OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Iiaeyiaiei Aaeeia A?eoi??aia

OAeE.621.313.29:311.61:629.4.082.3

AEAEO?IIAOAI?*IEE IA?AOAI?THAA* AIA?A??

?IA?Oe?EIIAI IAEIIE*OAA*A AeEss IA?AAE

OssAIAIAI AEAEO?IIINOA*AIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.09.01 – Aeaeo?e/i? iaoeie ? aia?aoe

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aiiaea?aiei Aieiaeeie? Iiaeyiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee

oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ia?aaea/ aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeoaeiee Ieoaeei Caoa?iae/,

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeaeo?e/ieo iaoei.

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aiai?ia Ieeei Ia?aiiiiae/,

Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y i?nueeiai

ainiiaea?noaa,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,

i.Ee?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «17» ethoiai 2000 ?. i 14.30 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050.08 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 310002, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «24» a?oaeiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aietho A.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

I?aaiaiiy aei /anoeiaiai aai iiaiiai ?iciiae?eo a /ano ae?iaeaiiy oa
niiaeeaaiiy aeaeo?iaia?a??, ye iaeiiio c ?aaeeeaeueieo cania?a
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe an?o aac aeiyoeo aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/ieo
nenoai, coiiaeei oaiaeaioe?th aeiaaaeaiiy a iaeaooiueiio cia/ii?
e?eueeino? aeaeo?iaia?a?? aei niiaeeaa/a /a?ac iaeiie/oaa/?

Aeey oyaiaeo ia?aae aeaeo?io?eiaaieo cae?cieoeue oa iao?iiie?oai?a, a
yeeo ??ai? iaaaioaaeaiue ci?iththoueny ? a yeeo ,a oie aea /an,
?niothoue aeiiae caaacia/aiiy aenieeo ye?nieo iieaciee?a aia?a??, oey
oaiaeaioe?y iaea?eueo aeooaeueia. Iai?eeeaae, a i?nueeeo o?ainii?oieo
caniaao a?ey 65% aia?a?? a?ae an??? e?eueeino? ,ui niiaeeaa?oueny,
aeo?a/a?oueny ia ?oi? i?enei?aiiy. Cia/eoue, i?ney oeueiai aiia iaeaea
iiai?noth aoaea ?icn?yia i?e aaeueioaaii?. I/aaeaeii, ui caian?iiy oa
caa??aaiiy oe??? aia?a?? o iaeiie/oaa/? c iaoith iiaoi?iiai ??
aeei?enoaiiy i?ecaaaea aei ciaioaiiy ia?aeiiiai niiaeeaaiiy ia
aeaeo?iaaia?oth/eo onoaiiaeao, cieaeaiith aeo?ao ne?iaeie, ciaioaiith
oe?aeeeaeo aeeeae?a, a ioaea, aei caaacia/aiiy a?eueo aeieia?/ii /enoiai
?aaeeio c aieo aeaeo?e/iiai o?ainii?oo aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia aeeaeey/enue ia oa, ui aaaaoi ooi c
aeine?aeiee?a aaeeaaee ni?iae aaeaiooaaoe aei ?iaioe a oyaiaeo ia?aaeao
a yeino? iaeiie/oaa/?a o?i?/i? aeoioeyoi?i? aaoa?a?, ?ii?ni? aaoa?a?,
iaaei?ia?aei? ?iaeoeoeai? eioooee, ?aae?coaaoe aaeaeiny o?eueee eeoa
iaeiie/oaa/ ?ia?oe?eiiai oeio.

Iaeiae canoinoaaiiy a yeino? ?ia?oe?eieo iaeiie/oaa/?a aia?a??
aeaeo?e/ieo iaoei o?aaeeoe?eii? eiino?oeoe?? iaiaaeo?oueny iaoai?/iith
i?oei?noth ?ioi?a, iaiao?aei?noth a i?eeaaeao o?aini?n??, ai aeey
io?eiaiiy i?eeiyoieo ia?aiao??a eooiaa oaeaee?noue iaoiaee?a iiaeiia
aooe cia/ii aeua, i?ae o ?nioth/eo aeaeo?e/ieo iaoei, ao?aoaie ia oa?oy.

A oie aea /an oni?oe, aeinyaioo? ia nueiaiaeiyoi?e aeaiue a iaeano?
noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaieo noia?iaoiaee?a, i?eeaae?a aaceiioaeoiiai
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??, a oaeiae i?eeaae?a iaai?oiiai
i?aea?no noai?ththoue ?aaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey neioaco eia?oe?eieo
iaeiie/oaa/?a c ye?nii iiaeie aenieoaoaoe?eieie aeanoeainoyie.
Iacaaaeth/e ia oa, ui oae? iaeiie/oaa/? aaea canoiniaothoueny aeey
cania?a ?aeaoii-eini?/ii? oaoi?ee a oaeiae oaoiieia?? aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai
i?enei?aiiy, ieoaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?o oei?a, eiino?oeoe?e,
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo oa aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ie?aieo nenoai oeeo
iaeiie/oaa/?a ua aeaeae? a?ae aeineiiaeino?. C oe??? oi/ee ci?o,
caaea/?, ??oaiith yeeo i?enay/aia aeena?oaoe?y i?aaenoaaeythoueny
aeooaeueieie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ca’ycai? c oaiith I 3708 «?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo
iniia iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?iiaoai?/ieo iaeiie/oaa/?a», ui i?iaiaeeeany
ca?aeii i. 69 Eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o «Iaoeia?
iniiae aaeineiiaeaiiy, ia?aaea/? ? aeei?enoaiiy aeaeo?iaia?a??», yeee
caoaa?aeaeaii I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie (I?ioieie ? 37 a?ae 13.02.97
?., ? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 0197U001922).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea ?
aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??
?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a aeey oyaiaeo aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae, eiioeaioe?y
noai?aiiy yeiai aaco?oueny ia ia?niaeoeaieo aia?aaoe/ieo ? o?ainii?oieo
oaoiieia?yo.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue ianooii? caaea/?:

 ia aac? aiae?co ? c?noaaeaiiy aeiia, ui iiaeathoueny aei iaeiie/oaa/?a
?aaeeiaie ?iaioe oyaiaeo ia?aae, oa eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aaeoiia, coiiaeaieo iayaieie aaea nueiaiaei? oaoi?/ieie ??oaiiyie,
ae?iaeoe eiioeaioe?th noai?aiiy ?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a aia?a?? c
aenieiai ??aiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieie oa iani–aaaa?eoieie iieacieeaie;

 noai?eoe aeey aecia/aeueieo aoce?a nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai
ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? iaeiie/oaa/a iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, ui aaeaeaaoii
a?aeaeaathoue aeaeo?io?ce/i? i?ioeane, ye? iathoue i?noea o iaeiie/oaa/?
a ?aaeeiao aeoioethaaiiy oa aeaea/? ?i aia?a??;

 aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, oeyoii oeeo?iaiai iiaeaethaaiiy
eiie?aoiiai iaeiie/oaa/a, anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? aieeao iniiaieo
aaiiao?e/ieo oa aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ia?aiao??a ia ooieoe?iiaeuei?
aeanoeaino? nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? a
??ciiiai?oieo ?aaeeiao ?iaioe iaeiie/oaa/a;

 ?ic?iaeoe oaoi?/i? i?iiiceoe?? c noai?aiiy ?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a
aeey aeei?enoaiiy eiai a eiie?aoi?e nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy – oyaiai?
ia?aae? iao?iiie?oaio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

 i?iaaaeai eiiieaen aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aaeoiia noai?aiiy
nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??, nenoaie iaai?oiiai
i?aea?no oa nenoaie ea?oaaiiy ia?niaeoeaiiai ?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a
aia?a??;

 ?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaiiai ?ia?oe?eiiai
iaeiie/oaa/a aia?a?? ye noeoiiino? nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai
ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? – iaoeie iino?eiiai no?oio c oe?enoi?iei
eiiooaoi?ii, nenoaie aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai i?aea?no oa nenoaie ea?oaaiiy;

 noai?aia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy
aia?a?? iaeiie/oaa/a, ui aaco?oueny ia aia?aaoe/iiio i?aeoiae?, ? yea
aeicaiey? oeyoii oeeo?iaiai iiaeaethaaiiy , aiae?coaaoe aieea
aaiiao?e/ieo oa aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a iaeiie/oaa/a ia ??ciiiai?oi?
?aaeeie eiai ?iaioe;

 aaaaeaia iiiyooy eooiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai
ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? iaeiie/oaa/a, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe
caeaaei?noue aeaeo?iiaai?oii? neee aca?iiae?? i?ae ?ioi?ii ? noaoi?ii
a?ae eooo iaaaioaaeaiiy ? oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?o oa aieeaaoe ia
i?ioeane iai?io aia?a??th i?ae ia’?eoaie oyaiai? ia?aae?;

 noai?aia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano eiiooaoe?? no?oio a iaiiooe?
yei?y nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??, ui aaco?oueny ia
?aaeuei?e, c o?aooaaiiyi eooo iaaaioaaeaiiy, ea?oei? ci?ie a /ano A?N
oace, a ye?e a?aeaoaa?oueny eiiooaoe?y;

 io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aaiiao?e/ieo oa
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ia?aiao??a ia oa?aeoa? i?ioeano eiiooaoe?? ? ia ??aaiue
iii?iae?a aeaiaioii? aace eiiooaoi??a;

 iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue aeai?o ae?aiaciio oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy
?ioi?a iaeiie/oaa/a, aeoiaey/e c oiia caaeia?eueii? eiiooaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a:

 ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aiii- aeai?eoi?/iiai eiiieaeno aeey aeai?o aaiiao?e/ieo
oa aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ia?aiao??a iniiaieo aoce?a nenoaie
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? ?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a;

 aecia/aii? ??aiy aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo ia?aiao??a nenoaie
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? ia aeanoeaino? iaeiie/oaa/a a
??ciiiai?oieo ?aaeeiao eiai ?iaioe;

 ae?iaeaiith oaoi?/ieo i?iiiceoe?e c noai?aiiy ?ia?oe?eiiai
iaeiie/oaa/a aeey oyaiai? ia?aae? iao?iiie?oaio, aeeth/ath/eo: aea??
iai?aaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaeiie/oaa/a, aea eiai canoinoaaiiy aeanoue
i/aaeaeiee aoaeo; ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeai?o iaeneiaeueii? oa i?i?iaeueii?
/anoioe iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?o iaeiie/oaa/a.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ia?aaeai? Oa?e?anueeiio
iao?iiie?oaio a aeaeyae? «Oaoi?/ieo i?iiiceoe?e c canoinoaaiiy
?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a c iaoith aeiiii?? aeaeo?iaia?a?? a oyaia?e
ia?aae? Oa?e?anueeiai iao?iiie?oaio», ui aeei?enoai? a yeino? ao?aeieo
aeaieo aeey oaoi?/iiai caaaeaiiy ?inoeoooo Oa?ueeiaiao?ii?iaeo ia
?ic?iaeo i?iaeoo oyaiaeo i?aenoaioe?e Ieaen??anueei? e?i?? aeey aa??aioo
aeei?enoaiiy ?aeoia?e?oth/iai aeaeo?i?ooiiiai neeaaeo (Aeo i?i
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?ae 26.08.1999 ?.)

Iniaenoee aeeaae niiooeiaa/a. A ni?eueieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo ii oai?
aeena?oaoe?? niiooea/aa? iaeaaeeoue: a [1] ?aea? aeei?enoaiiy
aeaeo?e/ii? iaoeie a yeino? iaeiie/oaa/a, a [8] iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? aeei?enoaiiy iaeiie/oaa/a aeey ae??aithaaiiy iai?oae
oyaiai? ia?aae?, a [7] noaia cai?uaiiy oa iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue nenoaie,
a [3] iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, ?acoeueoaoe oeeo?iaiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa
aiae?c oanoiai? caaea/?, a [9] ?aeay aeei?enoaiiy a yeino? eiiooaoi?a
?iaa?oi?a iinoiaiai oeio.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue,
iaaaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeieeaaeai? ia 5-oe ?anioae?eainueeeo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: «I?iaeaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea.
Oai?ey e i?aeoeea», a Aeoooa, 1997, 1999 a.; «microCAD. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea», a.
Oa?ueeia, 1996 a.; «Neeiaay yeaeo?iieea a ?aoaiee i?iaeai ?ano?ni– e
yia?ainaa?aaeaiey», a. Aeoooa, 1996 a.; ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii–oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee UEES’97, a. Aeoooa, 1997 a.; a oaeiae ia
nai?ia?? «Iai?ai?ia?aeieeia? ? iee?ii?ioeani?i? i?eeaaee a
aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/ieo nenoaiao o?ainii?oo» Iaoeiai? ?aaee IAI Oe?a?ie ii
eiiieaeniei i?iaeaiai iaoeiaeo iniia aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee, 1998, 1999 ?. ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii ?acoeueoaoao aeena?oaoe?? ? 10 ioae?eaoe?e, c ieo 2 o
aeaeyae? noaoae a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 4 a ca??eao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa 4
a iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, nieneo aeaea?ae ,ui aeei?enoaeeny, ?
iaeiiai aeiaeaoeo. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? i?noeoue 170 noi??iie, a
oiio /ene? 127 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo oa 61 ?ethno?aoe?th ia 27
noi??ieao, 9 oaaeeoeue, nienie aeaea?ae ,ui aeei?enoaeeny, c 108
iaeiaioaaiue caeia? 10 noi??iie, aeiaeaoie ia 1 noi??ioe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aeacaiee ?? ca’ycie c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue,
iieacai? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? c ??ciiiai?ooy an?o a?aeiieo oei?a iaeiie/oaa/?a
aia?a??, ui iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o aeaeo?iaia?aaoeoe?, aeae?eaia
a?oia, yea iaea?eueo i?aeoiaeeoue aeey canoinoaaiiy o ia?aaeao oyaiaiai
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy. I?eaiaeyoueny i??eoaaiiy, a a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeeie c
aeae?eaii? a?oie aecia/aiee a yeino? ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ia?oe?eiee
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee iaeiie/oaa/ aia?a??. Aeaco?oueny iai?aaeaiiy eiai
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aeey ?iaioe a ia?aaeao
oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? /ioe?e oeia
iaeiie/oaa/?a: aeaeo?io?i?/iee, ?ii?niee, iaaei?ia?aeiee ?iaeoeoeaiee, a
oaeiae ?ia?oe?eiee aeeo?iiaoai?/iee. Iieacaia, ui eiaeiee c oeeo oei?a
aieiae?? ye oe?eith ieceith ia?aaaa, oae ? iaaiei iaai?ii iaaeie?e?a.
Ei?aeoiee aea?? iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai oeio iaeiie/oaa/a
ia?aae/aniee, ai a ieoaii? aeei?enoaiiy ?icaeyaeoaaii? oaoiieia?? aeey
ia?aae oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy nueiaiaei? eaeaoueny, a iniiaiiio,
aeiee i?i i?iaeoe. Iaaaaeai? a ieo oeeo?e, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ieoii?
aia?aaoe/i? oa iiooaei?ni? ia?aiao?e iaeiie/oaa/?a ??ciiiai?oiiai oeio,
acyo?, ye i?aaeei, c aeina?aeo aenieoaoaoe?? oeeo i?eeaae?a a nenoaiao,
?aaeeie ? oiiae ?iaioe yeeo aaaeei c?noaaeoe c ?oiueith ?iaioith o
nenoaiao oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy.

Oei ia iaioa, aoea a?aeaeaia ia?aaaaa ?ia?oe?eiiio aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiio
iaeiie/oaa/o aia?a??, aeoiaey/e c oaeiai iieacieea, ye nooi?iue
iiaiaeaeaiiy eiai oa?aeoa?enoee c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ia’?eo?a oyaiai?
ia?aae? – ? a aeaeo?e/iiio ?ooiiiio neeaae? ? a iaeiie/oaa/aa?
aia?aaoe/i? i?ioeane iinyoue aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee oa?aeoa?. ?aeeiee
a?aeiiee iai ia nueiaiaeiyoi?e aeaiue i?eeeaae ?aaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
ni?iaieo c?ace?a naia ?ia?oe?eiiai aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai iaeiie/oaa/a
aia?a?? aeey oyaiai? ia?aae? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy i?ei?nueeiai niieo/aiiy a
ssiii?? i?aeoaa?aeaeo? i?aaii??i?noue oaeiai aeai?o.

Canoiniaaia i?e noai?aii? caaaeaieo c?ace?a, ye ? aeey aeaeo?iiaoai?/ieo
iaeiie/oaa/?a, ui aeeaeyoue aeaeo?io?ce/i? onoaiiae,
aa?aaaoii-eiii?eyoe?eia oaiaeaioe?y, ui iieyaa? a i?inoiio c?aeiaii?
i?ae niaith ie?aieo aa?aaao?a ,ui aecia/athoue iani-aaaa?eoi? ia?aiao?e
iaeiie/oaa/a (iaoiaeea, aeaeo?e/ieo iaoei, ?o i?aeoeiieeiaeo aoce?a,
iooo), ?noioii cieaeo? ieoii? aia?aaoe/i? ? iiooaei?ni? iieacieee
iaeiie/oaa/?a oaeiai oeio.

A oie aea /an oaoi?/iee i?ia?an a iaeano? noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaieo
noia?iaoiaee?a, i?eeaae?a aaceiioaeoiiai aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy
aia?a?? ? iaai?oiiai i?aea?no coiiaea ?aaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ?ic?iaee
oa noai?aiiy ?ia?oe?eieo aeaeo?iiaoai?/ieo iaeiie/oaa/?a c iaeneiaeueii
?ioaa?iaaieie ooieoe?iiaeueieie nenoaiaie a iaiaaeaia /enei
eiino?oeoeaieo aoce?a, a ioaea, c ?noioii a?eueo aenieeie
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieie iieacieeaie.

