia e aeiiii?/ia ianoaiiaea, ui
neeaeany a Oe?a?i?, iio?aao? noai?aiiy ia iniia? aeo?aeieo aeaieo
iioeiaeueieo aeey eiie?aoieo oiia aaca?aeoiaeieo oa iaeia?aeoiaeieo
oaoiieia?e, ye? aeeth/athoue ?ic?iaeo iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a c aeaoaaeo
e aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaieo iaoa??ae?a. Oae? aiiaee iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a i?ioeanao aeaeo?i-o?i?/iiai aeeo/aiiy ?ii?a aaaeeeo
iaoae?a c a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aaeueaai?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa.

Iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an noaiiaeyoue iaoaeiieneaei? iaeiciiooaai? aiiaee,
canoinoaaiiy yeeo coiiaeaia i?inoioith iaea?aeoaaiiy ieneae?a iaoae?a,
?oiueith aeinoaoiuei aenieith o?i?/iith e oa?i?/iith no?ee?noth,
ii?aeiaiiyi ieneae?a iaoae?a c ?ioeie iaoa??aeaie.

Cai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aei?iaeo oa aeao?oeeoieo iaoa??ae?a oeoaio,
i?eaeth, ieaoeie oa ?ioeo, ye iniiae aiiae?a, aeooaeueiei oyaey?oueny
canoinoaaiiy aeey oe??? iaoe aeaoaaeo oa aeinooiieo iaoa??ae?a cae?ca
aai iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae?. Uiaei i?ioean?a ?aaaia?aoe??
aeuaiaaaaeaieo aeaeo?ie?o?a ? aeeo/aiiy c ieo ?ii?a aaaeeeo iaoae?a,
aeioe?eueii aoei aea?aoe o yeino? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iie?eooy aiiae?a
ieneaee cae?ca e ia?aaioeth, iniaeno? aeanoeaino? yeeo aeicaieythoue
iaea?aeaoe iaeiciiooaai? aiiaee c a?aeiia?aeieie ooieoe?yie. I?ioa
?cieyoe?y noaeueii? iniiae a?ae aieeao aeaeo?ie?o?a iiaeeeaa eeoa i?e
noai?aii? ia ?? iiaa?oi? aacii?enoiai iaoaeaaiai iie?eooy aai
i?ii?aeiiai caoeniiai oa?o. Noai?aiiy aeaioa?iai? eiiiiceoe?? Fe Fe2O3
MnO2 ia iniia? iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae? a?aeiia?aea? oaoiieia?/iei
aeiiaai i?ioean?a aeeo/aiiy ?ii?a aaaeeeo iaoae?a c a?aei?aoeueiaaieo
aeaeo?ie?o?a.

Iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue iaaoea i?iaeaia aeai?o iaoiaeo neioaco
ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaiai iie?eooy. Oa?iio?i?/iee iaoiae neioaco
aeieia?/ii iaaacia/iee /a?ac oa, ui neioac noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
aeae?eaiiyi aaeeei? e?eueeino? ieneae?a acioo o i?ioean? ?iceeaaeo
acioiieeneiai ia?aaioeth. I?e aiiaeieo i?ioeanao neioaco ae?ieneaeo
ia?aaioeth noa? iaiiaeeeaei canoinoaaiiy cae?ca aai iecueeiaoaeaoeaai?
noae? ye iniiae aiiae?a /a?ac ?oith oa?iiaeeiai?/io iano?ee?noue.
Iaiao?aei? aoee aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei i?iieneiaiai canoinoaaiiy
aeaeo?ineioaco ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth iaoiaeii eaoiaeiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy
ia?iaiaaiaoieo ?ic/ei?a, oiio ui naia oeae i?ioean iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey iaea?aeaiiy ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaeo iie?eoue ia
iecueeiaoaeaoeaa?e noae?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa eii?aeeioaaeany
I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe oa I?i?noa?noaii iaoee Oe?a?ie (oaia
02.05.04/004-93 «?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ciaoeiaeaeaiiy oa
ooee?caoe?? a?ae-i?aoeueiaaieo aeaeo?ie?o?a aaeueaai?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa»,
aoiaeeoue aei eiiieaeniiai i?iaeoo 02.05.04/004E-95 aea?aeaaii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo iaoee ?
oaoi?ee; iaeac AeEIO Oe?a?ie ? 52 a?ae 18.06.93 ?.); aoiaeeoue aei
I?ia?aie Ae?IO 2.5 «I?iaeaie aaciaee Oe?a?ie», a oaeiae aei i?iaeoo
3.4/436 «Aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee aeaeo?iaeieo ?aaeoe?e i?ae /an neioaco
aeaeo?ieaoae?oe/ieo iaoa??ae?a» (iaeac I?iiaoee Oe?a?ie ? 72 a?ae
17.03.1997 ?.).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ic?iaea iaeiciiooaaieo iaoaeiieneaeieo
aiiae?a, iniiaith yeeo ? aeaoaaee e iaaeao?oeeoiee iaoa??ae
iecueei-aoaeaoeaaa noaeue, a ooieoe?iiaeueia iie?eooy neeaaea?oueny c
ieneae?a cae?ca oa ia?aaioeth.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

— i?ae?a?aoe aeaoaaee e iaaeao?oeeoiee iaoa??ae iniiae iaeicii-ooaaiiai
aiiaeo c aeiiii?/ii aeinooiiei caoeniei iaoaeiieneaeiei iie?eooyi;

— ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?th iaianaiiy ??aiii??iiai oa?o caoeniiai
iaoaeiieneaeiiai iie?eooy, ui ia? aeinoaoith aaeaac?th aei iniiae;

— noi?ioaaoe i?oeia ?c caaeia?eueiith c/aii?noth c iniiaith aeoeaia
ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaa iie?eooy;

— i?ae?a?aoe iioeiaeuei? oiiae cae?eniaiiy i?ioean?a iaianaiiy
iaoaei-ieneaeieo iie?eoue;

— ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?/io noaio i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo
iaeiciiooaaieo iaoaeiieneaeieo aiiae?a;

— cae?enieoe aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao ia?aa??eo cai?iiiiiaaieo aiiae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

1. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeiiai iiaee i?aeo?ae aei noai?aiiy
iaeiciiooaaiiai aiiaeo, iniiaith yeiai ? iecueeiaoaeaoeaaa noaeue c
caoeniei iie?eoyi c ieneaeo cae?ca Fe2O3.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaii n??/aiieeneee aeaeo?ie?o aiiaeiiai oi?ioaaiiy
?icaeiaii? iiaa?oi? noaeueii? iniiae, a?aecia/aii iiceoeaiee aieea
aaicio?eacieo i?e oi?ioaaii? ??aiii??ii? ?icaeiaii? iiaa?oi?.

3. Oia?oa io?eiaii caoenia aacii?enoa iie?eooy c ieneaeo cae?ca ia
iecueeiaoaeaoeaa?e noae? ca aeiiiiiaith aeainoaae?eiiai i?ioeano, ui
aeeth/a? aeaeo?io?i?/ia oi?ioaaiiy oa?o ienaeaoo cae?ca oa eiai
ianooiiee oa?i?/iee ?iceeaae c ooai?aiiyi Fe2O3.

4. Oia?oa canoiniaaii iaoiae eaoiaeii? iiey?ecaoe?? ?ic/ei?a
naieaaeaioiiai ia?aaioeth ca?aaee oi?ioaaiiy ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaiai
iie?eooy ia iiaa?oi? iecueeiaoaeaoeaa?e noae? c caoeniei oa?ii c Fe2O3;
aea/aia e?iaoeea oi?ioaaiiy ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaiai iie?eooy.

5. Oia?oa noai?aia aeaioa?iaa eiiiiceoe?y Fe Fe2O3 MnO2, yea caoeua?
iniiao aiiaea, ia? aeinoaoith aaeaac?th aei iniiae e aeanoeaino?
aeoeaiiai iie?eooy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Noai?aii iaeiciiooaai? aiiaee, iniiaith yeeo ? iecueeiaoaeaoeaaa noaeue,
ia yeo iaianaii aeaioa?iao eiiiiceoe?th Fe2O3 MnO2 c aeinoaoiueith
aaeaac??th aei iniiae; ?ic?iaeaii aeaeo?ie?o aeey oi?ioaaiiy ?icaeiaii?
iiaa?oi? iniiae.

