Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?. Ia/i?eiaa

Oai ?aaai Aiaoie?eiae/

OAeE 911.3 : 301 : 324 (477.75)

Aeaeoi?aeueia aaia?ao?y E?eio

11.00.02. Aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana, 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?aaioa aeeiiaia a N?ioa?iiieueneiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. I.A.
O?oica I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee e.a.i., i?ioani? Aaa?ia I.A. caa. eao. aeiiii?/ii? oa
nioe?aeueii? aaia?aoee, i?i?aeoi? N?ioa?iiieueneiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?i? iiiiaioe: ae.a.i., i?ioani?, aie.iaoe. ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo
i?iaeai ?eieo oa aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, Aea?aa/ia
Aieiaeeie? Ieaenaiae?iae/, e.a.i., aeioe. Iaeanueeiai yeiiii?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, Eiaaeaanueeee A?eoi? Aieiaeeie?iae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa ?inoeooo aaia?ao?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «23» /a?aiy 1999 a. i 14.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 41.051.03 a Iaeanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?.?. Ia/i?eiaa (270058, i.Iaeana,
Oaiiainueeee i?ia., 2)

C ae?na?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. Ia/i?eiaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 19 o?aaiy 1999 a.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee AEaioaeae I.?.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ?
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee o na?oia?e oa a?o/eciyi?e aeaeoi?aeuei?e
aaia?ao??, ?nioth/? iaoiaee ? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?cothoueny
aeinyaiaiiy cao?aeieo, ?in?enueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo aaia?ao?a
o aea/aii? aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa.

Ia iniia? ia?iaeaiiai iaoa??aeo o aeena?oaoe?? aoaeothoueny iiaeae?
aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie, ye? aeicaieythoue nenoaiaoecoaaoe aaea
iai?aoeueiaaiee a?o/eciyieie a/aieie aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iee
iaoa??ae, aeae?eeoe ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo iaoee, ? ye? ?
oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeey noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aecia/aiiy aaoi?ii iiaeo iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a o neeaae? aeaeoi?aeueii?
aaia?ao?? ni?ey? aoaeoeaiiio aea/aiith aeaeoi?aeueiiai i?inoi?o
iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co caaacia/o?
i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ?iaioe. ?icaeaathoueny
aaea ?nioth/? i?aeoiaee aei iao?aaeeoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy a?aeiieo
iaoiae?a oa ae?iaeythoueny iia?. I?aenoieii aeine?aeaeaiue ?
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ia iiaeaeue oa?eoi???, yea iieno? aeaeoi?aeuei?
aca?iiae?? ?aa?ii?a ? aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe ?o aeeiai?eo.

Ai?iaoaaiiy iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaii ia i?eeeaae? aeai??a a Aaoiiiii?e
?anioae?oe? E?ei. I?ioyaii i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee
i?aeoaa?aeaeai? ? ?icaeioo? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??,
aeae?eaii iniiai? ?ene aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? i?aino?iaa, aea/aii
aeeiai?eo ?aa?iiaeueieo aca?iiae?e, iiaoaeiaaii
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/io iiaeaeue oa?eoi???.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy

Ia Caoiae?, aea ?inoeooo aeai??a ?nio? aaea aaaaoi aeanyoee?oue,
aeaeoi?aeueia aaia?ao?y ? iaeiei c iaeiiioey?i?oeo ? aeeiai?/ieo
iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a. A Oe?a?i?, aea ia?o? aeaiie?aoe/i? aeai?e a?aeaoeeny
o?eueee o 1989 ?., aeaeoi?aeueia aaia?ao?y ? iiaith ? iaeia?aeiiith.

Oei /anii, o e?a?i? aaea i?ieoee aeai?e aeaio I?aceaeaio?a, iai?ee?ioe?
oeueiai ?ieo iathoue aooe o?ao?, ia?aii o?e neeaaee Aa?oiaii? ?aaee.
Aea ae oeae aeaeoi?aeueiee iaoa??ae i?aeoe/ii ia ia?iaeaii aaia?aoaie.
?nioth/ee o noni?euenoa? ?ioa?an uiaei aeai?/i? i?iaeaiaoeee ia?aaaaeii
?aae?co?oueny o aeaeyae? aeia?aeeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eieo aeaeaiue ?
i?eeeaaeieo ?ic?iaie. Aeaye? ?io? ?iaioe iathoue iaeiia?/io ?aeaieia?/io
ni?yiiaai?noue, aeei?enoiaothoueny ye can?a i?iiaaaiaee.