Oe? i??eoaaiiy ? aecia/eee iaoo a oaeiae caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? oi?ioeththoueny aeiiae, ui iiaeathoueny aei
iaeiie/oaa/?a oyaiaeie ia?aaeaie, aiae?cothoueny oaoi?/i? ia?aaeoiiae oa
aeeeaaea?oueny eiioeaioe?y noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaiiai ?ia?oe?eiiai
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai iaeiie/oaa/a aia?a??.

Aeey oyaiai? ia?aae? iaiao?aei? iaeiie/oaa/? c: caianaiith aia?a??th
(3590)106 Aeae; iiooaei?noth (15)106 Ao; iai?oaith 7503000 A;
o?eaae?noth ?ic?yaeiiai aai ca?yaeiiai ?iioeueno 830 n.

I?e oeueiio aiie iiaeii?: iaoe aenie? ieoii? aia?aaoe/i? ? iiooaei?ni?
iieacieee; iaoe aa?ia ?aaoethaaiiy, yea i?eionea? iiaeeea?noue
caaacia/eoe yeiiiaa a?eueo oe?ieee ae?aiacii ci?ie /anoio iaa?oaiiy
iaoiaeea o ?ic?yaeiiio oa ca?yaeiiio oeeeeao, a oaeiae iiaeeea?noue
caaacia/eoe noaa?euei?noue a /ano na??? ?iioeuen?a aia?a??, ui
aeaeathoueny aai ui niiaeeaathoueny, ? aei oiai ae ua i?i?iaeueiee /an
?aaa?no aia?a??; caaacia/oaaoe iaeneiaeueia /enei iiaeeeaeo oeeee?a
ca?yaeaeaiiy ? ?ic?yaeee aac cieaeaiiy yeino? aia?a?? oa iiooaeiino?;
iaoe aenieee ??aaiue iaae?eiino? oa EEAe.

Oaoi?/i? ia?aaeoiiae noai?aiiy oaeiai iaeiie/oaa/a ie ooeaee: – a
aaeoc? noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaieo iaoiaee?a, ye ne?aenoaa iioeiaeueiiai
ii?aeiaiiy ?oiuei? oi?ie oa iaoa??aeo; – a aaeoc? noai?aiiy nenoai
aaceiioaeoiiai aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? oa iaai?oiiai
i?aea?no; – a aaeoc? eiiiiiiai/ieo ??oaiue aeey iaeiie/oaa/?a oaeiai
?iaeo, ui aeei?enoathoueny a yeino? aeaea?ae aia?a?? eini?/ieo
e?oaeueieo aia?ao?a oa cania?a niaoe?aeueii? oaoi?ee.

Noaia eiino?oeoe?? iaeiie-/oaa/a iaaaaeaia ia ?en. 1. A yeino?
aeoioeyoi?a i?eeiyoee e?eueoeaaee aacaaeueiue iaoiaee, noi?uaiee c
?ioi?ii aeaeo?e/ii? iaoeie. A?i ia? aaceiioaeoiee aeaeo?iiaa-i?oiee
i?aea?n a?aeiinii noaoi?a. Ia aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi? iaoiaeea i?noyoueny
aunieieia?oeeoeai? iin-o?ei? iaai?oe 2. Ooo aea i?noyoueny oa?iiaai?oi?
yei?y 3 nenoai i?aea?no oa aieiaiai iai?aaeaiiy. An? oe? aeaiaioe
aaiaeaaeothoueny eiiiiceoiei aunieii?oeiei ia-oa??aeii 1. Eiaeneaeueii
?ioi?o ?icoaoo?oueny noaoi? 4 c iaiioeith yei?y 5, aeaeo?iiaai?oaie
i?aea?no 6 oa aieiaiai iai?aaeaiiy 7. Any eiino?oeoe?y ?icoaoiaoaoueny o
aaeooiiiio eiaeon? 8. Iaeiie/oaa/ ooieoe?iio? ye noeoii?noue o?ueio
nenoai: aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??, aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai
i?aea?no oa ea?oaaiiy.

I?aaeiaoii iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? nenoaia aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai
ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??. Aeey ia? i?eeiyoa iaoeia iino?eiiai no?oio c
oe?enoi?iei eiiooaoi?ii. A?ae aaioeeueii? iaoeie o?aaeeoe?eiiai
aeeiiaiiy ?? a?ae??ciythoue aea? iniaeeaino?. Ia?oa iieyaa? a oiio, ui
eiiooaoe?y no?oio a yei?iuo iaiioeao cae?enith?oueny aeiyoeiai a
i?eioniaiio ii?yaeeo. Ae?oaa – a oiio, ui iaiioea yei?y oa oe?enoi?iee
eiiooaoi? ?icaeo? ia ?yae iine?aeiaii aeeth/aieo aeie?a, eiaeiee c yeeo
i?noeoue /anoeio iaiioee oa ?iaa?oi? iinoiaiai oeio.

Noaia oaei? iaoeie iaaaaeaia ia ?en. 2. ?iaeoeoi? 1 yaey? niaith
ci?iii-iiethnioth iaai?oio nenoaio, yea ?icoaoiaaia ia iaoiaeeo. Iaiioea
yei?y neeaaea?oueny c ie?aieo naeoe?e – eioooie, e?ie yeeo ??aiee
iiethniiio ae?eaiith . Noi?aei? eioooee, c?aeioynue cono??/ii,
ooai?ththoue n oac iaiioee yei?y 2. Oace ci?uothoueny ii eieo noaoi?a
iaeia a?aeiinii ae?oai? c e?ieii /n ? eiaeia k oa k+n oace aieeathoueny
a iaaaioaaeaiiy iaeiioacieo ?iaa?oi??a no?oio 3, ye?, a naith /a?ao,
c’?aeiothoueny iine?aeiaii.

A oae?e iaoei? neea aca?iiae?? iaaieo?a ?iaeoeoi?a c? no?oiii yei?y, a
ioaea, aaee/eia ? iai?aaeaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iiiaioo, aecia/athoueny
ye

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a ??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`??’?? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????tu???taea Fm – iaeneiaeueia neea,
xik – eii?aeeiaoa, ui oa?aeoa?eco? iieiaeaiiy ?iaeoeoi?a a?aeiinii oace
yei?iie iaiioee o iiiaio, eiee a i?e a?aeaoaa?oueny eiiooaoe?y yei?iiai
no?oio (eoo iaaaioaaeaiiy).

Oaeei /eiii, o nenoai? aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??
?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a, yea aeeiiaia o aeaeyae? iaoeie iino?eiiai
no?oio c oe?enoi?iei eiiooaoi?ii, ? iiaeeea?noue ci?iith xik ca ?aooiie
aeai?o iiiaioo i?eioniai? eiiooaoe?? no?oio a oacao yei?iie iaiioee
?aaoethaaoe neeo a?ae +Fm aei -Fm ?, ioaea, aieeaaoe ia ?aaeeie ?iaioe
oa oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeiie/oaa/a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?eaiaeeoueny iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? a iaeiie/oaa/?. Aeey eiie?aoii
aea?aiiai ia’?eoo oeyoii oeeo?iaiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeine?aeaeothoueny
?iai/? aeanoeaino? oeueiai iaeiie/oaa/a a ??ciiiai?oieo iiaeeeaeo
?aaeeiao eiai ?iaioe o neeaae? oyaiai? ia?aae?.

I?e oeeaaeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? a?aei?aaieie aoee o?e ianoaaeie.
Ia?oa – ca aaco acyo? ??aiyiiy, ui iienothoue ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane a
iaoei? iino?eiiai no?oio. Ae?oaa – a?aoiaoaaeeny oae? iniaeeaino?
eiino?oeoe?? ,ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, ye: – a?aenooi?noue a iaai?oiiio
eaioethc? oa?iiaaiaoee?a oa neiaciiai aeaeo?e/iiai eiioaeoo; – a?aeiinii
aaeeea cia/aiiy iia?o?yiiai caci?o i?ae ?ioi?ii oa noaoi?ii; –
aeei?enoaiiy aeey nenoaie caoaeaeaiiy iino?eieo iaaieo?a; –
a?aenooi?noue ye i?ea?aeiiai aeaeaoia oae ? iaoai?ci?a, ye?
i?eaiaeyoueny aei iaa?oaiiy. O?ao? – aoea i?iaaaeaia cai?ia: –
iino?eiiai iaai?oo ?aieith c? no?oiii, ia?eiao? yei? aei??aithaaa
ia?eiao?o iaai?oa, a I?N aecia/aeany c ??aiino? aia?a?? iaai?oo oa
cai?iaii? ?aiee c? no?oiii; – ?aaeueii? eiino?oeoeaii? ?ioaoeaii? noaie
– e?i?eiith, ye oea iieacaia ia ?en. 2 a.

