IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?CEEI-I?AAI?*II? O?I?? OA AOAEAO?I??

?I.E.I.EEOAEIAIEA

AI?AAIUe IENAIA IEAENAIAe??AIA

OAeE 539.1:546.3

AEAEO?IIIA NO?OEOO?A, O?CEEI-O?I?*I? AEANOEAINO? OA IA?AA?OIOAAIIss
N?IAEAOIEO EA?AAI?A

C NOI?ssAEAIEIE CA’ssCEAIE

02.00.04.-O?CE*IA O?I?ss

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e, I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Aenioeueeee TH??e Ai?eniae/,

Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y

aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?

Eocaiia Aiaoie?e A?oae?eiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???.

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?eaa/aiei Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/

?inoeooo o?ceei-i?aai?/ii? o?i??

oa aoaeao?i?? ?i.E.I.Eeoaeiaiea

IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa eaoaae?a o?ce/ii? oa eiei?aeii? o?i??, Euea?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.O?aiea,
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i. Euea?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny _4 eenoiiaaea 1999?. i __14__aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.216.01 a ?inoeooo? o?ceei-i?aai?/ii?
o?i?? oa aoaeao?i?? ?i. E.I.Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie, (340114, i.
Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. ?.Ethenaiao?a,70)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
o?ceei-i?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa aoaeao?i?? ?i. E.I.Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie,
(340114, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. ?.Ethenaiao?a,70)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_1_”_aeiaoiy__1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.I.Oaiae?ee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie o?i?? ea?aai?a, ye? ? iaeiei
c iniiaieo eean?a aeniei?aaeoe?eieo i?ii?aeieo /anoie (?ioa?iaae?ao?a),
iaoiiaeaiee aeae?eueeiia aniaeoaie. Ii-ia?oa, c ooai?aiiyi ea?aai?a
iia’ycaii aaaaoi i?ioean?a, cie?aia, aenieioaiia?aoo?iee e?ae?ia
aoaeaaiaei?a, ieaciio?i?/i? i?ioeane, i??ie?c i?aai?/ieo niieoe,
i?ioeane oa?iiaeano?oeoe?? ? oa?iieiiaeainaoe?? aeayeeo iie?ia??a oa ?i.
Ii-ae?oaa, aaaeeeaei ? i?aia?aoeaia cia/aiiy ea?aai?a o i?aai?/iiio
neioac?, ui a?aee?eaa? oe?ie? ia?niaeoeae ia?aae neioaoe/iith
i?aai?/iith o?i??th. Oae, ia iniia? ?aaeoe?e ca o/anoth ea?aai?a,
?ic?iaeai? caniae iaea?aeaiiy ?yaeo aaaeeeaeo iiiiia??a, ianoeoeeae?a,
e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a, aa?aiee?a oa ?ioeo aaaeeeaeo oaoi?/ieo
i?iaeoeo?a. I?ioa aeniea ?aaeoe?eia caeaoi?noue, iaeee /an aeeooy oeeo
/anoie oa iia’ycai? c oeei o?oaeiiu? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ea?aai?a ia ie?aieo
noaae?yo o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ?noioii oneeaaeiththoue aenia?eiaioaeueia
aea/aiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ea?aai?a oa aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a
?aaeoe?e. O ca’yceo c oeei aeoaea aeooaeueiei ? eaaioiaio?i?/iee iien
aeaeo?iiii? aoaeiae, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae ea?aai?a oa iaoai?ci?a
?aaeoe?e c ?o o/anoth.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie ?inoeoooo.
?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? “O?ceee, o?i?? oa aeaeo?ioaoi?ee”
Aeiiaanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e a iaaeao
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oai: “Oai?aoe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae oa o?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue
i?aai?/ieo niieoe” (oeo?e E-6-3-91;E-6-4-96); “Aea/aiiy ca’yceo
no?oeoo?e cai?uaieo aeeaia?ai?a c ?o ?aaeoeai?noth a ?aaeoe?yo c
ia?ieneeueieie ?aaeeeaeaie” (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0198U003030, ?iOIA
?i.E.I.Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie).