Noi?iiaai? iaoaeiieneaei? aiiaee c aeaioa?iaei iie?eooyi aei?iaoaaii: 1)
o ?icaaaeaieo ?ic/eiao i?eaethaaiiy e i?aeiaiiy, eiioeaio?aoe?? iaoae?a
o yeeo a?aeiia?aeaee i?iieaiei aaiiai oeeo i?ioean?a; 2) ia
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaiio aeaeo?ie?ca??, ciiioiaaiiio ia iniia? aaiie
aeiaethaaiiy i?ioeano i?eaethaaiiy. Aei?iaoaaiiy aeyaeee, ui ?ic?iaeai?
iaeiciiooaai? aiiaee i?eaeaoi? aeey canoinoaaiiy o i?ioean?
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai aeeo/aiiy ?ii?a aaaeeeo iaoae?a c i?iieneiaeo no?/ieo
aiae aaeueaai?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oa cai?iiiiiaaii
oaoiieia?th oi?ioaaiiy ?icaeiaii? iiaa?oi? iniiae aiiae?a
iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae?, ui aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe aiiaei? iaoa??aee c
aenieith ieoiiith iiaa?oiath e iie?ioaiiyi aaeaac?? oa??a
iaoaeiieneaeiiai aeoeaiiai iie?eooy.

Aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy iie?eooy c ieneaeo cae?ca Fe2O3
oa e?iaoeeo eaoiaeiiai inaaeaeoaaiiy aeoeaiiai iie?eooy c ae?ieneaeo
ia?aaioeth ia noaeuei?e iniia?.

I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aea/aiiy aeanoeainoae iaoaeiieneaeieo
iie?eoue.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeaii caeaaei?noue aeoiaeo ca no?oiii ae?ieneaeo
ia?aaioeth a?ae aonoeie no?oio e neeaaeo aeaeo?ie?oo; noai?aii
iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue oeueiai aeaeo?ineioaco.

Aeaioiaeaii iaeiciiooaai? aiiaee c aeaioa?iaei iaoaeiieneaeiei iie?eooyi
Fe Fe2O3 MnO2 oa aea/aii ?oith iiaaae?ieo o ?icaaaeaieo ?ic/eiao
i?aeiaiiy e i?eaethaaiiy; cae?eniaii eaai?aoi?i? e aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?
aei?iaoaaiiy; aeyaeaii aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee cai?iiiiiaaieo
iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaii oaoiieia?/io noaio oi?ioaaiiy iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a c
aeaioa?iaei iaoaeiieneaeiei iie?eooyi Fe Fe2O3 MnO2 ia iniia?
iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio nai?ia?? «Nia?aiaiiay oaoieea i/enoee aiaeu» (i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1995 ?.); i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo «?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??: iaoea, oaoi?ea, oaoiieia?y,
ina?oa, caei?ia’y» (i. Oa?e?a, 19951998 ??.); I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe??aenoaaoe? «I?iaeaie ei?ic?? oa i?ioe-ei?ic?eiiai caoenoo
eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a» Ei?ic?y 96 (i. Euea?a, 1996 ?.);
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ani??aio?a oa ni?a?ia?oiee?a
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (i. Oa?e?a,
19931998 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 10 ?ia?o: 5 noaoae oa 5
oac aeiiia?aeae.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ia? anooi, 4 ?icae?ee
iniiaiiai ci?noo e aeiaeaoee. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 157
noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
i?noeoue 116 iaeiaioaaiue (12 noi?.), 26 ?ethno?aoe?e (25 noi?.), 15
oaaeeoeue (11 noi?.), 2 aeiaeaoee (6 noi?.)

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ?ice?eoi noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie oa iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??; noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo
?iaioe oa caaaeaiiy aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe; iaaaaeaii caaaeueio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeena?oaoe?? uiaei aeooaeueiino? oaie, iaoeiai? iiaecie e
i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a; iaaaaeaii a?aeiiino?
a?aeiinii iniaenoiai aianeo caeiaoaa/a, ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a
aeena?oaoe??, ioae?eaoe?e.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.
I?iaiae?ciaaii aeanoeaino?, ia?aaaae e iaaeie?ee, a oaeiae iaeano?
canoinoaaiiy iaoaeiieneaeieo aiiae?a c ae?ieneaeo ?ooai?th e naeioeth,
ieneae?a i?eaeth, eiaaeueoo, oeoaio, i?ae? oa ?ioeo. Iniaeeao oaaao
i?eae?eaii aiae?co aeaieo uiaei aiiae?a, aeoeaia iie?eooy yeeo ooai?aia
c ieneae?a cae?ca oa ia?aaioeth. Aoei ?icaeyiooi aeaeo?io?i?/io
aeoeai?noue ieneae?a cae?ca oa ia?aaioeth; aeaeo?io?i?/i? niiniae
iaianaiiy aeoeaiiai iie?eooy; aieea neeaaeo aeaeo?ie?o?a, eaaiaaieo
aeii?oie, oiia inaaeaeaiiy iie?eooy e ia?iaee aeaeo?iae?a ia ?oith
ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue oa cieaeaiiy ciino.

?icaeyiooi aeaeo?ii?ia?aei? aeanoeaino? ieneae?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae
iiaeeo?eaoe??, ?oi?e oa?iiaeeiai?/iee noai o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeai?o iaoa??aeo iniiae aiiaea.

Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aeaeo?io?i?/i? iaoiaee aeeo/aiiy aaaeeeo iaoae?a ?c
noie?a aaeueaai?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa, na?aae ieo iaoiaee, caniiaai? ia
?oiueiio eaoiaeiiio a?aeiiaeaii? c aaeueaaiinoie?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii aeei?enoai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, a
naia: i?e aea/aii? e?iaoeee aeaeo?iaeieo i?ioean?a iioaioe?inoaoe/iee,
iioai-oe?iaeeiai?/iee oa o?iiiaiia?iiao?e/iee iaoiaee; i?ae /an
aecia/aiiy yeino? oa neeaaeo iie?eoue iaoaeia?ao?/iee oa
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee iaoiaee; o aeine?aeaeaiiyo yeino? c/aieaiiy
oa?i?/iee oa aeaeo?io?i?/iee iaoiaee; i?ae /an aecia/aiiy oiaueie oa
aeoiaeo ca no?oiii iie?eoue a?aa?iao?e/iee iaoiae. Aeacaii canoiniaai?
i?eeaaee, aeaeo?iaee, niiniae ia?iaee aeaeo?iae?a ? aecia/aiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ie?o?a; oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a.

Iaaaaeaii a?aeiiino? a?aeiinii i?eeaae?a oa oiia aei?iaoaaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo aiiae?a; niinia?a eiio?ieth ?oiuei? i?aoeacaeaoiino? o
iiaeaeueieo ?ic/eiao, ye? ?i?ooaaee i?iieai? aiaee i?ioean?a
i?eaethaaiiy e i?aeiaiiy.

Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iniiai? aoaie i?iaaaeaiiy e ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a
iiaiiai oaeoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iiaoaeiaaii
iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue i?ioeano io?eiaiiy aeoeaiiai iie?eooy MnO2 c
ia?iaiaaiaoiiai aeaeo?ie?oo ? (o noeoiiino? c ?ooii ca a?aae??ioii)
ciaeaeaii iioeiaeuei? cia/aiiy ao?aeieo oaeoi??a oa a?aeiia?aeiiai ?i
ia?aiao?a iioei?caoe??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ae??oaii i?iaeaio oi?ioaaiiy iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a
ia iniia? iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae?. Ine?eueee ca ei?ic?eieie
aeanoeainoyie noaeue iio?aao? caoenoo iiaa?oi? a?ae ?oei?aiiai aieeao
aeaeo?ie?o?a, a aea?aia aeoeaia iie?eooy aiiaea (ae?ieneae ia?aaioeth)
caaaeyee iayaiino? ii? ia iiaea caaacia/eoe caaeia?eueiee caoeno
noaeueii? iniiae, aeei?enoaii caoeniee oa? c ieneaeo cae?ca Fe2O3
iaoa??aeo, yeee aeyaey?oueny iaea?eueo oa?iiaeeiai?/ii no?eeei a oiiaao
aiiaeii? iiey?ecaoe??.

