Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Iaoaaeia Aieiaeeie? Aai?a?eiae/

OAeE.541.138.2

Aeaeo?ie?c aiaee: iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy oa ?ooo aaciaeo aoeueaaoie; ?ieue
aeaeo?e/ieo oa a?aa?oaoe?eieo oaeoi??a

05.17.03 — Oaoi?/ia aeaeo?io?i?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao?, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie. *anoeia aenia?eiaio?a
i?iaaaeaia ia eueioi?e aac? i.Ci?yiee oa ia ai?oo i?a?oaeueii?
noaioe??»Ie?»

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — ae.o.i., i?ioani? Enueiiaeae I.N., Oe?a?inueeee
aea?aeaaiee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
oaoiieia?? aeaeo?io?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaio:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?aa/ia A.E., Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao i?ioani? eaoaae?e oaoi?/ii? aeaeo?io?i??

ae.o.i., i?ioani? Eoi??i A.I., Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee
o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? o?i??

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iena??a ?.A., ?inoeooo oaoi?ii?
iaoai?ee, ia/aeueiee a?aeae?eo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, i Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 7 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 12-00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.078.01 a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 320640, ANI, i
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-5, i?.Aaaa??ia, 8

C aeena?oaoe?th? iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 320640,
ANI, i Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-5, i?.Aaaa??ia, 8

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 27.03.99 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I?i?aeea ?.Ae.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

I?ioeane aeaeo?ieioe/iiai ?iceeaaeaiiy aiaee aeaaii aiaeiii i oe?iei
canoiniaothoueny o o?aaeeoeieieo aeaeo?ioiii/ieo ae?iaieoeoaao. I?ioa
?ic?iaeaii aeey iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oeeo i?ioeania oai?i?
anooiathoue o noia?a/iinoue ci c’yaeaoeieny a inoaiiie /an
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie, ui aeaco? ia iaiaoiaeiinoue ei?aeoei? oa
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/iiai caaacia/eiiy i?ioeano aeaeo?ieico
aiaee.

Aeooaeueiinoue oaiaoeee aeena?oaoei?.

Iiaith aaeoccth canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?ieico aiaee ? einiiiaaoeea. Caaea/e
iiaeono?iae?caoei? einiino aeiaaathoue ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo iiaenoaa
oiceee oa oiii? iaaaaiiinoi, ooai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo oaoiieiaie, ui
iaoiiaeaii ciiiaiiyi ia oieueei oaeaeeinoi, aea e iaoaiiciia
oiceei-oiii/ieo i?ioeania, yee i?ioieathoue o oeio oiiaao. Iinoaaeaii
caaea/o ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ii? aace ieoaiue iani- i oaieiia?aiino a oiiaao
iaaaaiiinoi, aieeao oiii/ieo ?aaeoeie ia eiiaaeoeaiee ia?aiin, oaciai
ia?eoai?aiiy oa yaeua ia iiaa?oii ?icaeieo oac, iiaaaeiiee aaaaoioacieo
nenoai.

Aaaaoi c iinoaaeaieo caaea/ iiaeooue aooe ae?ioaii caniaaie
aeaeo?ioiii?. Cie?aia aoaeoe cii/oaaiiy, aaeni?aoei?, oiii/ii ?aaeoei?
ia iiaa?oiyo ?icaeieo oac aac-?iaeeia-oaa?aea oiei o aaaaoueio nenoaiao
iia’ycaii c ooai?aiiyi iiaeaieieo aeaeo?e/ieo oa?ia i iathoue
aeinoaoiuei ?icaeiaio oai?aoe/io aaco a aeaeo?ioiii?.

I?ioeane ia?aiino oaiea oa iane o ?iaeeiao oa aacao caeaaeaoue ye
aiae iiaa?oiaaeo yaeu, oae i aiae oi?ioaaiiy aeeiaii/ieo, aeeoocieieo oa
oaieiaeo oa?ia ia iaaeao oac i aieeao ia ieo iioieia, iiioeieiaaieo
a?aaei?ioii oaiia?aoo?e aai eiioeaio?aoei? ?a/iaeie. Ca oiiaith, ui
a?aaei?io eiioeaio?aoei? ooai?th?oueny a ?acoeueoaoi aeaeo?ioiii/ii?
?aaeoei?, oey caaea/a oaeiae ia?aoiaeeoue o aaeocue aeaeo?ioiii?.

Caniaaie aeaeo?ioiii/iiai aaciaeaeieaiiy ae?ioo?oueny caaea/a ooai?aiiy,
aea/aiiy i ea?oaaiiy aaaaoioacieie nenoaiaie i?e iaeeaaeaiii aeaeo?e/ieo
iieia ?icii? eiioiao?aoei?.

Ana aieueoee iioa?an i?eaa?oa?oueny aei aeaeo?ieioe/iiai io?eiaiiy
aiaeith ye aeieiai/ii /enoiai aiaeiiaethaaiiai aia?aiiiniy. Aaciiiaeiaii
aiaeaiue ? eenaiue iiaeooue neoaeeoe ?iai/ei oieii a ?aeaoieo aeaeaoiao
ei?aeoei? oa i?i?ioaoei? einii/ieo eioath/eo aia?aoia. I?e oeueiio
aieueo aia?aaoe/ii aeaiaeii io?eiaiiy ?o aeaeo?ieicii aiaee
aaciina?aaeiuei ia ai?oo einii/iiai eioath/iai aia?aoo. Aeaeo?ieic aiaee
ieaio?oueny aei aeei?enoaiiy i o ?ic?oaey?ieo ?aaaia?aoeaieo nenoaiao
aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy. Oaeei /eiii, oaiaoeea aeena?oaoei? aiaeiiaiaea?
e?eoa?iyi aeooaeueiinoi.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie.

?iaioe ca oaiith i?iaiaeeeenue o aiaeiiaiaeiinoi ca i?ia?aiith AeEIO
IOe.005 ca i?iaeaiith 0.50.01, ca iinoaiiaith OeE EI?N a ?I N?N? aiae
27.01.86 N136-46, N137-47,ICI N?N? oa AI O?N?, eiiieaeniith i?ia?aiith:
«Iaoa?iaeiciaanoai i oaoiieiai/ia caaacia/aiiy noai?aiiy oa
aenieoaoaoei? aaeeeiaaaa?eoieo i?aioaeueieo eiino?oeoeie; i?iaeaia 3.1:
Aea/aiiy i?ioieaiiy oiceei-oiii/ieo i?ioeania o ?aaeueieo oiiaao»,
eiio?aeoo EA «Iiaaeaiia» c IEAO 1-1/93 aiae 27.05.93 «?ic?iaeaiiy nenoai
noiooieeiaiai ca’yceo».

Iaoa i caaea/? aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Iaoith aeena?oaoei? ? nenoaiaoe/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy oa oai?aoe/ia
caaacia/aiiy i?ioeana ?iceeaaeaiiy aiaee a oiiaao ii?iaeueii?
a?aaioaoei? oa o iaaaaiiinoi, ii?aoethaaiiy oai?ie aeieeiaiiy, ?inoo oa
?ooo aoeueaaoie a ia’?ii aeaeo?ieioo i ianiia?aiino aei
aaciaeaeieyth/iai aeaeo?iaeo.

Iinoaaeaia iaoa i?eioneaea ae?ioaiiy oaeeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa
oai?aoe/ieo caaea/:

· aecia/aiiy ia?aiao?ia i?eaeaeo?iaeiiai ia?ane/aiiai oa?o aeaeo?ieioo a
?icieo oiiaao aeaeo?ieico;

· ?ic?iaea oai?i? ooai?aiiy ieineiai ca?iaeeo aaciai? aoeueaaoee i?e
aeaeo?ieici aiaee;

· aeineiaeaeaiiy oa oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy caeiiiii?iinoae ?inoo
aeaeo?ieioe/ii aaia?o?ieo aaciaeo aoeueaaoie;

· aeineiaeaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae oa?aeoa?enoee aaci-?iaeeiii? nenoaie, ui
ooai?th?ouecy, aiae aonoeie no?oio oa iioeo oaeoi?ia aaciaeaeieaiiy o
aeiaiaciii i?enei?aiiy aieueiiai iaaeiiiy aiae a=1 g aei a = 0,01-0,05g
oa 10-5 — 10-3g.

· aea/aiiy aieeao aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aeaeo?iaeo ia iiaaaeiieo
aaci?iaeeiii? aioeueni? o i?eaeaeo?iaeiiio oa?i oa a ia’?ii aeaeo?ieioo;

· aecia/aiiy oaeoi?ia, aieeaath/eo ia ianiia?aiin aei aaciaeaeieyth/iai
aeaeo?iaeo i noai?aiiy oai?i? iioaineoieaoei? ianiia?aiino i?e
aaciaeaeieaiii ia aeaeo?iaeao;

· ?ic?iaea aia?aoo?e aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioia a oiiaao
iaaaaiiinoi;

· aeineiaeaeaiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iniaeeainoae aeaeo?ieioe/iiai
aaciaeaeieaiiy a oiiaao iaaaaiiinoi.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe.

Aia?oa aeineiaeaeaii aieea a?aaioaoei? oa iea?aaioaoeieieo oaeoi?ia ia
i?ioeece aaciaeaeieaiiy ia aeaeo?iaeao aiae iiiaioo ooai?aiiy ca?iaeeo
aaciai? aoeueaaoee aei eiai aiaeaaaeaiiy oa ?ooo a ia’?ii aeaeo?ieioo.
Cai?iiiiiaaii oai?ith ooai?aiiy ieineiai ca?iaeeo aoeueaaoee, yea
aeicaiey? iiynieoe iiaeeeainoue eiai naiiiiaieueiiai aeieeiaiiy i?e
?aaeueii inioth/eo ia?ane/eiiyo i?eaeaeo?iaeiiai oa?o aeaeo?ieioo.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy aeeiaiiee ?inoo aoeueaaoie o aeiaiaciii aonoei no?oio
aiae 100 aei 100000 A/i2 aeyaeei aiiiaeueii aeniei oaeaeeinoi ?inoo ii
?aiio ia iienaiiio iaoaiicio. Ii?aoeueiaaio oai?ith anioeiaoeaiiai
?inoo, yea io?eiaea oi?ioa aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeoaa?aeaeeiiy. Aea/aiiy
caeiiiii?iinoae aiae?eao aoeueaaoie aiae aeaeo?iaeo a oiiaao ii?iaeueii?
a?aaioaoei? iieacaei iaaiaeiiaiaeiinoue ?icii?ia aoeueaaoie oi?ioei
O?iooea oa oai?i? cii/oaaiiy, ni?aaaaeeeai? aeey iioaioeiaeia
aeaeo?iaeo, aeecueeeo aei iioaioeiaeo ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo. Aeyaeaio
iaa?aaioaoeieiee iaoaiici aiaeaaaeaiiy aoeueaaoie, iaoiiaeaiee aieeaii
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey i?e aeaeo?ieici. Aia?oa ?ice?eoi i?e?iaeo oiioaiieo
aoaeoia.

Aeineiaeaeaio ianiia?aiin aei aaciaeaeieyth/iai aeaeo?iaeo i?e ?icieo
aaee/eiao i?e?iaeiuei? eiiaaeoei?. Aia?oa iaa?oioiaaio iaoaiici
ianiia?aiino aei aeaeo?iaeo i?e aeaeieaiii ia iueiio aaciaeo aoeueaaoie.
Ni?aaaaeeeainoue cai?iiiiiaaii? oai?i? iiaeoaa?aeaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueii
i?e ii?iaeuei?? a?aaioaoei? oa o iaaaaiiinoi.

Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeineiaeaeaiiy aaciaeaeieaiiy a oiiaao
aeeiaii/ii? iaaaaiiinoi ia eioath/eo eaai?aoi?iyo oa i?aioaeueii?
noaioei? «Ie?». Iieacaii oaeoi?e, yei aieeaathoue ia ?icii? oa
iiaaaeiieo a ?ic/eii aaciaeo aoeueaaoie, cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa?ie aeey
iienaiiy ?oiueiai ?ooo ca ?aooiie aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aeaeo?ieico.

Oai?eoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/eiinoue ?iaioe.

Cai?iiiiiaaii oai?i? iiyniththoue i?ioeane ooai?aiiy, ?inoo oa
aiaeaaaeaiiy aeao?ieioe/ii aaia?o?ieo aaciaeo aoeueaaoie, aeicaieythoue
i?iaiicoaaoe ciiio oaeaeeinoi ia?aiino ?a/iaeie o nenoaiao c
aaciaeaeieaiiyi, caaacia/othoue iiaeeeainoue eepoaaiiy iiaaaeiieith
aaaaoioacieo nenoai a oiiaao ii?iaeueii? a?aaioaoei? oa o iaaaaiiinoi.