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/iee iien ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iiii?
no?oeoo?e, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee (o oiio /ene?, oa?iio?i?/ieo,
aeaeo?e/ieo, iaa-i?oieo, niaeo?aeueieo oa ?i.) oa iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a
o?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ?yaeo n?iaeaoieo ea?aai?a c noi?yaeaieie
ca’yceaie o iaaeao ca’ycaiiai aa??aioo aaaaoiia?aiao?e/ii? oai???
cao?aiue o iaoiae? III.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iio??aii ae??oeoe oae? iniiai? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. ?icaeiooe (aai iiaeeo?eoaaoe) iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooie?a o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae (aioaeuei?e ooai?aiiy, iioaioe?ae?a ?ii?caoe??,
nii??aeiaiino? aei aeaeo?iio, aeeiieueieo iiiaio?a, aeaeo?e/ii?
iiey?eciaiino?, ca?yaeiaeo oa no?oiiaeo ?iciiae?e?a, ae?aiaai?oieo
ni?eeiyoeeainoae, o?i?/ieo cnoa?a yaea? I1, N13, N14, aia?a?e ieae/eo
n?iaeao-n?iaeaoieo oa n?iaeao-o?eieaoieo ia?aoiae?a oa ?i.) nenoai, ui
iathoue ea?aaiiaee aoii aoaeaoeth.

2. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino? ci?ie o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae a?ae no?oeoo?e niieoe, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny.

3. O aeiaaeeo ca?yaeaeaieo oa iaeo?aeueieo ea?aai?a, oi?iaeueii
aaia?iaaieo c aeueoa?iaioieo aoaeaaiaei?a, aeaoae?coaaoe oa e?euee?nii
ia?aa??eoe neooi?noue oai?aie ia?iino? ? oai?aie Oaoa-Iiiea aeey
ca?yaeaeaieo oa iaeo?aeueieo ea?aai?a.

4. Ia i?aenoaa? i?yieo ?ic?aooie?a iiaa?oi? iioaioe?aeueii? aia?a?? o
anaaaeaioieo iaoiaeao oa o ?aieao ?iaeaeniiai i?aeoiaeo Ooeo? a iaoiae?
III aeyaeoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa?i?/ieo, oioio?i?/ieo
aeaeo?ioeeee?caoe?e oa aeai-ea?aaiiaeo ia?aa?oioaaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?icaeiooi (aai iiaeeo?eiaaii)
iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooie?a o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae (oiaoi, aioaeuei?e
ooai?aiiy, iioaioe?ae?a ?ii?caoe??, nii??aeiaiino? aei aeaeo?iio oa
?i.); i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oeeo aaee/ei oa ?ic?aoiaaieo o
anaaaeaioieo iaoiaeao, oa ?o c?noaaeaiiy c iayaiei aenia?eiaioii
(?ic?aoiaaii o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? a?eueo i?ae 100 niieoe, ui
iathoue ea?aaiiaee aoii aoaeaoeth).

Aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? ci?ie oa?iio?i?/ieo, aeaeo?e/ieo oa iaai?oieo
aeanoeainoae a?ae no?oeoo?e ea?aai?a, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny (cie?aia,
a?ae aeiaaeeie iie??iiaiai eaioethaeea, iieiaeaiiy oa noaio ea?aaiiaiai
oeaio?o, oeio oa iieiaeaiiy aaoa?iaoiio oa ?i.).

Aeaoae?ciaaii iien i?iyae oai?aie ia?iino? oa oai?aie Oaoa-Iiiea aeey
-aeaeo?iiieo ea?aai?a, oi?iaeueii aaia?iaaieo a?ae?eaii i?ioiio aai
a?ae?eae-?iio a?ae a?aeiia?aeieo aeueoa?iaioieo aoaeaaiaei?a.

?icaeiooi iiaeaeue iieno aeai-ea?aaiiaeo ia?aa?oioaaiue noiniaii
aoeeee?/ieo iie??i-ea?aai?a c noi?yaeaieie ca’yceaie.