Uiaei iaea?aeaiiy iie?eooy iniiae c ieneaeo cae?ca Fe2O3, oi ?nioth/?
o?i?/i? (ieneaeoaaiiy) oa aeaeo?io?i?/i? iaoiaee, iienai? a e?oa?aoo??,
ia aeicaieythoue ?ica’ycaoe oeueiai caaaeaiiy, ai i?e aeei?enoaii? oeeo
iaoiae?a ia iiaa?oi? noaeueii? iniiae oi?io?oueny ieneae cae?ca Fe3O4,
o?i?/ia no?ee?noue yeiai cia/ii iaioa, i?ae Fe2O3. Oiio a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aeainoaae?eiee iaoiae
iaea?aeaiiy caoeniiai iie?eooy noaeueii? iniiae, yeee iieyaa? o
oi?ioaaii? ia iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaea ienaeaoo cae?ca oa ianooiiiio
oa?i?/iiio ?iceeaae? eiai c? noai?aiiyi Fe2O3. Oi?ioaaiiy ienaeaoo
cae?ca aoei cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoii aiiaeii? iiey?ecaoe?? noaeueieo ieanoei
o ?ic/eiao uaaeaai? eeneioe.

Iioaioe?iaeeiai?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee noaeueiiai aeaeo?iaeo a
?ic/eiao uaaeaai? eeneioe aeyaeee oeiiaee oa?aeoa? aiiaeii? iiey?ecaoe??
cae?ca. Ci?uaiiy iioaioe?aeo aeaeo?iaea a aiiaeio iaeanoue
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? ?ic/eiaiiy cae?ca, niaaeii
no?oio aei ianeaii? iaeano? e iiaeaeueoei c?inoaiiyi no?oio caaaeyee
aeae?eaiith eenith. I?e oeueiio ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eeneioe aaaea
aei cia/iiai cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? aeoeaiiai ?ic/eiaiiy cae?ca a iaeano?
iioaioe?ae?a = 0,25 0,15 A. Oaea cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? i?ioeano iiaeia
iiynieoe ooai?aiiyi ia iiaa?oi? noae? a?eueo u?eueiiai nieueiaiai oa?o.
Aeyaeaii, ui i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? uaaeaai? eeneioe (4 12)102 I oaeaeeino?
aiiaeiiai ?ic/eiaiiy cae?ca e ooai?aiiy ienaeaoo cae?ca noi??i?,
caaaeyee oeueiio noa? iiaeeeaei ooai?aiiy oa c??no oa?o ienaeaoo cae?ca.

Oaeo ooai?aiiy ia iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaea inaaeea, ui ca neeaaeii
a?aeiia?aea? FeC2O4 I2I, noaa?aeaeaii ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iei aiae?cii.

I?e ia?iaoe? noaeueieo c?ace?a o uaaeaaieeneeo ?ic/eiao, o i?eaiiaeiiio
i?inoi?o aeineoue oaeaeei iaeiie/oaaany oa aeiaaeaa a inaaeie ienaeao
cae?ca. Oea yaeua aeeeeeaii iacaaeia?eueiei c/aieaiiyi ienaeaoo cae?ca
c? noaeueiith iniiaith. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy c/aieaiiy nieueiaiai oa?o c
iniiaith oa noaa?e?caoe?? aeaeo?ie?oo, cai?iiiiiaaii aaiaeeoe a
aeaeo?ie?o ??ciiiai?oi? aeii?oee. Iaee?auee ?acoeueoao aoei io?eiaii i?e
aeiaeaaaii? nee?eaoo iao??th. Iaeaea iaeiaeiaee o?ae
iioaioe?iaeeiai?/ieo caeaaeiinoae, ui io?eiai? o aeine?aeaeaiiyo
?ic/ei?a c aeiaeaoeii nee?eaoo iao??th oa aac iueiai, na?ae/eoue i?i oa,
ui nee?eao iao??th ia aa?a o/ano? a aeaeo?io?i?/i?e ?aaeoe??.

I?e aeaeo?io?i?/i?e ia?iaoe? noaeueieo c?ace?a o ?ic/ei? uaaeaai?
eeneioe c aeiaeaoeii nee?eaoo iao??th (ja = 8 9 iA/ni2) oa iiaeaeueoiio
oa?i?/iiio ?iceeaae? ienaeaoo cae?ca (t = 150 165 iN) io?eiaii u?eueiee
aacii?enoee oa? Fe2O3 ?c caaeia?eueiith aaeaac??th aei iniiae.
Aacii?eno?noue oa?o Fe2O3 aoea aeiaaaeaia aei?iaoaaiiyie c?ace?a c
iie?eooyi o ?ic/eiao n??/aiieeneeo i?ae? oa iao??th (eiioeaio?aoe?? aei
50 a/aei3) ?ic/eiao, ye? ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aea?aenoaiaea?oii aeey
eiio?ieth ii?enoino? oa caoenieo aeanoeainoae iaiaoaeaaeo iie?eoue.
I?ney o?eaaeiai aeaea?aeoaaiiy o oeeo ?ic/eiao eiioaeoii? i?ae? oa
ne?ae?a ei?ic?? ia iiaa?oi? c?ace?a ia aoei a?aei?/aii.

Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoaeia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aii oiaueio iie?eoue
c Fe2O3: ia c?aceao, ui caciaee ia?iaeo i?ioyaii 57 oaeeei a ?ic/ei?
uaaeaai? eeneioe c eiioeaio?aoe??th 4102 I, oiaueia iie?eoue neeaaeaea
200400 ii.

Aeae? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei niinia?a oi?ioaaiiy
aeoeaiiai iie?eooy c ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth. Iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an
noaiiaeei oi?ioaaiiy MnO2, ine?eueee naia oey iiaeeo?eaoe?y ia?
iaee?au? aeaeo?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino?.

sse aeyaeee iioaioe?iaeeiai?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?e aiiaei?e
iiey?ecaoe?? ?ic/ei?a aeaiaaeaioiiai ia?aaioeth c aeii?oeith noeueoaoo
aiii?th a?aeaoaa?oueny neeueia ?ic/eiaiiy iniiae ( = 0,55 0,15 A); oa
eeoa a iaeano? iioaioe?ae?a = 0,9 1,5 A ooai?th?oueny MnO2. Inoaii?
noaa?aeaeaii ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iei aiae?cii. Iaaaoeaieie ?enaie oeueiai
iaoiaeo aoee ?ioaineaia aeae?eaiiy eenith, yea cia/ii ciaioo? aeo?ae ca
no?oiii oe?eueiaiai i?iaeoeoo oa iacaaeia?eueia aaeaac?y noi?iiaaieo
iie?eoue aei iniiae, aeeeeeaia neeueiei ?ic/eiaiiyi inoaiiuei?. Aea/aiiy
aieeao ??cieo ?ia?a?oi??a ei?ic?? aeicaieeei aea?aoe o?io?ii?i, yeee
cia/ii cieaeo? oaeae-e?noue ?ic/eiaiiy iniiae, aea ia ni?ey? iie?auaiith
yeino? c/aieaiiy.

Ca niiniaii eaoiaeii? iiey?ecaoe?? ?ic/ei?a naieaaeaioiiai ia?aaioeth
(KMnO4) c eiioeaio?aoe??th 0,1 0,5 I io?eiai? iie?eooy, ui ca neeaaeii,
ye iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co, oaae
a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaeeo?eaoe?? MnO2. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aiiaeiiai
niiniao iaea?aeaiiy MnO2 i?e oeueiio niinia? yeiai-iaaoaeue iaaaoeaiiai
aieeao aeaeo?ie?oo ia noaeueio iniiao a?aei?/aii ia aoei, oi/a aaeaac?y
oeueiai iie?eooy aei iniiae aeyaeeanue iaaeinoaoiueith. Ca iaoith
aeoieith iaaeinoaoith aaeaac?th ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioea-aiai iie?eooy
iiaeia iiynieoe iayai?noth a eaoiaeiiio inaaeeo aii?oieo /anoie
naiia?aeiiaeaiiai KMnO4. Aeey caiia?aaiiy inoaiiueiai iaaaoeaiiai yaeua
c’yniaaii aieea ia ye?noue c/aieaiiy ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaiai ii-e?eooy
aeayeeo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei. Aoee aea?ai? aeii?oee (oei?-ai?i A,
AeN-10, ea?aai?ae), ye? ia i?iyaeythoue neeueieo a?aeiiaethaaeueieo
aeanoeainoae a?aeiinii ia?iaiaaiaoo eae?th ? ieenethaaeueieo a?aeiinii
iniiae aeaeo?iaea (noae?). An? aeine?aeaeai? aeii?oee i?aeaeuoaaee
a?aie/io oaeaee?noue eaoiaeiiai i?ioeano, aea o?eueee cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
ea?aai?aeo aeicaieeei io?eiaoe iie?eooy c aeinoaoiueith aaeaac??th aei
iniiae. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ea?aai?ae aaeni?ao?oueny ia iiaa?oi? noae? oa
ia?aoeiaeaea? niiioaiiiio a?aeiiaeaiith KMnO4.