Cai?iiiiiaaia aei ?icaeyaeo aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? ia?oii?io?aeiith a
aeaeoi?aeuei?e aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie, o ye?e ocaaaeueiththoueny ?nioth/?
oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaeieia?/i? aeine?aeieoeuee? i?aeoiaee, iaoiaee/i? ?
i?aeoe/i? aeinyaiaiiy na?oiai? oa a?o/eciyii? aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??.
Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co cae?eniaia ni?iaa iiaoaeoaaoe iiaeaeue
aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa, o ye?e aaoi?ii
aeae?ey?oueny aeae?eueea iiaeo iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a. I?aeoe/ia
canoinoaaiiy caoaeiaaii? iiaeae? caaacia/o?oueny iaoiaee/ieie
?ic?iaeaie.

Ia’?eoii i?eeeaaeiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, yeee i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aenieo
i?aeoe/io cia/i?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee, ia?aii E?ei — ?aa?ii,
aeaeoi?aeueiee aeina?ae yeiai ? iaea?eueoei a Oe?a?i?. E??i oiai,
aeaiia?ao?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aino?iaa a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ?ioeo
?aa?ii?a aea?aeaae, a aoiiiie?oe/ia noaiiaeua iaea?eueo neeaaeia. Ana
oea ? na?ae/eoue, ui E?ei ? neeaaeiei ia’?eoii aea/aiiy. ? oiio
iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co, ye? i?ieoee
ai?iaaoe?th ia i?eeeaae? E?eio, iiaeooue aooe c oni?oii canoiniaai? ? a
?ioeo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iniia i?iaaaeaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai i?eeeaaeiiai aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue ianooii? caaea/?:

aea/aiiy iniiaieo oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a o ca?oa?aei?e
? a?o/eciyi?e aeaeoi?aeuei?e aaia?ao??, aaiethoe?? iaoee a N?N? ? a
iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaao;

aiae?c iaoiae?a, ye? canoiniaaii o na?oia?e aeaeoi?aeuei?e aaia?ao?? oa
iiaeeeaino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeai??a o
iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaao;

aecia/aiiy iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai i?inoi?o
iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa ? oaeoi??a, ye? ?o oi?iothoue;

iiaoaeiaa iiaeae? aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie, aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a ? iaoai?cio ?o aca?iiae??;

?ic?iaeaiiy iaoiaeeee ?aa?iiaeueiiai aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai
aiae?co, yea ia?aaeaa/a? iie?oeei-aaia?ao?/io aaeaioaoe?th ?nioth/eo o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e aaia?ao?? i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe?? oa?eoi???,
aecia/aiiy a?aei?iiino? iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a o aea/aii?
aieinoaaiiy ca aaaaoiiaiaeaoieie ? iaaei?eoa?ieie aeai?/eie ie?oaaie,
ia?iaeo i?aeoiae?a aei aea/aiiy aeaeoi?aeueii? aeeiai?ee ?aa?ii?a,
i?iaaaeaiiy aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa?eoi???, ye
aeueoa?iaoeae aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiio ?aeiioaaiith;

aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iee aiae?c aeai??a a Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei,
aecia/aiiy iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? ?aa?iio,
iiaoaeiaa aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ii? iiaeae? i?aino?iaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny i?iia?nueeei oa?aeoa?ii
oe??? ?iaioe a Oe?a?i?. A i?e aia?oa i?iaaaeaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c
?nioth/eo o na?oia?e aeaeoi?aeuei?e aaia?ao?? iai?yie?a ? iaoiaee/ieo
i?aeoiae?a, ?noi??? ? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? ia
iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi??, ?ic?iaeai? a?o/eciyi? iiaeae? iaoee. O
?iaio? iiaeaia aeania iaoiaeeea aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co,
ye?e i?eionea? iao?aaeeoe?eia aeei?enoaiiy a?aeiieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iineeaiiy ?ie? ie?aieo iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a
aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??. ?iaioa ? ia?oei ?aa?iiaeueiei
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi a Oe?a?i?.