Iienaii (o ?aieao ?iaeaeniiai i?aeoiaeo Ooeo? o ca’ycaiiiio aa??aio?
oai??? cao?aiue) oa i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oa?i?/ieo oa
oioio?i?/ieo ia?aa?oioaaiue aoeeee?/ieo iie??iea?aai?a, iaooee- oa
oai?e-ea?aai?a.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? ?icoe?ththoue no/ani?
oyaeaiiy i?i ca’ycie aeaeo?iiii? aoaeiae niieoe, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeenue,
oa oeyo?a ?oi?o o?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, cie?aia o i?ioeanao
oa?iiaeano?oeoe?? oa oa?iieiiaeainaoe??. ?ic?aoiaai? o?ceei-o?i?/i?
aeanoeaino? ea?aai?a c noi?yaeaieie ca’yceaie iiaeooue aeiiiaieoe iayai?
aaiee aeaieo oa?iio?i?/ieo oa ?ioeo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee.
?icaeyioo? ia?aoai?aiiy iiaeooue neoaeeoe iiaeaeueieie ?aaeoe?yie c
ea?aaiiaei iaoai?ciii, ui iienothoue aeaye? i?ioeane, iai?eeeaae, ye?
i?ioiaeyoue i?e eienoaaii? aoa?eey oa aeano?oeoe?? aeayeeo iie?ia??a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Ieaioaaiiy, i?aeaioiaea oa i?iaaaeaiiy
iaoeiiiai aenia?eiaioo, ii?aoethaaiiy oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a aeeiiai? aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii. Ni?aaaoi?e iioae?eiaaieo
?ia?o ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??: TH.A.Aenioeueeee — iaoeiaee ea??aiee, o
an?o ?iaioao – ieaioaaiiy iaoeiiiai aenia?eiaioo, iaaiai?aiiy oa
?ioai?aoaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a; Ne?eiiee TH.A., Eyuoe N.I. — iaaiai?aiiy
aeayeeo ?acoeueoao?a, iia’ycaieo c aeaeo?iiiith no?oeoo?ith
?i?aeacie-2-?e?aeai?a; Caeeianueea ss.A., A?ao/oi A.?. — iaaiai?aiiy
aeayeeo ?acoeueoao?a, iia’ycaieo c oa?i?/ieie ia?aa?oioaaiiyie iaooee- ?
oai?e-ea?aai?a; Nio?ia N.?., A?yioeaa A.N. — iaaiai?aiiy iiaeeeaeo
iaoai?ci?a aeano?oeoe?? iie?ia??a; ?.I.Nieiinueeee — iaaiai?aiiy
?acoeueoao?a, iia’ycaieo c iaai?oieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
iie?oeeeeiaooaae??i?a.

Ioae?eaoe?? oa ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6
noaoae oa oace 4-o aeiiia?aeae. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia neiiic?oi? “Polish-American
workshop on reactive intermediates” (Poland, 1995), III I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Eiii’thoa?i? i?ia?aie” (Aeiiaoeuee, 1996), I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? ani??aio?a ? nooaeaio?a “Eiiiiinia-96” (Iineaa, 1996),
XVIII Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c i?aai?/ii? o?i?? (i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998), ia aeaaeai?/ieo /eoaiiyo o AeiiAeAAA
(1994-1998).

Ianya ?iaioe ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, 4-o aeaa, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae ?c 194 iaeiaioaaiue, i?noeoue 45 oaaeeoeue, 14 ?enoie?a oa 8
noai. Caaaeueiee ianya neeaaea? 189 noi??iie.