?ac?iaeaii oa aei?iaoaaii aiieeaeo?ioiii/ii ?aaeoi?e aeey nenoai
aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy oa aeaeo?ieica?e aeey aaia?aoi?a ?iai/iai oiea.
Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei? aeei?enoai? ia ?EE «Aia?aiy» i?e iiaeaioiaoei
iaoo?ieo aenia?eiaioia oa aiaeici io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia, a oaeiae o EA
«Iiaaeaiia» i?e ?ic?iaoei aaia?aoi?a ?iai/iai oiea eiiieaenii?
aeaeaoiii? onoaiiaee i???ioaoe?? eini?/ieo aia?ao?a oa ei?aeoe?? ?oiuei?
i?a?oe.

Aeaia aeena?oaoeieia ?iaioa ocaaaeueith? ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue
aeaeo?ieioe/iiai aeaeieaiiy eenith oa aiaeith a oiiaao ii?iaeueii?
a?aaioaoei? oa o iaaaaiiinoi.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a.

Aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue iaoeiai iaea? oa ii?aoeueiaaii oai?i?, ui aeiinyoueny
aei caoenoo. I?iaaaeaiiy iniiaieo aenia?eiaioia, ?ic?iaea caoeua?ieo
iieiaeaiue oa oi?ioethaaiiy aeniiaeia aeeiiaii aaoi?ii iniaenoi.
?ic?aooiee aeeiaiiee ?inoo aoeueaaoie aeeiiaii e.o.i., n.i.n. Iaoa??aei
A.A. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo o niiaaaoi?noai, io?eiaii ca
o/anoth aaoi?a ia onio aoaiao. ?acoeueoaoe iaaiai?thaaeenue c iaoeiaei
eiinoeueoaioii ae.o.i., i?io. Enueiiaeaeii I.N. oa e.o.i. Na?aa?eonueeei
A.I. Aeniepeieioe ia eioath/eo eaai?aoi?iyo i?iaiaeeeenue iia?aoi?aie
Eenaeueiaei N.I., Ioey?iaei I.I. oa Oeoae??aei A.I. ?iaioa ia
i?aioaeueiie noaioei? «Ie?» caeienithaaeanue eueio/eeaie-einiiiaaoaie
A.ss.Nieiaeiaei oa I.I. Aaeaiaeiiei i?e iaceiiiio caaacia/aiii aaoi?a o
Oeaio?i Oi?aaeiiiy iieueioii. Iiaeaioiaea aenia?eiaioia ia noaioei?
«Ie?» i?iaiaeeeany i?e niia?iaioieoeoai c ae.o.i. Iieionueeei A.I. (?EE
«Aia?aiy»).

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?.

Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei? aeiiiaiaeaeeny ia 21 Iaoeiaiio /eoaii?,
i?enay/aieo ii?aoethaaiith oai?/i? niaaeueie E.A. Oe?ieeianueeiai,
Aaaa??inueeeo iaoeiaeo /eoaiiyo c aa?aoe?? oa einiiiaaoeee 1984 ?., 7
Ananithcii? eiioa?aioe?? c aeaeo?io?i??, 7 ?anioae?eainueei?
eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo-o?i?e?a, 4e oa 5e Oe?a?inueeeo
?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioeiyo c aeaeo?io?i??, 1o Oe?a?inueeiio
aeaeo?io?i?/iiio c’?cae?.

Ioaeieaoei?.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 31 ?iaioo, a oiio /ene? 20 noaoae o
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo aeo?iaeao (c ieo 4 — aac ni?aaaoi??a), 1 noaooy oa 10
oac o cai?ieeao i?aoeue Ananithcieo oa ?anioaeieainueeeo eiioa?aioeie.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoei?.

Aeena?oaoeiy aeeeaaeaia ia 341 noi?iieao i neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oonoe
aeaa, aeniiaeia oa aeiaeaoeia. Eiaeia aeaaa iinoeoue iaeyae eioa?aoo?e
(ioieoe 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 6.2) iinoaiiaee
caaea/i, iaoiaeeeo i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioia, iaaiai?aiiy io?eiaieo
?coeueoaoia oa aeniiaee. ?iaioa iethno?iaaia 111 iaethieaie oa iinoeoue
4 oaaeeoei. Nienie oeeoo?ii? eioa?aoo?e iaei/o? 374 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE.

I?IOeANE, ssEI IA CAEAAEAOUe AIAe AAEE*EIE A?AAIOAOeI?. OOAI?AIIss OA
?INO AACIAEO AOEUeAAOIE I?E AEAEO?IEICI AIAeE.

I?e aeaeo?ieici aiaee iniothoue i?ioeane, oaeaeeinoue oa iaoaiici yeeo
aecia/athoueny ia?aiinii ?a/iaeie ia iieaeoey?iiio ?iaii i ia caeaaeaoue
aiae aaee/eie a?aaioaoei?. Aei ieo aiaeiinyoueny ooai?aiiy ca?iaeeo oa
?ino aoeueaaoee i?e ?icii?ao inoioii iaioeo iiae aiae?eaii.

Ca inioth/eie oai?iyie aeey naiiaeiaieueiiai ooai?aiiy ca?iaeeo aaciai?
aoeueaaoee iaiaoiaeii, uia eiai ?icii?e aoee ia ?iaii iieaeoey?ieo. I?e
oeueiio oene o aoeueaaooei, iaoiiaeaiee iiaa?oiaaei iaoyaii oa ?aaeionii
eiai e?eaecie, ia o?e-/ioe?e ii?yaeee aieueoee, /ei aoiinoa?iee. Aeey
inioaaiiy oa ?inoo oaei? aoeueaaoee iaiaoiaeii, uia eiioeaio?aoeiy
?ic/eiaiiiai aaco oaeiae ia o?e-/ioe?e ii?yaeee ia?aaeuoaaea
eiioeaio?aoeith iane/eiiy. Ciaioaiith ?iaioe noai?aiiy ca?iaeeo,
iiaeaeuaiith eiai ?icii?ia oa cieaeaiith e?eoe/iiai ia?ane/aiiy iiaea
ni?eyoe aaoa?iaaiia oaciooai?aiiy ia iiaa?oii aeeeo?iaeo. I?ioa, ye
aiaecia/a?oueny o eioa?aoo?i, aeey aiae?ioieueieo iiaa?oiae (e?aeiai
eooe cii/oaaiiy aeecueei 20i) c inoeiiith ieiueiith, yea o 2 — 4 ?ace
ia?aaeuo? aaiiao?e/io, aieeaii aeaeo?iaeii? iiaa?oii ia oi?ioaaiiy
ca?iaeeo iiaeia cieaaaeeoe.

Aeey ia?aai?ee oa iaa?oiooaaiiy oai?i? noai?aiiy ca?iaeeo aaciai?
aoeueaaoee aoee iinoaaeaii aenia?eiaioe ii aecia/aiith ia?ane/aiiy
i?eaeaeo?iaeiiai oa?o 2I iao?o ?aeeiai eeniai oa aiaeiai o aeiaiaciii
aonoei no?oio aiae 100 aei 100000 A/i2. Ia?ane/aiiy ?ic?aoiaoaaeinue
aeaiia caniaaie: ii aaee/eii /ano cao?eiee iiae aeeth/aiiyi aeaeo?ieico
oa ii/aoeii ?inoo aoeueaaoie oa ii aeee/eii a?aie/iiai no?oio
aiaeiiaeaiiy ?ic/eiaiiai eenith ia aeeneiaiio iie?iaeaeo?iaei. Caiaeii c
io?eiaieie aeaieie, ia?ane/eiiy i?eaeaeo?iaeiiai oa?o eeniai i?e aonoeii
no?oio 100 A/i2 aei?iaith? 5 -10-e?aoiei aaee/eiai, a i?e aeaeieaiii
aiaeith — i?eaeecii 20-e?aoii?. I?e caieueoaiii aonoeie no?oio aei 10000
A/i2 aiii iiaeaeuo?oueny aei 80 — 100-e?aoii? aee/eie. Io?eiaii aeee/eie
ia?ane/eiiy aeecueei aei i?eaeaeaieo o eioe?aoo?i i ia aeaeieueea
ii?yaeeia iaioi iaiaoiaeieo aeey ooai?aiiy aoeueaaoie ca inioth/eie
oai?iyie. Oea aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i aiaenooiinoue aaeaeaaoii? oai?i?
ooai?aiiy ca?iaeeo aaciai? aoeueaaoee.

I?iiiio?oueny iaoaiici noai?aiiy ia aeaeo?iaeao ca?iaeeo aaciai?
aoeueaaoee /a?ac i?iiiaeio noaaeith ieineiai ca?iaeeo. Caiaeii oeueiai
iaoaiicio aaciaa aoeueaaoea a i?ioeani ?icaeoeo i?ioiaeeoue oaei aoaie:

· noai?aiiy ii/aoeiaiai ia?ane/eiiy, i?e yeiio iieaeoee ?ic/eiaiiai aaco
caeeaeathoueny aei iaaii? e?eoe/ii? aiaenoaii oa caieueoothoue caian
aia?ai? o ia?ane/aiiio oa?i;

· iinooiiaa aeoiniaiiy iieaeoe ?iaeeie c ia?ane/aiiai oa?o;

· ooai?aiiy ieinei? iiaa?oii ?icaeieo aac-?iaeeia o ia?ane/aiiio oa?i i
aeieeiaiiy ca?iaeeo;

· o?ainoi?iaoeiy ca?iaeeo o noa?e/iee oa ?ino aoeueaaoee.

Oei aoaie oa?aeoa?ii aeey ooai?aiiy aoaeue-yei? iiai? oace, aea aeey
ieineiai ca?iaeeo i?ioieathoue c aeayeeie iniaeeainoyie. A oiiaao
?iaiiii?iiai ?iciiaeieaiiy no?oio oi?io?oueny ieineee ia?ane/aiee oa? c
ciaiioiueith iaaeath, ia?aeaeueiith iiaa?oii aeaeo?iaeo. Eiee caian
aia?ai? iieaeoe ?ic/eiaiiai aaco ia?aaeuo? ?iaioo noai?aiiy iiaa?oii
?icaeieo oac, a iaaeao ia?ane/aiiai oa?o aeieea? ca?iaeie aaciai?
aoeueaaoee. Ineieueee oiiae aeieeiaiiy ca?iaeeo a onio oi/eao
ia?ane/aiiai oa?o iaeiaeiai, iiaeie aaco oa ?iaeeie ii/iaoueny
iaeii/anii i oi?ia aeieeath/iai ca?iaeeo aoaea aiaeiiaiaeaoe oi?ii
ia?ane/aiiai oa?o. Oaeei /eiii aeieea? ca?iaeie aaciai? aoeueaaoee.

Iaoaiici ?icaeieaiiy aaca oa ?iaeeie o ieineiio ca?iaeeo, ia iaoo
aeoieo, iia’ycyiee c aoaeiaith aiaee. Iieaeoee aiaee o ?iaeeiio noaii ca
?aooiie aiaeieaeo ca’yceia ii?aeiothoueny o oao?aaae?e aai aieueo
neeaaeii no?oeoo?e. Ia?e aiaee neeaaeathoueny, a iniiaiiio, c
iiiiiieeeoe. Aeey ia?aaaaeaiiy aiaee c ?iaeeiai noaio o ia?o iaiaoiaeii
c?oeioaaoe iaeii aaeiia?aoe oa ia?oeiaeaeaoe ooai?aiith iioeo. Oea
iiaeeeai caaaeyee ciaioaiith aia?ai? aiaeieaeo ca’yceia i?e caieueoaiii
aiaenoaii iiae aeeiieyie. Caieueoaiith aiaenoaii iiaeooue ni?eyoe
iaiiey?ii iieaeoee aaco, yei iaeiie/othoueny o i?eaeaeo?iaeiiio oa?i oa
caeiathoue iieiaeaiiy iiae ?iciiiiaiieie iiethnaie ?ooiieo aeeiieia
piaeeie. I?e oeueiio a ?iaeeii caieueoo?oueny eieueeinoue iiiiiieaeoe i
noai?ththoueny oiiae aiaeiai/ii aeey ie?aooieiaeaeaii? ia?e.
Eiiaeeinaoeiy ia?e ca iaaeaie i?ane/aiiai oa?o i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?icaeieaiiy aaco oa ?iaeeie. Oaeei /eiii, o i?iiiio?iie oai?i? ooai?aiiy
ca?iaeeo aoeueaaoee aiaeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie aeoeniaiiy iieaeoe ?iaeeie
ca iaaei ia?ane/aiiai oa?o. Iaaea ?icaeieo oac c aiaeiiaiaeiei
iiaa?oiaaei iaoyaii oi?io?oueny iinooiiai a i?ioeani ia?aiiuaiiy
iieaeoe. A oeueiio iieyaa? iaeia c aiaeiiiiinoae aiae iaoaiicio,
iienaiiai a eioa?aoo?i, caiaeii c yeei ooai?aiiy ca?iaeeo aoeueaaoee
aiaeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ia?aiino iieaeoe aaca a iie?ieaaa?io, yea
aeieea? a ?acoeueoaoi oaieiaiai ?ooo, /a?ac inioth/o a?aieoeth ?icaeieo
aac-?iaeeia.

