.

Електрична несталість в металах та гетероструктурах нормальний метал – надпровідник: Автореф. дис… д-ра фіз.-мат. наук / А.М. Кадигробов, НАН Україн

Язык: украинский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 3264
Скачать документ

2

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i. A. ?. A??e?ia.

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

EAAeEA?IAIA Aiaoie?e Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 539.292, 537.312.62

AEAEO?E*IA IANOAE?NOUe A IAOAEAO OA

AAOA?INO?OEOO?AO II?IAEUeIEE IAOAE –

IAAeI?IA?AeIEE

01.04.02 – oai?aoe/ia o?ceea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a O?ceei – oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i.
A. ?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

/e.-ei?. IAIO, aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe,
i?ioani?

Ne?cia A?oae?e Aaeaioeiiae/

(Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaoeiaee oeaio?
“Oa?e?anueeee

O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, ia/aeueiee
a?aeae?eo).

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaoeee Aaneeue Aeieo?iae/

(O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?

?i. A. ?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii).

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe

ssiiieueneee Aaea??e Ieaenaiae?iae/

(?inoeooo ?aae?io?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, o?ce/iee
oaeoeueoao, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 9 “ eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.175.02 i?e
O?ceei-oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i. A. ? . A??e?ia IAI
Oe?a?ie a i?e-i?uaii? ?inoeoooo ca aae?anith: 310164, Oa?e?a, i?iniaeo
Eai?ia, 47.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? OO?IO

?i. A. ?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie, 310164, Oa?uee?a, i?. Eai?ia 47.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 7 “ aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe
I. N. Eiaaeueia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ssaeua aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiaiii? ? aaoieiee-aaeueii?
ianoaeinoae oe?iei ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii o iai?ai?ia?ae-ieeao
(aeiiaie Aaiia, aaoieieeaaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ? no?oio [1]) ?
iaaei?ia?aeieeao (?acenoeai? aeiiaie, aaoieieeaaiiy no?oio, oaiia?aoo?e,
ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo [2]). ?ioa?an aei oeueiai yaeua iiyn-ith?oueny oei,
ui aeaeo?e/ia ianoae?noue, yea aeieea? o c?aceao c a?ae’?iiith
aeeoa?aioe?eiith i?ia?aei?noth, aea? i?inoee ? aoaeoeaiee niin?a
aaia?aoe?? ? i?aeneeaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oieo eieeaaiue (iai?eeeaae,
aeiiaiia ianoae?noue o a?nai?ae? aae?th ? aeayeeo ?ioeo
iai?ai?ia?aeie-eiaeo iaoa??aeao – “aoaeo Aaiia”) aeicaiey? io?eiaoe
/anoioe eiee-aaiue aei 102 Aaoe ? ?iioeueni? iiooaeiino? aei 3,1 eAo ia
/anoio? 1,5 Aaoe i?e eeae 9,5%), noaa?e?caoe?? no?oio aai iai?oae,
noai?thaaiiy aeaiaio?a iai’yo? ? oae aeae?, ? oiio ia? aaeeea i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

O oie aea /an aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiaiii? ? aaoieieeaaeueii? ianoa-einoae
i?aaenoaaey? aaeeeee ?ioa?an ? c oi/ee ci?o ooiaeaiaioaeueii? o?ceee
oaa?aeiai o?ea. Ni?aaa o oiio, ui iaoai?cie, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue ca
aeieeiaiiy aeiiaiii? ? aaoieieeaaeueii? ianoaeinoae, iia’ycai? c
iniaeeainoyie oaeeo iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee oaa?aeiai o?ea, ye ca-eii
aeenia?n?? iin??a ca?yaeo, e?iaoe/i? eiao?oe??ioe, ui iaoiiaeai?
i?ioeanaie aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiii? nenoaie c ??cieie caoaeaeoaaiiyie o
oaa?aeiio o?e?, e?eoe/i? oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oie o iaaei?ia?aeieeao ? oae
aeae?.

O iai?ai?ia?aeieeao /a?ac a?aeiinii iaea /enei a?eueieo iin??a ca?yaeo
aonoeie no?oi?a ? iecueeeie, ui aeicaiey? noai?thaaoe o c?ac-eao
iano?eueee aaeee? iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (aac noai?th-aaiiy
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c a?aeaiaeii oaiea, yea aeae?ey?oueny), ui
eaac?/anoeiee (aeaeo?iie aai ae??ee) iiaeooue iaae?aoe aaeeeo aia?-a?th
a?ae aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, aeinoaoith, iai?eeeaae, aeey ia?aoiaeo o
aia?aaoe/io ciio c a?eueoith aoaeoeaiith ianith. O ?acoeueoao?
?ooee-a?noue eaac?/anoeiie ciaioo?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo-?e/iiai iiey, ia aieueo – aiia?i?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? c?acea
c’yaey?oueny ae?eyiea c a?ae’?iiith aeeoa?aioe?eiith i?ia?aei?noth, ?,
ye iane?aeie, o c?aceo aeieea? aeiiai Aaiia.

O iaaei?ia?aeieeo aeaeo?e/ia aeiiaiia ianoae?noue ?nio? caaaeyee ??ce?e
caeaaeiino? iaaei?ia?aeiiai noaio a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oio (ii-aeeco
eiai e?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy). A?noaa?euei?noue aeieea? i?e no?o-iao, ye?
iaio? e?eoe/iiai, aea aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeo aeey ?ic?a??ao c?ac-ea (yeui
a?i aoaea o ii?iaeueiiio noai?) aei oaiia?aoo?e, yea ia?aae-uo? e?eoe/io
oaiia?aoo?o. O ?acoeueoao? oe??? a?noaa?eueiino? o c?aceo iiaea
?icaeiooenue ?acenoeaiee aeiiai (“aa?y/a oi/ea” [2]).

A ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao /enei a?eueieo iin??a ? aaeeeei (aonoeia ca?yaeo
n 1023 cm-3 ), ? oiio ia a?aei?io a?ae iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a iaa?oue
a?aeiinii neaae? aeaeo?e/i? iiey noai?ththoue aeaeo?e/i? no?oie aeni-ei?
aonoeie, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei aeiiaiii?, oio?iai? ? aaoieieeaaeueii?
ianoaeinoyi o iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? caaaeyee neeueiiio
aeaeioea-aiio ?ic?a??ao [3-5]. C ae?oaiai aieo, a iaoae? ?niothoue
“a?aaionuee?” eaaioia? aiiiae??, ye? iia’ycai? c iaai?oiei i?iai?i
[6,7], aaaaoi-eaiaeueiei ?icn?yiiyi aeaeo?ii?a ia iaaeao c?acea ?
ieineeo aeaoae-oao a?ao?a [8-10], a oiiaao yeeo iaoae ?iaeoueny
aiiiaeueii /ooeeaei aei ciai?oi?o aieea?a. O ?acoeueoao? a?aeiinii
neaae? aeaeo?e/i? iiey i?eaiaeyoue aei aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiaiii? ?
aaoieieeaaeueii? ianoaeinoyi [3,10], eio?? iathoue niaoeeo?/i?
iniaeeaino? ? a?aee?eaathoue oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey io?eiaiiy
oi?eaeueieo /anoio ? iiooaeiinoae aaia-?aoe?? aeaeo?e/ieo eieeaaiue.