Aiae?c iiey?ecaoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae o iai?aeiaa?eoi?/ieo eii?aeeiaoao
i?ioeano a?aeiiaeaiiy 0,25 I KMnO4 c aeii?oeith 3,2102 I ea?aai?aeo ia
??cieo iniiaao (aeea. ?en.1a,a) i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo uiaei ci?oaii?
e?iaoeee i?ioeano. A eii?aeeiaoao aeeooc?eii? e?iaoeee ia? i?noea cia/ia
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae i?yiie?i?eiino?. Iacia/iee aieea aeeooc?eiiai
aaeueioaaiiy a?aeiiaeaiiy ai?iio ia?iaiaaiaoo aoei oaeiae aeiaaaeaii
iiey?ecaoe?eieie caeaaeiinoyie c canoinoaaiiyi ia?ai?ooaaiiy
aeaeo?ie?oo. Oea aeyaeyeiny a iaeaea iaeiaeiaiio ?on? caeaaeiinoae,
io?eiaieo i?e ??cieo ?ioainea-iinoyo ia?ai?ooaaiiy oa i?e eiai
a?aenooiino?.

A?aecia/aii, ui ia noaeuei?e iniia? i?ioean a?aeiiaeaiiy ai?iio
ia?iaiaaiaoo iiaeeeai e?i?oo?oueny noaae??th i?e?aeiaiiy ia?oiai
aeaeo?iia:

MnO4 + e MnO42 (1)

c iiaeaeueoei a?aeiiaeaiiyi ai?iia iaiaaiaoo:

MnO42 + 2H2O + 2e MnO2 + 4OH. (2)

C iaoith ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioean?a aeeo/aiiy aaaeeeo iaoae?a c
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo ?ic/ei?a, iaea?aeoaaiiy iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a c
aenieith ieoiiith iiaa?oiath, a oaeiae aeey aeiaeaoeiaiai i?aeaeuaiiy
aaeaac?? oa??a ieneaeo cae?ca Fe2O3 oa ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth ?ic?iaeaii
aeaeo?ie?o noai?aiiy ?icaeiaii? iiaa?oi? noaeueii? iniiae.

Aeey oeueiai aeine?aeaeai? ?ic/eie o?aaeaiiy ia/aoieo ieao, ui i?noyoue
FeCl3 ? CuCl2, a oaeiae ?ic/eie ia iniia? H2SO4 ? NaCl. I?ney aiiaeiiai
o?aaeaiiy o ?ic/eiao, ui i?noyoue FeCl3 ? CuCl2, ia noaeueieo c?aceao
aeyaeaii cia/ia ciyooy iaoaeo, aea i?e oeueiio ?icaeoeo ?aeue?oo ia
ciaeaeaii. I?ney aiiaeiiai o?aaeaiiy o ?ic/eiao n??/aii? eeneioe e
oei?eaeo iao??th a?aecia/aii ooai?aiiy ?icaeiaii? iiaa?oi? o?eueee a
na?aaeei? c?acea, c e?a?a c?acea niinoa??aaeiny neeueia ciyooy iaoaeo.
Aeey iaea?aeoaaiiy iaeiaeiai? oaeaeeino? ?ic/eiaiiy iaoaeo ii an?e
iiaa?oi? c?ace?a oa oi?ioaaiiy ia i?e iaeiaeiaiai ?icaeiaiiai ?aeue?oo
aei ?ic/ei?a aoee aaaaeai? i?aai?/i? e iai?aai?/i? ?ia?a?oi?e.

Iaee?auee ?acoeueoao io?eiaii a ?ic/eiao c aeii?oeith aaicio?eacieo
(AOA), cai?iaaaeaeaiiy yeiai o?ioe cieaeo? caaaeueio oaeaee?noue
i?ioeano oa ia?aoeiaeaea? iaaei??iiio ?ico?aaeaiith e?a?a c?ace?a. Ae?th
AOA nei??o ca ana iiaeia iiynieoe iayai?noth o eiai iieaeoeao aoii?a
acioo c a?eueieie aeaeo?iiieie ia?aie, ui noai?th? oiiae aeey ooai?aiiy
eiiieaenieo niieoe. Ooai?aiiy o?i?/ieo niieoe oa ?oiy iayai?noue ia
aenooiao noaeueieo c?ace?a, ye? caciathoue aiiaeia o?aaeaiiy iiaeiii
caiia?aaoe ?ioaineaiiio ?ico?aaeaiith inoaii?o.

Aeey e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee io?eiaii? i?ney o?aaeaiiy iiaa?oi?
i?iaaaeaii i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aecia/eee cia/aiiy
oi?noeino? (RZ) iiaa?oi?. A ?ic?iaeaiiio aeaeo?ie?o? (?ic/ei? ia iniia?
n??/aii? eeneioe, oei?eaeo iao??th oa aaicio?eacieo) aiia noaiiaeoue
74105 iei, a aac AOA RZ = 21 26 iei. Oaeei /eiii, canoinoaaiiy
?ic?iaeaiiai aeaeo?ie?oo aeicaieeei ca?eueoeoe ni?aaaeith iiaa?oith
aeaeo?iaea a 3,54 ?ace. Ca?eueoaiiy iiaa?oi? iniiae aoei oaeiae
aeiaaaeaii aeaeo?io?i?/iei niiniaii: oeyoii ii??aiyiiy a?aie/ii? aonoeie
no?oio a?aeiiaeaiiy i?ae? c n??/aiieeneiai aeaeo?ie?oo i?aeiaiiy ia
c?aceao, ye? i?ieoee ia?iaeo o noaiaea?oiiio aeaeo?ie?o? o?aaeaiiy oa o
cai?iiiiiaaiiio c AOA.

Aeaeo?iaee c aeaioa?iaei iie?eooyi Fe2O3MnO2 aei?iaoaaii aeey aeeo/aiiy
i?eaeth oa i?ae? c ?oi?o ?icaaaeaieo ?ic/ei?a. I?e oeueiio aoei
aecia/aii ciai?oi?e aeaeyae inaaeaeoaaieo iaoaeaaeo iie?eoue, noai
iiaa?oi? aiiae?a, ?oi?e ciin, ciai?oi?e aeaeyae oa ci?io neeaaeo
aeaeo?ie?o?a.

Aeey iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeeo/aiiy aaaeeeo iaoae?a c
a?ae-i?aoeueiaaieo ?ic/ei?a aoei aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino?
a?aeiiaeaiiy i?eaeth oa i?ae? c ?oi?o ?icaaaeaieo ?ic/ei?a i?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? iniiaiiai iaoaea aei 10 a/aei3. Iiey?ecaoe?ei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaaaeaieo ?ic/ei?a i?eaethaaiiy aeyaeee, ui c
i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eaeth c?inoa? a?aie/ia oaeae-e?noue
?aaeoe??. C io?eiaieo o?iiiiioaioe?ia?ai ca aeiiiiiaith ??aiyiiy Naiaea
ia/eneaii aoaeoeaiee eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? ?ii?a i?eaeth, yeee neeaaea?
5,810-5 ci/n2 ? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui o ?icaaaeaieo ?ic/eiao c
eiioeaio?aoe??th ?ii?a i?eaeth (1,78,5)10-5 I a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ii?a Ni2+
i?aeei?th?oueny caeiii-i??iinoyi aeeooc?eii? e?iaoeee.