INIIAIA *ANOEIA

Aeaeo?iiia no?oeoo?a oa aeanoeaino? n?iaeaoieo noai?a ea?aai?a

c noi?yaeaieie ca’yceaie

Aeaiee ?icae?e yaey? niaith e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae c nenoaiaoecaoe??
oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo ni?ia aecia/aiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae, ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino? oa no?oeoo?e ea?aai?a c
noi?yaeaieie ca’yceaie. Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo iieacaii,
ui a?eueo?noue niieo/aieo ea?aai?a c o?eieaoiei iniiaiei noaiii
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny AST<5RT ? aianie ?aaeoe?e a?eueo aeoeaii? n?iaeaoii? /anoee aeyaey?oueny aeii?ioth/ei. Naia oeei ? iiynith?oueny ?ioa?an aei oai?aoe/iiai aea/aiiy n?iaeaoieo ea?aai?a. Ca?ac, iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue oai?aoe/ieo ?ia?o, ana ua ?nio? iaiao?aei?noue iieno a ?aieao ?aeeiiai oai?aoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo oa ?aeeii? nenoaie aii??e/ieo ia?aiao??a ye aeaeo?iiii? no?oeoo?e, oae ? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iieaeoey?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee (o oiio /ene? ? ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino?, cie?aia, o ?aaeoe?yo ?ciia??caoe??) aeineoue oe?ieiai ?yaeo n?iaeaoieo ea?aai?a c noi?yaeaieie ca’yceaie. Ine?eueee aeanoeaino? noi?yaeaieo iieaeoe aecia/athoueny, a iniiaiiio, ?aeeiith nenoaiith -aeaeo?iiieo ca’yce?a, oi iniiaith oaeiai i?aeoiaeo iiaea neoaeeoe ?icaeiooa ? oe?iei ai?iaiaaia ?ai?oa ia ??ciiiai?oieo eeanao i?aai?/ieo niieoe -aeaeo?iiia noaia ?ic?aooieo, ui aaco?oueny ia ca’ycaiiio aa??aio? aaaaoiia?aiao?e/ii? oai??? cao?aiue o iaoiae? III. N?iaeaoi? ea?aaie c noi?yaeaieie ca’yceaie o iaoiae? III. Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo o ?iaio? caaea/, aoea aea?aia iai?aaii??e/ia noaia ?ic?aooieo, ui aaco?oueny ia iaeiiaeaeo?iiiiio iaaeeaeaii? c iine?aeiaiei a?aooaaiiyi i?aeaeaeo?iiii? aca?iiae?? i?e iien? ye iniiaiiai, oae ? caoaeaeaieo aai cao?aieo ciai?oiueith aca?iiae??th noai?a, yea iaae?eii iieno? oe?ieee eean aeanoeainoae o ?aieao ?aeeii? nenoaie -aeaeo?iiiiai aaieeueoii?aio. Aieea -inoiao i?e oeueiio a?aoiaoaaee aaeeoeaii. Iaeiaeiaee ??aaiue ai?ieneiaoe?? iniiaiiai, cao?aieo oa caoaeaeaieo noai?a aeinyaaany oei, ui ia?aiee i?aeo?ae nie?a?oueny o nai?e iniia? ia oo naio aia?aaoe/io iao?eoeth F, o yeo aoiaeyoue aii??e/i? ia?aiao?e, ui aeathoue aeia?o caiaeo ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aaee/ei aaeeei? e?eueeino? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ??ciiiai?oieo eean?a noi?yaeaieo iieaeoe, ?aaeeeae?a oa ?ii?a ?c caieiooith aeaeo?iiiith iaieiieith. Ea?aaiiaee aoii aoaeaoeth c iacaiiaiaiith - aai - i?a?oaeeth (ui ia? eaeoio a?aeiia?aeii a - aai -nenoai?) o -aeaeo?iiiiio iaaeeaeaii? iieno?oueny oie?aiii noaiaea?oii? oi?ie, aea e?euee?noue -aeaeo?ii?a, ui iinoaaeythoueny a nenoaio ea?aaiiaei aoiiii, n=2 aeey 2-ea?aaia oa n=0 aeey 2-ea?aaia. I?e oeueiio eoeii?anueeee ?ioaa?ae ea?aaiiaiai aoiio Wn, ca'ycaiee c Wc. aoiio aoaeaoeth, yeee iinoaaey? o -nenoaio iaeei aeaeo?ii, ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi: Wc=Wc+ (n-1)Ann/2, (1) oiaoi ??cieoey o Wc ea?aaiiaiai aoiio aoaeaoeth a 2- oa 2-noaiao iieyaa? eeoa o ciaeo ia?aae aeiaaaeith aei Wc.. ?aciiaini? ?ioaa?aee oa ?ioaa?aee i?aeaeaeo?iiii? aca?iiae?? (cie?aia Ann) i?e oeueiio aaaaeaeenue iacaeaaeieie a?ae oeio aoiio aoaeaoeth. Ine?eueee aaia?aoe?y ea?aaiiaiai oeaio?o i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai aeueoa?ioaaiiy aeiaaeei ca'yce?a, ?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeeenue c o?aooaaiiyi caeaaeiino? ?aciiainiiai ?ioaa?aeo a?ae aeiaaeeie ca'yceo. Iieacaii, ui a neeo (1) aeey 2- ? 2-ea?aai?a, aaia?iaaieo a?ae?eaii i?ioiio aai a?ae?eae-?iio a?ae a?aeiia?aeieo aeueoa?iaioieo aoaeaaiaei?a (ye? iaaeae? ie aoaeaii iaceaaoe “aeueoa?iaioieie” ea?aaiaie), “ca’yceia?” aeiee iao?eoe? caeeoeiaeo ca?yae?a-ii?yaee?a ca'yce?a ca?aathoueny i?ae niaith, oei /anii ye “ca?yaeia?” ci?iththoue ciae ia i?ioeeaaeiee. sse ? o aeiaaeeo ?ii?a aeueoa?iaioieo aoaeaaiaei?a, oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?nioaaiiy aeey aeueoa?iaioiuo ca?yaeaeaieo 2-ai?ii(2-eao?ii)- oa 2-ai?ii(2-eao?ii)-ea?aai?a aiaeiaa oai?aie ia?iino?, a?aeiia?aeii aei yei? aeey aeueoa?iaioieo -aeaeo?iiieo ea?aai?a, iaeiaeiai? no?oeoo?e oa ioeueoeieaoiino?, c i?ioeeaaeieie ca?yaeaie iaeiaeiai? e?aoiino? ? ??cieie (2- oa 2-) noaiaie ea?aaiiaiai aoiia aoaeaoeth aia?a?? noi?yaeaiiy, aia?a?? -*-aeaeo?iiieo ia?aoiae?a oa ?o ?ioaineaiino?, aca?ii? iiey?eciaiino? aoii-aoii oa aoii-ca'ycie, -aeaeo?iii? aianee a oaici?e aeaeo?e/ii? iiey?eciaiino? oa ae?aiaai?oii? ni?eeiyoeeaino?, o eiinoaioe ni?i-ni?iiai? aca?iiae??, eiinoaioe iaaeoiieiai ?icuaieaiiy o niaeo?ao AI?, iaaaaeai? -aeaeo?iii? e?eueoeaa? no?oie oa no?oiia? aianee o o?i?/i? cnoae a?aeiia?aeii ??ai?, oiae? ye, -aeaeo?iii? aianee o aeeiieuei? iiiaioe ? o?i?/i? cnoae iathoue i?ioeeaaei? ciaee. O aeiaaeeo iaeo?aeueieo ea?aai?a (o yeeo noia?iee ca?yae iieaeoee aei??aith? ioeth) oai?aia ia?iino? neooia aeey 2-(2-)-ea?aai?a c iaeiaeiaith aaiiao???th. C oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui aia?a?? noi?yaeaiiy oa aaaaoi ?ioeo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oaeeo 2- ? 