Ii?iaeueiee i?ia?aeiee, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny o noeeaii? ?c
iaae-i?ia?aeieeii, i?aaenoaaey? niaith ua iaeei nai???aeiee ?
ia?niaeoea-iee ia’?eo aeey io?eiaiiy aaia?aoe?? aeaeo?e/ieo eieeaaiue o
oe?i-eiio ae?aiacii? /anoio ia iniia? i?eioeeiiai iiaeo o?ce/ieo yaeu.
Nooue o oiio, ui o oaeeo aaoa?ino?oeoo?ao iae?ineii?/ia oaciaa
ei-aa?aioi?noue iaaei?ia?aeieea iaa’yco?oueny aeaeo?iii?e nenoai?
ii?-iaeueiiai iaoaeo, ye?nii ci?ithth/e oa?aeoa? eaaioiai?
?ioa?oa?aioe?? o oa??, ui i?eeyaa? aei iaaei?ia?aeieea, ia a?aenoaiyo
ii?yaeeo aeiaaee-ie eiaa?aioiino? (o iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo aenia?eiaioao
oey a?aenoaiue ii?yaeeo 110 i?e?ii), ? aaaaoi oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ?
e?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee o iueiio iiai?noth ia?aaoaeiao?oueny.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
e?ia-oe/ieo aeanoeainoae aaoa?ino?oeoo? ii?iaeueiee
i?ia?aeiee-iaaei?i-a?aeiee, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo i?aaenoaaeaii a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aeei-ioaaeenue a ?aieao oaiaoe/iiai ieaio OO?IO
c a?aeii/i? oaiaoeee ca oaiith “aeaeo?iii? aca?iiae?? o i?ia?aeieo
nenoaiao” ? aea?ae. pa?no-?aoe?? 0196U002952 oa i?aeia?iaeieo i?ia?ai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?ae Iaoe?iiaeueiith Aeaaeai??th Iaoe Oe?a?ie
(O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i. A. ?. A??e?ia) oa
Iaoe?iiaeueiith Aeaaeai??th Iaoe Oaaoe??? (Aaoaai?aneee oi?aa?neoao ?
Aaoaai?aneee oaoiieia?/-iee oi?aa?neoao *aeia?na, i. Aaoaai?a, Oaaoe?y),
cie?aia grants by Swedish Royal Acadamy of Science (KVA), Swedish
Natural Science Re-search Council (NFR), Swenska Insitutet, and INTAS
Project 94-3862.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o O?ceei-oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo? ?i. A. ?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/e aeine?aeaeaiiy – cai?iiiioaaoe ? aeine?aeeoe iia?
o?ce/i? iaoai?cie a?noaa?eueiino? a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ?
aaoa?i-no?oeoo?ao ii?iaeueiee iaoae – iaaei?ia?aeieo, ? ia ?oiuei?
iniia? ?icaeiooe oai??th aeiiaiii? ? aaoieieeaaeueii? aeaeo?e/ieo
ia-noaeinoae a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ? aaoa?ino?oeoo?ao ii?iaeueiee iaoae
– iaaei?ia?aeiee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iiaecia i?iaaaea-iiai o
aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aei iueiai aeiiai-ia ?
aaoieieeaaeueia aeaeo?e/i? ianoaeino? ia aoee a?aeiieie a ii?-iaeueieo
iaoaeao a iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?. A no?oeoo?ao ii?-iaeueiee iaoae –
iaaei?ia?aeiee a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? a?aee?eo? iia? yaeua
aeaaionueeeo inoe?eyoe?e eiiaeaeoaino oa iaaei??iiai iii?o i?e
i?io?eaii? o?ainii?oiiai aeeneiaoeaiiai no?oio /a?ac ieo. E??i oiai, a
aeena?oaoeeei?e ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaia ? aeine?aeaeaia iecea iiaeo
o?ce/ieo aoaeo?a, ye? c’yaeeeny iniiaith aeiiaiii? ? aaoi-eieeaaeueii?
aeaeo?e/ieo ianoaeinoae a S-N no?oe?o?ao.

Iniiai? iia? ?acoeueoaoe, ?icaeiooi? a aeena?oaoe?? oai??? aeiiai-ii?,
oio?iai? ? aaoieieeaaeueii? ianoaeino? a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ?
ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao, ye? noeeathoueny c iai?ai?ia?aeieeaie, iieyaa-thoue
o oaeiio:

I. A?aee?eoi ? aea/aii iae?i?eia yaeua a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao – ?icaeoie
ianoaeino? iaeii??aeiiai ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ? niii-oaiii?
aaia?aoe?? aeiiai?a aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, ye? ?ooathoueny, iaoiia-eaiee
aiiiaeueiith /ooeea?noth e?iaoeee iaoae?a aei neaaeeo ciai?o-i?o aieea?a
a oiiaao aaaaoieaiaeueiiai ?icn?yiiy aeaeo?ii?a i?e 1) iaai?oiiio
i?iai?, 2) ?icn?yii? ia eiaa?aioi?e iaae? aea?eieeoaaiiy e?enoaeo, eiee
aeeiai?ea ? e?iaoeea aeaeo?ii?a ia? nooo?ai eaaioiaee ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiee
oa?aeoa?. Oea yaeua a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae naiai iai?a-i?ia?aeieeiaiai
aiaeiaa ia o?eueee aaiacenii AAO N-oeio, aea e oei, ui ?icaeoie
aeaeo?e/ii? ianoaeino? a iaoae? caaaeaee a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e aaeueie
iaeeo iai?oaeaiinoyo aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (? no?oiao aeniei? aonoeie) a
oiiaao eieaeueii? aeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiino? c?acea.

II. A?aee?eoi ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/io
aeiiaiio, oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiao oio?iao ? aaoieieeaaeueio ianoa-eino?
a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao, ui aeieeathoue ca ?aooiie aeaeioeaaa ?i-c?a??ao
c?acea a iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?, a ye?e i?ia?aei?noue iaoa-eo ia?
??ceo oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue. Aea/aii no?oeoo?o niiioaiii aeieeath/eo
oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a, ye? ?ooathoueny, oaiia?aoo?ii –
no?oiiaeo oio??a ? aaoieieeaaiue no?oio ? oaiia?a-oo?e ? ciaeaeaii
caeaaei?noue ?o ia?aiao??a a?ae o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoaeo. Io?eiaii
e?eoa??? noaeino? aeiiai?a, oio??a ? aaoieieeaaiue. Aoei ?icaeiooi
aae?aaaoe/iee i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaiey? iiai?noth aeine?-aeeoe e?iaoeeo
oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a iaei? aiie?ooaee ? aaoieieeaaiue
oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oio i?e aaeeeeo ?iaeoeoeaiinoyo aeaeo?e/iiai eiea.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ? aeine?aeaeaii aeaa iiaeo o?ce/ieo iaoai?cia, yee
i?eaiaeyoue aei iaaeoaeaeeiai ?ooo oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a.

III. Ia?aaeaa/aii ? aea/aii aoaeo iaaei??iiai iii?o a?a?eaeii? no?oeoo?e
ii?iaeueiee iaoae – iaaei?ia?aeiee – ii?iaeueiee iaoae (N-S-N
no?oeoo?a), i?e yeiio ia?ao?ae iaaei?ia?aeii? /anoeie c?acea a
ii?iaeueiee noai noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi iiaiiai iii?o no?oeoo?e,
ui a?aee?eaa? iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey aeieeiaiiy ??cieo iae?i?eieo
aoaeo?a. Cie?aia, iiaeeco e?eoe/iiai no?oio iaaei?i-a?aeieea aieueo –
aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea N-S-N no?oeoo?e ia? S –iiae?aiee aeae, ? a i?e
niiioaiii ?icaeaathoueny aaoieieeaaiiy o?ain-ii?oiiai no?oio, iai?oae ?
ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo iaaei?ia?aeieea.