A ?iaioi aecia/ai? aeayei ia?aiao?e aeieeath/iai ieineiai ca?iaeeo,
cie?aia, eiai oiaueia oa e?eoe/ia ia?ane/aiiy. Oiaueio ieineiai ca?iaeeo
iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe c aaee/eie aia?ai? noai?aiiy iiaa?oi? ?icaeieo oac.
sseui ia iiaenoaai «aei?i/ii?» oei?i? aiaee ?ic?aooaaoe eieueeinoue
iieaeoe ?ic/eiaiiai aaco, caian aia?ai? eio?eo aoaea aeinoaoiii aeey
ooai?aiiy iaaei ?icaeieo oac, oi oiaueia oeueiai oa?o aei?iaithaaoeia
6.10-8 i.

Aaee/eio ia?ane/aiiy, aeinoaoith aeey noai?aiiy ieineiai ca?iaeeo,
iiaeia aecia/eoe aeaiia caniaaie. Ia?oee aeieeaa? c ?iaiyiiy oeneo o
ieineiio ca?iaeeo i a aoiinoa?i (yeui ciaoooaaoe aeeyeei oeneii oa?o
aeaeo?ieioo). Aonoeie ?iciiuaiiy aaciaeo iieaeoe o ?iaeeii oa a
aoiinoa?i i?e oeueiio oaeiae iiaeiii aooe ?iaieie. Ia’?ie i?inoi?o, yee
i?eiaaeathoue ia iaeio aaciao iieaeoeo eenith oa aiaeith o ?iaeeii o
noaii iane/aiiy, aiiiaiaeii, aei?iaiththoue W(H2) =2.10-24 oa W(O2)
=1,2.10-24 i3. Ia’?i i?inoi?o, yeee i?eiaaea? ia iaeio iieaeoeo o
aoiinoa?i, noaiiaeoue 4.10-20 i3. Caiaene, eiioeaio?aoeith ?ic/eiaiiai
aaco aiae noaio iane/eiiy iaiaoiaeii caieueoeoe aeey aiaeith oa eenith o
N/No(I2) =50 oa N/No(I2) =30.

Ae?oaee cania aaco?oueny ia cai?iiiiiaaiiio iaoaiicii ?icaeieaiiy aaco
oa ?iaeeie. Aia?aiy aiaeiaaeo ca’yceia iiae iieaeoeaie aiaee yaey?
niaith aeeiieue-aeeiieueio aca?iiaeith, yea ciaioo?oueny iaa?iaii
i?iii?oeieii o?aoueiio nooiaith aiaenoaii iiae ieie. Aeey ciaioaiiy
aia?ai? aiaeiaaeo ca’yceia Gaeae=20 eAeae/iieue aei ?iaiy eiiaoe/ii?
aia?ai? iieaeoe o aaci (ia?i) RT, ?iaii? 2,5 eAeae/iieue i?e 293 E,
iaiaoiaeii caieueoeoe aiaenoaiue iiae iieaeoeaie aiaee o
i?eaeaeo?iaeiiio oa?i o aeaa ?ace, ui aeinyaa?oueny, eiee ia’?ie aaca oa
?iaeeie aei?iaiththoue iaeei iaeiiio. Aeoiaey/e c ?ic/eiiinoi eenith oa
aiaeith oa ?iaiinoi ia’?iia ?ic/eieiiai aaco oa aiaee, io?eio?ii
cia/aiiy ia?ane/aiiy N/Ni(I2) = 30 oa N/Ni(I2) = 50. Io?eiaii aeee/eie
ia?ane/aiiy aeinoaoiuei aeia?a niiaiaaeathoue c aenia?eiaioaeueii
aecia/eieie, ui naiae/eoue ia ei?enoue cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoaiicio.

Cai?oaiith ieineiai ca?iaeeo o noa?e/iee ni?ey? iayaiinoue ca?yaeo ia
iiaa?oii ?icaeieo oac oa aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aeaeo?ieico, aiae?inoaoe/iee
oene oa ?aaeueia ia?iaiiii?iinoue ?iciiaeieaiiy no?oio ii iiaa?oii
aeaeo?iaeo, a ?acoeueoaoi /iai ii?ooo?oueny ieiueiiinoue ia?ane/aiiai
oa?o. Iiaa?oiy ?icaeieo aac-?iaeeia ce?iaeth?oueny oa caieea?oueny ia
aeaeo?iae, ooai?thth/e iniiao aoeueaaoee, aeiaiao? yei? aei?iaith?:

wmetafile8? ??N??????????? ??????? ’???

????’??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
@???? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyyA????? ???&?
?MathType?????u—yY?????aea s — iiaa?oiaaee iaoya ?ic/eio ,

h — oiaueia ieineiai ca?iaeeo,

eeo — aeiaeaeo?e/ia i?iieeiinoue ?ic/eio,

Dj — ?icieoey iioaioeiaeia aeaeo?iaea oa a?aieoei aac-?iaeeia,

r — aonoeia ?iaeeie,

g — i?enei?aiiy neee oyaeiiiy,

h — aenioa oa?o ?iaeeie iaae ca?iaeeii.

Ineieueee e?eaecia aeieeath/i? iiaa?oii iaaaeeea, aoeueaaoea ii/eia?
iioaineaii c?onoaoe.

?ino ooai?aieo aoeueaaoie, ca inioth/eie o eioa?aoo?i aeaieie, iiaea
aooe iienaiee nooiaiaaei caeiiii c iieacieeii nooiaith 0,5 — 1, i?e
aeeoociiiiio oa eiiaoe/iiio eiio?iei oaeaeeinoi ?inoo aiaeiiaiaeii. Iaoi
aeineiaeaeaiiy aeeiaiiee ?inoo aoeueaaoie, i?iaaaeaii iaoiaeii
oaeaeeiniiai iie?ieiiiciiiaiiy, iieacaee, ui iieaciee nooiaith a caeiii
?inoo aoeueaaoie caeeaeeoue aiae aonoeie no?oio oa oace ?inoo aoeueaaoee
i iiaea ciiithaaoeny aiae 0,3 aei 2,5 — 3, ui ia iiynith?oueny
inioth/eie oai?iyie.

?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui aaee/eia iieacieea nooiaith, yea aei?iaith? 1/3,
aiaeiiaiaea? iaaeoiaeaeaiith aaca aei aoeueaaoee c iinoieii? ca
aaee/eiith aeieueieoei aeaeo?iaeo. Iieaciee nooiaith, yeee aei?iaith?
1,5, ?aaeico?oueny a oiiaao ienoaoeiiia?iinoi ii/aoeiai? oace ?inoo i?e
eiiaoe/iiio eiio?iei. Aieueo aeniei iieacieee nooiaith iiynieoe
ia?aianaiiyi /a?ac a?aieoeth ?icaeieo oac iaiiaeeeai. Aoei i?eiouaii, ui
a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia? iinoea ?ino i?e anioeiaoei? aoeueaaoie.

?icaeyiaii oiiae anioeiaoeaiiai ?inoo aoeueaaoie i?e ?oiie ?iaiiii?iie
uieueiie oiaeiaoei ia iiaa?oii aeaeo?iaeo i neio?iiiio ?inoi.
Iaei?inoioeie aaiiao?e/ieie oiao?aie, aiaeiiaiaeath/eie oeei oiiaai, ?
i?aaeeueii o?eeooieee, /ioe?eeooieee oa oanoeeooieee Anioeiaoeiy
aiaeaoaa?oueny i?e oi?eaiii aiaeiiaiaeii /ioe?ueio, i’yoe oa nueiie
aoeueaaoie oa ii/aoeo ?inoo iaeii? iiai? ia iinoei oeaio?aeueii?
aoeueaaoee. Iaeaieueo ai?iaiaeiith ? anioeiaoeiy iiiiiaeueii? eieueeinoi
— /ioe?ueio aoeueaaoie, c ooai?aiiyi iiai?, ?icii? yei? no?eaeii
caieueoo?oueny o 41/3= 1,59 ?ace. Ineieueee i?e anioeiaoei? ?icii?
aeieeath/i? aoeueaaoee iaioee iiae aiaenoaiue aei aeeaeiuei?
noniaeiuei?, iiney anioeiaoei? ii/eia?oueny ia?iiae ?inoo i?e
aeeoocieiiio aai eiiaoe/iiio eiio?iei aei iiaiai oi?eaiiy. Iiney oeueiai
oeeee iiaoi?th?oueny.

?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui iieaciee nooiaith o caeiii ?inoo aoeueaaoie ca
cai?iiiiiaaiei iaoaiiciii aeinyaa? 2,3 — 3 ia 1 — 3 oeeeeao anioeiaoei?
i i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue aiae /enea anioeithth/eo aoeueaaoie.

Eenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aai?ea caniaaie iie?ieiiiciiiaiiy iieacaea
iayaiinoue ianiai? anioeiaoei? aoeueaaoie i?e aeinoaoiuei aeeeeeo
aonoeiao no?oio, i?e eio?eo ?oii ?icii?e c?inoathoue i?eaeecii o 1,5
?ace. Oi?ioa niiaiaaeaiiy ?ic?aoiaaieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeii?eieo
aaee/ei naiae/eoue ia ei?enoue cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoaiicio.

INIAEEAINOI ?INOO OA AIAeAAAeAIIss AACIAI? OACE AIAe AEAEO?IAeO A
OIIAAO II?IAEUeII? A?AAIOAOeI?.

O oaia?ioiie /an aiaeiii i oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny niiaaiaeiioaiiy,
ye? anoaiiaeththoue ca’ycie iiae iiaa?oiaaei iaoyaii ?ic/eio, e?aeiaei
eooii cii/oaaiiy oa iioaioeiaeii aeaeo?iaeo i ?icii?aie aoeueaaoie, ui
aeaeieythoueny. Iiiiiaeueia cii/oaaiiinoue oa iaeneiaeueii ?icii?e
aoeueaaoie o iiiaio aiae?eao aiaeiiaiaeathoue cia/aiith iioaioeiaea
aeaeo?iaea, ui aei?iaith? iioaioeiaeo ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo. I?ioa,
caaaeoaaii niiaaiaeiioaiiy aoee aeni?eiaioaeueii ia?aai?eii oieueei aeey
aonoeie no?oio aeaeo?ieico aeecueei 1 A/i2. A oiiaao ?aaeueiiai
aeaeo?ieico neno?iaoe/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue ie i?iaiaeeeinue.

Iaie aoee ioeiiaii ?icii?e eeniaaeo oa aiaeiaaeo aoeueaaoie, yei
aeaeieyeenue ia iiei?iaaiiio iieaeaaiio aeaeo?iaei o ?ic/eii iao?o
?aeeiai eiioeaio?aoei?th 2 iieue/e. Aenia?eiaioe iieacaee, ui ?iciiaeie
aoeueaaoie ca ?icii?aie i?e eiaeiie aonoeii no?oio ia? aeae, aeecueeee
aei ?iciiaeieaiiy Aaonna. I?e aeaeieaiii eenith c aonoeiith no?oio 4000
A/i2 ia e?ea?e ?iciiaeieaiiy c’yae?oueny ae?oaee iie, ooai?aiee aieueo
e?oiieie aoeueaaoeaie, a i?e 5000 A/i2 — o?aoie, c aieueo ae?iaieo
aoeueaaoie. Ooai?aiiy e?oiieo aoeueaaoie iia’ycaii c anioeiaoei?th
aeaeieueeio aieueo ae?iaieo, a aiae?ea iaeaiueeeo aoeueaaoie
aiaeaoaa?oueny, iiaeeeai, ca ?aooiie iioieia ?ic/eio, aeieeath/eo i?e
anioeiaoei?. I?e aeaeieaiii aiaeith ianiai? anioeiaoei? ia
niinoa?iaaeinue i e?eai ?iciiaeieeiiy cae?iaaee aeae aaonniai a
iioa?aaei aonoeie no?oio aiae 100 aei 100000 A/i2.

Io?eiaia caeaaeiinoue na?aaeiio ?icii?ia aoeueaaoie aiae aonoeie no?oio
ia aiaeiiaiaea? oai?i? cii/oaaiiy. I?e c?inoaiii aonoei no?oio aiae 100
aei 5000-10000 A/i2 oa caieueoaiii aiaeoeeaiiy iioaioeiaea aeaeo?iaeo
aiae iioaioeiaeo ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo ?icii?e eeniaaeo oa aiaeiaaeo
aoeueaaoie caieueoothoueny (iae. 2).

Oea caieueoaiiy iiaeia iiynieoe ca aeiiiiiaith oai?i? ieineiai ca?iaeeo.
Caieueoaiiy aonoeie no?oio i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaeaeuaiiy oiaueie ieineiai
ca?iaeeo, yeee caieea?ony ia aieueoo ieiuo aeaeo?iaeo, ooai?thth/e
aieueoo iniiao c?inoath/i? aoeueaaoee. Ciaioaiiy ?icii?ia eeniaaeo
aoeueaaoie i?e iiaeaeueoiio iiaeaeuaiii aonoeie no?oio naiae/eoue i?i
aeieeiaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo aiae?eaieo nee iaa?aaioaoeieii? i?e?iaee. A oeeo
aenia?eiaioao aiaecia/eii iaa?aaioaoeieia aiaeaaaeaiiy aoeueaaoie aiae
aeaeo?iaeo ii?iaeueii aaeoi?o a?aaioaoei?.