2-ea?aai?a oioiaei?, ui aaaea aei ?o iiaeeeai? aia?aeaioiino?, oiaoi ioeeaio?eueiee aai aeaeo?io?eueiee oa?aeoa? oaeeo /anoie iiaeiai aeyaeyoenue a caeaaeiino? a?ae ciai?oi?o oiia, cie?aia, a?ae i?e?iaee ae?oaiai ?aaaaioo. sse ? o aeiaaeeo aeueoa?iaioieo aoaeaaiaei?a ?c oai?aie ia?iino? oa oai?aie Eoiiaina i?e?iaeiei /eiii aeieeaa? aeey aeueoa?iaioieo ea?aai?a aiaeia oai?aie Oaoa-Iiiea: -aeey iaeo?aeueieo nenoai I+A=I+A=Wc, (2) -aeey ca?yaeaeaieo nenoai I-+A+=I++A- =Wc I++A-=I-+A+ =Wc, (3) aea I, I-, I+, I, I-, I+ - iioaioe?aee ?ii?caoe?? iaeo?aeueieo, ai?ii- oa eao?ii-ea?aai?a ?c ea?aaiiaei oeaio?ii o 2- oa 2-noai? a?aeiia?aeii; a A, A-, A+, A, A-, A+ - nii??aeiaiino? aei aeaeo?iio iaeo?aeueieo, ai?ii- oa eao?ii-ea?aai?a ?c ea?aaiiaei oeaio?ii o 2- ? 2-noai? a?aeiia?aeii; Wc - eoeii?anueeee ?ioaa?ae aoiia aoaeaoeth, ui iinoa/a? a -nenoaio iaeei aeaeo?ii. sse ?ethno?aoe?y neooiino? aiaeia?a oai?aie ia?iino? oa oai?aie Oaoa-Iiiea o oaae.1 iaaaaeai? ca?yaeia? ?iciiae?ee oa aeaye? o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeo?aeueieo ? ca?yaeaeaieo (2-)2-iie??i-ea?aai?a. Oaaeeoey 1. ?iciiae?e aeaeo?iiii? no?oeoo?e oa o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? -aeaeo?iiieo ea?aai?a, oi?iaeueii aaia?iaieo ?c aeueoa?iaioieo aoaeaaiaei?a. i-k C4H5-1 C5H6-1 C4H5-1C5H6-12(+)2(+)222(+)2(+)221-10,585-0,5850,167-0,1671-4-0,331-0,331 -0,0180,0182-20,214-0,214-0,0780,078Anoi?9,32 9,3217,1017,103-3-0,0990,099-0,0960,096oo118,10118,10142,40142,401-20,28 70,8270,3900,901S4,714,714,064,062-30,4610,4610,8670,867I11,405,284,9410 ,851-3-0,1880,188-0,3560,356A2,50-3,62-3,072,84 A?aecia/eii, ui a neeo (1), ni?eueiei aeey on?o eean?a ea?aai?a aeyaey?oueny iayai?noue ia ea?aaiiaiio aoii? aoaeaoeth o 2-noai? iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo, ui iaoiiaeth? eiai ioeeaio?eueiee oa?aeoa?, oei /anii ye ia ea?aaiiaiio aoii? aoaeaoeth o 2-noai? a?aecia/a?oueny iiceoeaiee ca?yae, oa a?i ? aeaeo?io?eii. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae iayaieie ?ic?aooieaie ca?yaeiaiai ?iciiae?eo oa ea?oeiith ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo (aeea., iai?eeeaae, ?en.1), a oaeiae aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie, ui aacothoueny ia ??cieo e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo oanoao aecia/aiiy “o?eueiino?” ea?aai?a. 2-ea?aai 2-ea?aai ?en.1. ?iciiae?e aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo 2- ? 