IV. Oai?aoe/ii a?aee?eoi ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii yaeua a?-aaionueeeo
inoeeeyoe?e eiiaeaeoaina ii?iaeueiiai iaoaeo iacineii?/-ieo ?ici???a,
yeee ciaoiaeeoueny o noeeaii? c aeaiia aai a?eueoa iaae-i?ia?aeieeaie.
Oea yaeua, c iaeiiai aieo, a?aee?eaa? oe?ie? iiaeee-aino? aeey
niaeo?ineii?? Aiae???anueeeo ??aiae, a c ae?oaiai – i?eaiaeeoue aei
iao?ea?aeueii? aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee iacineii?/ieo nenoai, oiio ui
aeeneiaoeaiee no?oi, yeee oa/a /a?ac c?acie, aeyaey?oueny aiiiaeueii
/ooeeaei aei ??cieoe? oac i?ae iaaei?ia?aeieeaie, o oie /an ye naia
??cieoey oac iaaecae/aeii /ooeeaa aei aeaniiai iaai?oiiai iiey
aeeneiaoeaiiai no?oio. Cie?aia, aieueo – aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea c?acea
noa? nooo?ai iae?i?eiith c ae?eyieaie c a?ae’?iiith aeeoa?aioe?e-iith
i?ia?aei?noth, ?, ye iane?aeie, a c?aceo niiioaiii ?icaeaathoueny
ca’ycai? aaoieieeaaiiy iai?oae, o?ainii?oiiai no?oio ? no?oio
Aeaeicaoniia. I?e oeueiio iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa /anoioa aaoiei-eeaaiue
ciaoiaeeoueny o aaaeei aeinyaei?e ?ioeie iaoiaeaie iaeano? /anoio 0max
1012nae-1 .

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a. Oai??y aei-iaiii?,
oio?iai? ? aaoieieeaaeueii? ianoaeinoae, yeo iiaoaeiaaii o aeena?oaoe??,
a oaeiae iia? o?ce/i? aoaeoe, ui eaaeaoue o ?oiuei? iniia?, a?ae?a?aee
nooo?ao ?ieue o aeine?aeaeaii? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ? iae?-i?eieo yaeu
a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ? a?a?eaeieo no?oeoo?ao, o?aeoo-aaii?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? iinoaiiaoe? iiaeo aenia?eiaio?a.
Ia?aaeaa/ai? aoaeoe aoee aeyaeai? aenia?eiaioaeueii. I?e oeueiio
a?aei?oeii, ui 6 ?ia?o c 22, ye? aa?eoee a aeena?oaoe?th, aoee aeeiiai?
? iioae?eiaai? ?acii c aenia?eiaioaoi?aie, a oaeiae io?eiaii iaoaio
“Superconducting transistor”, ca?aano?iaaiee a Oaaoe?? ([22] a nieneo
i?ea?iaeueieo ?iaio). ?aea?, ye? noi?ioeueiaai? o aeena?oaoe??,
iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy o ?ioeo aaeocyo o?ceee, iai?eeeaae, o
o?ceoe? ?acenoeaiiai noaio iaaei?ia?aeiee?a ? o?ceoe? ooo/ii
noai?thaaieo ia-??iaee/ieo no?oeoo?, yea inoaii?i /anii ao?oeeai
?icaeaa?oueny.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? a?aee?eaathoue oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey
io-?eiaiiy iiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeaeo?iii? aeanoeaino? iaoae?a ?
aeya-eaiiy aoaeo?a iiaiai oeio, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue ye naiino?eiee
?ioa-?an, oae ? aaaeeeaeo c i?eeeaaeii? oi/ee ci?o aeey noai?thaaiiy
aaia?a-oi??a aeaeo?e/ieo eieeaaiue o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? /anoio ?
iiooaeii-noae, noaa?e?caoi??a iai?oae ? noaa?e?caoi??a no?oio, a oaeiae
i?aoee-c?eieo i?eeaae?a. O inoaiiueiio a?aeiioaii? ? iniaeeai
ia?niaeoea-iei ia?aaeaa/aiee ? aea/aiee o aeena?oaoe?? aoaeo
a?aaionueeeo inoeeey-oe?e eiiaeaeoaina, a oiiaao yeiai ci?ia iaai?oiiai
iioieo /a?ac iaae-i?ia?aeia e?eueoea c ii?iaeueiei naaiaioii ia iaeo
/anoeo eaaioa ii-oieo aeeeeea? ci?io o?ainii?oiiai no?oio ia aeae?eueea
ii?yaee?a.

Aea/aiiy aeaeo?e/ii? ianoaeino? ? iiaeo aoaeo?a, ui eaaeaoue o ??
iniia? ? i?iiiiothoueny o aeena?oaoe??, ca?ac aeoeaii i?iaeiaaeo?oueny
ye oai?aoe/ii, oae ? aenia?eiaioaeueii. Na?aae onoaiia, a yeeo aei
oeuei-ai /ano io?eiai? nooo?a? ?acoeueoaoe, ui ? aaciina?aaeiuei
iia’ycaie-ie c a?aee?eoeie o aeena?oaoe?? yaeuaie, iiaeooue aooe
iacaaieie OO?IO AI Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
?inoeooo aenieeo aia?a?e AI ?in??, ?inoeooo i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee AI ?in??,
Eiiaeiinueeee oi?aa?neoao, Aaeeeia?eoai?y, Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
*aeia?na ? Aaoaai?cueeee oi?aa?neoao, Aaoaai?a, Oaaoe?y.

Iecea oai?aoe/ieo aeniiae?a ? ia?aaeaa/aiue, c?iaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe??, ca iaoiai /ano io?eiaea aenia?eiaioaeueia
i?aeoaa?-aeaeaiiy. Aei ia? a?aeiinyoueny:

1) yaeua oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ii? aeiiaiii? ianoaeino?, yea
i?eaiaeeoue aei niiioaiiiai aeieeiaiiy aeiiai?a oaiia?aoo?e ?
aeaeo-?e/iiai iiey a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao a iaeano? aae??aeo oaiia?aoo?
(aenia?eiaioe A. Aieea ? ?io. [11] – Noooinueeee o?ceei – oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo, ?in?y; TH.I. Oecyia ? ?.?. Eiaa?iiaa [12] – OO?IO IAIO,
Oa?e?a, Oe?a?ia; E.I. O?oa?a ? ?io. [13] – Iineaa, ?in?y).

2) aaoieieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e, no?oio ? iai?oae a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao i?e
aeaeioeaaiio ?ic?a??a? ?o o iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? (aenia?eiaioe
TH.I. Oecyia ? ?.?. Eiaa?iiaa [14-16] – OO?IO AI Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?a,
Oe?a?ia).

3) oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiaa oio?iaa ianoae?noue, yea i?eai-aeeoue aei
naiiaeia?eueiiai aeieeiaiiy o ieanoeiao eiiiainiaaiiai ii?iaeueiiai
iaoaeo oio??a oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oio i?e aeaeioeaaiio ?ic?a??a? a
neeueiiio iaai?oiiio iie? a iaeano? aae??aeo oaiia?aoo? (aenia?eiaioe
A.I. Ii?aoia ? ?io. [5,17] – Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ,
Oa?e?a, Oe?a?ia).

4) aoaeo iaaei??iiai iii?o a a?a?eaeieo no?oeoo?ao ii?iaeue-iee
i?ia?aeiee – iaaei?ia?aeiee – ii?iaeueiee i?ia?aeiee (N-S-N no?oeoo?a) –
ciaioaiiy iiaiiai iii?o c?acea i?e ia?aoiae? iaaei?i-a?aeieea o
ii?iaeueiee noai (aenia?eiaioe TH.I. Oecyia ? I.A. Oaa/aiei [18,19] –
OO?IO AI Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?a, Oe?a?ia; A. Kleinsasser, A. Kastalsky [20]
– University of New York, USA

5) aaoieieeaaiiy no?oio, iai?oae ? ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo iaae-i?ia?aeieea
o a?a?eaeieo N-S-N no?oeoo?ao(aenia?eiaioe TH.I. Oecyia ? I.A. Oaa/aiei
[21] – OO?IO AIO, Oa?e?a).