Iioei aaaeeeaei ia?aiao?ii aaciaeaeieaiiy ? nooiiiue ae?aioaaiiy
aeaeo?iaeo aoeueaaoeaie. Nooiiiue ae?aioaaiiy ioeiithaaeanue
iacaeaaeieie caniaaie, iniiao yeeo noaiiaeee aaaiai, iiey?ecaoeieii oa
?ieinoii aeii?thaaiiy. O aaaiaiio iaoiaei nooiiiue ae?aioaaiiy
aecia/aeanue ii aaee/eii aeooiaooth/i? neee, aeith/i? ia eeaeo?iae ci
c?inoath/eie ia iueiio aaciaeie aoeueaaoeaie. O iiey?ecaoeieieo aeii?ao
i?e iinoieiiio iioaioeiaei aeii?thaaeenue no?oie, yei oaeee /a?ac
aeaeo?iae ci c?inoath/eie ia iueiio aoeueaaoeaie aai i?e cieaaiii oeeo
aoeueaaoie iioaineaieie iioieaie ?ic/eio. O ?ieiniiio iaoiaei nooiiiue
ae?aioaaiiy aecia/aeanue ii niiaaiaeiioaiith ?ieinoae aeaeo?iaeo aac
aoeueaaoie oa ci c?inoath/eie aoeueaaoeaie. Aenia?eiaioe iieacaee, ui a
iioa?aaei aonoei no?oio aiae 100 aei 100000 A/i2 nooiiiue ae?aioaaiiy
caieueoo?oueny aiae 0,05 — 0,1 aei 0,7. I?e oeueiio nooiiiue ae?aioaaiiy
i?e aonoeii no?oio 4000 A/i2 oeieeii caaeiaieueiy? oiiai oi?eaiiy i
anioeiaoei? aoeueaaoie. Aiaeic ?acoeueoaoia iieacaa oaeiae, ui i?e iaeeo
aonoeiao no?oio aeaeo?iaee ae?aiothoueny iniiaith aoeueaaoee, a i?e
aaeeeeo iaaeath ?iciianthaeaeaiiy no?oio ? eiei, aeecueea aei aeiaiao?o
aoeueaaoee.

Io?eiaii cia/aiiy nooiaith ae?aioaaiiy aeicaieythoue ?ic?aooaaoe
eieaeueii nooiaii ia?ane/aiiy o oeaio?ao ooai?aiiy aoeueaaoie. I?eeiyoi,
ui aeaeo?ieic i?ioiea? ia?aaaaeii o aeoeaieo oeaio?ao, /enei oa ieiua
yeeo i?iii?oeieii nooiaith ae?aioaaiiy. Aecia/aii aeey oeueiai aeiaaeeo
eieaeueii ia?ane/aiiy i?eaeaeo?iaeiiai oa?o aeaeo?ieioo o aeiaiaciii
aonoei no?oio aiae 100 aei 10000 A/i2 ciiiththoueny aiae 50 aei
200-e?aoii? aaee/eie aeey eenith oa aiae 80 aei 350-e?aoii? aeey
aiaeith. Oaeei /eiii, io?eiaii ia?ane/aiiy caaeiaieueiythoue oiiai
ooai?aiiy ieineiai ca?iaeeo.

IAA?AAIOAOeIEII IAOAIICIE AIAeAAAeAIIss AACIAEO AOEUeAAOIE. ?OO
AOEUeAAOIE A AEAEO?E*IEO IIEssO. OIIOAIII AOAEOE.

Aoaeiaa iaae? ?icaeieo oac aac-?iaeeia, a oaeiae ni?aoeiy ia ia? iiiia c
?ic/eio i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?yaeaeaiiy aaciaeo aoeueaaoie. O eioa?aoo?i
aiaecia/a?oueny, ui aeaeo?ieiiaoe/iee iioaioeiae aoeueaaoie aei?iaith?
iiion 80-100 iA, a iciaeaeo?e/ia oi/ea eaaeeoue o iaaeao ?I aiae 2 aei
4. Naia iayaiinoue ca?yaeo aoeueaaoee iaoiiaeth? aieea ia ia?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Aeineiaeaeaiiy ?ooo aeaeo?ieioe/ii aaia?o?ieo
aoeueaaoie a aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo i?iaiaeeeinue o ?ic/eiao iao?o ?aeeiai,
ni?/aii? eeneioe oa iao?iy noeueoaoo eiioeaio?aoei?th 0,001 — 1 iieue/e
ia oi?oeaaeo aeaeo?iaeao aeiaiao?ii 0,1, 0,5, 1 oa 3 ii. ?icaaaeaii
?ic/eie oa oi/eiai aeaeo?iaee aeicaieeee ?aaeicoaaoe iai?oaeeiinoue
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aei 107 A/i. Aenia?eiaioe iieacaee, ui a oeeo oiiaao
aaciai aoeueaaoee ?ooathoueny io?iaeueii iiaa?oii aeaeo?iaeo ia
aiaenoaiue aeaeieueeio naioeiao?ia. Oaeee ?oo io?eiaa iacao oiioaiiiai
aoaeoo. I?e oeueiio, ia?yaeo c ?ooii aoeueaaoie aiae aeaeo?iaeo, iaie
aia?oa aoa aeyaeaiee ?oo aoeueaaoie ca aeaeo?iae, yeee io?eiaa iacao
cai?ioiueiai oiioaio. ?oo a oiio /e iioiio iai?yieo caeaaeaa aiae
i?e?iaee aaco, ui aeaeieyany, neeaaeo aeaeo?ieioo, iai?oae ia y/aeoei,
oaiia?aoo?e oa iioeo ia?aiao?ia. Ciiiaiiy iaeiiai aai aeaeieueeio c ieo
i?eaiaeeei ia oieueee aei ciiie iioaineaiinoi, a e aei ciiie iai?yieo
?ooo aoeueaaoie. ssaeua ciiie iai?yieo oiioaio aiaecia/aii aeey
aeaeieaiiy aiaeith o eoci, eenith o eeneioi oa iaio aacia o iao?iy
noeueoaoo. Aoeueaaoee eenith, yei aeaeieyeenue o eoci, oa aiaeith o
eeneioi aeaaaee oieueee i?yiee oiioai.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ciaeo i aaee/eie ca?yaeo aoeueaaoie aoee i?iaaaeaii
aenia?eiaioe o /ioe?ueioaeaeo?iaei?e y/aeoei i?e iaeeaaeaiii
ciaiioiueiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Aenia?eiaioe iieacaee, ui ca?yae
aoeueaaoie, yeee aecia/a? iai?yi ?ooo a aeaeo?e/iiio iiei, caeaaeeoue
aiae aeaeo?iaeiiai i?ioeano oa neeaaeo aeaeo?ieioo. Eeniaai aoeueaaoee
ca?yaeaeothoueny ia?aaaaeii iiceoeaii, a aiaeiaai — iaaaoeaii. Aaee/eia
ca?yaeo caieueoo?oueny c ?inoii aonoeie no?oio i ciaioo?oueny o /ani
iiney aiae?eao aoeueaaoee aiae aeaeo?iaeo. Aonoeia ca?yaeo eieeaa?oueny
o iaaeao aiae 10-5 aei 10-4 Ee/i2. Iayaiinoue ca?yaeo ia aoeueaaoeao
iaaioue o eiioeaio?iaaieo ?ic/eiao oa ciiia eiai o /ani aeicaieythoue
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ie ia?ii ni?aao ia c eeane/iei
aeaeo?ioi?acii aoeueaaoie oa iioei iaoaiiciii ?oiueiai ca?yaeaeaiiy.
Ie?ii oiai, aoei iieacaii, ui i?e aeaeieaiii eenith o eoci iiaeeeai
iaaia iiaeeenethaaiiy, a i?e aeaeieaiii aiaei?iaea o eeneioi —
iiaeeoaeoaaiiy i?eaeaeo?iaeiiai oa?o aeaeo?ieioo. I?e oeueiio o aa?oei?
i o iniiae aoeueaaoee iiaeooue ni?aoaaoeny iiie I+ oa II- i?ioeeaaeieo
ciaeia i ia aoeueaaooei iiaea iiaeooeithaaoenue aeeiieue, aeaeo?e/ia
iiea yeiai niiaiaaea? ca iai?yieii c iieai aeaeo?iaea. A ?acoeueoaoi ia
aoeueaaoee ii/eia? aeiaeaoeiai aeiyoe aeeiieioi?aoe/ia aiaeoiaooth/a
neea i?iii?oeieia a?aaei?ioo iai?oaeaiinoe aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. ?ic?aooiee
iieacaee, ui aeaeo?inoaoe/ia neea iiaea aeinyaaoe ca aaee/eiith
a?oiiaaeiao, a aeeiieioi?aoe/ia — ia?aaeuoaaoe ?? ia aeaeieueea
ii?yaeeia. Oaeei /eiii, i?yiee oiioai aoeueaaoie iaoiiaeth?oueny ?oiii
iiii- aai aiiiey?iei ca?yaeaeaiiyi o i?eaeaeo?iaeiiio oa?i, a oaeiae
iai?oaeaiinoth oa a?aaei?ioii aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.

I?e/eiith cai?ioiueiai oiioaio ? iayaiinoue o ?ic/eii aeiiioie
eiei?aeieo /anoeiie, aieueoinoue yeeo yaey? niaith i?iaeoeoe aeuieo/aiiy
neea. Ciae ca?yaeo eiei?aeieo /anoeiie aecia/a?oueny ia oieueee
aoaeiaith iiaeaieiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o, a i aeeiieueiei iiiaioii, ui
iiaeooeith?oueny o iaiaeii?iaeiiio aeaeo?e/iiio iiei. I?e oeueiio
aeaeo?e/ie iiea aeeiieia i?i?ioiaaii a i?ioeeaaeiiio iai?yieo aiaeiinii
iiey aeaeo?ieico i eiei?aeii /anoeiee i?eoyaothoueny aei aeaeo?iaeo. A
i?ioeani ?ooo aiie ca ?aooiie a’yceino? oyaiooue ca niaith aeayeo
eieueeinoue ?iaeeie. Oi?eath/enue aeaeo?iaea aiie ?ic?yaeaeothoueny i
aiaeiinyoueny ca aeaeo?iae ?oc/eiii, yeee ?ooa?oueny ii iia?oei?. sseui
neea aiae?iaeeiaii/iiai oeneo iioieo ?iaeeie ia aoeueaaoee aieueoa ca
neeo aiaeooiaooaaiiy, oi?io?oueny cai?ioiie oiioai. ?ic?yae aeeiieae ia
aeaeo?iaeao i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy noaoiiiao?i? ooai?aiiy I+ oa II—
iiiia oa ciiiaiiy ?I ?ic/eio, ui aoei iiaeoaa?aeaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueii.

Aoei oaeiae iieacaii, ui ooo/ia aaaaeaiiy o ?ic/ei eiei?aeieo /anoeiie
?icii? i?e?iaee aai ?oi? aeae?eaiiy aeicaiey? ciiithaaoe iioaineaiinoue
oa iai?yiie ?ooo oeaeoo aoeueaaoie o ?ic/eii. Oea aea? iiaeeeainoue
iaa?aaioaoeieiiai ea?oaaiiy aaaaoioacieie nenoaiaie a oiiaao
iaaaaiiinoi.

IANIIA?AIIN AeI AACIAEAeIEssTH*IAI AEAEO?IAeO.

Aoaeue-yeee ?oo aoeueaaoie o i?eaeaeo?iaeiiio oa?i aeaeo?ieioo,
iacaeaaeii aiae i?e/ei, yei eiai aeeeeeathoue, i?eaiaeeoue aei ciiiaiiy
oaeaeeinoi ia?aiino ?a/iaeie aei aeaeo?iaeo i?e aeeoocieiiio eiio?iei
oaeaeeinoi i?ioeano. Oaeei /eiii, iioaineaiinoue ianiia?aiino iiaea
aeaoe ia’?eoeaio oa?aeoa?enoeeo oeueiai ?ooo.