I?aaeiaoii caoenoo ? ?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??
Oe?a?ie, iaoiaeeea aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co i?aenoie?a
«caaaeueiiai» aieinoaaiiy oa aeniiaee, ye? c?iaeaii ia iniia? aea/aiiy
aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ?iaioe neeaee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aeieo a/aieo o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e noa?? (Aa?eyio I.I., A?eoeae I.A., Aea?aa/ia
A.I., Eaeca?iae/ A.A., ?iaeiiai A.A., I?nooi I.Ae., ?oaeaiei E.A.,
Oii/e?a I.A., Oaae?e I.?. oa ?i.) oa iie?oe/ii? aaia?ao?? (Aenueiiia
E.A., Aeoeianueeee I.A., Eieinia A.I., Eaa?oo?i A.A., Ia?aia/ei I.N.,
Nie?iya?i E.A. oa ?i.), aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?in??
(Aieinia A.A., Eieinia A.I., Eaa/ee Ae.I., Ia?/aiei A.A. , Iao?ia I.A.,
Niayiei I.I., Oo?ianueeee ?.O., *a?eaoei I.E., *oa?ia N. oa ?i.),
?ic?iaee oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo (Aaa?ia I.A., Aieoaiei A.I., E?ai?iue A.A.,
Iia?aaeinueeee I., Iiiiae/ A.A., Oiiaiei I. oa ?i.), a oaeiae ?iaioe
cao?aeieo aaoi??a, i?enay/ai? aea/aiith aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??
iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa (Bremmer I., Holdar S., Kuzio T., Shaw D.,
Solchanyk R., Wilson A. oa ?i.).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iacaaieo aaoi??a eyaee a iniiao i?iaaaeaieo o ?iaio?
oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo aeooeoaaiue. A ?icaeoie ?o aeinyaiaiue o
aeena?oaoe?? aoea caoaeiaaia aaaaoii??ia iiaeaeue aeaeoi?aeueii?
aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie, ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai
aiae?co ie?aiiai ?aa?iio, i?iaaaeaii i?eeeaaeia
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe
iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??
?ioeo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie, yea ? aoaea ni?eyoe ?icaeoeo oe??? iaoee a
Oe?a?i?. Iiaoaeiaa aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ieo iiaeaeae ??ciiiai?oieo
?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie aoaea ni?eyoe ? i?eeiyooth iioeiaeueieo ??oaiue
aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie aeaaee. sse na?ae/aoue aeniiaee, ca i?aenoieaie
i?iaaaeaieo e?einueeeo aeai??a aeine?aeaeaiiy aaea aeoeaii
aeei?enoiaothoueny a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eaoaae?aeueieo aeeeaaeaoeueeeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao oa aeni?an-eiioa?aioe?yo
E?einueeiai oeaio?o aoiai?oa?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa i?ae /an ui??/ieo
E?einueeeo /eoaiue ?i. I.ss.Aeaieeaanueeiai. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aaoi?a
i?aeoe/ii aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a ?iaio? I?aaenoaaieoeoaa I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie a Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei, ye aiae?oe/i? iaoa??aee
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oeaio?aeueieie i?aaiaie aeaaee Oe?a?ie. A aeaiee /an
aaoi?ii aaaeaoueny aeine?aeieoeueea ?iaioa uiaei i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o
aeai??a I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?oeoaaeeny o
iaoeiaeo ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo /aniienao.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe

?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio (6 noi?.), o?ueio ?icae?e?a (103 noi?.),
aeniiae?a (9 noi?.) oa ia?ae?eo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (15 noi?., 182
iaeiaioaaiue). Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — 135 noi?., a.
o./. 16 iaethie?a (9,5 noi?.) oa 13 oaaeeoeue (14,5 noi?.)

Ci?no ?iaioe

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? i?eioeeie ? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee a
aeaeoi?aeuei?e aaia?ao??

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?icaeyiooi oai?aoe/i? ?
iaoiaee/i? aeinyaiaiiy cao?aeii?, ?in?enueei? oa oe?a?inueei?
aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??. Ca ?iaioaie a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a
aeae?eaii iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai i?inoi?o
?in?? oa Oe?a?ie. Aea/aii i?aeoiaee aei iiaoaeiae iiaeae?a
aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? a cao?aeieo e?a?iao, o ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? oa
iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaao. Ca i?iaaaeaiei aiae?cii iiaoaeiaaii iiaeae?
aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? aeniiaee:

?icaeoie aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? a o?e aai ?io?e aea?aeaa?
aecia/a?oueny cia/aiiyi o iueiio ?inoeoooo aeai??a. A cao?aeieo e?a?iao,
aea ?inoeooo aeai??a ?nio? aaea aaaaoi noie?ooue, i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy
aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? ? any iie?oe/ia nenoaia aea?aeaae, neeaaeiaeie
/anoeiaie yei? ? aeai?e, ?inoeoooe aeaaee ? ae?th/a iie?oeea. O
iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaao, aea ?inoeooo aeaiie?aoe/ieo aeai??a ?nio?
o?eueee aeanyoue ?ie?a, aea/a?oueny iie?oeei-aaia?aoaie o?eueee iaeia c
neeaaeiaeo /anoei iie?oe/ii? nenoaie — aaciina?aaeiuei aeai?/ee aeie.
A?aeiia?aeii aei ae?iaeaii? eiioeaioe??, a?i neeaaea?oueny c i?aeaeie?a:
aieinoaaiiy, aeaeoi?ao, ia??cea aeai?/eo ie?oa?a.