6) a?aaionuee? inoeeeyoe?? eiiaeaeoaina c? ci?iith ??cieoe? oac i?ae
iaaei?ia?aeieeaie o S-N-S no?oeoo?ao (aenia?eiaioe V.T. Petrashov, P.
Delsing and T. Claeson [22] – Chalmers University of Technology and
Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden, University of London, U.K.; E.
Toyoda and H. Takayanagi [23] – NTT Basic Research Laboratories,
Kanagawa, Japan).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A noaoo? [1] (aeea. nienie i?e-a?iaeueieo
?iaio) aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaaii aeeiai?/iee iaoai?ci N-iiae?aiie AAO ?
ioe?iea eiai ia?aiao??a, yee i?eaiaeyoue aei aeiee-iaiiy aeiiai?a
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey; a noaooyo [2,14] aeena?oaioo iaea-aeeoue o/anoue o
iinoaiiaoe? i?iaeaie oa oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooieao; a noaoo? [3] –
iinoaiiaea i?iaeaie oa o/anoue a oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooi-eao; a noaoo? [4]
– o/anoue a iinoaiiaoe? caaea/e oa aeeiiaiiy oai?aoe/-ieo ?ic?aooie?a; a
noaooyo [5,15-17,20] – iinoaiiaea caaea/e oa aeei-iaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?aooie?a; a noaooyo [6-8,10-12], yee aeeiiai? o ni?ai?aoe? c
aenia?eiaioaoi?aie – iinoaiiaea ? ?ica’ycaiiy oai?aoe/-ieo i?iaeai;
o/anoue a ii??aiyii? oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeue-ieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?-oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia oaeeo eiioa?aioe?yo, ia?aaeao ? neiiic?oiao
Ananithci? ia?aaee c o?ceee iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? (I?inuee, 1976; Iine-aa,
1979; Oa?e?a, 1980; Eeoei?a, 1982; Oaee?ii, 1984), Neiiic?oi “Aeaeo?iii?
aeanoeaino? iaoae?a” (Eino?iia, 1977), Neiiic?oi “Ae-a?ai? ieoaiiy
oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee” (Iaeana, 1986), I?aeia?iaeia eii-oa?aioe?y LT-19
Satellite Conference (Cambridge, England, 1990), 15-a Iaea??anueea
ia?aaea c oai??? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a (Euea?a, 1992), General Conference
of Condensed Matter Division of the Europian Physical Society (March
1993), XVI Conference of the Condensed Matter of Brazilian Physical
Society (May, 1993), 20th International Conference on Low Temperature
Physics (Eugene, Oregon, USA, August, 1993), 2nd International
Conference on Point – Contact Spectroscopy, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
(July,1995), NATO Advanced Study Institute on Quantum Transport in
Semi-conductor Submicron Structures, Bad Lauterberg, Germany (August,
1995), NATO Advanced Study Institute “Mesoscopic Electron Transport”,
Curacao (June 25-July 5, 1996).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o 22 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeyo, c ieo 20 noaoae a ?aoa?iaaieo aeo?iaeao [1-9], [11-21], 1 oaca
i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? [10] oa 1 iaoaio [22].

Ia’?i ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea-aony c
anooio, 8 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (81
ia?iaioaaiue). Ci?no aeeeaaeaii ia 250 noi??ieao, 25 ?enoieao.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iienaii ?noi??y ieoaiiy, ?ice?eoi nooi?noue ? noai
iaoeiai? i?iaeaie aeaeo?e/ii? aeiiaiii? ianoaeino? oa iaa?oi-ooaaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ?icae?e? 1 i?iaaaeaii iaeyae ?ia?o, ui noinothoueny ieoaiue
aeaeo?e/ii? ianoaeino? a iai?a- oa iaaei?ia?aeieeao, aaaaeaii iniiai?
iiiyooy, noi?ioeueiaaii iinoaiiaee caaea/, ye? aoee ae??oai? o
aeena?oaoe??, ? ye?nii iienaii io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe.

A ?icae?e? 2 – Oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/i? aeiiaie a
?cio?ii-ieo iaoaeao i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao – ia?aaeaa/aii ?nioaaiiy ?
aeieeaaeii aea/aii aeeiai?eo oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a, ye?
?ooathoueny ? niiioaiii aeieeathoue i?e aeaeioeaaiio ?ic?a??a?
ii?-iaeueiiai iaoaeo a iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?, aea aieueo – aiia?ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea (AAO) iaoae?/iiai c?acea ia? N –iiae?aiee aeae.

A ii?iaeueiiio iaoae? N –iiae?aia AAO aeieea? i?e ?ic?a??a? c?acea
aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii aei oaiia?aoo?, i?e yeeo ii?? iaoaeo aieiaiei /eiii
aecia/a?oueny aeaeo?ii – oiiiiiith aca?iiae??th ? oiio, iath/e ??ceo
oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue, c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeaeo?e/iiai iiey E.
“Oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ia” ianoae?noue, yea aeieea? i?e oeueiio, aaea
aeyaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueii a [11-13] ? ? i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy ?icae?eo
2. ?icaeyaea?oueny no?oeoo?a ? aeeiai?ea oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo
aeiiai?a (OAAe) a c?aceao, oiaueia yeeo oae iaea, ui iaiaeii??aei?noth
?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e ii ?oiueiio ia?a??co iiaeeeai ciaoooaaoe.

I?e iaeii??aeiiio ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e acaeiaae c?acea caeaaei?noue
oaiia?aoo?e T a?ae E aecia/a?oueny c oiiae aaeaino oaiea:

j E=d-1q(T), j= (T) E,
(1)

aea j – aonoeia no?oio acaeiaae c?acea, (T) aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue i?e
caaeai?e oaiia?aoo??, q(T) – iio?e oaiea c iaeeieoe? ieiu? iiaa?oi?
c?acea, d – aaiiao?e/iee oaeoi?, yeee ? ??aiei a?aeiioaiith ieiu?
ia?a??co c?acea aei ia?eiao?a. C (1) a?ae?aco aeoiaeeoue, ui
aeeoa?aioe?eia i?ia?aei?noue dj/dE a?ae’?iia, yeui c?acie
?ic?a??aa?oueny aei oaiia?aoo?, i?e yeeo

d(q)/dTLcr iaeii??aeiee ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo?e aoaeoue noae?noue
a?aeiinii iaiaeii??aeieo oeoeooaoe?e.

A iaeano? ia?aiao??a L>Lcr iiaea aeyaeoenue noaeei “oeeee?/iee” OAAe,
yeee ?ooa?oueny c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth s.

No?oeoo?a ? aeeiai?ea TAAe aeyaey?oueny ye?nii ??ciith a caeaae-iino?
a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeiaaeeiith c?acea L ? e?eoe/iith aeia-aeeiith
Lcr, yea i?aaenoaaey? niaith i?inoi?iaee ianooaa ?icaeoeo ianoaeino?. A
i?ae?icae?e? 2.2 aoei aea/aii iiaeeea? aeaee aieueo-aiia?-ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee c?acea c OAAe (aeeiai?/ieo AAO) ? iieacaii, ui a
caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo aeeiai?/ia AAO iiaea iaoe aeae?eueea iacaeaaeieo
a?oie c naiiia?aoeiii, oaeiae aeacai? e?eoa??? ?oiuei? noaeino?.