Iioaineaiinoue ianiia?aiino aei aaciaeaeieyth/iai aeaeo?iaeo
o?aaeeoeieii oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aoaeoeaiith oiaueiith aeeoocieiiai oa?o,
a ia?inoianueeiio eiai oyaeaiii, yea aecia/a?oueny ii oaeaeeinoi
aeaeo?ioiii/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy iiaeeeaoi?ii? ?a/iaeie, ui aaiaeeoueny a
aeaeo?ieio. Aaaaea?oueny anoaiiaeaiei, ui ia oiaueio oeueiai oa?o
aieeaathoue i?e?iaea aaco, yeee aeaeiey?oueny, nooiiiue ae?aioaaiiy
aeaeo?iaeo, oaeaeeinoue ?ooo aaci?iaeeiieo iioieia oa aaaaoi iioeo
oaeoi?ia. Aeey iienaiiy ianiia?aiino cai?iiiiiaaia cia/ia eieueeinoue
iiaeaeae, ii/eiath/e aiae aiii?e/ieo ?iaiyiue nooiiiaaiai aai
eiaa?eoii/iiai aeaeo. A iioeo iiaeaeyo aaaaea?oueny, ui iioaineaiinoue
ianiia?aiino aecia/a?oueny ?ooii aaci?iaeeiieo iioieia acaeiaae
aeaeo?iaeo aai caiiuaiiyi aoeueaaoie ye? aiae?eaathoueny aiae
aeaeo?iaeii? iiaa?oii iiaeie ii?oeiyie aeaeo?ieioo c aeeaeie ?ic/eio,
aai iioieaie, iiioeieiaaieie c?inoath/eie ia aeaeo?iaei aoeueaaoeaie.
?ic?aooiie iiaeaeae aea? caaeiaieueiyth/? ?acoeueoaoe oieueee aeey
cacaeaeaaiaeue aecia/aieo oiia.

O cai?iiiiiaaiie ?iaioi iaie aoee ioeiiaii caeaaeiinoi oiaueie
aeeoocieiiai oa?o oa oaeaeeinoi ?ooo aaci?iaeeiieo iioieia aiae aonoeie
no?oio o aeiaiaciii aiae 100 aei 100000 A/i2. Io?eiaia caeaaeiinoue
oiaueie aeeoocieiiai oa?o aiae aonoeie no?oio neeaaeia (iae.3) i ia
iiaea aooe iiyniaia aeiaeiith c inioth/eo iiaeaeae.

I?e aeaeo?ieici c iaeeie aonoeiaie no?oio, aac aeaeieaiiy aaco ia
aeaeo?iaei, oiaueia aeeoocieiiai oa?o aiaeiiaiaea? ?iaiyiith Eaai/a aeey
i?e?iaeiuei? eiiaaeoei? i?e eaiiia?iiio ?oni ?iaeeie.

I?e aonoeiao no?oio aei 1000 A/i2 io?eiaii oiaueie o?ioe iaioi, iiae
?ic?aoiaaii ii oeueiio ?iaiyiith i ?icei ciaioothoueny, eiee aeiaiao?
aaia?iaaieo aoeueaaoie ia?aaeuo? oiaueio aeeoocieiiai oa?o, yeee
aecia/a?oueny i?e?iaeiueith eiiaaeoei?th.

Aiaeic iiaeeeaeo oaeoi?ia, yei aieeaathoue ia oiaueio aeeoocieiiai oa?o,
aeicaieea cai?iiiioaaoe oaeee iaoaiici ianiia?aiino. I?e iaeeo aonoeiao
no?oio ?icii?e aaciaeo aoeueaaoie cia/ii iaioi oiaueie aeeoocieiiai
oa?o, yeee aecia/a?oueny i?e?iaeiueith eiiaaeoei?th. I?e ?oni aoeueaaoee
ona?aaeeii oeueiai oa?o, aiia aeoeneo? i ?icnith? o iaaeieeoiueiio
aeaeo?ieioi ia’?i ?ic/eio, yeee aei?iaith? aeaniiio ia’?iiai aoeueaaoee.
A ?acoeueoaoi, iiney i?ioiaeaeaiiy aoeueaaoee oiaueia aeeoocieiiai oa?o
ciaioo?oueny oei aieueoa, /ei aieueoee ia’?i aoeueaaoee, ui ?ooa?oueny.

wmetafile8? ?????????????? ??????? ™???

????™??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? `A
??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay1/4y?  ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u?????????»????-?????fO???J? ???u??
???????»????-????R????*C???-?????*I???L?-???L
?-???L?1/2???u?th??????aea di, di — iiaa oa ii/aoeiaa oiaueie
aeeoocieiiai oa?o,

d — aeiaiao? aoeueaaoee,

wmetafile8? ??¦???????????? ??????? °???

????°??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
A???? ???????&??yyyy?????AyIyA? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th???????oo aoeueaaoie e?icue aeeoocieiee oa? i
aeoiae ca eiai iaaei i?eaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui aiie ”ioi/othoueny”
?ic/eiii, caaaaa/aiei aai caiaeiaiei ?ic?yaeaeoth/eieny iiiaie oa
aeiinyoue eiai o aeeaeio ?ic/eio. sseui ?icii?e aoeueaaoie i oiaueia
aeeoocieiiai oa?o ni?icii?ii, a oaeaeeinoue ?oiueiai ?inoo i?eaeecii
?iaii, oi ?ic/ei c aeeoocieiiai oa?o ioi/o? aoeueaaoeo i?eaeecii
?iaiiii?ii. sseui aeiaiao? aoeueaaoee i oaeaeeicoi ?? ?inoo cia/ii
aieueoi oiaueie e oaeaeeinoi ?inoo aeeoocieiiai oa?o, oi aoeueaaoea
aeiineoue ?ic/ei c aeeoocieiiai oa?o oieueee ia ei?iiaie /anoeii. Iiney
aeoiaeo aoeueaaoee ca iaaei aeeoocieiiai oa?o eiai oiaueia cia/ii
ciaioo?oueny:

wmetafile8? ??i??????????? ??????? ‹«???

????‹«??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
A ??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay?y`j ???&?
?MathType???????uaeya?????aea 4?2 — eiaoioei?io, caeaaeiee aiae
niiaaiaeiioaiiy ?icii?ia aoeueaaoie oa

oiaueie aeeoocieiiai oa?o.

Aieea i?epiaee aaco, yeee aeaeiey?oueny, ia ianiia?aiin aei
aaciaeaeieyth/iai aeaeo?iaeo iaoiiaeaii ?iciei ?ooii eeniaaeo oa
aiaeiaaeo aoeueaaoie a aeaeo?e/iiio iiei aeaeo?ieico. O eoaeieo ?ic/eiao
eeniaai aoeueaaoee i?aaiooue aiaeooiaoiooeny aiae aeaeo?iaeo, a aiaeiaai
— i?eooeeoeny aei iueiai. Oey aiaeiiia iiynith? ?iciee oiae e?eaeo
caeaaeiinoi oiaueie aeeoocieiiai oa?o aiae aonoeie no?oio i?e aeaeieaiii
eenith oa aiaeith.

I?e aeaeieaiii aiaeith o aeiaiaciii aonoei no?oio aiae 3000 aei 8000
A/i2 oiaueia aeeoocieiiai oa?o ?icei c?inoa?. Oea iia’ycaii ci ciiiith
aiae?iaeeiaii/iiai ?aaeeio iaoieaiiy aoeueaaoee c eaiiia?iiai ia
ia?eoiaeiee (aiae Re=0,5 aei Re=2), eiee ca aoeueaaoeith,yea ?ooa?oueny,
oi?io?oueny aeo?iaee neiae, yeee ?ic?eoeth? aeeoocieiee oa? i ciaioo?
a?aaei?io eiioeaio?aoei? a iueiio. Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy
oaeaeeinoi ia?aiino iane i caieueoaiiy oiaueie aeeoocieiiai oa?o, yea
caeaaeeoue oieueee aiae ?iciipia aoeueaaoie oa oaeaeeinoi ?oiueiai ?ooo
i ia caeaaeeoue aiae oiaueie aeeoocieiiai oa?o ia?aae aoeueaaoeith:

wmetafile8? ??*??????????? ??????? F????

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`???? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay!yA ???&? ?MathType??a?
???u?????????»????-?????=s???=g???Fm???*?
???u??
???????»????-????2????·a???-?????·i???,K???,
K???,U???=d???=@ ???u?th??????I?e iiaeaeueoiio
iiaeaeuaiii e?eoa?ith ?aeiieueaeno oiaueia ia?aiiuo?iiai oa?o i iioie
?a/iaeie aei aeaeo?iaeo aoaeooue caieueooaaoenue, ui iia’ycaii c
aeieeiaiiyi oo?aoeaioieo ioeuenaoeie, ni?yiiaaieo ii?iaeueii
aeaeo?iaeii? iiaa?oii. I?eaeaeo?iaeiee oa? aeaeo?ieioo, yeee
ia?aiineoueny c ?ooiieie aoeueaaoeaie, oi/a e caa?iaa? aeayeee a?aaei?io
eiioeaio?aoeie, ia?anoa? aooe aeeoocieiei. Iiaee aeeoocieiee oa?
oi?io?oueny aeeae/a aei iiaa?oii aeaeo?iaeo i oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/ii
iaioith oiaueiith, caeaaeiith aiae o?eaaeinoi ?inoo aoeueaaoie aai aiae
oaeaeeinoi ?oiueiai ?ooo.

?ic?aoiaaii ca oeei aeai?eoiii oiaueie aeeoocieiiai oa?o oaeiae
i?eaaaeaii ia iae.3. Aeia?a niiaiaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/aieo
aaee/ei c oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaieie aeaco? ia ni?aaaaeeeainoue aenoiooeo
i?eiouaiue.

AeINEIAeAEAIIss AACIAEAeIEAIIss A OIIAAO IAAAAIIINOI.

A oiiaao iaaaaiiinoi aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue ia eioath/eo
eaai?aoi?iyo i ia ai?oo i?aioaeueii? noaioei? «Ie?». ?iaaiue caeeoeiaeo
iie?ii?enei?aiue noaiiaea aiae 0.01-0.05 aei 10-3-10-5 g. A ?iaioi
aea/aeenue ?ino oa aiaeaaaeaiiy aoeueaaoie aiae aeaeo?iaeo, caeaaeiinoue
aaciiaiiaiaiiy i?eaeaeo?iaeiiai oa?o aeaeo?ieioa aiae aonoeie no?oio e
o?eaaeinoi aeaeo?ieico, ianiia?aiin aei aaciaeaeieyth/iai aeaeo?iaeo.

A aenia?eiaioao aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeaeo?ieicii y/aeee, yei neeaaeaeeny
c o?ueio i?inoi?ia: aeaeo?ieiciiai, iaeiie/oaaeueiiai oa naia?aoeieiiai.
Iaeiie/oaaeueiee i?inoi?, c’?aeiaiee c aeaeo?ieiciei, oyaeya niaith
neeueoii, yeee ?icoyaoaaany ii ii?i caieueoaiiy ia’?io aaci?iaeeiii?
noiioi. Naia?aoeieiee i?inoi?, aiaeaeieaiee aiae aeaeo?ieiciiai
nioeith-naia?aoi?ii, aeeipenoiaoaaany aeey aiaeaeieaiiy aiae aeaeo?ieioo
aaciaeo aoeueaaoie. Taea eiino?oeoeiy y/aeee aeicaieeea i?iaiaeeoe
o?eaaei aenia?eiaioe aac ciiiaiiy oeneo e aaciiaiiaiaiiy aeaeo?ieioo.

?ino oa aiaeaaaeaiiy aoeueaaoie aiae aeaeo?iaeo aea/aeenue iaoiaeii
iie?ieiiiciiiaiiy. Aoei iieacaii, ui i?e a~0,05 g ?iciiaeieaiiy
aoeueaaoie ca ?icii?aie iiae?aia oiiaai ii?iaeueii? a?aaioaoei?.
Na?aaeii ?icii?e aoeueaaoie i?e aonoeiao no?oio aiae 100 aei 1000 A/i2
aieueoi, iiae i?e ii?iaeueiie a?aaioaoei?, o aeiaiaciii aiae 5000 aei
10000 A/i2 — i?eaeecii ?iaii i i?e aieueo aenieeo — iaioi, iiae i?e
ii?iaeueiie a?aaioaoei? (iae. 1, e?eaa 2). I?e iiaeaeueoiio ciaioaiii
a?aaioaoei? ?icii?e aoeueaaoie ua aieueoa c?inoathoue i?e iaeeo aonoeiao
no?oio i ciaioothoueny i?e aaeeeeo (e?eaa 3), ui naiae/eoue i?i
inioaaiiy iiooaeiiai iaa?aaioaoeieiiai iaoaiicio aiaeaaaeaiiy
aoeueaaoie. Ia iiaenoaai aeaieo, i?eaaaeaieo o o?aoie aeaai oei??
?iaioe, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui aeiaeaoeiai aeith/a neea ia? aeaeo?e/io
i?e?iaeo. Aeey iiaeeeainoi ii?iaiyiiy oei?? neee c a?aaioaoeieieie oa
eaiiey?ieie neeaie aeioeieueiei aoaea aaaaeaiiy aac?icii?iiai e?eoa?iy
E, yeee aecia/a?oueny niiaaiaeiioaiiyi aeaeo?inoaoe/ii? neee F = QE oa
neee a’yceinoewmetafile8? ??/???????????? ??????? aae???

????aae??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
@@??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay»y?u ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??A??????????? ???????
a ???

????a ??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
@A??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay»y?u ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Aoei iieacaii, ui e?eoa?ie E ia?aaeuo?
e?eoa?ie A?oiiaaea aaea i?e aonoeiao no?oio aeecueei 2000 A/i2. Noia?ia
aeaiaaeaioia i?enei?aiiy nee, aeith/eo ia aoeueaaoee, iieacaii ia iae.
4.