Aeoiaey/e c aeeeaaeaiiai, iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue nenoaie
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? ?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a ia?
ianooiiee aeaeyae:

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?MathType??0
???u?????????»????-?????»o???»U???Oj???Oy???J
0???Je???J???J ???u@th??????1/4??I??Times New
Roman Cyr?IY???-? ???2?!???u?u? ???2?w???V?# ???2?e ???I?®?
???2?-???r?®? ???2?‚???i??
???2?F???L????2z???dia?????2ih???dta?? ???2@ †???I?®?
???2@ ???i?? ???2@ l???R?+ ???2@ ???J?a????2,Ooo ua, ia –
ieoo?a? cia/aiiy iai?oae oa no?oio yei?y; ra, L – aeoeaiee ii?? oa
?iaeoeoeai?noue yei?y; V – e?i?eia oaeaee?noue ?ioi?a; J – iiiaio
?ia?oe??; Rcp – na?aaei?e ?aae?on e?eueoeaaiai iaoiaeea;

wmetafile8? ??V??????????? ??????? ?‚ ???

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a???? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??’?? ???&?
?MathType??
???u?????????»????-?????T¤???T«???u@th??????1/4??I??
Times New Roman Cyr?IY???-? ???2AN????I?®?
???2¬·???B?+???u?th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-?????? ???20???s?•? ???2 *???r?•? ???2– I?N
aea?aaeaioii? eioooee caoaeaeaiiy; – oiaueia iaaieoa; Br – inoaoi/iay
?iaeoeoe?y; F ? E – ocaaaeueiai? aaiiao?e/i? /eiieee. Inoaii?
aecia/athoueny ianooiieie oi?ioeaie:

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?????‚ ??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? 
A??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy???U?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????F?w???Oi???u@th??????Ooo woa –
/enei aeoe?a a eiooooe? oace iaiioee yei?y, 2? – /enei iiethn?a, Isa –
eiao?oe??io aca?ii?iaeoeoe?? eioooee iaiioee yei?y oa aea?aaeaioii?
eioooee caoaeaeaiiy, l – /enei eioooie yei?y, ui a?aoiao?oueny i?e
?ic?aooieo Isa, e – ii?yaeeiaee iiia? oace iaiioee yei?y, m – /enei
e?aiie on?aaeiaiiy ia ?ioa?aae? [xik, xik+/n], q – /enei ia?aeaeueieo
a?eie iaiioee yei?y.

A yeino? ia’?eoo aeey oeeo?iaiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaie aoa i?eeiyoee
iaeiie/oaa/, ui caaacia/o? aia?a?th iai?io 90106 Aeae c oyaiaith
ia?aaeath iii?iaeueiith iai?oaith 1500 A a oa/?? 10 naeoiae iiooaei?noth
3000 eAo ? no?oiii 2050 A i?e ?? aeaeaaaii?, a oaeiae iiooaei?noth 1800
eAo ? no?oiii 1260 A i?e ?? aeoioethaaii?. Iaoiaee oaeiai iaeiie/oaa/a
ciai?oi?i ae?aiao?ii 1.8 i, aioo??oi?i – 1.2 i, aenioith 1 i iiaeiai
iaa?oaoeny a iaaeao 1273 – 3082 ia/oaee. Aeaeo?iiaoai?/ia ia?aoai?aiiy
aia?a?? i?e oeueiio caaacia/o? aeaiiiethnia iaoeia iino?eiiai no?oio c
oe?enoi?iei eiiooaoi?ii c /ioe?ueia oacaie iaiioee yei?y i?e
aea?aaeaioi?e I?N iaiioee caoaeaeaiiy 2.5104 A.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iai?i aia?a??th i?ae iaeiie/oaa/ai oa oyaiaith ia?aaeath
aiae?coaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith eooiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee F (xik).

Neea i?e iino?eiino? I?N caoaeaeaiiy IS aecia/a?oueny a?aae??ioii
aca?ii?iaeoeoe?? oa no?oiii, ui i?io?ea? a iaiiooe? yei?y ia . A naith
/a?ao, inoaii?e i?e iino?eiino? iai?oae aeeaeaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae A?N,
ui aecia/a?oueny e?i?eiith oaeaee?noth ?ooo ?ioi?a V ? oei aea
a?aae??ioii aca?ii?iaeoeoe??

wmetafile8? ??B???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? Aa
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy  ??~?? ???&? ?MathType??Oaeei /eiii,
no?oi yei?y ia iaiia ae ia? aea? neeaaeia?: iino?eio, ui aecia/a?oueny
iai?oaith oyaiai? ia?aae? oa ia caeaaeeoue a?ae /anoioe iaa?oaiiy
?ioi?a, ? ci?iio – ui aecia/a?oueny A?N.

Iiaoaeiaaia aeey ??ciiiai?oieo oaeaeeinoae ?ooo ?ioi?a i?e ci?i? Xik a
iaaeao a?ae — aei eooiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eoo ,ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny,
i?noeoueny o II,III oa IV eaaae?aioao inae ei?aeeiao (?en. 3). Aeiaeaoia
cia/aiiy nee a?aeiia?aea? ?ooiaiio ?aaeeio ?iaioe iaei-ie/oaa/a, eiee
aeaeo?e/ia aia?a?y a?aeae?a?oueny a?ae ia?aae? ? aeoioeth?oueny o
aeaeyae? e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a (II eaaae?aio). A?ae?iia
cia/aiiy nee a?aeiia?aea? aaia?aoi?iiio ?aaeeio ?iaioe iaeiie/oaa/a,
eiee e?iaoe/ia aia?a?y iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a ia?aoai?th?oueny a aeaeo?e/io,
ui a?aeaea?oueny a oyaiao ia?aaeo (III oa IV eaaae?aioe).

?icaeyaeaeany eooiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea eeoa o II oa III eaaae?aioao, ai
oa?aeoa?enoeea o IV eaaae?aio? a?aeiia?aea? ?aaeeio aaeueioaaiiy ?ioi?a
i?e i?ioeaieeaii?, yeee ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe ?iai/ei aeey noaie oyaiaiai
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy.

I?e iaeeo iaa?oao ?icaeyaeoaaia oa?aeoa?enoeea iiai?noth i?noeoueny o
II eaaae?aio?, oiaoi i?e aoaeue-yeiio Xik neea ia? aeiaeaoia cia/aiiy –
?ooiaee ?aaeei. ?ioi? i?enei?th?oueny ? iaeiie/oaa/ aeoioeth? e?iaoe/io
aia?a?th. I?e iecueeeo iaa?oao iaeneioi neee, ine?eueee ci?iia neeaaeiaa
no?oio iaea, aecia/a?oueny iaeneioiii a?aae??ioo aca?ii?iaeoeoe??, ui
ia? i?noea i?e Xik=-/2.

Ii i??? ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a ci?iia neeaaeiaa no?oio
a iaiiooe? yei?y c?inoa, a noia?iee no?oi, ine?eueee a oeeo eaaae?aioao
iino?eia oa ci?iia eiai neeaaeia? ae?thoue cono??/ii, ciaioo?oueny. Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy iaeneioio neee oyae, eiai ?acaeai?iith, a
oaeiae aei ci?uaiiy ciia ina?/aieo iaeneioi?a aei ei?aeii?a iiethniiai
ae?eaiiy.

Ia?aoo?, i?e aeinyaiaii? ?ioi?ii oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy VI.I. =100,8 i/n
aeiaeaia aei iaiioee yei?y iai?oaa a??aiiaaaeeoueny A?N, ci?iia oa
iino?eia neeaaeia? yei?iiai no?oio aca?iii neiiiainothoueny ?
aeaeo?iiaai?oia neea noaia ??aiith 0. ?ioi? aoaea iaa?oaoeny c
iino?eiith oaeaee?noth ? iaoe oae caaio aia?a?th «ia?oaiai ianyao»
(VI.I.. – oaeaee?noue «ia?oaiai ianyao»). Oea oa aia?a?y, aei yei? iiaea
?ic?yaeeoeny iaeiie/oaa/ i?e caaeaiiio ??ai? iai?oae a ia?aae?.

Iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ia?aaaaeaiiy ci?iii? neeaaeiai? no?oio a yei?? iaae iino?eiith ?, ye
ne?aenoai oeueiai, ia?aoiaeo eooiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee c II aei III
eaaae?aioo. Oaeei /eiii, ca?eueoaiiy /anoioe iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a aei
oaeaeeino? aeua VI.I. ca’ycaia c iiyaith o iaeiie/oaa/? aeayeiai ianyao
oae caaii? «iai?iii? aia?a??», ui iiaea aeaeaaaoeny a ia?aaeo i?e
a?ae?iiiio cia/aii? aeaeo?iiaai?oii? neee – a aaia?aoi?iiio ?aaeei?
?iaioe iaeiie/oaa/a.

Iieacai? c aeiiiiiaith eooiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeanoeaino? iaeiie/oaa/a,
ui i?iiiio?oueny, aeaiiino?othoue iiaeeea?noue aio/eiai
a?aene?aeaeoaaiiy oa ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii iai?io aia?a??th i?ae
iaeiie/oaa/ai oa oyaiaith ia?aaeath.