Aeieeaaeii aea/aii oaeiae aeeiai?/i? AAO o a?aie/ieo aeiaae-eao: a)
oeeee?/ieo aeiiai?a iaei? aiie?ooaee, ye? aeieeathoue i?e (L-Lcr(j)/L >Lcr OAAe neeaaea?oueny c aeaio
ieineeo ae?eyiie c oaiia?aoo?aie Tmin 4.2 K ? Tmax TD >> Tmin, ye?
??cei a?ae??ciythoueny, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a aeia??e caiae? c
aenia?eiai-oaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie ?ia?o [11-13].

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.3 aoei io?eiaii e?eoa??? noaeino? OAAe ? ciaeaea-ii
iaae? iaeanoae noaeino? ia ieiuei? ia?aiao??a “aeiaaeeia c?acea, a?n”.
Aiae?c noaeino? OAAe iieaco?, ui oi/a ae iaeia c a?oie aeeiai?/-ii? AAO,
ye? ceeaathoueny a oi/oe? c aa?oeeaeueiith aeioe/iith, iaia’yc-eiai ?
ianoaeith. Aeno?aiaeuei? ae oi/ee aeeiai?/ii? AAO a aniaeo? noaeino?
i?/ei ia ? aeae?eaieie.

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.3 iieacaii, ui “oeeee?/i?” OAAe c e?eueeiia
iae-neioiaie oaiia?aoo?e ia aeiaaeei? ?acea caaaeaee ? ianoaeeie i?e
aoaeue ye?e iae?e iaiaeii??aeiino? c?acea aai oaieia?aeaiaeo.

O aeiaaeeo aeiiai?a iaei? aiie?ooaee iiaeeeai ia o?eueee oeacaoe
e?eoa??e noaeino? OAAe a iaeiio, aea ? aeine?aeeoe aaiethoe?th OAAe i?e
aoaeue – yeeo ii/aoeiaeo oiiaao, a yeeo oa?aeoa?ia aa??aoe?y
oaiia?a-oo?e ? ii??aiyiith c aiie?ooaeith aeiiaio.

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.4 ?icaeiooi aae?aaaoe/iee i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaiey?
iiai?noth aeine?aeeoe e?iaoeeo OAAe iaei? aiie?ooaee, oiaoi i?inoaaee-oe
ca?iaeaeaiiy ?c aeia?eueiiai (aea ia iaaeoi aaeeeiai ii aiie?ooae?)
?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e a c?aceo oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/iiai
“oeee-e?/iiai” aeiiaio iaei? aiie?ooaee ? aaiethoe?th eiai ca /anii. A
i?ae?ic-ae?e? 2.4 ?icaeiooi oaeiae aae?aaaoe/iee iaoiae, yeee aeicaiey?
aea/eoe aeeiai?eo OAAe aeia?eueii? aiie?ooaee ca iayaiino?
iaiaeii??aeiinoae c?acea aai oaieia?aeaiaeo. Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo oeei
iaoiaeii ??a-iyiue aeaaaeaii e?eoa??? i?i?iao aeiiaio ia
iaiaeii??aeiinoyo. O aeiaae-eo ae aeiiai?a iaei? aiie?ooaee ia?aaeaa/aii
?nioaaiiy aaoieieeaaeue-iiai ?aaeeio, a yeiio aeiiai eieeaa?oueny a
ieie? iaiaeii??aeiino?, ia-??iaee/ii ci?ithth/e aiie?ooaeo ? iieiaeaiiy
a?aeiinii iaiaeii??aeiino?.

A ?icae?e? 3 – Iae?i?ei? eieeaaiiy no?oio, iai?oae ? oaiia-?aoo?e a
ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ia?aaeaa/aii ?nioaaiiy ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii
?aeaenaoe?ei? aaoieieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e, no?oio ? ia-i?oae ia c?aceo
iaoaeo, ia?aaaaeaiiai o noai c a?ae’?iiith aeeoa?ai-oe?eiith
i?ia?aei?noth no?oiii, yeee oa/a o eie? c ?iaeoeoeai?noth . A?aie/iith
oiiaith aei ??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? c aeaea?aeaie, neoaeeoue oiiaa
ia??iaee/iino? T(x+L,t) = T(x,t), eio?a ? i?eaeaoiith ye aeey caieiooeo
a e?eueoea c?ace?a, oae ? i?e ?icaeyae? iacaieiooeo c?ace?a aeinoaoiuei?
aeiaaeeie (i?e aaeeeeo aeiaaeeiao L oa?aeoa? aaoieieeaaiue aeyaey?oueny
iacaeaaeiei a?ae oiia ia e?ioeyo c?acea).

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iieaco?, ui oiiae caoaeaeaiiy ? no?oeoo?a
aaoieieeaaiue o nenoai?, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny, ?noioii caeaaeaoue a?ae
aa-ee/eie ?iaeoeoeaiino? ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae L ? Lcr. I?e L>> Lcr
iaeii??aeiee noai c?acea ? ianoaeei i?e aoaeueyeeo cia/aiiyo , eiee cr1, aea

cr1=( L/S)0-1(jd); 0 T-1exp(-L/Lcr ) (4)

Ed(j) j – ooieoe?y, yea ? iaa?iaiith AAO c?acea c aeiiaiii ( =
–1; aeoaeee icia/athoue ona?aaeiaiiy ca aeiaaeeiith c?acea), jd =
jd (E0) – no?oi a c?aceo c o?aiaoe??aeaeiei aeiiaiii i?e caaeai?e
iai?oc? E0 (“no?oi noaa?e?caoe??”), /an ?icaeoeo oaieiai? ianoaeino? T
= TCVd/q i?e T=T0(E0). Ca oaeeo oiia ?icaeoie aoaeue-yei? iaei?
oeoeooaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny oae, ui /a?ac /an t >> T aeiiai a?aeiiaeth?
naith o?aiaoe??aeaeio oi?io, a ca /anii iia?eueii ci?ith?oueny o?eueee
eiai “aeiaaeeia” L2(j) (L1(j) + L2(j) =L, aea L1(j) ? L2(j) – aeiaaeeie
“oi-eiaeii?” ? ”aa?y/i?” ae?eyiie OAAe). Oey ianoaaeia aeicaiey?
i?iaanoe “nei?i/aiiy” iieno ? io?eiaoe i?inoa ??aiyiiy, yea iieno?
iae?i?e-io aeeiai?eo o?aiaoe??aeaeiiai OAAe. Aiae?c oeueiai ??aiyiiy
iieaco?, ui a iaeano? cia/aiue ?iaeoeoeaiino? > cr aeiiai ? aaniethoii
ia-noaeei: eiai aeiaaeeia inoeeeth? c aiie?ooaeith, yea ?inoa ca /anii,
(e?eaa 3 ia ?en.1). A oie iiiaio, eiee aai “oieiaeia, aai “aa?y/a”
ae?eyiea aeiiaio (a caeaaeiino? a?ae ii/aoeiaeo oiia) caiiaith? onth
aeiaaeeio c?acea, aeiiai cieea?, c?acie ia?aoiaeeoue o iaeii??aeiee
noai, ? a c?aceo ?icaeaathoueny iaeii??aei? a i?inoi?? aaoieieeaaiiy
oaiia-?aoo?e, no?oio ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey E = j(T) aaeeei? aiie?ooaee.
A?aie/iee oeeee (AOe), yeee a?aeiia?aea? aaoieieeaaiiyi, aeyaey?oueny
aaniethoii noaeei. Iaeanoue aea cia/aiue cr1 > >> cr2 (L/S)(T*(
E0))T(T*(E0) (cr1 >> cr2) ? iaeanoth aei?noeiai ?aaeeio caoaeaeaiiy
aaoieieeaaiue: a oe?e iaeano? ni?a?niothoue noaeee OAAe, ianoaeee AOe ?
noaeee AOe.