C iaethiea aeaeii, ui i?e aonoeii no?oio 100 A/i2 aiii aeecueei aei oiio
caeeoeiaeo iie?ii?enei?aiue i caieueoo?oueny aei 3-4 g i?e 100000 A/i2.
Aoei oaeiae iieacaii, ui aeey aeaiiai aeiaaeeo ?aooith aeaeia eiiaaeoei?
iiaeia ciaoooaaoe.

I?e?ino iioaioeiaeo aeaeo?iaeo a oiiaao iaaaaiiinoi oa ciiiaiiy
aaciiaiiaiaiiy i?eaeaeo?iaeiiai oa?o oa ia’?io aeaeo?ieioo aea/aeinue ca
aeiiiiiaith aeieo eaiiey?ia Eoaaiia-Aaaa?a, c’?aeiaieo c 5 aeaeo?iaeaie
ii?iaiyiiy. Caieueoaiiy ?icii?ia aoeueaaoie, c?inoath/eo ia aeaeo?iaei,
oa ?oi? iaeiie/oaaiiy o i?eaeaeo?iaeiiio oa?i aeaeo?ieioo i?eaiaeyoue
aei i?aeaeuaiiiy iioaioe?aeo aeaeo?iaeo aiaeiinii cia/aiue, aeii?eieo o
caiieo oiiaao, oa ?inoo iaaeiiiy iai?oae a aeaeo?ieioi. Iieacaii, ui ca
ia?oi 1-5 naeoiae aeaeo?ieico iioaioeiae aeaeo?iaeo caieueoo?oueny ia
20-250 iA a caeaaeiinoi aiae aonoeie no?oio, iiney /iai caeeoa?oueny
i?aeoe/ii iaciiiiei. Iaaeiiiy iai?oae a aeaeo?ieioi caeaaeeoue ia
oieueee aiae aonoeie no?oio, aea e aiae aaaa?eoia aeaeo?iaeo oa /ano
aeaeo?ieico. Ca 20-30 n aeaeo?ieico aiii c?inoa? aei 1-2 A.

Ianiia?aiin aei aaciaeaeieyth/iai aeaeo?iaeo a oiiaao iaaaaiiinoi
ioeiithaaany ca iienaiith o aeaai 4 iaoiaeeeith. Aenia?eiaioe iieacaee,
ui e?eai caeaaeiinoi eiaoioei?ioia ianiia?aiino aiae aonoeie no?oio
iiaeia ?icaeoe ia aeai aeieueieoei — iieaoo, o aeiaiaciii aonoei no?oio
aiae 100 aei 5000-10000 A/i2, oa aiaeiinii e?ooy, i?e aieueo aenieeo
aonoeiao no?oio. A oeieiio eiaoioei?ioe ianiia?aiino iaioi, iiae o
caiieo oiiaao. ?ic?aooiie oiauei aeeoocieiiai i?eaeaeo?iaeiiai oa?o,
caeieniaiee ca iiaeaeeth, iienaiith o aeaai 4, aeaa aeia?a niiaiaaeaiiy
ci cia/aiiyie, io?eiaieie c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ui iiaeoaa?aeaeo?
ni?aaaaeeeainoue aenoiooeo iieiaeaiue.

Iaoaiici aiaeaaaeaiiy oa ?ooo aoeueaaoie o iaaaaiiinoi iiaeia oyaeoe
oaeei /eiii. I?e iaeeo aonoeiao no?oio i iaaaeeeeo iai?oaeeiinoyo
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aiaeaaaeaiiy aoeueaaoie aecia/a?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii,
iaeaiueeith aeooiaooth/ith neeith. Aoeueaaoee iaeiie/othoueny o
i?eaeaeo?iaeiiio oa?i, caieueooth/e eiai aaciiaiiaiaiiy oa
iai?oaeeiinoue aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Caieueoaiiy aonoeie no?oio i?eaiaeeoue
aei ua aieueoiai c?inoaiiy nee aeaeo?e/ii? i?e?iaee i aeo?niaiith
aoeueaaoie aiae aeaeo?iaeo o ciio iaioi? iai?oaeeiinoi iiey. Ciaioaiiy o
/ani ca?yaeo aoeueaaoie caaacia/o? oiiae aeey ?oiueiai oi?eaiiy oa
anioeiaoei? o oeeeoi, ui niinoa?iaa?oueny a eenia?eiaioi.

IIAEEEAI AAEOCI CANOINOAAIIss I?IOeANIA C AACIAEAeIEAIIssI.

Iaeaieueo ia?niaeoeaieie iai?yieaie aeei?enoaiiy a einiiiaaoeoei
i?ioeania c aaciaeaeieaiiyi ia aeaeo?iaeao ? nenoaie aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy
(NAEC) oa ai?oiai aia?aaoe/ii nenoaie. Iniaeeaee iioa?an i?eaa?oa?
?ic?iaeaiiy ?aaaia?aoeaieo aiieiaioaoii/ieo NAEC, yei caaacia/othoue ia
oieueee aiaeiiaeaiiy aoiinoa?e, a e aiaee, a oaeiae neioac oa?/iaeo
?a/iaei. Aei neeaaeo aiioaoii/ieo NAEC iiaeooue aoiaeeoe
aiaeaiueieenethth/i aaeoa?i?, caeaoii neioacoaaoe aiiiano ca ?aooiie
aia?ai? ieeneaiiy aiaeith eeniai. ?aeeiei aeaea?aeii aoaeaoeth a oeueiio
aeiaaeeo ? aoaeaeeneee aac. sseui io?eioaaoe eenaiue oa aiaeaiue
aeaeo?ieicii aiaee, oi ia iieue ca’ycaii? aaeoa?iyie aoaeaeeneioe
i?eoiaeeoueny iieue eenith, yeee aeaeiey?oueny i?e aeaeo?ieici i ia
niiaeeaa?oueny aaeoa?iyie. Oea aea? iiaeeeainoue caieeaiiy nenoaie ii
eenith. Io?eiaia aiiiana ia? iiaiioeiiiee aiiiieeneioiee neeaae i iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ye oa?/iaee aeiaeaoie.

Iaaeeeoeiaee eenaiue, yeee aeaeiey?oueny i?e aeaeo?ieici i ia
niiaeeaa?oueny aaeoa?iyie, aeioeieueii io?eioaaoe o aiaeie?aieaieo
aeiiiiiaeieo i?inoi?ao, aiaeaeieaieo aiae eoeueoo?aeueiiai ia’?io. Iaie
aoee ?ic?iaeai? oa aei?iaoaai? aeaeieueea eiino?oeoeie aeiiiiiaeieo
i?inoi??a c ii?enoeie oa nio/anoeie aeaeo?iaeaie. Iaeaieueo
oaoiieia?/ieie oa iaaeieieie aeyaeeenue iaiiaaeaiaioe, yei neeaaeaeenue
c nio/anoeo aeaeo?iaeia a uieueiiio eiioaeoi c iiiiiaiiiiith iaia?aiith.
Aeaeo?ieico iiaeaea?oueny ieiaea ?iaeeie ia iiaa?oii iaia?aie.
?icaeieaiiy aaco oa ?iaeeie caaacia/o?oueny eaiiey?ieie neeaie. ss/aeea
nioee i?e oeueiio a?a? ?ieue aaciai? ii?e, a ?ieue ?iaeeiii? — iaiine o
iinoei eiioaeoo nioee oa iaia?aie. Aei?iaoaaiiy ia eioath/ie eaai?aoi?i?
iiaeoaa?aeeee caa?iaaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiinoi oaei? eiino?oeoei? a oiiaao
ciiiaiiy a?aaioaoei? aiae 2g aei 0g.

Aeaeo?iaeii aocee iiaeiaii? eiino?oeoei? aoee caeeaaeaii i o
aeaeo?ieica? aeey io?eiaiiy eenith oa aiaeith, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ye
?iai/a oiei a eiiieaeniie aeaeaoiiie onoaiiaoei (EAeO) i?i?ioaoei? oa
ei?aeoei? i?aioe einii/iiai eioath/iai aia?aoa. ?aaeei aenieoaoaoei?
ia?niaeoeaiiai noiooieea ca’yceo iaoiiaea ia?aaaaeiinoue io?eiaiiy
eenith oa aiaeith aeaeo?ieicii aiaee aaciina?aaeiuei ia i?aioi. Oea
aecia/eei aei?noe? aeiiae aei aaaa?eoii-ianiaeo oa aia?aaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ae?iao. Aeaeo?ieica? c aiiiey?ieie aeaeo?iaeaie i
?icaeieaiiyi aeaeo?iaeieo i?inoi?ia iiiiiaiiiieie iaia?aiaie aeeiioaaany
o aeaeyaei /ioe?ueio aeie?a, yei oa?/oaaeenue aeaeo?ieioii ia?aeaeueii.
Oea aeicaieeei ?icei nei?ioeoe no?oie aeoieo oa ciaioeoe aaaa?eoe
aeaeo?ieica?a.

Aeaeo?ieioii a aeaeo?ieica?ao iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ieaio?oueny aei
aeei?enoaiiy 6I EII, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiiiiaeueiei aeaeo?e/iei
iii?ii . I?ioa, aenia?eiaioe iieacaee, ui o nenoaii “?iaeeee aeaeo?ieio
— oaa?aeee iieiia?iee aeaeo?ieio (iaia?aia IO-4NE) — ?iaeeee aeaeo?ieio”
iiiiiaeueiei iii?ii aieiaei? 3I ?ic/ei NaII, ui eiiai?ii iia’ycaii c
/anoeiaith aeaaiae?aoaoei?th iiiia i?e ia?aiini iiiia e?icue iaia?aio.
I?iaaaeaii ?ic?iaee oa aeineiaeaeaiiy aeicaieeee io?eiaoe
aaaa?eoii-aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee aaia?aoi?a ?iai/iai oiea (A?O) ia
?iaii e?aueo naioiaeo c?aceia.

?icaeyiooi oaeiae oaoiieia?/io noaio aeao?ieico, ?icaeieaiiy
aaci?iaeeiii? aioeueni?, inooee aacia e iiaeeeai eiino?oeoei? aeey
caeieniaiiy oeio iia?aoeie. Ia iiaenoaai ?iaio a eiino?oeoi?nueeiio
ath?i “Iiaaeaiia” aoa ?ic?iaeaiee aneiciee i?iaeo A?O EAeO noiooieea
ca’yceo.

ONIIAII AENIIAEE.

1. Aeineiaeaeaii oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii aieea a?aaioaoei? oa
iaa?aaioaoeieieo oaeoi?ia ia i?ioeane aeaeo?ieioe/iiai ooai?aiiy
eeniaaeo oa aiaeiaaeo aoeueaaoie, ?oiueiai ?inoo, aiaeaaaeaiiy aiae
aeaeo?iaeo oa ?ooo a ia’?ii aeaeo?ieioo.

2. Ii?aoeueiaaii oai?ith ooai?aiiy aoeueaaoee /a?ac noaaeith ieineiai
ca?iaeeo. Ia?ane/aiiy, aeinoaoi? aeey ooai?aiiy ieineiai ca?iaeeo,
neeaaea? 30-e?aoio aaee/eio aeey aeaeieaiiy eenith oa 50-e?aoio aeey
aeaeieaiiy aiaeith. O?ainoi?iaoeiy ieineiai ca?iaeeo o noa?e/iee
aiaeaoaa?oueny iiae aei?th iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao, aeaeo?e/ieo oa
a?aaioaoeieieo nee i caeaaeeoue aiae eieaeueiiai ?iciiaeieaiiy no?oio ia
iiaa?oii aeaeo?iaeo. Eieaeueii ia?ane/aiiy, ?ic?aoiaaii ia iiaenoaai
aenia?eiaioaeueii aeii?aieo iioaa?aeueieo aaee/ei, i?e aonoeii no?oio
100 A/i2 ia?aaeuothoue eiioeaio?aoeith iane/aiiy o i’yoaeanyo — noi
?acia, ui aeia?a aiaeiiaiaea? oai?i? ieineiai ca?iaeeo.

3. Aea/aii aeeiaiieo ?inoo aoeueaaoie eenith oa aiaeith i?e aonoeiao
no?oio aiae 100 aei 100000 A/i2. Iieacaii, ui e?eai ?inoo iiaeooue aooe
iienaii nooiaiaaei ?iaiyiiyi ci ciiiiei iieacieeii nooiaith, yeee
ciiith?oueny o aeiaiaciii aiae 3 aei 0,3 a caeaaeiinoi aiae aonoeie
no?oio oa oace ?inoo aoeueaaoee. Iieaciee nooiaith, ui aei?iaith? 0,5,
aiaeiiaiaea? aeeoocieiiio eiio?ieth ?inoo aoeueaaoie, 1 — eiiaoe/iiio.
Iieacieee nooiaith aieueoi 1,5, iiaeia iiynieoe anioeiaoei?th
aoeueaaoie. Caiaeii c cai?iiiiiaaiith oai?i?th anioeiaoeaiiai ?inoo
ia?aaaaeiith ? o?eeooia no?oeoo?a ?icoaooaaiiy aoeueaaoie ia iiaa?oii
aeaeo?iaeo, i?e yeie aca?iiaeithoue 4 aoeueaaoee. Iieaciee nooiaith o
caeiii ?inoo, aiaeiiaiaeii aei oei?? oai?i?, aeinyaa? 2,5, a ?icii?e
aoeueaaoie caieueoothoueny o 1,59 ?ace. Oai?iy anioeiaoeaiiai ?inoo
iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie iie?ioioiciiiaiiy, yei aeyaeee ianiao
anioeiaoeith aoeueaaoie, iiney yei? ?oii ?icii?e c?inoathoue o 1,51
?ace.