I?ae?a?aii ?aaeeie eaoiaeieo oa aiiaeieo ?aaeoe?e o i?ioeanao aeeo/aiiy
i?ae? oa i?eaeth c ?oi?o ?icaaaeaieo ?ic/ei?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi
iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a FeFe2O3MnO2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy
aeoiaeo i?eaeth ca no?oiii noaiiaeoue 2030 % (i?e NNi2+ = (1,7
8,5)10-2M oa aonoei? no?oio jK = 3 5 iA/ni2 ? oaiia?aoo?? 20 iN).
Iaee?aua ye?noue i?aeiiai iie?eooy, io?eiaiiai ca oeie ae oiiaaie,
a?aeiia?aea? cia/aiith eaoiaeii? aonoeie no?oio jK = 2,5 3 iA/ni2. A
iaeii/an aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? ?iaioe
FeFe2O3MnO2 aiiae?a aonoeia no?oio ia ieo iiaeiia aooe a iaaeao 4,55,0
iA/ni2. Eaoiaeaie o aeuaiaaaaeaieo i?ioeanao aoei cai?iiiiiaaii
aenieieaaiaaio noaeue ia?ee O18I9O (aai ?ioo). Oea aoei iaiao?aeii aeey
caaacia/aiiy eaaeiai ciyooy eaoiaeieo oa??a i?ae? oa i?eaeth oa
aeei?enoaiiy inoaii?o o yeino? aiiae?a a iniiaiiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

I?ioyaii o?eaaeeo aei?iaoaaiue c’yniaaii, ui cai?iiiiiaai?
iaoaeiieneaei? aiiaee o ?icaaaeaieo ?ic/eiao i?ae? oa i?eaeth
aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe aeioe, aeiee e?euee?noue aeaeo?eee aeinyaia
128 Aa/aei3 oa 96 Aa/aei3 a?aeiia?aeii.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?ica’ycaii caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy iine?aeiaii?
oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iaeiciiooaaieo iaoaeiieneaeieo aiiae?a ia iniia?
iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae?.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? noaeuei? ieanoeie caciaee ia?iaeo iaoaeaaei i?neii.
Aeine?aeaeaii, ui ianooiia aiiaeia o?aaeaiiy ieanoei c iaoith io?eiaiiy
?icaeiaii? iiaa?oi?, aaee/eia oi?noeino? yei? noaiiaeoeia RZ = 85 100
iei, aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe o ?ic?iaeaiiio aeaeo?ie?o? neeaaeo (a/aei3):

H2SO4 80100;

NaCl 1020;

AOA 0,00950,01

i?ioyaii 2530 oaeeei i?e aonoei? no?oio jA = 10 15 A/aei2 oa
oaiia?aoo?? 1825 iN. Cai?iiiiiaaiee aeaeo?ie?o iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiei
i?ioyaii o?eaaei? aenieoaoaoe?? ca oiiaith ia??iaee/iiai ei?aeooaaiiy.

Uiaei cae?eniaiiy ianooiiiai oaoiieia?/iiai aoaio oi?ioaaiiy ia
noai?ai?e iiaa?oi? caoeniiai oa?o Fe2O3 i?e aiiaei?e aonoei? no?oio j =
0,8 0,9 A/aei2 ? oaiia?aoo?? 1825 iN aoei ?ic?iaeaii ?ic/ei ca neeaaeii
(a/aei3):

(NIII)2 1,42,8;

nee?eao iao??th 2,03,0,

yeee aoei aaeeoi aeey ooai?aiiy ia iiaa?oi? noae? oa?o ienaeaoo cae?ca
i?ii?aeii? niieoee, ui ?iceeaaea?oueny i?ae /an oa?iiia?iaee (t = 150
160 iN) c ooai?aiiyi Fe2O3. Aiiaeia ia?iaea aeeiioaaeany i?ioyaii 57
oaeeei i?e aonoei? no?oio jA = 0,8 0,9 A/aei2. O?eaae? aei?iaoaaiiy
iieacaee, ui aeaeo?ie?o iio?aao? iiaii? cai?ie i?ney ia?iaee 75110 aei2
iiaa?oi? a iaeiiio e?o?? ?ic/eio.

Aeiaeaoeia? aei?iaiaoaaiiy ieneaeiaaieo aeaeo?iae?a o ?ic/eiao CuSO4 oa
Na2SO4 iaeiaeiaeo eiioeaio?aoe?e (50 a/aei3) i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui io?eiaiee
oa? Fe2O3 oiaueiith 200400 ii ? aacii?enoei.

Aeey eaoiaeiiai aeaeo?ineioaco aeoeaiiai iie?eooy aiiae?a ae?ieneaeo
ia?aaioeth aeei?enoaii aeaeo?ie?o, ui i?noeoue ia?iaiaaiao eae?th oa
ea?aai?ae. Aiiaeii o oeueiio i?ioean? aoei aeei?enoaii oeoai
ae?ieneaeii-ia?aaioeaaee aeaeo?iae, iniiaa yeiai aoea aeaioiaeaia c
ii?enoiai oeoaio, a aeoeaia iie?eooy io?eiaii oa?i?/iei ?iceeaaeaiiyi
i?o?aoo ia?aaioeth. Canoinoaaiiy aeey aeaiiai i?ioeano ia?ic/eiaiiai
oeoaiae?ieneaeiiia?aaioea-aiai aiiaeo oaoiieia?/ii iaa?oioiaaii: oea
aeicaieeei oieeiooe iai?iaeoeoeaii? aeo?aoe iniiaiiai eiiiiiaioa
aeaeo?ie?oo KMnO4 ca ?aooiie eiai niiioaiiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy a ia’?i?
?ic/eio oa i?aeaeueei no?ie neoaeae aeaeo?ie?oo.

Iioei?caoe?th i?ioeano aeaeo?ineioaco MnO2 c ia?iaiaaiaoiiai aeaeo?ie?oo
cae?eniaii iaoiaeii iiaiiai oaeoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo a niieo/aii? c
iaoiaeii ?ooo ca a?aae??ioii. Aea?aii ia?aiao? iioei?caoe?? (aeo?ae MnO2
ca no?oiii), ao?aei? oaeoi?e uiaei iiaoaeiae aeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?
(eiioeaio?aoe?? ia?iaiaaiaoo eae?th oa ea?aai?aeo, eaoiaeio aonoeio
no?oio) oa aeae?eaii ?ioa?aaee aa??thaaiiy oaeoi??a. Cia/aiiy ao?aeieo
ia?aiao??a aa??thaaeenue a ?ioa?aaeao: eiioeaio?aoe?y ia?iaiaaiaoo
eae?th 3050 a/aei3; eiioeaio?aoe?y ea?aai?aeo 24 a/aei3; eaoiaeia
aonoeia no?oio 0,150,35 A/aei3. Io?eiaii ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??, yea ia?
aeaeyae:

Y = 44,5063 1,7688 o1 + 1,0187 o2 0,3813 o3 1,5563 o1o2; (3)

aea o1 = (O1 0,25)/0,1; o2 = (O2 40)/10; o3 = (O3 3); Y aeo?ae
ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth ca no?oiii (%); O1 eaoiaeia aonoeia no?oio
(A/aei2); O2 oa O3 eiioeaio?aoe?? ia?iaiaaiaoo eae?th oa ea?aai?aeo
(a/aei3), a?aeiia?aeii.

C’yniaaii, ui iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy ia?aiao?a iioei?caoe?? neeaaea? 49,9
%. ?ic?aoiaaii cia/aiiy aeenia?n?? aeine?aeieo ?acoeueoao?a, e?eoa???a
Eio?aia oa O?oa?a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui io?eiaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
aaeaeaaoii iieno? i?ioean eaoiaeiiai aeaeo?ineioaco MnO2.

I?e eaoiaei?e aonoei? no?oio j = 0,1 0,15 a/aei2 ? oaiia?aoo?? 1825 iN
aecia/aia oaeaee?noue ia?iuoaaiiy iie?eoue oa i?aoeacaeaoi?noue
ia?iaiaaiaoiiai aeaeo?ie?oo neeaaeo (a/aei3):

KMnO4 3050;

(NH2)2CO 23.