Oe?iea ?icoi?iiy i?aaeiaoo aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? ia Caoiae? coiiaeth?
aeniea ??ciiiai?oi?noue i?aeoiae?a, eiioeaioe?e, oe?e o iaooe?. ?nioth/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia oiiaii ?iciiae?eeoe ia aeaeoi?aeueii-nioe?ieia?/i?
oa aeaeoi?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?, aeae?eeoe ?a?iiaenueeo ? aia?eeainueeo
aeine?aeieoeuee? oeiee.

Aeaeoi?aeueia aaia?ao?y a N?N? aea/aea aeaeoi?aeueio aaia?ao?th
cao?aeieo e?a?i ? oiio i?aaeiaoii ?? aea/aiiy oaeiae aoea ony iie?oe/ia
nenoaia noni?euenoaa. A?ae??ciyea ?aaeyinueeo iie?oeei-aaia?ao?/io oeieo
a?ae cao?aeii? ?aeaieia?/ia ni?yiiaai?noue oace: «oa?eoi??aeueia
?icoaooaaiiy iie?oe/ieo nee a?aeiia?aea? aaia?ao?/iei a?aei?iiinoyi
ae?iaie/eo nee ? ae?iaie/eo noinoie?a».

Noaiiaeaiiy ?inoeoooo aeaiie?aoe/ieo aeai??a o ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? oa
iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaao aecia/eee caa?oaiiy iie?oeei-aaia?ao?a aei
aiae?co a?o/eciyiiai aeaeoi?aeueiiai iaoa??aeo. ?iciaae N?N? iaoiiaea
?icaeoie ia iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi?? iaoe?iiaeueieo
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ieo oe?e. Aeiiii?/ia e?eca ia?aoai?eea eieenue
aenieii?aai?caoe?eia noni?euenoai a nioe?aeueii «?icieoa». A ?acoeueoao?
aeaeoi?aeueia aaia?ao?y aeyaeeany a a?eueo?no? iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa
«iiaith» iaoeith, ia?aeoea ia aea/aiiy o?eueee aeai?/iai aeieo
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aoea ciooaia ciaoiaeeoe iia? i?aeoiaee aei aeyaeaiiy
caeaaeiino? i?aenoie?a aieinoaaiiy a?ae oiia aeeoo?caeaoiino? ianaeaiiy.

Ca aiae?cii aeinyaiaiue iaea?eueo ?icaeiooeo iino?aaeyinueeeo
iie?oeei-aaia?ao?/ieo oe?e — ?in?enueei? oa oe?a?inueei? – aoei aeaeii,
ui aeey ?in?? oa?aeoa?ia oe?ioia iie?oeei-aaia?ao?/ia ciiaeuei?noue, a
aeey Oe?a?ie — ia?eae?iiaeueia. Aciiaeuei? aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/i?
ci?ie a iaio e?a?iao i?eaeecii iaeiaeia? ? eaeooue ca e?i?yie «i?noi —
naei», «oeaio? — ia?eoa??y», «noieeoey — i?ia?ioe?y», «oa?eoi??? c
ia?aaaaeaiiyi aeii?ioth/iai a aea?aeaa? aoiino — oa?eoi??? ?c cia/iith
o/anoth ?ioeo aoiin?a».

Aecia/aiiy caeaaeiino? i?aenoie?a iie?oe/iiai aieaaeyaeaiiy a?ae oiia
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia ia oaeeo iai?yieao:
ii??aiyiiy i?aenoie?a aieinoaaiiy c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie
iieacieeaie, «?iaeeeaoi?aie cia/iino?» ie?aieo oai??e, ye? iiyniththoue
i?aenoiee aeai??a c oeiaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? no?aoaa??,
i?iaaaeaii? o ?aa?iiao ? oa?eoi??aeuei?e aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? noni?eueii?
aeoiee (ca aeiiiiiaith ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co ?
ii??aiyeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai iaoiaeo), aecia/aiiy aano?aeoieo /eiiee?a
(aai oeyoii eia?/ieo oiicaeeth/aiue, aai ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a
aaaaoii??iiai noaoaiae?co), i?iaaaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, o
yeeo i?aeaeathoueny ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? a?eueo?noue caeaaeiinoae, ye? ia
o?enothoueny ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?.