4. Aeineiaeaeaiiy iaoaiiciia aiaeaaaeaiiy aoeueaaoie aiae aeaeo?iaeii?
iiaa?oii o aeiaiaciii aonoei no?oio aiae 100 aei 100000 A/i2 iieacaei,
ui aiae?eaii ?icii?e aoeueaaoie a oiiaao ii?iaeueii? a?aaioaoei? ia
aiaeiiaiaeathoue oi?ioei O?iooea, iathoue oaiaeaioeith aei caieueoaiiy c
?inoii aonoeie no?oio i ia caeaaeaoue aiae aiaeoeeaiiy iioaioeiaea aiae
iioaioeiaeo ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo. Caieueoaiiy ?icii?ia aoeueaaoie c ?inoii
aonoeie no?oio iiaeia iiynieoe ia iiaenoaai oai?i? ieineiai ca?iaeeo. C
iiaeaeuaiiyi aonoeie no?oio ?icii?e ieineiai ca?iaeeo, yeee ooai?th?
iniiao i?ee?iiethaaiiy aoeueaaoee, caieueoothoueny. Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei
caieueoaiiy neee i?eeeiaiiy oa c?inoaiiy aiae?eaieo ?icii?ia aoeueaaoie.

5. O i?ioeani aenia?eiaioia aeyaeaii iaoaiici aiaeaaaeaiiy aaciaeo
aoeueaaoie aiae aeaeo?iaeii? iiaa?oii, ui ia caeaaeeoue aiae
a?oiiaaeiai? neee, i?e yeiio ia?aaaaeiee aieea iathoue neee aeaeo?e/ii?
i?e?iaee. Ca?yae aoeueaaoee aecia/a?oueny aeaeii aeaeo?iaeiiai i?ioeano
oa i?e?iaeith aeaeo?ieioo, a oaeiae iiey?ecaoei?th o iaiaeii?iaeiiio
aeaeo?e/iiio iiei. Aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ia oa aeeiieioi?aoe/ia neee i?e oeueiio
iiaeooue ia aeaeieueea ii?yaeeia ia?aaeuoaaoe a?oiiaaeiao neeo a
caeaaeiinoi aiae neeaaeo oa eiioeaio?aoei? aeaeo?ieioo, aonoeie no?oio
oa eiioiao?aoei? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.

6. Iai?yiie oa iioaineaiinoue oiioaiiiai ?ooo aoeueaaoie caeaaeeoue aiae
niiaaiaeiioaiiy oa aaee/ei aeaeo?e/ii? oa aeeiieioi?aoe/ii? nee
aiaeooiaooaaiiy aoeueaaoie aiae aeaeo?iaeo oa neee aiae?iaeeiaii/iiai
iii?o iioieo ?iaeeie, ni?yiiaaiiai aei aeaeo?iaeo, yeee iieaa?
aoeueaaoeo. Iioie ?iaeeie iiioeith?oueny ?ooii eiei?aeieo /anoeiie, yei
iiey?ecothoueny a aeaeo?e/iiio iiei i ?ic?yaeaeothoueny a iiiaio
oi?eaiiy aeaeo?iaeo.

7. Ianiia?aiin aei aaciaeaeieyth/iai aeaeo?iaeo iaei caeaaeeoue aiae
iioaineaiinoi i?e?iaeiuei? eiiaaeoei?. Aecia/io ?ieue aiaeia?a? ?oo
aoeueaaoie /a?ac aeeoocieiee oa?. Caaaeueiiaaiinoue iiaa?oii aoeueaaoie
iaoiiaeth? aiaenooiinoue eiacaiiy ?iaeeie ia iaaei ?icaeieo oac.
?ooath/enue e?icue aeeoocieiee oa? iiaeiaii aei oaa?aeeo oie, aoeueaaoee
“ioi/othoueny” ?ic/eiii i aeiinyoue eiai c aeeoocieiiai oa?o, ui ni?ey?
ciaioaiith eiai aoaeoeaii? oiaueie oa iiaeaeuaiith eiaoioei?ioia
ianiia?aiino.

8. Caeaaeiinoue eiaoioei?ioia ianiia?aiino aiae i?e?iaee aaco iia’ycaia
c ?iciei ca?yaeii eeniaaeo oa aiaeiaaeo aoeueaaoie, yeee aecia/a?
o?a?eoi?ith ?oiueiai ?ooo a aeaeo?e/iiio iiei aeaeo?ieico. ?acoeueoaoe
?ic?aooieia ianiia?aiino ca cai?iiiiiaaiith oai?i?th c o?aooaaiiyi
aeyaeaieo oaeoi?ia aeinoaoiuei aeecueei aei aecia/aieo aenia?eiaioaeueii
o oe?ieiio aeiaiaciii aonoei no?oio.

9. Aenia?eiaioe a oiiaao aeeiaii/ii? iaaaaiiinoi, i?iaaaeaii ia
eioath/eo eaai?aoi?iyo i ia i?aioaeueiie noaioei? “Ie?”, iieacaee, ui
i?e iaeeo aonoeiao no?oio aiaeaaaeaiiy aoeueaaoie aiae aeaeo?iaeo
caeienith?oueny ca ?aooiie aiaeooiaooth/i? neee, ui i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac
inioaaiiy oiio caeeoeiaeo iie?ii?enei?aiue. Ci caieueoaiiyi aonoeie
no?oio aei 500 — 5000 A/i2 ii/eiathoue i?iyaeyoeny iaa?aaioaoeieii neee
aiaeooiaooaaiiy aoeueaaoie, yei iathoue aeaeo?e/io i?e?iaeo. I?e
ciaioaiii aaee/eie caeeoeiaeo iie?ii?enei?aiue caieueoothoueny
aeaeo?e/ii neee aiaeooiaooaaiiy, i aiie i?iyaeythoueny i?e iaioeo
aonoeiao no?oio. Oea iaoiiaeaii caieueoaiiyi nooiaith ae?aioaaiiy
aeaeo?iaeo o iaaaaiiinoi oa iiaeaeuaiiyi iai?oaeaiinoi oa
ia?iaiiii?iinoi aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Aeaiaaeaioia aiae?eaia neea i?e
oeueiio c?inoa? aei aaee/ei, ye? o aeaeieueea ?acia ia?aaeuothoue
a?oiiaaeiao aeey oiia ii?iaeueii? a?aaioaoei?.

10. I?e aeaeo?ieici aiaee a oiiaao iaaaaiiinoi iioaioeiae aeaeo?iaeo,
iaaeiiiy iai?oae o i?eaeaeo?iaeiiio oa?i oa ia aeaeo?ioiii/iie y/aeoei
caieueoothoueny o ii?iaiyiii c aiaeiiaiaeieie cia/aiiyie, io?eiaieie i?e
ii?iaeueiie a?aaioaoei?. Oea iiynith?oueny caieueoaiiyi nooiaith
ae?aioaaiiy iiaa?oii aeaeo?iaeo aaciaeie aoeueaaoeaie oa iiaeaeuaiiyi
aaciiaiiaiaiiy i?eaeaeo?iaeiiai oa?o oa ia’?io aeaeo?ieioo. I?e?ino
iioaioeiaeo aeaeo?iaeo caeaaeeoue oieueee aiae aonoeie no?oio.
Aaciiaiiaiaiiy aeaeo?ieioo aecia/a?oueny ia oieueee aonoeiith no?oio,
aea e /anii aeaeo?ieico oa aaaa?eoaie aeaeo?iaeia.

11. Oaeaeeinoue ianiia?aiino aei aeaeo?iaeo o iaaaaiiinoi o oeieiio
ieae/a, iiae i?e ii?iaeuei?? a?aaioaoei?, iaeiae i?e aaeeeeo aonoeiao
no?oio (i?e aeecueeeo nooiiiyo ae?aioaaiiy aeaeo?iaeo) oey ?icieoey
aiaeiinii iaea. Ianiia?aiin aei aaciaeaeieyth/iai aeaeo?iaeo i a oiiaao
iaaaaiiinoi i o oiiaao iacaiiiai oyaeiiiy aecia/a?oueny iaeieie i oeie
ae oaeoi?aie: oiaueia aeeoocieiiai oa?o ciaioo?oueny ca ?aooiie
aeianaiiy ia iiaa?oii aaciaeo aoeueaaoie ?ic/eio, caiaeiaiiai (aai
caaaa/aiiai) ?a/iaeiith, ui ?ic?yaeaeo?oueny. ?ic?aooiie ianiia?aiino ca
iiaeaeeth, ii?aoeueiaaiith aeey oiia ii?iaeueii? a?aaioaoei?, aea?
?acoeueoaoe, aeia?a niiaiaaeath/i c aenia?eiaioaeueii aeii?aieie i?e a=
0,01 — 0,05g. Oea oaeiae naiae/eoue ia ei?enoue aenoiooeo o oai?i?
ianiia?aiino i?eiouaiue.

12. ?icaeyiooi iiaeeeainoue aeei?enoaiiy i?ioeania aeaeo?ieico aiaee a
aaiaeinii/i?e oaoiioei. ?ic?iaeaii ie?aii i?eno?i? aeey ?aaaia?aoeaieo
nenoai aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy oa aaia?aoi?a ?iai/iai oiea aeaeaoiii?
onoaiiaee noiooieea Caiei. I?iaaaeaii o iaaaaiiinoi aei?iaoaaiiy
iiaeoaa?aeeee aeioe?euei?noue oaoii/ieo ?ioaiue, yei iieeaaeai? a iniiao
?ic?iaie.

Iniiaiee ciino aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaai o ?iaioao:

1. Eco/aiea aaciiaiieiaiey i?eyeaeo?iaeiiai neiy yeaeo?ieeoa i?e
auaeaeaiee eenei?iaea/A.A.Iaoaaeia, A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.N.Enaiaeae,
A.E.Ae?uaaeia //Yeaeo?ioeiey.- 1987.- o.23, aui.5. -C.705-706

2. Noaoenoeea ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?acia?ia iocu?ueeia eenei?iaea i?e
yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu/A.A. Iaoaaeia, A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.A.Iaeaia?/oe,
I.N.Enaiaeae //Yeaeo?ioeiey.- 1987. — o.23, aui.7. -C.923-927.

3. Iaoaaeia A.A., Na?aa?eoneee A.I., Enaiaeae I.N. Ioeaiea ianniia?aiina
e aaciauaeaeythuaio yeaeo?iaeo//Yeaeo?ioeiey. — 1987. -o.23, aui.10. —
C.1382-1386.

4. Iaoaaeia A.A., Na?aa?eoneee A.I., Ae?icaeiaa E.A.I iaoaiecia ?inoa e
ioaiaea iocu?ueeia aiaei?iaea i?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu//Aii?inu oeiee e
oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee.- 1989. — aui. 89. — N.14-18

5. Iniaaiiinoe yeaeo?ieeoe/aneiai auaeaeaiey eenei?iaea a oneiaeyo
iaaaniiinoe. 1. Iee?ioioinoaoenoe/aneay ioeaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iocu?ueeia ii ?acia?ai/A.A.Iaoaaeia, A.I.Na?aa?eoneee,I.N.Enaiaeae,
A.I.Ieeeoneee, I.A.Ioey?ia, A.I.Oeoaeaaa//Yeaeo?ioeiey. -1989. — o.25,
aui.8. — N.1076-1079.

6. Iniaaiiinoe yeaeo?ieeoe/aneiai auaeaeaiey eenei?iaea a oneiaeyo
iaaaniiinoe. 2. Ioeaiea aaciiaiieiaiey yeaeo?ieeoa/A.A.Iaoaaeia,
A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.N.Enaiaeae, A.I.Ieeeoneee, I.A.Ioey?ia,
A.I.Oeoaeaaa//Yeaeo?ioeiey.- 1989.- o.25, aui.8.-N.1080-1085.

7. Iniaaiiinoe yeaeo?ieeoe/aneiai auaeaeaiey eenei?iaea a oneiaeyo
iaaaniiinoe. 3. Ianniia?aiin e yeaeo?iaeo/A.A.Iaoaaeia,
A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.N.Enaiaeae, A.I.Ieeeoneee, I.A.Ioey?ia, A.I.Oeoaeaaa
//Yeaeo?ioeiey. — 1989. -o.25, aui..-N.1251-1252.