Oeeo?iaa iiaeaethaaiiy ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy a nenoai? oyaiaiai
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy i?iaiaeeeiny a o?ueio ?aaeeiao: – ?aaeei?
aeoioethaaiiy aia?a?? i?e aeeaeaii? iai?oaith ia?aae?; – ?aaeei?
aeoioethaaiiy aia?a?? i?e aeeaeaii? iaiioee yei?y no?oiii ?aeoia?oth/iai
aeaeo?iiioyaa; – ?aaeei? ?ic?yaeo iaeiie/oaa/a ia oyaiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy
i?e ?icaii? aeaeo?iiioyaa.

Anoaiiaeaia, ui a ?aaeei? aeoioethaaiiy i?e aeeaeaii? a?ae oyaiaiai
ia?aoai?thaa/a ?ica?i ?ioi?a aei oaeaeeino? «ia?oaiai ianyao» ii noai?
?aaoethaaiiy iai?oae a?aeaoaa?oueny ca 16 n c EEAe, ui ci?ith?oueny a
iaaeao 0.610,95. Aeey noaie c ?aaoeueiaaiei iii?ii a eaioethc? yei?y,
oeae /an neeaaea? 12 n, a EEAe – 0.300,51. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue oeyoii
?aaoethaaiiy eooo iaaaioaaeaiiy i?aeo?eioaaoe i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiith
iai?oao a oyaia?e ia?aae? ye a ?aaeeiao aeoioethaaiiy iaeiie/oaa/ai
aia?a?? a?ae ?aeoia?oth/iai aeaeo?i?ooiiiai neeaaeo, oae ? a ?aaeei?
aeaea/? aia?a?? ia iioya, ui ?icaaiy?oueny.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioeano eiiooaoe?? no?oio
a iaiioeao yei?y nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??
iaeiie/oaa/a, ui i?iiiio?oueny.

Aeey aiae?co i?ioeano ia?aeeth/aiiy no?oio o oacao iaiioee (?en. 4)
i?eeiyoa, ui A?N a oac?, ui eiiooo?, aecia/a?oueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
oi?ioeith

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>???0???u„y????aea Xikk – eoo eiiooaoe??, ca’ycaiee c eooii
iaaaioaaeaiiy ne?aeoth/ei /eiii:wmetafile8? ??A???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` 
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy` ??

?? ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-?? ???2 ???X?+ ???2 «
???X?+???u?th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-??????? ???2A???ikk?k?A?A????2
???ikk?A????u@th?????? Aoei aaaaeaia oaeiae iiiyooy no?oio eiiooaoe??
i – no?oio, ui i?io?ea? /a?ac a?aen?eath/? ae?iaee ui a?aeieeathoueny ?,
ioaea, ui ci?ith?oueny a?ae 0 aei no?oio oace Id. Ia aac? oeeo aeaio
ia?aaeoiia noai?aia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano eiiooaoe??, ui iieno?
ci?io no?oi?a oa iai?oa a on?o aeaiaioao oace ia ??cieo aoaiao.

I?e oa?ieiaieo oe?enoi?ao Th1 oa Th2 oa i?ioaeaii? no?oio /a?ac oaco
iaiioee a iai?yieo, icia/aiiio ia ?en. 4, eiiooaoe?y ii/eia?oueny c
oa?ieiaiiy oe?enoi??a Th2 ? Th3. Iai?oaa eiiaeainaoi??a N1 ? N2
i?eeeaaea?oueny aei oe?enoi??a Th1 oa Th2 ? aeieea? ?o. Eii-aeainaoi?e
N1 oa N2 ?ic?yae-aeathoueny no?oiii wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  ?
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy@ ??G?? ???&? ?MathType??a?
???u?????????»????-?????tO???t=
???u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman Cyr?IY???-?
???2aN????I?®? ???2a.???c?Ae????2·a???dua?u????2D
???dta?????u?th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-?????? ???2P(???d?A?
???2’7???c??????u@th??????wmetafile8? ??S???????????
??????? 

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???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`???? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????T@????Tu???T
???T`???u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-????2¬R????dua?u????2 a????dta?? ???2¬7???I?®?
???2¬A ???i?? ???2 …???C?+???u?th??????1/4??I??Times New
Roman Cyr?IY???-?????? ???2 ???c??? ???2
/???d?A????u@th??????wmetafile8? ?????????????? ???????
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????1??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? `
??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya???? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????T@????TTH???T????TU???u
@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman Cyr?IY???-????2¬Y????dia?????2
R????dta?? ???2¬I???e?Ae? ???2¬S???u?u? ???2¬I ???R?+ ???2¬?
???I?®? ???2¬p???i?? ???2
AE???L????u?th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-?????? ???2 /???c??? ???2 ° ???d?A????u@th??????
sse o?eueee eiiaeainaoi?e N1 ? N2 ia?aca?yaeyoueny, no?oi, ui i?io?ea? a
oac?, ui eiiooo?, ci?ieoue na?e iai?yiie, ? ae?iaee D1 oa D4 caieiooueny
iai?oaith wmetafile8? ??C???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyyA??~?? ???&? ?MathType?? A oiae?
oeeo?iaiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a eiiooaoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaany aieea ia
oe? i?ioeane aaiiao?e/ieo oa aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ia?aiao??a nenoaie
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??, a oaeiae aeyaeyeany ioe?iea
iiaeeeaino? caaacia/aiiy i?eeiyoieo oiia eiiooaoe?? no?oio a yei?i?e
iaiiooe? c?acea iaeiie/oaa/a, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, a on?o iiaeeeaeo
?aaeeiao eiai ?iaioe.

Ciaeaeaia, ui aaiiao?e/i? oa aeaeo?iiaai?oi? ia?aiao?e, oi/a ? a
??ciiio nooiai?, aea ana ae aeyaeythoue ?noioiee aieea ia i?io?eaiiy
i?ioeano eiiooaoe??. Iaea?eueo a?ae/ooii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia /ano
i?io?eaiiy eiiiooaoe?eiiai i?ioeano, a oaeiae ia ??ai? iai?oa ia
aeaiaioao oe?enoi?iiai eiiooaoi?a oae? ia?aiao?e ye ?ii?noue
eiiooaoe?eiiai eiiaeainaoi?a, /enei oac iaiioee yei?y, eoo eiiooaoe??. A
iaio?e i??? cia/ou? – aaee/eia no?oio oace iaiioee yei?y oa oaeaee?noue
?ooo ?iaeoeoi?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o anueiio ae?aiacii? aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a
?icaeyiooiio a iiia?aaeiueiio ?icae?e? aeey iaeiie/oaa/a, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny, i?e ?iiino? eiiooaoe?eiiai eiiaeainaoi?a 200 ieO /an
aeania eiiooaoe?? neeaaea? (1.51,7)10-3 n, a iai?oaa ia a?aen?eath/eo
ae?iaeao 2.54,4 eA. Oe? oeeo?e na?ae/aoue i?i iiaeeea?noue caaacia/eoe a
oae?e iaoei? caaeia?eueia i?io?eaiiy i?ioeano eiiooaoe??.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeathoueny oaoi?/i? i?iiiceoe?? c noai?aiiy
?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a aia?a?? aeey oyaiai? ia?aae? iao?iiie?oaio.

Ooo, ia?aaeon?i, c o?ueio iiaeeeaeo iai?yie?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaeiie/oaa/a o neeaae? oyaiai? ia?aae? Oa?e?anueeiai iao?iiie?oaio, aea
eiai canoinoaaiiy aeanoue iaea?eueoee aoaeo, aeae?eaia iai?aaeaiiy,
ca’ycaia c aeoioethaaiiyi ? iiaoi?iei aeei?enoaiiyi aia?a??, ui
aeae?ey?oueny a aaeueiiaeo ?acenoi?ao, i?e niia?eueiaiiyo ?ooiiiai
neeaaeo. Iaie a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? aoee ciyo? caeaaeiino?
aeaeo?e/ieo iiooaeiinoae a?ae /ano ui niiaeeaathoueny i?e ?icaii? ? ui
aeae?eythoueny i?e aaeueioaaii? iioya?a ia ??ciiiai?oieo ae?eueieoeyo
on?o o?ueio e?i?e Oa?e?anueeiai iao?iiie?oaio. Aiie iieacaee, ui aeey
aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiii? ooieoe?? ia oyaiaeo i?aenoaoe?yo iio??aai
iaeiie/oaa/ c iaeneiaeueiith aia?a??th iai?io 25106 Aeae, ui a oa/?? 100
n i?a a ni?eeiaoe aeaeo?iaia?a?th no?oiii aei 500 A i?e iai?oc? 825 A ?
aeaeaaaoe ?? a oyaiao ia?aaeo a iaai? ?ioa?aaee /ano no?oiii 750 A i?e
o?e aea iai?oc?.