Noaeee a?aie/iee oeeee ? eiai ia?aiao?e iiaeia ciaeoe aiae?-oe/ii i?e
j(TD) >>T(TD) (j – /an ?icaeoeo ianoaeino? no?oio), oiio ui ? a
oeueiio aeiaaeeo nenoaia ??aiyiue oaeiae i?eionea? “nei?i-/aiiy” iieno.
Aiae?c iieaco?, ui a ?aaeei? aaoieieeaaiue i?e j (TD) >> T(TD)
oaiia?aoo?a ci?ith?oueny a?ae 4.2 K aei oaiia?aoo?e Aeaaay.

sseui aeiaaeeia c?acea L > Lcr, oi aeieeiaiiy aaoieieeaaiue oa-eiae
i?io?ea? a aei?noeiio ?aaeei?. I?e L > cr1,2 ? >>cr0 aaoieieeaaiiy iaae?athoue aeuaiienaiee oa?aeoa?.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 i?iaaaeaii aeieeaaeia ii??aiyiiy oai??? c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie TH. I. Oecyia ? ?. I. Eiaa?iiaa ii
niinoa?aaeaiith aaoieieeaaiue.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 iieacaii, ui a i?ioean? aaoieieeaaeueiiai oeee-eo
c?acie aei?iao? ?ic?a??a, aeecueeee aei iaeii??aeiiai, (aeiiaiiee noai
ia anoeaa? ca?iaeaeoaaoenue), ? oiio ca ia?aiao?aie aaoieieeaaiue
iiaeeeai c aenieei nooiaiai oi/iino? aecia/aoe oaiei?ii?noue CV iaoaeo
iaei? iane (a 103 104 ?ac?a iaioith, i?ae i?e eaei?eiao?e/-ieo
aei??thaaiiyo) a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? a?ae aae??aeo aei oaiia?a-oo?
ii?yaeeo oaiia?aoo?e Aeaaay. Oaea aecia/aiiy oaiei?iiino? ae-eiiaii a
i?ae?icae?e? 3, ? ia ?en.2 i?eaaaeaii oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue
oaiei?iiino? ?iae?y, yea ?ic?aoiaaia ca aeiiiiiaith aeaaaeaiiai a
?ic-ae?e? 3 ae?aco i?e aeei?enoaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo TH. I.
Oecyia ? I. ?. Eiaa?iiaa [15] ii niinoa?aaeaiith aaoieieeaaiue.
Io-?eiaia caeaaei?noue i?ae?anii iiaiaeaeo?oueny c e?oa?aoo?ieie
aeaieie.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.4 aea/aii iacaaanath/? ?aeaenaoe?ei? aaoieiee-aaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e, no?oio ? iai?oae a iaoaeaaeo caieiooeo e?eue/an-oeo
c?aceao, a yeeo a?ae’?iia aeeoa?aioe?aeueia i?ia?aei?noue aeinyaa?oueny
oeyoii ci?ie iioieo iaai?oiiai iiey /a?ac c?acie. A oae?e neooaoe??
c?acie ? ?iaeoeoe?eii ca’ycaiei c aeaeo?e/iei eieii ci?iiiai no?oio, ui
?noioii ci?ith? oiiae caoaeaeaiiy aaoieieeaaiue o ii??aiyii? c
?icaeyiooeie o iiia?aaei?o ?icae?eao, oiio ui a) aaoieieeaaiiy
a?ae-aoaathoueny a ianoaoe?iia?ieo oiiaao, a) ?c-ca ?iaeoeoe?eiiai
ca’yceo ei-eeaaiiy no?oio a c?aceo aieeaathoue ia oiiae i?io?eaiiy
no?oio ia-ea/oaaiiy a ciai?oiueiio eie?. Naia oae? oiiae aoei
?aae?ciaaii a aenia?eiaio? TH. I. Oecyia ? I. ?. Eiaa?iiaa [16], ?
aeieeaaeia ii??a-iyiiy, yea aoei i?iaaaeaii a i?ae?icae?e? 4, iieaco?
aeia?a ye?nia ? e?eue-e?nia iiaiaeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?en.1 Aenia?eiaioaeueiee aaoi- ?en.2 A?ao?e oaiei?iiino? In.

eieeaaeueiee oeeee; 3 – ca?iaeaeai- Aacia?a?aia e?i?y –
oai??y,

iy aaoieieeaaiue – eieeaaiiy aeia- e?aiee – aenia?eiaio

aeeie OAAe c? c?inoath/ae aiie?-

ooaeith i?e L >> Lcr..

?icae?e 4. Oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ia ianoae?noue a ai?cio?iiieo
i?ia?aeieeao. Iaaeoaeaeeee ?oo oaiia?aoo?ieo aeiiai?a. O an?o
aenia?eiaioao, ye? aoei i?iaaaeaii aei iaoiai /ano, ia aoei ae-yaeaii
OAAe, ye? ?ooathoueny. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui aeioaia? aea/aeenue o?eueee
c?acee c ?cio?iiiith oaieii?ia?aei?noth ? aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth, a yeeo
OAAe iiaea ?ooaoenue o?eueee ca ?aooiie oa?iiaeaeo?e/iiai aoaeoo (aeea.
i?ae?icae?e 2.1). Ine?eueee eiao?oe??io oa?iia?n iaoaeo ? i?iii?oe?eiei
kBT/F > 0 (H –
oeeeeio?iiia /anoioa, 0 – oa?aeoa?ia /anoioa i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy
aeaeo?ii?a) ii?? iaoaeo ciaioo?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e, ?
aeaeioe?a ?ic?a??a iaoaeo i?eaiaeeoue aei S-ia?acii? AAO; yeui
i?eeeaaeaiee iiaiee no?oi /a?ac c?acie a?aeiia?aea? ae?eyioe? AAO c
a?ae’?iiith aeeoa?aioe?eiith i?ia?aei?noth, oi a aeinoaoiuei oe?ie?e
ieanoei? niiioaiii aeieea? oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiaee oio? (ONO). A
?icae?e? 5 iiaoaeiaaii oai??th oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiai? oio?iai?
ianoaeino? a ieanoei? ai?cio?iiiiai iaoaeo ne?i/aiii? oiaueie.

Aoei aeacaii oiiae, ca yeeo ai?cio?ii?y aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ?
oaieii?ia?aeiino? iaoaeo ye?nii iiaeeo?eo? aeeiai?eo oio??a, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai ca?eueoaiiy ?oiuei? oaeaeeino?. Ia?aaeaa/aii
?nioaaiiy aeo?iaeo no?oi?a o ia?ao?aeieo iaeanoyo ONO, ui oaeiae iiaea
i?eaiaeeoe aei iaaeoaeaeeiai ?ooo ONO.

A i?ae?icae?e? 5.2 aeaaaeaii aoaeoeaia ??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?ae-iino? a
oiie?e ieanoei? iaoaeo c ai?cio?iiieie oaici?aie oaiei- ?
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? a oiiaao d/L >0 , aea d ? L –
oiaueia ? oe?eia ieanoeie, a?aeiia?aeii, L0 – oa?aeoa?ia i?inoi?iaa
aeiaaeeia ?icaeoeo ianoaeino?. Ia iniia? oeueiai ??aiyiiy aea/aii
noae?noue iaeii??aeiiai ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oio, ? aeine?aeaeaii
no?oeoo?o ? aeeiai?eo ONO a ieanoei?.