Oaeaee?noue ia?iuoaaiiy iie?eooy MnO2 noaiiaeoue 1,52,0 iei/aiae. sse
iieacaee niinoa?aaeaiiy, ei?aaoaaiiy oa o?eueo?aoe?th aeaeo?ie?oo
iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe i?ney i?ioiaeaeaiiy 5060 Aaiae/aei3. Aeua
iaaaaeaiee aeaeo?ie?o ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeey io?eiaiiy aeoeaiiai iie?eooy c
ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth ia iniia? c iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae?.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?/ia noaia oi?ioaaiiy iaeiciiooaaieo
iaoaeiieneaeieo aiiae?a ia iniia? iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae? c i?ii?aeiei
caoeniei oa?ii c ieneaeo cae?ca Fe2O3 ? aeoeaiei iie?eooyi c ae?ieneaeo
ia?aaioeth. Iai?ee?ioe? iaaaaeai? iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? iaiieaaeee oa
niiniae ?o onoiaiiy.

Aeine?aeii-i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoaeiieneaeieo
aiiae?a aoei i?iaaaeaii ia aac? ae?iaie/iai ia’?aeiaiiy «Eiioia?»
I?i?noa?noaa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie c canoinoaaiiyi ae?th/iai
iaeaaeiaiiy. Aiie i?aeoaa?aeeee iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy FeFe2O3MnO2
aiiae?a aeey aeeo/aiiy i?ae? oa i?eaeth c i?iieaieo aiae oeeo i?ioean?a
oa iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo eaoiaeieo inaaee?a a iniiaiiio
ae?iaieoeoa? .

AENIIAEE

1. Oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii aeaeo?io?i?/iee niin?a
aeaioiaeaiiy iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a ia iniia? c iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae?
c aeoeaiei ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaei iie?eooyi.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeaeo?ie?o aeey oi?ioaaiiy ?icaeiaii? iiaa?oi?
noaeueii? iniiae iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a. A?aecia/aii, ui noai?aiiy
?icaeiaii? iiaa?oi? oeyoii aiiaeiiai o?aaeaiiy ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith
aaeaac?? iaoaeiieneaeieo iie?eoue aei iniiae ? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aiiaeiiai
i?ioeano i?e aeeo/aii? aaaeeeo iaoae?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaeaaaiiy
aaicio?eacieo a n??/aiieeneee aeaeo?ie?o aiiaeiiai o?aaeaiiy i?eaiaeeoue
aei ?ioaineaiiai oa ??aiii??iiai ?ico?aaeaiiy noaeueii? iniiae ii an?e
iiaa?oi?.

3. Iieacaii iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy aacii?enoiai i?ii?aeiiai caoeniiai
iie?eooy c ieneaeo cae?ca Fe2O3 ia noaeuei?e iniia?. ?ic?iaeaii
aeainoaae?eiee niin?a noai?aiiy caoeniiai oa?o ieneaeo cae?ca Fe2O3,
yeee ia? caaeia?eueio aaeaac?th aei iniiae. Aeaiee niin?a aeeth/a?
aeaeo?io?i?/io ia?iaeo noaeueieo aeaeo?iae?a o ?ic/ei? uaaeaai? eeneioe
? ianooiiee oa?i?/iee ?iceeaae ienaeaoo cae?ca.

4. ?ic?iaeaii uaaeaaieeneee aeaeo?ie?o aiiaeii? ia?iaee noae? c iaoith
io?eiaiiy ienaeaoo cae?ca i?ii?aeii? niieoee i?e oi?ioaaii? Fe2O3.
A?aecia/aii, ui i?e iioeiaeueieo cia/aiiyo eiioeaio?aoe?? uaaeaai?
eeneioe ? aiiaeii? u?eueiino? no?oio oaeaeeino? ?ic/eiaiiy cae?ca e
ooai?aiiy ienaeaoo noi??i?. Caaaeyee oeueiio noaei iiaeeeaei oi?ioaaiiy
ia iiaa?oi? noae? u?eueiiai nieueiaiai oa?o. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaeaiee
aei uaaeaaieeneiai aeaeo?ie?oo nee?eao iao??th, ui ?
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaiith ?a/iaeiith, ia i?eeia? o/ano? a aeaeo?io?i?/i?e
?aaeoe??, aea i?aeaeuo? c/aieaiiy ienaeaoo cae?ca c iniiaith ?
noaa?e?co? aeaeo?ie?o.

5. Aeine?aeaeaii niiniae oi?ioaaiiy aeoeaiiai ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioea-aiai
iie?eooy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aiiaei?e ia?iaoe? noae? o ?ic/eiao
noeueoaoo ia?aaioeth aaeaac?y MnO2 aei iniiae iacaaeia?eueia. A
?acoeueoao? eaoiaeii? iiey?ecaoe?? noae? o ?ic/eiao ia?iaiaaiaoo eae?th
aoee io?eiai? inaaeee ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth, ye? iathoue caaeia?eueio
aaeaac?th aei iniiae. Iiey?ecaoe?eieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeiaaaeaii, ui
aeiaeaaaiiy aei ia?iaiaaiaoiiai aeaeo?ie?oo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo aeii?oie
ca?eueoo? oaeaee?noue ooai?aiiy ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth, aea o?eueee
aeiaeaaaiiy ea?aai?aeo ia aeeeeea? o?i?/iiai a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?iaiaaiaoo
eae?th a ia’?i? ?ic/eio oa ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aaeaac??
ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaiai iie?eooy aei iniiae. Anoaiiaeaii, ui eaoiaeia
a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?iaiaaiaoo eae?th c ooai?aiiyi ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth
i?aeei?y?oueny caeiiii??iinoyi ci?oaii? e?iaoeee.

6. Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo iiaiiai oaeoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo a ii?aeiaii? c
iaoiaeii ?ooo ca a?aae??ioii i?iaaaeaii iioei?caoe?th i?ioeano
aeaeo?ineioaco ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth c ?ic/ei?a ia?iaiaaiaoo eae?th.
?ic?aoiaaii ia?aiao?e iioei?caoe??, aeenia?n?th aeina?aeieo aaee/ei,
e?eoa??? Eio?aia ? O?oa?a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaeue aaeaeaaoii iieno? i?ioean eaoiaeiiai aeaeo?ineioaco ae?ieneaeo
ia?aaioeth. Ca aeiiiiiaith ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? aecia/aii iioeiaeuei?
cia/aiiy aeo?aeiiai ia?aiao?a.

7. Aeine?aeaeaii o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? iaoaeiieneaeieo oa
i?ii?ae-ieo iie?eoue. ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iei aiae?cii aeiaaaeaii
a?aeiia?aei?noue caoeniiai iie?eooy ca neeaaeii Fe2O3; i?ii?aeiiai
nieueiaiai iie?eooy, io?eiaiiai i?e aiiaei?e ia?iaoe? a uaaeaaieeneiio
aeaeo?ie?o? FeC2O42H2O; niieoee, noi?iiaaii? aeaeo?io?i?/iei oeyoii o
ia?iaiaaiaoiiio aeaeo?ie?o? — MnO2. I?e?ineii?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
aeiaaaeaii, ui aaeaac?y iaoaeiieneaeieo iie?eoue caaeia?eueia. Iioe/iei
iaoiaeii aecia/aii ia?aiao? oi?noeino? (Rz) iiaa?oi? c?ace?a, ui caciaee
aiiaeia o?aaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?iaea o cai?iiiiiaaiiio aeaeo?ie?o?
i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy ae?enii? iiaa?oi? noaeueii? iniiae a 3,54,0
?ace.

8. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaoe FeFe2O3MnO2 aiiaee a i?ioeanao
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai caeiaoaaiiy aaaeeeo iaoae?a ?c a?aei?aoeueiaaieo
?ic/ei?a aaeueaaiio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa. I?ae?a?aii ?aaeeie eaoiaeieo oa
aiiaeieo ?aaeoe?e aeeo/aiiy i?eaeth oa i?ae? c ?oi?o ?icaaaeaieo
noeueoaoieo ?ic/ei?a ?c ai?noii iniiaiiai iaoaeo aei 10 a/aei3.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ic?yae ?ii?a i?eaeth o ?icaaaeaieo na?aaeiaeuao
i?aeei?y?oueny caeiiii??iinoyi aeeooc?eii? e?iaoeee.