Ia?aiao?e iaeiie/oaa/a, ui aeae?athoueny, ?icaeo? ia o?e a?oie: ia?oa –
a?oia ia?aiao??a, aecia/a? ?ia?oe?eiee aeaiaio iaeiie/oaa/a; ae?oaa –
nenoaio aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??; o?aoy – nenoaio
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai i?aea?no.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie ia?aiao??a a?aeiinyoueny aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e ?ioi?a –
?aae?on aioo??oi?e R1, ?aae?on ciai?oi?e R2, aenioa e?eueoey h, a oaeiae
iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy e?i?eii? oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy V. Ca’ycie ?o c
aia?a??th ia? aeaeyae

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
@#???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy?#??A?? ???&? ?MathType??aea
wmetafile8? ??>???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyyA ??§?? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?????????»????-?????t%???t¤ ???u@th??????
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aea?? ia?aiao??a ae?oai? a?oie, a iniiaiiio,
aecia/a?oueny iaeneiaeueiith oa i?i?iaeueiith oaeaeeinoyie iaa?oaiiy
?ioi?a iaeiie/oaa/a. Io?eiaii ae?ac aeey iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeii?
oaeaeeino? iaeiie/oaa/a

wmetafile8? ??§??????????? ??????? ?f???

?????f??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? a
??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??’?? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?????????»????-?????T*???TA???u@th??????1/4??I??T
imes New Roman Cyr?IY???-? ???2A????V?# ???2¬e???a?E? ???2¬A
???R?+ ???2 ”???p?a? ???2 k
???t?????u?th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-?????????2 ????CEA????2aea tEO – /an a?aeiiaeaiiy
aeanoeainoae oe?enoi?a, aCE – oe?eia ciie eiiooaoe??.

Ciaeaeaia, ui c anueiai niaeo?o aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ia?aiao??a (I?N
iaai?o?a caoaeaeaiiy, caci? i?ae yei?ai ? ?iaeoeoi?ii, aaiiao?e/i?
?ici??e eioooie yei?y ? aea?aaeaioii? eioooee caoaeaeaiiy) iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiei caniaii cieaeaiiy i?i?iaeueii? oaeaeeino? ?ioi?a iaeiie/oaa/a
(oaeaeeino? «ia?oaiai ianyao») ? ca?eueoaiiy /enea aeoe?a o eioooeao
iaiioee yei?y. I?iaeaie, ca’ycai? i?e oeueiio c oneeaaeiaiiyi i?ioean?a
eiiooaoe??, iiaeooue aooe ciyo? ca?eueoaiiyi /enea oac iaiioee yei?y, a
ioaea, ? /enea oe?enoi?ieo eiiooaoi??a.

Ia?aiao?e o?aouei? a?oie – ia?aiao?e nenoaie aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai i?aea?no
– aecia/aeeny, aeoiaey/e c iaiao?aeiino? i?e aeaiiio caci?? aeinyaiooe
coneeeue i?aea?no ? aieiaiai iai?aaeaiiy ia ??ai? FI= (1.352,2) gm?, FI=
(0.250,5) gm? (m? – iana ?ioi?a, g – i?enei?aiiy a?eueiiai iaae?iiy).
Eiio?ao?aoe?y, iniiai? ?ici??e oa aeaeo?iiaai?oi? iaaaioaaeaiiy nenoaie
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai i?aea?no oa iai?aaeaiiy ciaoiaeeeenue c
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy

wmetafile8? ??oe???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy????? ???&? ?MathType??aea B –
?iaeoeoe?y a iia?o?yiiio caci?a; S – noia?ia ieiua iiethn?a iaeeie/ieo
iaai?o?a; KA – eiao?oe?aio, ui a?aoiao? auio/aiiy iaai?oiiai iioieo.

A i?aenoieo, iaeiie/oaa/, ui i?iiiio?oueny, yaey? niaith oeee?iae?
ae?aiao?ii 1240 ii, aenioith 1100 ii, o na?aaeei? yeiai iaa?oa?oueny
?ioi? ianith 530 ea a ?ioa?aae? /anoio 40608335 ia/oaee.
Aeaeo?iiaoai?/ia ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? cae?enith?oueny aeaiiiethniith
oanoeoaciith iaoeiith c aea?aaeaioiith IAe? caoaeaeaiiy 1.25104 A.
Aaceiioaeoiee i?aea?n oa aieiaa iai?aaeaiiy ?ioi?a caaacia/o?oueny 12
aeaeo?iiaai?oaie c I?N 9,4103 A.

O aeiaeaoeo iaaaaeaiee aeo a?ae 26 na?iiy 1999 ?. i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a Oa?e?anueeiio iao?iiie?oai?.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE ? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE

1. Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae i?iaaaeaia c?noaaeaiiy
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai, ?ii?niiai, iaaei?ia?aeiiai ?iaeoeoeaiiai, a oaeiae
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/ae, yea iieacaei, ui c
ia?a?aoiaaieo oei?a iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiei aeey aeei?enoaiiy o oyaiaeo
ia?aaeao iino?eiiai no?oio i?nueeiai oa i?ei?nueeiai aeaeo?e/iiai
o?ainii?oo ? aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee ?ia?oe?eiee iaeiie/oaa/ aia?a??.

2. A i?aenoieo aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/ai? iieacieee ?
noi?ioeueiaai? aeiiae, yeei iiaeii? a?aeiia?aeaoe oae? iaeiie/oaa/? aeey
aoaeoeaiiai aeeiiaiiy nai?o ooieoe?e, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaia
i?iaeaiaoe/i?noue caaeiaieaiiy oeeo aeiia i?e aeei?enoaii? aeey
noai?aiiy oaeeo iaeiie/oaa/?a o?aaeeoe?eieo oaoiieia?e.

3. Aiae?c oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue a oaeeo iaeanoyo no/anieo aia?aaoe/ieo oa
o?ainii?oieo oaoiieia?e ye ia?niaeoeai? noia?iaoiaeee ? i?eeaaee
aaceiioaeoiiai aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? aeyaea iayai?noue
a aeinoaoiueiio ianyc? ia?aaeoiia aeey noai?aiiy iniiaieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeie?a ? eiino?oeoeaieo aoce?a ia?niaeoeaiiai
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a aia?a??, ui caaeiaieueieoue
aeuanoi?ioeueiaaiei aeiiaai.

4. Ia aac? aiae?co ? c?noaaeaiiy aeiia, ui iiaeathoueny aei
iaeiie/oaa/?a ?aaeeiaie ?iaioe oyaiaeo ia?aae, ?
eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aaeoiia, noai?aieo iayaieie aaea
nueiaiaei? oaoi?/ieie ??oaiiyie a aaeocyo ia?niaeoeaieo aia?aaoe/ieo ?
o?ainii?oieo oaoiieia?e, ae?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y noai?aiiy ?ia?oe?eiiai
iaeiie/oaa/a c aeoioeyoi?ii iaoai?/ii? aia?a?? o aeaeyae? e?eueoeaaiai
aacaaeueiiai iaoiaeea, yeee aeeiio? aiaeii/an ooieoe?? ?iaeoeoi?a
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?thaa/a aia?a?? – caa?ioo?e iaoei? iino?eiiai
no?oio c oe?enoi?iei eiiooaoi?ii, oa ia? aaceiioaeoiee aeaeo?iiaai?oiee
i?aea?n a?aeiinii ?ici?uaii? ia noaoi?? iaiioee yei?y.

5. Oeyoii ia?aoai?aiiy ?aaeueii? noaie iaeiie/oaa/a c ?ioi?ii, ui
iaa?oa?oueny, a ??aiicia/io noaio c e?i?eiei ia?ai?uaiiyi ?iaeoeoi?a
a?aeiinii yei?y, a oaeiae cai?ie iino?eiiai iaai?oa caoaeaeaiiy
i?yiieooiith eioooeith c aea?aaeaioiith I?N, io?eiaia iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaeue nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? iaeiie/oaa/a,
ui aeicaiey? oeyoii oeeo?iaiai iiaeaethaaiiy aiae?coaaoe aieea
aaiiao?e/ieo oa aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a iaeiie/oaa/a ia ??ciiiai?oi?
?aaeeie eiai ?iaioe.

6. Aaaaeaia iiiyooy eooiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai
ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? iaeiie/oaa/a, ui aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe caeaaei?noue
aeaeo?iiaai?oii? neee aca?iiae?? i?ae ?ioi?ii oa noaoi?ii iaeiie/oaa/a
a?ae eooo iaaaioaaeaiiy ? oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a, ? caaaeyee
oeueiio aieeaaoe ia i?ioeane iai?io aia?a??th i?ae ia’?eoaie oyaiai?
ia?aae?.