A oiiaao ioieiaeaeaiiy c?acea aaciiiae?aiei aae??i ooieoe?y
oaieia?aeaiaeo q(T) ?inoa, a ii?? xx eiiiainiaaiiai iaoaeo o neeueiiio
iaai?oiiio iie? H >> 0 ciaioo?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e.
Cae/aeii a iaoaeao oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue oeeo aaee/ei ? oaeith, ui a
iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?nio? oaiia-?aoo?iee ?ioa?aae, a yeiio
(xx-1q)’> 0 ia? S-N – iiae?aiee aeae, i?eaaaeaiee ia ?en.3.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaeino? iaeii-

??aeiiai
?iciiae?eo oaiia?a-

oo?e ?
no?oio (a ?aaeei? ca-

aeaii?
iai?oae) ia iniia?

aoaeoeaieo ??aiyiiy oaiei-

i?i?ia?aeiino? ? ??aiyiiy aeey

aecia/aiiy i?inoi?iaiai ?

/aniaiai
?iciiae?eo aonoeie

no?oio
iieaco?, ui i?e L >

Lcr
iaeii??aeiee ?iciiae?e ao-

aeoue
noae?noue a?aeiinii oeo-

eooaoe?e, iaiaeii??aeieo iiia-

?ae
ieanoeie (? aeinoaoiuei

aeiaaioaeeueiaeo acaeiaae iea-

noeie).
A ?acoeueoao?, a aein-

?en.3 S-N iiae?aia AAO oaoiuei oe?ie?e ieanoei?
L > Lcr i?e aeaeioeaaiio ?ic?a??a? no?oiii j ?c ?ioa?aaeo j1 = 22/(1+2), ? a?aeiiniee iaaei??iee ii?? i?e T – 2 > 0, a Rs ? RL ?
iii?aie S- /an-oeie c?acea (eiee aiia ciaoiaeeoueny o ii?iaeueiiio
noai?) ? iiaiee ii?? N-iaoaeo aeiaaeeie L, a?aeiia?aeii.

c) Ii?iaeueiee iaoae c aeii?oeaie i?e o noeeo c iaaei?ia?aeieeii. sse
aoei iieacaii a ?iaio? [35] ?icn?yiiy aeaeo?ii?a i?ia?aeiino?
ii?-iaeueiiai iaoaeo ia aeii?ooe? ci?ith?oueny ye?nii, yeui aeii?oea
cia-oiaeeoueny a ieie? iaae? ii?iaeueiee iaoae – iaaei?ia?aeiee. A
oeueiio aeiaaeeo eiia?iiaaia ?icn?yiiy aeaeo?iio ia aeii?ooe? ? N-S
iaae? i?aaenoaaey? niaith aaaaoi?aciaa eiaa?aioia ?icn?yiiy. Ca?aeii c
?i-aioith [31] ia?a??c ?icn?yiiy iacaae i?e ?icn?yii? aeaeo?iio ia
aei-i?ooe?, ?icoaoiaai?e a oa?o ii?iaeueiiai iaoaeo oiaueie T , yeee
ciaoiaeeoueny o noeeaii? c iaaei?ia?aeieeii, i?ney ona?aaeiaiiy ii
a?ae-noai? i?ae aeii?oeith ? N-S iaaeath aei??aith? = 20 (0 – ia?a??c
?ic-n?yiiy ia aeii?ooe? ca a?aenooiino? iaaei?ia?aeieea). Ca?aene
aeoiaeeoue, ui oa? ii?iaeueiiai iaoaeo oiaueie T, iiaeeco
iaaei?ia?aeieea, ye oe?ea aeiaeaoeiai ?icn?th? aeaeo?ii iacaae c
?iia??i?noth

(T)

r(eff) = (- f/ )r d ,
(6)

aea = h/vF, rE = ci 0 /l0 ? ?iia??i?noue aeiaeaoeiaiai ?icn?yiiy
iacaae oa?ii iaoaea oiaueie = hvF / , aea ci – eiioeaio?aoe?y
aeii?oae, – aia?a?y aeaeo?iia, yea aei??yia a?ae aia?a?? Oa?i?. r(eff)
iiaea ?icaeyaeaoenue ye aoaeoeaia ?iia??i?noue ii?iaeueiiai a?aeaeooy
aeaeo?iio a?ae N-S iaae?. A i?ae?icae?e? 6.2 iaaei??iee ii?? R
?ic-?aoiaaii ia iniia? ??oaiiy ??aiyiiy Aieueoeiaia oa ae?aco (6);
ii??aiyiiy io?eiaiiai R c aenia?eiaioii [36] iieacaii ia ?en.4.
Iaaei??iee ii?? iiaea aooe aeiaeaoeiaei o aaaaoueio o?ce/ieo neooaoe?yo,
?, ioaea, a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia?ao?ae iaaei?ia?aeii? /anoeie iii?o
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi caaaeueiiai iii?o c?acea (iien
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aiiai aoaeoo iaaei??iiai
iii?o a i?eaaaeaiei a ?iaioao [18-21]).

A i?ae?icae?e? 6.3 ?icaeyaeathoueny aeaeo?e/i? aaoieieeaaiiy,
ye? ? iaoiiaeaieie aoaeoii iaaei??iiai iii?o.

Eaaei aa/eoe, ui yeui i?e ia?aoiae? /anoeie c?acea o iaae-i?ia?aeiee
noai iiaiee ii?? i?ae aei??thaaeueieie eiioaeoaie ca?eueoo?oueny, oi i?e
i?io?eaii? /a?ac c?acie no?oio, aeecueeiai aei e?eoe/iiai no?oio
iaaei?ia?aeieea, iai?oaa ia aei??thaaeueieo eiioaeoao aoaea
ciaiooaaoenue c? ca?eueoaiiyi aaee/eie no?oio, ?, ioaea, AAO c?acea ia?
S-iiae?aiee aeae. Ca oeeo oiia, ye iieacaii a i?ae?icae?e? 6.3, a c?aceo
? iiaeeeaei niiioaiia aeieeiaiiy aaoieieeaaiue no?oio, iai?oae ?
iaaei?ia?aeii? u?eeie.

Caaeaiee no?oi I0, yeee oa/a /a?ac N-S-N no?oeoo?o, ae?eeoueny
ia aea? /anoeie: 1) no?oi I, yeee ia?aiineoueny /a?ac N-S iaaeo oeie
aeaeo?iiaie, eio?? aei?iaothoue Aiae???anueea a?aeaeooy; 2)

?ii?niee no?oi IC=dq/dt,
iia’ycaiee c

ii?iaeueii a?aeaeoeie
ia N-S iaae?

aeaeo?iiaie (q –
ca?yae, yeee iaeiie-

/o?oueny ia N-S iaae?
ca ?aooiie ii?-

iaeueii a?aeaeoeo ia
i?e aeaeo?ii?a;

ioe?ieo aaee/eie ?iiino?
N-S iaae? aea-

ii a i?ae?icae?e? 6.4).
Ca?aene aeoiaeeoue,

ui i?io?eaiiy no?oio /a?ac
N-S no?oe-

oo?o iiaea aooe iienaiei
ca aeiiiii-

aith aea?aaeaioii?
noaie, a ye?e ?ieue

eiiaeainaoi?a ?iiino? N
a?ae?a?a? N-S –

?en.4 Oaiia?aoo?ia ca- iaaea aai ni?eueii c iath ?io? ?iiino?,

eaaei?noue ii??o. Aacia- ye? ?niothoue a aeaeo?e/iiio eie?. Oiio

?a?aia e?i?y – oai??y, ui i?iaiaee, ye? i?aeaiaeyoue no?oi,
caaae-

e?aiee – aenia?eiaio. aee iathoue ?iaeoeoeai?noue , oi a aea?aa-

eaioio noaio o?aaa aeeth/eoe oaeiae ? ?iaeoeoeai?noue. E??i oiai, S-

iiae?aiee aeae AAO aecia/a?oueny iayai?noth (? a?aenooi?noth)
iaae-i?ia?aeieea, oiio o?ao?i ??aiyiiyi, yea iieno? aaiethoe?th ca
/a-nii iaaei?ia?aeiiai ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo , a aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii
??aiyiiy Ai?ueeiaa – Ae?aoaa?aa, ui ? i?aaeeueiei iiaeeco e?eoe/-ii?
oaiia?aoo?e iaaei?ia?aeieea ? i?e aeinoaoiuei iia?euei?e ci?i? ia?aiao?a
ii?yaeeo ca /anii.