9. I?iaaaeaii eaai?aoi?i? ? aeina?aeii-i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo aeaeo?iaeieo iaoa??ae?a. Anoaiiaeaii ?ano?n noaa?eueii?
?iaioe iaoaeiieneaeieo aiiae?a o ?icaaaeaieo n??/aiieeneeo aeaeo?ie?oao
i?ae? ? i?eaeth. Aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy eaoiaeieo inaaee?a
i?ae? oa i?eaeth ye aiiae?a iniiaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

10. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/io noaio ae?iaieoeoaa iaeiciiooaaiiai
iaoaeiieneaeiiai aiiaeo, aeaioiaeaiiai ia iniia? iecueeiaoaeaoeaai?
noae? c i?ii?aeiei caoeniei oa?ii ieneaeo cae?ca Fe2O3 ? aeoeaiei
iie?eooyi c ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth, yeee aeeth/a? iaoai?/io ae?iaano?oeio
ia?iaeo; aiiaeia o?aaeaiiy noaeueieo ieanoei, oi?ioaaiiy caoeniiai oa?o
Fe2O3, eaoiaeiee aeaeo?ineioac aeoeaiiai ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaiai
iie?eooy aiiaeo.

Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ?iaioao:

1. Aae?a/iue A.E., Coaaneay I.A., Iaiueoia TH.A. Yeaeo?ioeie/aneia
ecaea/aiea ieeaey ec ?acaaaeaiiuo ?anoai?ia. // Aaeueaaiioaoieea e
ia?aaioea iiaa?oiinoe. 1993. O. 2, ? 1. N. 2325.

Aeena?oaioii io?eiai? aieueoaiia?ia?aie oa o?iiiiioaioe?ia?aie
a?aeiiaeaiiy i?eaeth ?c ?ic/ei?a ?c ai?noii Ni2+ 1-5 a/aei3. ?ic?aoiaaii
cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc?? ?ii?a i?eaeth oa aeo?ae i?eaeth ca
no?oiii.

2. Iaiueoia TH.A., Aae?a/iue A.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea eaoaeeoe/anee aeoeaiiai
aeeieneaea ia?aaioea ec ia?iaiaaiaoiuo ?anoai?ia. // Aano. Oa?uee. ain.
iieeoaoi. oi-oa. Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1998. Aui. 18. N. 2628.

I?iaaaeai? iiey?ecaoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy eaoiaeiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy ai?iia
ia?iaiaaiaoo c iaoith aecia/aiiy e?i?ooth/i? noaae?? aeaeo?iaeii?
?aaeoe??. Iaoiaeii ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co i?iaaaeaia
?aeaioeo?eaoe?y i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe??.

3. Iaiueoia TH.A., Eoeiaeoeeee I.I., Aae?a/iue A.E. Caueoiua ieneaeiua
ieaiee ia aeaeaca // Na. iao/iuo o?oaeia OAIO » Eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea.» 1998.
Aui. 6, *. 3. Oa?ueeia: OAIO. N. 122124.

Caeiaoaa/ai i?iaaaeai? aei?iaoaaiiy aeaeo?iae?a c aeaioa?iaith
iaoaeiieneaeiith eiiiiceoe??th FeFe2O3MnO2 o iaeo?aeueieo oa
neaaeieoaeieo na?aaeiaeuao. A?aecia/aii no?ie ?oiuei? i?aoeacaeaoiino?.

4. Aae?a/iue A.E., Iaiueoia TH.A. Oeieei-oa?ie/aneia oi?ie?iaaiea neiy
Fe2O3 ia ieceioaea?iaeenouo noaeyo // Aano. Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi.
oi-oa. Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1999. Aui. 26. N. 130132.

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii aeainoaae?eiee iaoiae oi?ioaaiiy ieneaeo cae?ca
(Fe2O3). Aeine?aeaeaia e?iaoeea ooai?aiiy i?ii?aeii? niieoee ienaeaoo
cae?ca. Iaoiaeii ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co i?iaaaeaia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y
i?iaeoeo?a eiaeii? noaae?? i?ioeano. Iaoaeia?ao?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
aecia/aia oiaueia noi?iiaaieo ieneaeieo oa??a. Caaaeyee ae?th/?e
iaoiaeeoe? ioe?iaia ii?eno?noue io?eiaieo iie?eoue.

5. Iaiueoia TH.A. Iino?iaiea iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee yeaeo?ineioaca
aeeieneaea ia?aaioea. // Aano. Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-oa. Oa?ueeia:
OAIO, 1999. Aui. 33. N. 6568.

6. Aae?a/iue A.E., Aea?eai N.A., Iaiueoia TH.A. Yeaeo?ineioac
ieneaeii-iaoaeee/aneeo aiiaeia aeey iaaca?aaeeaaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo noieia
// Oacenu aeieeaaeia ?aaeiiaeueiiai naieia?a «Nia?aiaiiay oaoieea
i/enoee aiaeu. Aeiai?iiao?iane: OAOOO, 1995. N. 29.

Ia noaeuei?e oa ii?eno?e oeoaiia?e iniiaao aaoi?ii noi?iiaaii
ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaa iie?eooy. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo
eiiiiceoe?e a yeino? iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a.

7. Aae?a/iee A.?., Iaiueoia TH.A., Aea??ai N.A., I?eiaa TH.A. Ei?ic?eia
no?ee?noue iaoaeiieneaeieo iie?eoue a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao //
Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??-aenoaaee «I?iaeaie ei?ic?? oa
i?ioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a. Ei?ic?y-96. 28-30
o?aaiy 1996. Euea?a, O?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?i-o A.A.Ea?iaiei IAI Oe?a?ie,
1996. N. 188189.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeai? aei?iaoaaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino? aeaeo?iae?a: MnO2|
Fe-Si; MnO2, Fe2O3| Fe; MnO2|Ni; MnO2|Ti o a?aei?aoeueiaaieo ?ic/eiao
i?aeiaiiy.

8. Aae?a/iue A.E., Eyoie E.A., Iaiueoia TH.A., Aa?oooaei I.E. Iino?iaiea
yiie?e/aneeo iiaeaeae yeaeo?ineioaca aeeieneaea ia?aaioea e aiiaeiiai
?anoai?aiey cieioa // O?oaeu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-oaoie-/aneie
eiioa?aioeee «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoii-eiaey,
ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea. *. 3. Oa?ueeia: OAIO. 1996. N. 138.

Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy io?eiai? aii??e/i?
caeaaeiino? aeaeo?io?i?/iiai ooai?aiiy ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth o
ia?iaiaaiaoieo ?ic/eiao c aeii?oeaie oei?iio?aeieo ai?i?a.

9. I?aoiaa A.A., Eauaiei N.A., Eeoaeiaiei A.A., Iaiueoia TH.A.
Yeaeo?iaeiua iaoa?eaeu aeey yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia e eo
nenoaiaoecaoeey a nenoaia ‘CLARION’ // O?oaeu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea,
oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea. *. 4. Oa?ueeia: OAIO.
1997. N. 8082.

Ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaie «clarion» aeeiiaia nenoaiaoecaoe?y a?aeiieo
iaoiae?a neioaco ae?ieneaeo ia?aaioeth, a oaeiae a?aecia/ai? iniaeeaino?
cai?iiiiiaaiiai aaoi?ii iaoiaea.

Aiioaoe??