I?e iiaoaeia? iiaeaeae aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? ia Caoiae?
canoiniaothoueny noa’?eoiee oa noa’?eoii-ia’?eoiee i?aeoiaee. O iaaeao
noa’?eoiiai i?aeoiaeo a iiaeaethaaii? ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui aeieaie
iiaeae? ? iaoeia? iai?yiee ? ca’ycie i?ae ieie, a a iaaeao
noa’?eoiiai-ia’?eoiiai — ui aeieaie iiaeae? ? iaeii/anii ? ia’?eoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? iaoeia? iai?yiee, ye? ?o aea/athoue.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? a
Oe?a?i? ? o?eueee aeai?e, ? canoiniaoth/e noa’?eoiee ?
noa’?eoii-ia’?eoiee i?aeoiaee aei iiaeaethaaiiy, iaie iiaoaeiaaii aea?
iiaeae? aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie (iae.1). A?aeiia?aeii
iieiaeaiue, ui caoeuathoueny a ?iaio?, aieinoaaiiy aea/a? aaia?ao?y
aieinoaaiiy, ia??ceo aeai?/eo ie?oa?a — aeai?/a aaiiao??y oa?eoi???, a
aeaeoi?ao — aaia?ao?y iioea?a aieinoaaiiy oa oyaeaiue aeai?oe?a,
aeaeoi?aeueia aeaiia?ao?y. Oae? iai?yiee aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??, ye
aaia?ao?y iioea?a aieinoaaiiy ? iie?oe/ieo oyaeaiue aeai?oe?a,
aeaeoi?aeueia aeaiia?ao?y, aeae?eythoueny iaie aia?oa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeiio a ?aeeio no?oieo nenoaio ciaiue «c?eethoueny»
iienai? aaia?ao?/i? iai?yiee, aoaea eiiieaeniei
aeaeoi?aeueiei-aaia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi. I?iaaaeaia iiaeaethaaiiy
aeicaiey? a?aoiaioiaaii nenoaiaoecoaaoe aanue iai?aoeueiaaiee
aeaeoi?aeueiee-aaia?ao?/iee iaoa??ae, aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo iaoee.

?icae?e 2. Iaoiaee ? iaoiae?ea aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?iaiae?ciaai? iaoiaee, ye?
canoiniaothoueny a aeaeoi?aeuei?e aaia?ao??, iaa?oioiaaii i?e/eie aeai?o
iaoiae?a aeey i?iaaaeaiiai iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaeioo? iieiaeaiiy
ie?aieo aaoi??a ii aeei?enoaiith iaoiae?a a aeaeoi?aeuei?e aaia?ao??,
cai?iiiiiaai? iia? i?aeoiaee. Aecia/ai? a?aei?iiino? aieinoaaiiy a
iaaei?eoa?ieo ? aaaaoiiaiaeaoieo ie?oaao, cia/aiiy ?o aiae?co aeey
iaoee. A?aeiia?aeii aei oai?aoe/ii? eiioeaioe?? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co «caaaeueiiai» aieinoaaiiy.
?icaeyiooi i?aeoiaee cao?aeii? ? ?aaeyinueei? aaia?ao?? uiaei
i?iaaaeaiiy aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy. Iaa?oioiao?oueny
iaiiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy oeeo i?aeoiae?a aeey aiae?co aeai??a o
iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaao, a oiio i?iiiio?oueny aeueoa?iaoeaia
eiioeaioe?y aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

Iniiaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie cai?iiiiiaaii? aei ?icaeyaeo iaoiaeeee
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co ? oae?.

I?iaiae?ciaaii aeai?e ii aaaaoiiaiaeaoiiio aeai?/iio ie?oao, uiaei aeaae
aea?aeaae, ia ?aoa?aiaeoiao (o.ca., «caaaeueia» aieinoaaiiy). O oeueiio
aeiaaeeo aeine?aeiee ia? ni?aao ?c eiioeioaeueiei (aacoieiiei)
?iciiae?eii. Aieiaiith iaoith aiae?co «caaaeueiiai» aieinoaaiiy ?
iiaoaeiaa iiaeae? iaoai?cio i?io?eaiiy aeaeoi?aeueieo aca?iiae?e
?aa?ii?a, yea aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe oeth iiaeaeue aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy
aeeiai?ee aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai i?inoi?o.