8. Iniaaiiinoe yeaeo?ieeoe/aneiai auaeaeaiey aiaei?iaea a oneiaeyo
?acee/iie a?aaeoaoeee. Aeeiaie/aneee iaoaieci ioaiaea aaciauo iocu?ueeia
/A.A.Iaoaaeia, A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.N.Enaiaeae, A.I.Ieeeoneee,
I.A.Ioey?ia, A.I.Oeoaeaaa//Yeaeo?ioeiey. -1989. — o.25, aui.- N.
1253-1255.

9. Iniaaiiinoe yeaeo?ieeoe/aneiai auaeaeaiey aiaei?iaea a oneiaeyo
?acee/iie a?aaeoaoeee. /A.A.Iaoaaeia, A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.N.Enaiaeae,
A.I.Ieeeoneee I.A.Ioey?ia, A.I.Oeoaeaaa
//Yeaeo?ioeiey.-1990.-o.26,aui.2.-N.222-227.

10. Aeeiaieea ?inoa iocu?ueeia i?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu/A.A.Iaoaaeia
A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, A.A.Iaoaaaa, I.N.Enaiaeae, O.TH.*eeieueaa //
Yeaeo?ioeiey. — 1991. — o.27, aui.4. — C.490-495.

11. Ioeaiea ia?anuuaiey i?eyeaeo?iaeiiai neiy yeaeo?ieeoa /
A.A.Iaoaaeia, A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, A.A.Iaoaaaa,I.N.Enaiaeae//Yeaeo?ioeiey.-
1991.- o.27, aui.12. — C.1625-1628.

12. Ioeaiea noaiaie ye?aie?iaaiey yeaeo?iaea aaciauie iocu?ueeaie / A.A.
Iaoaaeia, A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.N.Enaiaeae,
TH.A.Iaaai/aiia,E.A.Eeeeaiee//Yeaeo?ioeiey.-1993.-o.29,
aui.4.-C.534-536.

13. Iaoaaeia A.A. I iaoaiecia ia?aciaaiey ca?iaeuoa aaciaiai iocu?ueea
i?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu//Yeaeo?ioeiey.- 1994.- o.30, aui.11. —
C.1378-1380.

14. Iaoaaeia A.A., Iaoaaaa A.A. Annioeeaoeey aaciauo iocu?ueeia i?e
yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu//Yeaeo?ioeiey.- 1994.- o.30, aui.11.- C.1381-1385.

15. Aaciauaeaeaiea e iiaaaeaiea aaciaie oacu i?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu a
oneiaeyo iaaaniiinoe/A.A.Iaoaaeia, A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.N. Enaiaeae,
A.I.Ieeeoneee, I.A.Ai/a?iaa, A.I.Aaeaiaeei, A.ss.Nieiaueaa
//Yeaeo?ioeiey.-1994.- o.30 ,aui. 11.- N.1345-1349.

16. Iaoaaeia A.A. Eeiaoeea ia?aciaaiey ca?iaeuoa aaciaiai iocu?ueea
//Yeaeo?ioeiey.-1997.- o.33 ,aui.7.- N.814-817.

17. Iaoaaeia A.A. Ianniia?aiin e aaciauaeaeythuaio yeaeo?iaeo //
Yeaeo?ioeiey.-1998.- o.34 ,aui.1.- N.31-36.

18. Iaoaaeia A.A. Ianniia?aiin e aaciauaeaeythuaio yeaeo?iaeo a oneiaeyo
iaaaniiinoe//Yeaeo?ioeiey.-1998.- o.34 ,aui.1.- N.37-46.

19. Iaoaaeia A.A., I.A.Caiic, A.A.Ai?uaiei. Aaciauaeaeaiea i?e aieueoeo
iai?yaeaiiinoyo yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey. Ia?aoiue oiioai //
Yeaeo?ioeiey.-1998.- o.34 ,aui.1.- N.111-115.

20. Iaoaaeia A.A., Ianeaaeieeia A.A., Na?aa?eoneee A.I. E oneiaeyi
io?uaa iocu?ueea io yeaeo?iaeiie iiaa?oiinoe//Aii?inu oeiee e oeie/aneie
oaoiieiaee.-1998.-N1.-N.29-33.

21. Iniaaiiinoe iaoaiecia aaciauaeaeaiey i?e yeaeo?ieeoe/aneii
?aceiaeaiee aiaeu a oneiaeyo iaaaniiinoe/A.A. Iaoaaeia, I.N.Enaiaeae,
A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.A.Iaeaia?/oe A.I.Ieeeoneee, A.A.AEoeia / Aaaa?eineea
iao/iua /oaiey ii einiiiaaoeea e
aaeaoeee.-I.:Iaoea.-1983,1984.-N.243-244.

22. Iniaaiiinoe yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu a iaaaniiinoe/A.A.Iaoaaeia,
A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.N.Enaiaeae, A.I.Ieeeoneee I.A.Ioey?ia, A.I.Oeoaeaaa/
O?oaeu 20 — 21 *oaiee, iinayuaiiuo ?ac?aaioea iao/iiai ianeaaeey e
?acaeoeth eaeae E.Y.Oeeieeianeiai.-Iineaa:1987.- N.106-112.

23. Iniaaiiinoe yeaeo?ieeoe/aneiai auaeaeaiey aiaei?iaea e eenei?iaea a
oneiaeyo iaaaniiinoe/A.A.Iaoaaeia, A.I.Na?aa?eoneee, I.N.Enaiaeae,
A.A.Iaoaaaa A.I.Ieeeoneee/Oacenu aeieeaaeia 7 Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee
ii yeaeo?ioeiee. 10-14 ieo.1988. *a?iiaoeu.- 1988.- o.3.-N.13-14.

24. Iaoaaeia A.A., Na?aa?eoneee A.I. Aeae?iaeeiaie/aneee iaoaieci
ioaiaea aaciauo iocu?ueeia i?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu/4 Oe?aeineay
?anioaeeeaineay eiio. ii yeaeo?ioeiee. — Eeaa: Iaoeiaa Aeoiea.- 1984.-
N.104.

25. Iaoaaeia A.A., Na?aa?eoneee A.I., Enaiaeae I.N. Ianniia?aiin e
aaciauaeaeythuaio yeaeo?iaeo/5 Oe?aeineay ?ani. eiio. ii yeaeo?ioeiee.
Oaeai?iae.1990.- o.1..-1990.- N.60-61.

26. Iaoaaeia A.A. Eeiaoeea ia?aciaaiey ca?iaeuoa aaciaiai iocu?ueea/A
na. 1 Oe?aiinueeee aeaeo?ioiii/iee c`icae. Ioua-Aiaeeoey 15-17 o?aaiy
1995.-Eeia.-1995.-N.152.

27. Iaoaaeia A.A., Na?aa?eoneee A.I. Yeaeo?ieec aiaeu i?e aieueoeo
iai?yaeaiiinoyo yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey/ A na. 1 Oe?aiinueeee
aeaeo?ioiii/iee c`icae. Ioua-Aiaeeoey 15-17 o?aaiy
1995.-Eeia.-1995.-N.153.

28. Iaoaaeia A.A., Na?aa?eoneee A.I., Enaiaeae I.N. Iniaaiiinoe
yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu a oneiaeyo ?aaeueiiai einie/aneiai iieaoa/ A na. 1
Oe?aiinueeee aeaeo?ioiii/iee c`icae. Ioua-Aiaeeoey 15-17 o?aaiy
1995.-Eeia.-1995.-N.154.

29. Yeaeo?ioeie/aneea nenoaiu a aeueoa?iaoeaiie yia?aaoeea/I.Ae.Eioaeue,
A.A.Cau/aeiue, A.A.Iaoaaeia, A.I.Na?aa?eoneee/A na. 1 Oe?aiinueeee
aeaeo?ioiii/iee c`icae. Ioua-Aiaeeoey 15-17 o?aaiy
1995.-Eeia.-1995.-N.109.

30. Iaoaaeia A.A., Ae?icaeiaa E.A. Aeeiaie/aneee iaoaieci ioaiaea
iocu?ueeia i?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeu/Oacenu aeieeaaeia 7 ?anioaeeeaineie
eiio. iieiaeuo o/aiuo-oeieeia. /.2. Oaeeei.- 1987.- N.125-126.

31. Iaoaaeia A.A., Iaaai/aiia TH.A. Eco/aiea noaiaie ye?aie?iaaiey
iiaa?oiinoe yeaeo?iaea aaciauie iocu?ueeaie i?e yeaeo?ieeca
aiaeu/I?iaeaiu oai?aoe/aneie e yenia?eiaioaeueiie oeiee. Oac. aeiee. 3
Ana?in. iao/i. eiio. 22-23 ai?. 1993.-Aeaoa?eiao?a.-1993.- N.27.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?ie?c aiaee, aaciaeae?eaiiy, eenaiue, aiaeaiue,
aoeueaaoee, ia?aiin iane, iaaaaiiinoue

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?ieec aiaeu, aaciauaeaeaiea, eenei?iae, aiaei?iae,
iocu?ueee, ianniia?aiin, iaaaniiinoue

Key words: water electrolysis, gas evolution, oxygen, hydrogen, bubbles,
mass transfer, weightlessness

Caoeua?oueny 31 iaoeiaa ?iaioa, ye? iinoyoue ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy
aieeao a?aaioaoei? oa aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aeaeo?iaeia ia iaoaiicie
ooai?aiiy, ?inoo i aiaeaaaeaiiy aeaeo?ioiii/ii aaia?o?ieo aaciaeo
aoeueaaoie oa ia?aiino iane a aeaeo?ioiii/ieo nenoaiao c
aaciaeaeieaiiyi. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue i?e ii?iaeueiie a?aaioaoei?
oa o iaaaaiiinoi i?e aaee/eii caeeoeiaeo iie?ii?enei?aiue aiae 0,01-0,05
aei 10-5-10-3g. Cai?iiiiiaaii oai?ith ooai?aiiy ieineiai ca?iaeeo
aaciai? aoeueaaoee, oai?ith anioeiaoeaiiai ?inoo e aea/aii iaoaiicie
aiaeaaaeaiiy aoeueaaoie iiae aei?th iieia ianiaeo nee oa aeaeo?e/iiai
iiey aeaeo?ieico. Ii?aoeueiaaii oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue ianiia?aiino aei
aaciaeaeieyth/iai aeaeo?iaeo. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeineiaeaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae iiaaaeiiee eeniaaeo oa aiaeiaaeo aoeueaaoie a oiiaao
aeeiaii/ii? iaaaaiiinoe i ia ai?oo i?aioaeueii? noaioei? “Ie?”.
?icaeyiooi iiaeeeai aaeoci canoinoaaiiy io?eiaieo aeaieo.

Caueuaaony 31 iao/iay ?aaioa, niaea?aeauea ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey
aeeyiey a?aaeoaoeee e yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey yeaeo?iaeia ia iaoaieciu
ia?aciaaiey, ?inoa e ioaiaea io yeaeo?iaea yeaeo?ieeoe/anee aaia?e?oaiuo
aaciauo iocu?ueeia e ia?aiina iannu a yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo nenoaiao n
aaciauaeaeaieai. Yenia?eiaiou i?iaiaeeeenue i?e ii?iaeueiie a?aaeoaoeee
e a iaaaniiinoe i?e aaee/eia inoaoi/iuo iee?ionei?aiee io 0,01-0,05 aei
10-5-10-3g. I?aaeeiaeaia oai?ey ia?aciaaiey ieineiai ca?iaeuoa aaciaiai
iocu?ueea, oai?ey annioeeaoeaiiai ?inoa e eco/aiu iaoaieciu ioaiaea
iocu?ueeia iiae aeaenoaeai iieae ianniauo nee e yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey
yeaeo?ieeca. ?ac?aaioaia oai?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue ianniia?aiina e
aaciauaeaeythuaio yeaeo?iaeo. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniia enneaaeiaaiea
iniaaiiinoae iiaaaeaiey eenei?iaeiuo e aiaei?iaeiuo iocu?ueeia a
oneiaeyo aeeiaie/aneie iaaaniiinoe ia eaoathueo eaai?aoi?eyo e ai?oo
i?aeoaeueiie noaioeee «Ie?». ?anniio?aiu aiciiaeiua iaeanoe i?eiaiaiiey
iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo.

31 scientific works which contain results of ivestigations influens
gravity and electric field of electrodes on mechanisms gas bubbles
formation, growth and drow from electrodes, and mass transfer in
electrochemical systems with gas evolution are defend. Experiments have
been carried out at normal gravity and wheightlessness. Values of
microacceleration were from 0.01-0.05 till 10-5- 10-3g. Theories of
formation flat germ of gas bubbles and their associetion growth were
proposed, mechanism gas bubble drow from electrode under mass power
field and electric field was investigated. Theory of mass transfer at
gas evolving electrodes was proposed. It were complex investigation of
peculiarity oxygen and hydrogen bubbles behaviour at dynamic
wheightlessness on flying laboratory and space station «Mir».

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