2-ea?aai?a (iaoiae AI1). Aeaeo?iiia no?oeoo?a oa aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e -aeaeo?iieo ea?aai?a ?ic?aoiaai? ia?aiao?e aeaeo?iiii? aoaeiae, aaiiao??y iiiioeeee?/ieo -aeaeo?iieo ea?aai?a (NnHn-1, n=310) oa ?o aoeeee?/ieo aiaeia?a (CnHn+1, n=316), oi?iaeueii aaia?iaaieo a?ae?eaii i?ioiio aai a?ae?eae-?iio a?ae a?aeiia?aeieo ia?ieo iie??i?a oa iaia?ieo eao?ii-(ai?ii)-iie??i?a ?c caieiooeie aeaeo?iieie iaieiieaie, a oaeiae aaoa?ioeeee?/ieo ea?aai?a ?i?aeacie-2-?e?aeai?a oa eiai iio?aeieo. I?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee aaiiao???, iienaii i?e?iaeo aia?aaoe/ii? iiaa?oi? ia iniia? aiae?co iao?eoe? eieeaaeueieo /anoio; ?icaeyiooi ?iciiae?e aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo no?oeoo?, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny, o iaaeao anaaaeaioieo iaoiae?a. Cie?aia, aeiaaaeaii, ui iiiioeeee?/i? ea?aaie ?icaeaathoueny ia o?e eeane, aeey eiaeiiai c eio?eo oa?aeoa?i? nai? iniaeeaino? aeaeo?iiiiai ?iciiae?eo oa i?iya o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Oae, aiae?c ?ic?aooie?a ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iiii? no?oeoo?e ea?aai?a o?aoueiai eeano iieaco?, ui aeey ea?aai?a aaia?iaaieo c aioea?iiaoe/ieo oeeeeiiie??i?a, ca?yaeia? ?iciiae?ee eao?ii?a oa ai?ii?a aeecuee? i?ae niaith oa a?ae??ciythoueny o?eueee ciaeii o ia?ieo iieiaeaiiyo; aeey ea?aai?a ae?oaiai eeano niinoa??aa?oueny aeueoa?ioaaiiy caeeoeiaeo -aeaeo?iiieo ca?yae?a o?eueee ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith, i?e/iio o aeiaaeeo nenoai c e?euee?noth aeaeo?ii?a 4n+2, aiii aeyaey?oueny iaea?eueo ??cei. O aeiaaeeo ae iaeo?aeueieo ea?aai?a ia?oiai eeano, caeeoeia? -aeaeo?iii? ca?yaee ia ea?aaiiaeo aoiiao aoaeaoeth iae? oa ciaioothoueny i?e ca?eueoaii? aeiaaeeie iie??iiaiai eaioethaeea. I?aee?aneeii, ui iaeo?aeuei? iiiioeeee?/i? iaaeueoa?iaioi? 2-ea?aaie iathoue, ye ?ciaeaeo?iiiee aiaeia, eao?iie, a 2-ea?aaie - a?aeiia?aeii, ai?iie. Oiaoi, ea?aaie oa ?ciaeaeo?iii? ?i ?iie ??ciyoueny oa?aeoa?ii o?eueiino?, ? ?aaeoe?eia caeaoi?noue ea?aai?a iiaeiia aooe aeua, i?ae o a?aeiia?aeieo ?i eao?ii?a aai ai?ii?a. O?CEEI-O?I?*I? AEANOEAINO? EA?AAI?A O ?aieao ca’ycaiiai aa??aioo oai??? cao?aiue o iaoiae? iaiaaeaiiai Oa?o??-Oiea ?ic?aoiaai? iaaaaeai? -aeaeo?iii? e?eueoeaa? no?oie oa a?aeiini? ae?aiaai?oi? ni?eeiyoeeaino?; aia?a?? ieae/eo n?iaeao-n?iaeaoieo ia?aoiae?a ciaeaeai?, ye aeani? /enea iao?eoe? noaeino? iniiaiiai oa?o??-oie?anueeiai noaio, a n?iaeao-o?eieaoieo ia?aoiae?a – a iaaeeaeaii? Oaiia-Aeaieiaa. I?e ?ic?aooieao ?ioeo o?ceei-iieaeoey?ieo aeanoeainoae (oa?iio?i?