Aeaea?aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aenoiee aeai??a.

Iniiai? aeei?enoiaoaai? iaoiaee:

iaoiaee ia?aeiii? noaoia?iaee (aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iaea?aeaiiy
aeiaeaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?c caaaeaieo a?aeiiinoae i?aenoie?a aeai??a,
aeey ia/eneaiiy na?aaei?o oa?aeoa?enoee ? ?ici???a ?iciaoo aa??aoe??
iciae);

ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c (canoiniao?oueny aeey aeyaeaiiy aca?iica’yce?a i?ae
??ciiiai?oieie iieacieeaie, aecia/aiiy oyaeaiue aeai?oe?a uiaei
noa’?eo?a ia?aaeaeai?/i? ai?ioueae, aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee oeeo oyaeaiue);

iaoiae aieiaieo eiiiiiaio?a (?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaoiae aecia/aiiy
iniiaieo iioea?a aieinoaaiiy, canoiniao?oueny aeey oiai, uia aiae?coaaoe
oa?eoi??aeueio no?oeoo?o oyaeaiue aeai?oe?a, ?? aeeiai?ee);

eeanoa?-aiae?c (aeei?enoiao?oueny, uia iiaoaeoaaoe oeiieia??
oa??oi??aeueieo iaeeieoeue ii noeoiiino? ?acoeueoao?a ? iioea?a
aieinoaaiiy a ieo);

a?ao?/iee iaoiae (canoiniao?oueny aeey iai/iiai iiaeaiiy aeaieo
iaoaiaoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a);

ea?oia?ao?/iee iaoiae (aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aea/aiiy i?inoi?iaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee yaeua, iiaoaeiae aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ieo iiaeaeae).

O ?iaio? aia?oa iaa?oioiaaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo aieiaieo
eiiiiiaio?a, ye iaoiaeo aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iioea?a aieinoaaiiy, a
oaeiae ?icaeioo? iieiaeaiiy ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a uiaei iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co ye iaoiaeo aea/aiiy oyaeaiue
aeai?oe?a i?i noa’?eoe ia?aaeaeai?ii? ai?ioueae.

A iniia? iaoiaeeee aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co eaaeeoue i?eioeei
ie?aiiai ?icaeyaeo ? c?noaaeaiiy aeaio iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a aeaeoi?aeueii?
aaia?ao?? — aaia?ao?? aieinoaaiiy ? aaia?ao?? iioea?a aieinoaaiiy.

Iaoiaeeea neeaaea?oueny ?c o?ueio iniiaieo aoai?a:
iie?oeei-aeaeoi?aeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea, aaia?ao?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea
i?aenoie?a aeai??a ? iioea?a aieinoaaiiy aeai?oe?a, ea?oia?ao?/ia
iiaeaethaaiiy (iae.2).