Iaiueoia TH.A. Aeaeo?ineioac iaoaeiieneaeieo nenoai ia nieaaao cae?ca c
iaoith iaea?aeoaaiiy iaeiciiooaaieo aiiaeieo iaoa??ae?a. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.17.03oaoi?/ia aeaeo?io?i?y, Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a,1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii noai?aiith iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a ia iniia? c
iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae?. ?ic?iaeaii aeaeo?ie?o aeey io?eiaiiy
?icaeiaii? iiaa?oi? noaeueii? iniiae, yeee i?noeoue n??/aio eeneioo oa
oei?eae iao??th. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeainoaae?eiee i?ioean iaea?aeaiiy
i?ii?aeiiai caoeniiai iie?eooy noaeueii? iniiae, yea neeaaea?oueny c
ieneaeo cae?ca (Fe2O3). O ?ic/ei? ia?iaiaaiaoo eae?th oeyoii eaoiaeii?
iiey?ecaoe?? noi?iiaaii ae?ieneaeii-ia?aaioeaa? oa?e, eio?? ? aeoeaiei
iie?eooyi iaeiciiooaaieo aiiae?a. Aea/aia e?iaoeea oi?ioaaiiy
iaoaeiieneaeieo iie?eoue. A?aecia/aii iiceoeaiee aieea ea?aai?aeo ia
aaeaac?th ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaiai iie?eooy oa i?aoeacaeaoi?noue
ia?iaiaaiaoiiai aeaeo?ie?oo, yeee cai?iiiiiaaii aeey io?eiaiiy
ae?ieneaeiiia?aaioeaaiai iie?eooy. I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?
aei?iaiaoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo aeaeo?iae?a. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/io noaio
i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy aiiae?a c aeaioa?iaei iie?eooyi FeFe2O3MnO2.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?ineioac, iaeiciiooaaiee aiiae, iaoaeiieneaeia
iie?eooy, ae?ieneae ia?aaioeth, ?icaeiaia iiaa?oiy.

Menshov J.V. The electrosynthesis of metal oxide system on iron alloy
base for manufacturing of low-wear anode materials. Manuscript.

The thesis for a scientific degree of Candidate of technical science,
speciality 05.17.03 technical electrochemistry, Kharkov State
Politechnical University, Kharkov, 1999.

The analysis of the literature data concerning various electrode
materials has been carried out. The physical-chemical properties of iron
and manganese oxide as well as basic ways of their obtaining are
considered. The basic methods of heavy metals extraction from the waste
galvanic industrial solutions have been analysed. The methods of
realization of electrode process kinetics researches, the study of the
structure and quality of coverings, serviceability of electrolyte,
optimization of metal oxide covering electrosynthesis have been
described. The electrochemical way of manufacturing low-wear anodes with
an active manganese dioxide covering on low-carbon steel base has
theoretically and experimentally been found. The electrolyte for the
advanced surface formation of a steel base is proposed. It is noted that
the creation of the developed surface promotes to the increase of metal
oxide covering adhesion to base and intensification of heavy metals
extraction at low-wear anodes. It is found that the addition of
benzothreeazol to the sulphur anodic etching electrolyte results in
intensive and uniform etching of steel on all surfaces of base. The
necessity of production of porousless intermediate iron oxide (Fe2O3)
layer on steel base is shown. The second-stage method of blanket iron
oxide (Fe2O3) formation, which has satisfactory adhesion to the base, is
proposed. This method includes electrochemical processing of steel
electrodes in oxalate acid solution and the subsequent thermal iron
oxalate decomposition. The investigations of the developing of oxalate
acid electrolyte of anodic steel processing with the purpose of
obtaining of iron oxalate intermediate connection at the formation of
Fe2O3 have been made. It is noted, that the speed of iron dissolution
and oxalate formation is proportional with the optimum values of (NIII)2
concentration and anodic current density. Thanks to these conditions it
becomes possible the dense salt layers forming on steel surface. It is
found, that the addition of sodium silicate into the oxalate acid
electrolyte does not participate in electrochemical reaction, and, being
by superficial active substance, increases iron oxalate coupling with
base and stabilizes the electrolyte, as well. The ways of manganese
dioxide active covering formation are investigated. It is found that the
MnO2 adhesion to the base is unsatisfactory at anodic manufacturing of
steel in manganese sulphate solutions. By cathode polarization of steel
in KMnO4 solutions were received the deposits of MnO2, having the
satisfactory adhesion to a base were received. The polarizing researches
proved that the superficial — active additive addition in permanganate
electrolyte raises the manganese dioxide speed formation, however, only
carbamide introduction have not caused chemical reduction KMnO4 in
volume of solution and promoted to the increase of manganese dioxide
covering adhesion to the base. It is proved that the cathode reduction
KMnO4 with MnO2 formation is submitted to laws of mixed kinetics. The
optimization of manganese dioxide electrosynthesis from potassium
permanganate solutions was carried out by combination of complete factor
experiment and gradient movement methods. The parameters of
optimization, experimental result dispersion, Kochren and Fisher
criterions have been computed. It is proved that the offered
mathematical model adequately describes process of cathode dioxide
manganese electrosynthesis. The optimum meanings of target parameter are
determined with the help of the regression equation. The
physical-chemical properties of metal oxide and intermediate coverings
are investigated. The X-ray analysis proves conformity of structure of
an intermediate layer to Fe2O3; intermediate salt covering which
received at anodic treatment steel in oxalate acid electrolyte —
FeC2O42H2O; deposits generated by electrochemical way in permanganate
electrolyte — MnO2. The satisfactory adhesion of metal oxide coverings
is proved by microscopic researches. The surface roughness values of
anodic etching samples (RZ) are determined by optical method. It is
found that the process been proposed results in the increase of true
surface of steel base by 3,54,0 times in comparison with anodic etching
in the standard electrolyte. The use of Fe-Fe2O3-MnO2 anodes in
electrochemical extraction of heavy metals from the waste galvanic
industrial solutions is proposed. The modes of cathode and anode
reactions of nickel and copper extraction from their diluted solutions
with the contents of the basic metal up to 5 g/dm3 have been developed.
The polarizing and chronopotentional investigation proves that the
reduction of nickel ions in diluted environments is submitted laws of
diffusion kinetics. The life of metal oxide anodes in diluted nickel and
copper sulphate electrolytes is found in terms of the laboratory and
trial tests. The opportunity of using cathode copper and nickel deposits
as anodes in the basic manufacture is proved. As results of all work,
the technological scheme of manufacturing metal oxide low-wear anodes,
which are made on low-carbon steel base with an intermediate porousless
iron oxide and active dioxide manganese covering, has been developed. It
is includes machining; anodic etching of steel plates, formation of a
blanket Fe2O3, cathode electrosynthesis MnO2 active covering.

Key words: electrosynthesis, low-wear anode, metal oxide coating,
manganese dioxide, advanced surface.

Iaiueoia TH.A. Yeaeo?ineioac iaoaeiieneaeieo nenoai ia nieaaao aeaeaca n
oeaeueth iieo/aiey iaeieciaoeaaaiuo aiiaeiuo iaoa?eaeia. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.17.03 oaoie/aneay yeaeo?ioeiey, Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia nicaeaieth iaeieciaoeaaaiuo aiiaeia ia iniiaa ec
ieceioaea?iaeenoie noaee. ?ac?aaioai yeaeo?ieeo aeey iieo/aiey noaeueiie
iniiau n auniei?acaeoie iiaa?oiinoueth, eioi?ue niaea?aeeo na?ioth
eeneioo e oei?eae iao?ey. I?aaeeiaeai aeaoonoaaeeeiue i?ioeann iieo/aiey
i?iiaaeooi/iiai caueoiiai iie?uoey noaeueiie iniiau, ninoiyuaai ec
ieneaea aeaeaca (Fe2O3). A ?anoai?a ia?iaiaaiaoa eaeey iooai eaoiaeiie
iiey?ecaoeee noi?ie?iaaiu neie ec aeeieneaea ia?aaioea, eioi?ua
yaeythony aeoeaiui iie?uoeai iaeieciaoeaaaiuo aiiaeia. Eco/aia eeiaoeea
oi?ie?iaaiey iaoaeeiieneaeiuo iie?uoee. Onoaiiaeaii iieiaeeoaeueiia
aeeyiea ea?aaieaea ia aaeaaceth aeeieneaeiiia?aaioeaaiai iie?uoey e
?aaioiniiniaiinoue ia?iaiaaiaoiiai yeaeo?ieeoa, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiiai aeey
iieo/aiey aeeieneaeiiia?aaioeaaiai iie?uoey. I?iaaaeaiu
iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiiua eniuoaiey i?aaeeaaaaiuo yeaeo?iaeiuo iaoa?eaeia.
?ac?aaioaia oaoiieiae/aneay noaia i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey
iaeieciaoeaaaiuo aiiaeia n aeaooneieiui iie?uoeai FeFe2O3MnO2.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?ineioac, iaeieciaoeaaaiue aiiae, iaoaeeiieneaeiia
iie?uoea, aeeieneae ia?aaioea, ?acaeoay iiaa?oiinoue.

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