/ieo, aeaeo?e/ieo, iaai?oieo oa ?i.) aieea -inoiaa a?aoiaoaaany ca aeiiiiiaith aaeeoeaieo noai. A?aecia/eii oaeiae, yeui aecioeeee?/i? a?oie c ea?aaiiaei aoiiii aoaeaoeth (iai?eeeaae, :NF ? :NI) iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye ooieoe?iiaeuei?, oi noa? iiaeeeaei ?oi?e iien o iaaeao noaie o?aooaaiiy aieeao cai?niee?a o ca'ycaiiio aa??aio? aaaaoiia?aiao?e/ii? oai??? cao?aiue. I?e oeueiio ia?aiao?e oeeo a?oi o -aeaeo?iiiee ?ic?aooiie ia aaiaeyoueny, a aieea cai?uaiiy ia o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? iieno?oueny eeoa ci?iith aoaeoeaii? aeaeo?iiaaaoeaiino? (R) aoiio ii i?noeth aaaaeaiiy ea?aaiiai? a?oie. Cia/aiiy R, io?eiai? aeey a?oi :NF oa :NI c ea?aaiiaei oeaio?ii o 2-noai?, aei??aiththoue a?aeiia?aeii –1.30; 2.67 (a iaeeieoeyo 3.7982 aA) oa -2.67 aeey a?oie :NI (2-noai) -aeaeo?iii? e?eueoeaa? no?oie oa a?aeiini? ae?aiaai?oi? ni?eeiyoeeaino? ?ic?aoiaai? iaai?oi? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiiioeeee?/ieo ea?aai?a oa ae?ea?aai?a, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo aoea iiaoaeiaaia oeaea a?iiaoe/iino? ea?aai?a oa a?aeianaiiy ?o aei ?aeeii? oeaee a?iiaoe/iino?-aioea?iiaoe/iino? aoaeaaiaei?a c noi?yaeaieie ca’yceaie. Iieacaii, ui aeey iiiioeeee?/ieo ea?aai?a oa ae?ea?aai?a, (ye ? aeey iiiioeeee?/ieo aoaeaaiaei?a), aeeiio?oueny (4n+2) i?aaeei Otheeaey, noiniaii yeiio aiie iiae?eythoueny ia a?iiaoe/i? oa aioea?iiaoe/i?, ui a ia?oo /a?ao aeyaey?oueny a ?ic?aooieao iaaaaeaieo -aeaeo?iiieo no?oi?a (?) oa a?aeiinieo ae?aiaai?oieo ni?eeiyoeeainoae (’). A?aecia/eii, ui aaia?aoe?y ea?aaiiaiai aoiio a iiiioeeee? i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeayeiai cieaeaiiy aaee/ei ? oa ’, yea ca?eueoo?oueny i?e c?inoaii? aeiaaeeie iie??iiaiai eaioethaeea. Aeey eeano iaeo?aeueieo ea?aai?a aoee io?eiai? caeaaeiino? oeeo aaee/ei a?ae ieiu? oeeeeo oa e?eueeino? aoii?a o oeeee? a ii??aiyii? c ?o ea?aiaiaeiaaie: ’ea?a =’?iia-0.033SnSn; iea?a =i?iia-0.003n2 . (4) A?aecia/eii oaeiae, ui nenoaia, yea ia? ea?aaiiaee aoii aoaeaoeth, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaeiaioeie iaaaaeaieie no?oiaie, a ioaea, ? iaioith a?iiaoe/i?noth o ii??aiyii? c a?aeiia?aeieie aaoa?iaiaeiaaie. Iai?eeeaae, iaaaaeai? -aeaeo?iii? no?oie oa a?aeiini? ae?aiaai?oi? ni?eeiyoeeaino? oeeeeiiaioao?e?i?e?aeaio - ’=0,440, i=0,668, i’yoe/eaiieo aaoa?ioeeee?a: oo?aio -’=0,499, i=0,754, o?ioaio - ’=0,664, i=0,818, i??ieo - ’=0,508, i=0,767. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oeeeeiiaioao?e?i?e?aeai a?aeianaiee aei oeaee aaoa?ia?iiaoe/iino? i’yoe/eaiieo aaoa?ioeeee?a: oeeeeiiaioao?e?i?e?aeai

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