Aaoieieeaaiiy, ye? iaoiiaeaii ii?iaeueiei a?aeaeooyi eiacieo aeaeo?ii?a
a?ae N-S iaae?, niinoa??aaeenue a aenia?eiaio? TH. Oecyia ? I. Oaa/aiea
[21], ? ?oi? aeai? ciaoiaeyoueny o aeia?i? caiae? c oai?aoe/ieie
?acoeueoaoaie ?icae?eo 6.

?icae?e 7 – Aeaeo?e/ia ianoae?noue a iecueeioaiia?a-oo?iie
i?ia?aeiino? ii?iaeueieo iaoae?a, iaoiiaeaia eaaioiaeie
?oa?oa?aioe?eieie yaeuaie. Aeaeo?e/i? ia-noaeino?, ye? aoei ?icaeyiooi
o iiia?aaei?o aeaaao, ? caniiaaieie ia iae?ineii?/ieo yaeuao a
i?ia?aeieeao, ? aaciina?aaeiuei ia ? iia’ycaieie c eaaioiaith
?ioa?oa?aioe??th a aeaeo?iii?e nenoai?. A oie aea /an aeia?a a?aeiii, ui
ca oiia eaaioiai? ?ioa?oa?aioe?? aeeiai?ea aeaeo?ii?a ? iaaecae/aeii
/ooeeaith aei neaaeeo ci?i oac oaeeueiaeo ooieoe?e. Ioaea, iaa?oue
neaae? aeaeo?e/i? iiey, ci?ithth/e ?iioeuene aeaeo?ii?a, oiaoi
aieeaath/e ia oace ?oi?o oaeeueiaeo ooieoe?e, iiaeooue i?eaiaeeoe aei
neeueii iae?i?eieo yaeu a aeaeo?iii?e nenoai? ii?iaeueieo iaoae?a. A
?icae?e? 7 iieacaii ?nioaaiiy a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao aeiiaiii? ?
aaoieieeaaeueii? aeaeo?e/ieo ianoaeinoae, caniiaaieo ia aino??e oacia?e
/ooeeaino? aeeiai?ee aeaeo?ii?a.

A i?ae?icae?e? 7.1 ?icaeyaea?oueny aeeiai?/iee iaoai?ci ae-ieeiaiiy N –
iiae?aieo AAO a ii?iaeueiiio iaoae? ca oiia ei-aa?aioiiai iaai?oiiai
i?iaith. A iniia? oeueiai iaoai?cio eaaeeoue aiiiaeueia iaeecia ia??iaeo
Px (Px – ocaaaeueiaiee ?iioeuen, yeee caa??aa?oueny a iaai?oiiio iie?)
iaai?oii?ia?eiiai aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a (a iieyo H 104 105 aaee/eia Px
(10-5 10-4)b (b – aaeoi? iaa?iaii? ?ao?oee) ? oe?eia iaai?oieo cii E
hH. . ?c-ca oeueiai aaea a ii??aiyii iaeeo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo E = (E,0,0)
aeieeathoue nai???aei? eaaioia? oeiaethaa/?. Ae?enii, yeui ciaoooaaoe
?icn?yiiyi aeaeo?ii?a, oi ?c caeiio caa?aaeaiiy iiaii? aia?a?? E = e E x
+ En(pz,Px) ? ia??iaee/iino? ii Px caeiio aeenia?n?? En(pz,Px) aeaeo?iio
ca oiia iaai?oiiai i?iaith aeoiaeeoue, ui aeaeo?iie iaai?oii?ia?eiiai
oa?o iathoue aooe eieae?ciaaieie a iaeanoyo ii?yaeeo x = E/eE. Eaaei
aa/eoe, ui ia??iae inoeeeyoe?e o oeeo “oeiaethaa/ao” T 2hH/eEb. Ia
a?aieoe? T E = h H/cb*. Cia/aiiy E
10-6 iae. CGSE.

I?ae?icae?e 7.2 – N-iiae?aia AAO a i?ia?aeieo caea?eieeiaaieo
ieanoeiao. Eaaioiaa ?ioa?oa?aioe?y, yea aeieea? i?e aaaa-oieaiaeueiiio
aeca?eaeueiiio a?aeaeoo? aeaeo?ii?a a?ae iaae iaoaeaai? ieanoeie, ye?nii
ci?ith? iae?ineii?/i? yaeua o ii??aiyii? c? cae/aeiei aeiaaeeii
iaeiieaiaeueiiai a?aeaeooy [9] . Aiaeia?/i? yaeua ?niothoue ? a
iaoaeaa?e ieanoei? c aea?eieeii, yeee ia? ei-aa?aioio iaaeo
aea?eieeoaaiiy, oiio ui ?icn?yiiy aeaeo?ii?a ca iaaeath aea?eieeoaaiiy
(IAe) ? aeaieaiaeueiei iaa?oue o aeiaaeeo i?inoi? (aea ai?cio?iiii?)
iiaa?oi? Oa?i? aeaeo?ii?a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeiaaeeo aaaaoieaiaeueiiai
?icn?yiiy aeaeo?ii?a ia ciai?oi?o iaaeao iaoaeaai? ieanoeie, AAO c?acea
c aea?eieeiaith iaaeath, ye iieacaii o oeueiio ?icae?e?, iiaea iaoe
iaaeath/o ae?eyieo i?e aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeo E, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei
aeieeiaiiy a ieo aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a ? aaoieieeaaiue.

A i?ae?icae?e? 7.2 ?icaeyaea?oueny neooaoe?y, a ye?e iaae?
aea?eie-eoaaiiy, ciai?oi? iaae? ieanoeie oiaueiith d ? iaai?oia iiea H ?
ia?aeaeueieie iaeia iaeiiio, a ea?ii?ianueeee ?aae?on R h/R, i?eaiaeyoue aei eieae?caoe?? aeaeo?ii?a acaeiaae iaae?
aea?eieeoaaiiy c oa?aeoa?iei ?ici??ii eieae?caoe?? h vF/e E R. Oiio
no?oi, ca’ycaiee c eieae?ciaaieie aeaeo?iiaie, E(eE*/hvF)-2, aea –
cae/aeia aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue i?e H=0. Oaeei /eiii, ca ?icaeyaeoaaieo
oiia aeieea? N-iiae?aia aieueo – aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ? ye iane?aeie –
aeiiaie aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, ye? ?ooathoueny. I?e oa?ieiaii? c?acea a
aeaeo?e/ia eiei c aeaea?aeii iino?eii? iai?oae iine?aeiaii c
?iaeoeoeai?noth aeieeathoue oaeiae aaoieieeaaiiy aaeeei? aiie?ooaee
no?oio ? iai?oae ia c?aceo c /anoioith eieeaaiue *-1 (*-1

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Ответить

Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020