Ia ia?oiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?oueny iie?oeei-aeaeoi?aeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea oa?eoi???. Iieno?oueny iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a ?aa?ii?
(e?a?i?), ca aeiiiiiaith ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co iiaeaeththoueny oyaeaiiy
aeai?oe?a uiaei iie?oe/ieo noa’?eo?a, aecia/athoueny aaeoi?e
i?aeoo?iaiai ? i?aeaeai?/iai ia?ai?uaiiy aeaeoi?aoo, iaoiaeii aieiaieo
eiiiiiaio?a ?ic?aoiaothoueny iniiai? iioeae aieinoaaiiy aeai?oe?a.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?oueny aaia?ao?/iee iien i?aenoie?a
oa iioea?a aieinoaaiiy. Aaia?ao?y aieinoaaiiy aea/a?oueny oeyoii
iiaoaeiae ea?oinoai oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo ??ciiiai?oieo
aeaeoi?aeueieo iieaciee?a (i?aenoie?a aieinoaaiiy, yaee aeai?oe?a ?
?i.). Oea cae?enith?oueny aeey aea/aiiy i?aaeiaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iio?i
i?aenoiee aieinoaaiiy ii?aoeueiaothoueny iaoiaeii eeanoa?-aiae?co, yeee
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaoaeiae oeiieia?? ?aa?ii?a ii iiae?aiino? ?o
iie?oe/iiai aieaaeyaeaiiy. Aiaeia?/ii aoaeo?oueny aiae?c o ?aieao
aaia?ao?? iioea?a aieinoaaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaee aeaieo iaoiaeii
aieiaieo eiiiiiaio?a nii/aoeo iienothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith a?ao?/iiai
iaoiaeo, a iio?i ca aeiiiiiaith eeanoa?-aiae?co aoaeo?oueny oeiieia?y
?aa?ii?a ii iiae?aiino? iioea?a aieinoaaiiy a ieo. Iio?i i?iaiaeeoueny
c?noaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a oeiieia?e, iiaoaeiaaieo ii iiae?aiino?
?acoeueoao?a aieinoaaiiy ? ii iiae?aiino? iioea?a aieinoaaiiy. O
aeiaaeeo ?ica?aeiino? aeae?eaieo eeanoa??a c?noaaeythoueny i?aenoiee
aeai??a ? ?ici??e oaeoi?ieo aaa o eiie?aoieo ?aa?iiao. sseui cia/aiiy
iioea?a aieinoaaiiy eia?/ii iiyniththoueny ?acoeueoaoaie aeai??a o
?aa?iiao, oi aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia i?iaeiaaeoaaoe, yeui i? — iaiao?aeii
iiaa?iooeny aei ia?oiai aoaio aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?aaeyiooe nai? iiaeyaee
ia ?ioai?aoaoe?th iaoaiaoe/ii io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia inoaiiueiio o?aoueiio aoai? i?iaiaeeoueny ea?oia?ao?/ia
aeaeoi?aeueia-aaia?ao?/ia iiaeaethaaiiy. Aeey oeueiai ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaieo ?ai?oa oeiieia?e iaeeaaeathoueny ia ea?oo, inieneaiiy yei?
cae?enith?oueny a ?aieao aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ii? iiaeae?
«i?noi-naei», yea aecia/a? oa?eoi??aeuei? ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?aenoie?a
aieinoaaiiy, ? iiaeae? «oeaio?-ia?eoa??y», yea aecia/a? oa?eoi??aeuei?
?icoiaeaeaiiy iioea?a aieinoaaiiy.

Aeaeoi?aeueia-aaia?ao?/ia iiaeaeue «oeaio?-ia?eoa??y», yea ia? iinooeao,
ui iaei? aeaeoi?aeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ciaioothoueny a?ae oeaio?o aei
ia?eoa???, a ?io? ?inoooue, ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie, ye c?acie ciiaeueiiai
aaia?ao?/iiai ?iciiae?eo, a ?? iiaoaeiaa — ye aeueoa?iaoeaa
?aeiioaaiith. Na?aae aciiaeueieo /eiiee?a, ye? na?eicii niioai?ththoue
??aiii??iee iaethiie ciiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo, aieiaiei ? /eiiee
iie?oe/iiai ?aa?iiae?cio. Oeaio?aeuei? ? iai?aia?aoa??ei? i?noa ? ?aeiie
noai?thoue iie?oe/ii no?iai i?aai?ciaaiee i?ino??, iie?oe/ia ia?eoa??y ?
oa?eoi??? c ia?aaaaeaiiyi iie?oe/iiai ?aa?iiae?cio — neaaei
i?aai?ciaaiee.

?icae?e 3. Aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iee aiae?c aeai??a a Aaoiiiii?e
?anioae?oe? E?ei

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?iaaaeaii aaia?ao?/iee
aiae?c aeai??a a Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei. Ia i?eeeaae? eiie?aoieo
i?ioeaaeo? aieinoaaiiy aeiaaaeaii aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaeeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aeoe/ii i?aeoaa?aeaeai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe??, aeae?eai? iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??
?aa?iio. ?icaeyiooi aeai?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a E?eio o 1994 ?., aeai?e
aeaiooao?a Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ii aaaaoiiaiaeaoiiio aeai?/iio ie?oao
a 1998 ?., ? a noeoiiino? an? aeai?e, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a 1994 ?. o E?eio
(I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, I?aceaeaioa E?eio, Aa?oiaii? ?aaee E?eio).

Iniiaieie aeniiaeaie, i?iaaaeaiiai o o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
? oae?.

E?ei ia? iaea?eueoee aeaeoi?aeueiee aeina?ae a Oe?a?i?, i?aenoiee
aieinoaaiiy ia eiai oa?eoi??? caaaeaee ??cei a?aei?ii? a?ae i?aenoie?a
aeai??a a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao aea?aeaae. Aeey ?aa?iio oa?aeoa?iee
«iao?aaeeoe?eiee» aeey Oe?a?ie neeaae ianaeaiiy, aenieee iie?oe/iee
?aa?iiae?ci naiina?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy.