7. Anoaiiaeaia, ui a ?aaeei? aeoioethaaiiy iaeiie/oaa/ai aia?a?? i?e
aeeaeaii? a?ae oyaiaiai ia?aoai?thaa/a ?ica?i ?ioi?o aei oaeaeeino?
«ia?oaiai ianyao» ii noai? ?aaoethaaiiy iai?oae a?aeaoaa?oueny c a?eueo
aenieith aoaeoeai?noth ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??, i?ae ii noai? c
?aaoeueiaaiei iii?ii a eaioethc? yei?y, oi/a ? c a?eueoeie aeo?aoaie
/ano. Iieacai? oaeiae iiaeeeaino? aieeao ia oae? iieacieee oeueiai
?aaeeio ye a?aie/ii iiaeeeaa cia/aiiy aia?a?? ,ui caiana?oueny
iaeiie/oaa/ai, /an aeoioethaaiiy ? EEAe.

8. Anoaiiaeaia, ui ye a ?aaeeiao aeoioethaaiiy iaeiie/oaa/ai aia?a??
a?ae ?aeoia?oth/iai aeaeo?i?ooiiiai neeaaeo, oae ? a ?aaeei? aeaea/?
aia?a?? ia iioya, ui ?icaaiy?oueny, ? iiaeeea?noue oeyoii ?aaoethaaiiy
eooo iaaaioaaeaiiy nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??, ui
i?iiiio?oueny, i?aeo?eioaaoe i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiith iai?oao a oyaia?e
ia?aae?.

9. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano eiiooaoe?? no?oio a oacao
iaiioee yei?y nenoaie aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??, ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue a?aoiaoaaoe ?aaeueio c o?aooaaiiyi eooo iaaaioaaeaiiy
ea?oeio ci?ie a /ano A?N oace, ui eiiooo?. Oey iiaeaeue yaey? niaith
nenoaio aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue, ui ca’yco? ci?io a /ano iai?oae ia
eiiiooaoe?eiiio eiiaeainaoi??, a oaeiae ci?io no?oio eiiooaoe?? c? an?ia
aeaeo?iiaai?oieie oa aaiiao?e/ieie ia?aiao?aie iaeiie/oaa/a.

10. Oeyoii oeeo?iaiai iiaeaethaaiiy ciaeaeaia, ui aaiiao?e/i? ?
aeaeo?iiaai?oi? ia?aiao?e oi/a ? a ??ciiio nooiai?, aea anaae
aeyaeythoue ?noioiee aieea ia i?ioean eiiooaoe??. Iaea?eueo a?ae/ooii
a?aeaeaa?oueny ia /an? eiiooaoe?eiiai i?ioeano, a oaeiae ia ??ai? iai?oa
ia aeaiaioao oe?enoi?iiai eiiooaoi?a oae? ia?aiao?e ye ?ii?noue
eiiooaoe?eiiai eiiaeainaoi?a, /enei oac iaiioee yei?y, eoo eiiooaoe??. A
iaio?e i??? cia/ou? ??aaiue no?oio oace iaiioee yei?y oa oaeaee?noue
?ooo ?iaeoeoi?a.

11. ?ic?iaeai? oaoi?/i? i?iiiceoe?? c noai?aiiy aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai
iaeiie/oaa/a aeey iaoe aeoioethaaiiy ? iiaoi?iiai aeei?enoaiiy aia?a??,
ui aeae?ey?oueny a aaeueiiaeo ?acenoi?ao i?e niia?eueiaiiyo
aeaeo?i?ooiiiai neeaaeo iao?iiie?oaio. Iaeiie/oaa/, ui i?iiiio?oueny,
iiaea aooe aac iniaeeaeo i?iaeai anoaiiaeaiee a i?ei?uaii? aoaeue-yei?
i?aenoaioe?? iao?iiie?oaio. Oea aeanoue iiaeeea?noue aeiiiieoe aei 8.5%
aeaeo?iaia?a??, ui niiaeeaa?oueny ia oyao ii?cae?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1.Iiaeueyiaiei A.E., Aiiaea?aiei A.A., Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Iaeiieoaee
yia?aee – yooaeoeaiia n?aaenoai yia?ainaa?aaeaiey a nenoaiao oyaiaiai
yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa.– 1999.– Aui. 58.– N. 64–65.

2.Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Oaeiaay oa?aeoa?enoeea yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai
eia?oeeiiiiai iaeiieoaey yia?aee // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. – 1999.– Aui. 61. –
N.283–285.

3.Iiaeueyiaiei A.E., Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue nenoaiu
yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee eia?oeeiiiiai iaeiieoaey n
eieueoeaaui ?ioi?ii a oyaiaie naoe. // Eioi?iaoeeiiii–oi?aaeythuea
nenoaiu ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa.– 1998.– ? 5.– N.65–69.

4.Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue i?ioeanna eiiiooaoeee.
Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. –
1999 .–Aui.59.– N.14–15.

5.Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Eia?oeeiiiue iaeiieoaeue yia?aee aeey oyaiaie naoe
iao?iiieeoaia. // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. – 1999 .–Aui.65.– N.34–37.

6.Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Auai? iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia eia?oeeiiiiai iaeiieoaey
aeey oyaiaie naoe iao?iiieeoaia. // Eioi?iaoeeiiii–oi?aaeythuea nenoaiu
ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa.– 1999.– ? 2.– N.18–21.

7.Iiaeueyiaiei A.E., Aie/oeia I.I., Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Aeeyiea oeia
eeiaeiiai aeaeaaoaey ia yooaeoeaiinoue yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai
i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee i?e ioai?a aa io yeaeo?iiaoeiiiai aa?aaaoa n
eia?oeeiiiui iaeiieoaeai // O?oaeu eiio. n iaaeaeoia?. o/anoeai
«I?iaeaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea».–
Oa?ueeia.–Iniiaa.–1996.–N.212–213.

8.Aiiaea?aiei A.A., Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Auai? oeia iaeiieoaey a nenoaia
yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa // O?oaeu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ia/ii–oaoie/. eiio. «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea,
oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea» (microCAD96).–*anoue 1.–
Oa?ueeia: OAIO.–1996.–N.109.

9.Iiaeueyiaiei A.E., Aiiaea?aiei A.A., Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Eiaa?oi? oiea a
ea/anoaa eiiiooaoi?a yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai iaeiieoaey a nenoaia oyaiaiai
yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey // O?oaeu Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. «Neeiaay yeaeo?iieea a
?aoaiee i?iaeai ?ano?ni– e yia?ainaa?aaeaiey».–Oa?ueeia:
Iniiaa.–1996.–N.31–32.

10.Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Eiioeaioeey yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai iaeiieoaey yia?aee
n eieueoeaaui ?ioi?ii. // Proc. 3rd International Scientific and
Technical Conferenc UEES’97 .– Szczecin.– 1997.– Vol.2.– P. 355–360.

AIIOAOe??

Iiaeyiaiei A.A. Aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee ia?aoai?thaa/ aia?a?? ?ia?oe?eiiai
iaeiie/oaa/a aeey ia?aae oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.09.01–aeaeo?e/i? iaoeie ? aia?aoe.– Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? oa aeine?aeaeaiith nenoaie
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? ?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a aeey
oyaiaeo aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae, eiioeaioe?y noai?aiiy yeiai aaco?oueny ia
ia?niaeoeaieo aia?aaoe/ieo oa o?ainii?oieo oaoiieia?yo. ?ic?iaeaia
eiioeaioe?y noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaiiai ?ia?oe?eiiai iaeiie/oaa/a c
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iei ia?aoai?thaa/ai aia?a?? o aeaeyae? iaoeie iino?eiiai
no?oio c oe?enoi?iei eiiooaoi?ii. Noai?aia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue oe???
iaoeie, yea aeicaiey? aiae?coaaoe aieea ia?aiao??a iaeiie/oaa/a ia
??ciiiai?oi? ?aaeeie eiai ?iaioe. Aaaaeaii iiiyooy eooiai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, ui ioe?ith? aieea eooa iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?ioeane iai?io
aia?a??th i?ae ia?eoaie oyaiai? ia?aae?. Noai?aia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
i?ioeano eiiooaoe?? no?oio o iaiiooe? yei?y ca aeiiiiiaith yei?
aeine?aeaeaii aieea ia?aiao??a ia ??aaiue iii?iae?a aeaiaioii? aace
eiiooaoi??a. ?acoeueoaoe iaaeai? Oa?e?anueeiio iao?iiie?oaio, aea aiie
aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ia?niaeoeaieo oyaiaeo i?aenoaioe?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ia?oe?eiee iaeiie/oaa/, oyaiaa ia?aaea, aeaeo?iiaoai?/-

iee ia?aoai?thaa/ aia?a??, oe?enoi?iee eiiooaoi?, eooiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea.

Omelyanenko G.V. Electromechanical energy converter of flywheel storage
for traction power supply networks. –Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 05.09.01 – electrical
machines and devices.– Kharkiv State Polytechnical University, Kharkiv,
1999.

The thesis is devoted to development and investigation of a system of
electromechanical energy converter of flywheel storage for traction
power supply networks, the development conception of which is based on
prospective power and transport technologies. The conception of a
prospective flywheel storage with an electromechanical energy converter
in the form of DC machine with a thyristors commutator is elaborated. A
mathematical model of this machine which enable to analyze flywheel
storage parameters influence on various models of its work is created.
The notion of an angle characteristic evaluating load angle influence on
processes of energy exchange among traction networks objects is
introduced. A mathematical model of current commutation process in the
armature winding is created and used to investigate the parameters
influence on the nominal values level of the element base of the
commutator. The results are given to the Kharkiv Underground where they
are used for developing prospective traction substations.

Key words: flywheel storage, traction networks, electromechanical
converter, thyristor commutator, angle characteristic.

Iiaeueyiaiei A.A. Yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneee i?aia?aciaaoaeue yia?aee
eia?oeeiiiiai iaeiieoaey aeey naoae oyaiaiai yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey.–
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.09.01 – yeaeo?e/aneea iaoeiu e aiia?aou. –
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea e enneaaeiaaieth nenoaiu
yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee eia?oeeiiiiai iaeiieoaey
aeey oyaiauo yeaeo?e/aneeo naoae, eiioeaioeey nicaeaiey eioi?iai
aace?oaony ia ia?niaeoeaiuo yia?aaoe/aneeo e o?ainii?oiuo oaoiieiaeyo.

Ia iniiaa aiaeeca eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia i?iaaaeaii niiinoaaeaiea
yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai, aieinoiiai, naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai eiaeoeoeaiiai, a
oaeaea yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai eia?oeeiiiiai iaeiieoaeae, eioi?ia iieacaei,
/oi ec ia?a/eneaiiuo oeiia iaeaieaa i?eaieaiui aeey eniieueciaaiey a
oyaiauo naoyo iinoiyiiiai oiea ai?iaeneiai e i?eai?iaeiiai
yeaeo?e/aneiai o?ainii?oa yaeyaony yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneee eia?oeeiiiue
iaeiieoaeue yia?aee. A eoiaa aiaeeoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiu
iieacaoaee e noi?ioee?iaaiu o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ui aeieaeiu
niioaaonoaiaaoue oaeea iaeiieoaee aeey yooaeoeaiiai auiieiaiey naieo
ooieoeee, a oaeaea onoaiiaeaia i?iaeaiaoe/iinoue oaeiaeaoai?aiey yoeo
o?aaiaaiee i?e eniieueciaaiee aeey nicaeaiey oaeeo iaeiieoaeae
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee. Aiaeec oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee a oaeeo iaeanoyo
nia?aiaiiuo yia?aaoe/aneeo e o?ainii?oiuo oaoiieiaee eae ia?niaeoeaiua
noia?iaoiaeee e ono?ienoaa aaneiioaeoiiai yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai
i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee auyaee iaee/ea a aeinoaoi/iii iauaia i?aaeiinueie
aeey nicaeaiey iniiaiuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aeieia e eiino?oeoeaiuo oceia
ia?niaeoeaiiai yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai eia?oeeiiiiai iaeiieoaey yia?aee,
oaeiaeaoai?ythuaai noi?ioee?iaaiiui o?aaiaaieyi. Ia aaca aiaeeca e
niiinoaaeaiey o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e iaeiieoaeyi ?aaeeiaie ?aaiou
oyaiauo naoae, e eiino?oeoi?nei–oaoiieiae/aneeo i?aaeiinueie, nicaeaiiuo
eiathueieny oaea naaiaeiy oaoie/aneeie ?aoaieyie a iaeanoe ia?niaeoeaiuo
yia?aaoe/aneeo e o?ainii?oiuo oaoiieiaee, au?aaioaia eiioeaioeey
nicaeaiey eia?oeeiiiiai iaeiieoaey n aeeoioeyoi?ii iaoaie/aneie yia?aee
a aeaea eieueoeaaiai aacaaeueiiai iaoiaeea, auiieiythuaai iaeiia?aiaiii
a nenoaia yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee – ia?auaiiie
iaoeia iinoiyiiiai oiea n oe?enoi?iui eiiiooaoi?ii – ooieoeee
eiaeoeoi?a, eiathuaai aaneiioaeoiue yeaeo?iiaaieoiue iiaeaan
ioiineoaeueii ?aciauaiiie ia noaoi?a iaiioee yei?y.

Iooai i?aia?aciaaiey ?aaeueiie noaiu iaeiieoaey n a?auathueiny ?ioi?ii a
?aaiicia/ioth noaio n eeiaeiui ia?aiauaieai eiaeoeoi?a ioiineoaeueii
yei?y, a oaeaea caiaiu iinoiyiiiai iaaieoa aicaoaeaeaiey i?yiioaieueiie
eaoooeie n yeaeaaeaioiie IAeN, iieo/aia aace?othuayny ia yia?aaoe/aneii
iiaeoiaea iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue nenoaiu yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai
i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee enneaaeoaiiai iaeiieoaey, iicaieythuay iooai
oeeo?iaiai

iiaeaee?iaaiey aiaeece?iaaoue aeeyiea aaiiao?e/aneeo e yeaeo?ioece/aneeo

ia?aiao?ia iaeiieoaey ia ?acee/iua ?aaeeiu aai ?aaiou. Aaaaeaii iiiyoea
oaeiaie oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaiu yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey
yia?aee iaeiieoaey, iicaieythuaa ioeaieoue caaeneiinoue yeaeo?iiaaieoiie
neeu acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ?ioi?ii e noaoi?ii io oaea iaa?ocee e
nei?inoe a?auaiey ?ioi?a e oai naiui aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia i?ioeannu
iaiaia yia?aeae iaaeaeo iauaeoaie oyaiaie naoe. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a
?aaeeia aeeoioee?iaaiey iaeiieoaeai yia?aee i?e ieoaiee io oyaiaiai
i?aia?aciaaoaey ?acaii ?ioi?a aei nei?inoe ia?oaiai iauaia ii noaia
?aaoee?iaaiey iai?yaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo n aieaa aunieie yooaeoeaiinoueth
i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee, /ai ii noaia n ?aaoee?oaiui nii?ioeaeaieai a
oeaie yei?y, oioy e n aieueoeie cao?aoaie a?aiaie. Iieacaiu oaeaea
aiciiaeiinoe aeeyiey ia oaeea iieacaoaee yoiai ?aaeeia eae i?aaeaeueii
aiciiaeiia cia/aiea caianaaiie iaeiieoaeai yia?aee, a?aiy
aeeoioee?iaaiey e EIAe. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eae a ?aaeeiao aeeoioee?iaaiey
iaeiieoaeai yia?aee io ?aeoia?e?othuaai yeaeo?iiiaeaeaeiiai ninoaaa, oae
e a ?aaeeia auaea/e yia?aee ia ?acaiiythueeny iiacae eiaaony
aiciiaeiinoue iooai ?aaoee?iaaiey oaea iaa?ocee i?aaeeaaaaiie nenoaiu
yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee iiaeaea?aeeaaoue i?aeoe/anee
iaeciaiiui iai?yaeaiea a oyaiaie naoe. ?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay
iiaeaeue i?ioeanna eiiiooaoeee oiea a oacao iaiioee yei?y nenoaiu
yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee, aeathuay aiciiaeiinoue
o/eouaaoue ?aaeueioth n o/aoii oaea iaa?ocee ea?oeio eciaiaiey ai
a?aiaie YAeN eiiiooe?othuae oacu. Yoa iiaeaeue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
nenoaio aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaiee, naycuaathuoth eciaiaiea ai
a?aiaie iai?yaeaiey ia eiiiooe?othuai eiiaeainaoi?a, a oaeaea eciaiaiea
oiea eiiiooaoeee — oiea, i?ioaeathuaai /a?ac ioie?athueany aeeiaeu, ni
anaie yeaeo?iiaaieoiuie e aaiiao?e/aneeie ia?aiao?aie iaeiieoaey. Iooai
oeeo?iaiai iiaeaee?iaaiey iaeaeaii, /oi aaiiao?e/aneea e
yeaeo?iiaaieoiua ia?aiao?u oioy e a ?aciie noaiaie, ii ana aea
ieacuaatho nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia i?ioaeaiea i?ioeanna eiiiooaoeee.
Iaeaieaa iuooeii neacuaaaony ia a?aiaie i?ioaeaiey eiiiooaoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna, a oaeaea ia o?iaia iai?yaeaiee ia yeaiaioao oe?enoi?iiai
eiiiooaoi?a oaeea ia?aiao?u eae aieinoue eiiiooe?othuaai eiiaeainaoi?a,
/enei oac iaiioee yei?y, oaie eiiiooaoeee. A iaiueoae ia?a cia/eiu
aaee/eia oiea oacu iaiioee yei?y e nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey eiaeoeoi?a.

?acoeueoaou ia?aaeaiu Oa?ueeianeiio iao?iiieeoaio, aaea eniieueciaaiu
i?e ?ac?aaioea ia?niaeoeaiuo oyaiauo iiaenoaioeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eia?oeeiiiue iaeiieoaeue, yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneee
i?aia?aciaaoaeue, oe?enoi?iue eiiiooaoi?, oaeiaay oa?aeoa?enoeea.

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