Oi?ioaaiiy aeaeoi?aeueii? iiaaae?iee aeai?oe?a cae?enith?oueny ca
e?i??th «?aeaaeuei? oyaeaiiy-iioeae aieinoaaiiy-i?aenoiee aeai??a».
?aeaaeuei? oyaeaiiy, ciaoiaey/enue o aca?iiae?? c ?nioth/ith
?icnoaiiaeith iie?oe/ieo nee, oi?iothoue iioeae aieinoaaiiy aeai?oe?a.
Inoaii?, ci?ithth/enue i?ae aieeaii ?aaeueii? iie?oe/ii? neooaoe??
o?ainoi?iothoueny o i?aenoiee aeai??a. Aaia?ao?/iee /eiiee a?ae?a?a?
iaea?eueoo ?ieue ia ??ai? ?aeaaeueieo oyaeaiue, ? eiai cia/aiiy iaaea? o
iai?yieo aei i?aenoie?a aieinoaaiiy. Iie?oe/iee /eiiee ?iaeoue
iaea?eueoee aieea ia i?aenoiee aieinoaaiiy ? iaeiaioee — ia ?aeaaeuei?
oyaeaiiy.

Aeaia aii??e/ia iiaeaeue aeia?a «aieno?oueny» o oai?aoe/ii ?ic?iaeaio
iiaeaeue aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??. ?aeaaeuei? oyaeaiiy aea/athoueny
aeaeoi?aeueiith aeaiia?ao??th, iioeae aieinoaaiiy, ye? aeae?eythoueny
iaoiaeii aieiaieo eiiiiiaio?a, — aaia?ao??th iioea?a aieinoaaiiy, a
i?aenoiee aeai??a — aaia?ao??th aieinoaaiiy. Aea/aiiy aaia?ao?? eiaeiiai
??aiy oe??? nenoaie, c?noaaeaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeathoue oe?ie?
iiaeeeaino? aeey oii?yaeeoaaiiy eiiieaeniiai aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai
iieno ?aa?iio.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui aeaeoi?aeueia aaia?ao?y — oea i?eei?aeiiia iaoea, a
oiio ?icoaoiaaia o i?inoi??, noai?aiiio aeaiia a?nyie: aaia?ao?/iith ?
noni?eueiith, aaaea?ii, ui iiaoaeiaai? iiaeae? (iiaeaeue aeaeoi?aeueii?
aaia?ao?? ? iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy aeaeoi?aeueii? iiaaae?iee) ? i?iaeoe?yie
aeaieo inae, a ioaea, iaie iiaoaeiaaii aaaaoii??ia iiaeaeue
aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie.

Iie?oeei-oa?eoi??aeueia no?oeoo?a i?aino?iaa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
i?inoi?iai-/aniaith onoaeai?noth. Oey onoaeai?noue iaoiiaeaia aenieith
eiina?aaoeai?noth ?aeaaeueieo oyaeaiue, ye? oi?iothoueny o eiie?aoieo
oiiaao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, ?o i?noeaia?aaoaaiiy.

Iniiaieie iioeaaie aieinoaaiiy ia oa?eoi??? E?eio ? iioea i?ioenoiyiiy ?
?aa?iiaeueiee. Iioea i?ioenoiyiiy — oea iioea aieinoaaiiy «ca»
eaiaeeaeao?a, ye? i?ioenoiyoue iaeei iaeiiio — «eiina?aaoi??a» ?
«?aaiethoe?iia??a» (?c ia?oeie ca’ycoaaeeny iaae?? ia caa??aaiiy
?nioth/i? neooaoe?? oa aaiethoe?eiee ?icaeoie iiae?e; a c ae?oaeie
anioe?thaaeeny ?aaeeeaeuei? ci?ie a aeiiii?/i?e, iie?oe/i?e oa
nioe?aeuei?e neooaoe?? a E?eio, Oe?a?i?). ?aa?iiaeueiee iioea — oea
iioea aieaaeyaeaiiy a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao, aieinoaaiiy, yea a?ae??ciy?oueny
a?ae na?aaeiuei? ea?oeie ii E?eio, c caaaeueiie?einueeeo oaiaeaioe?e
ci?ie. Iiaaae?iea “iie?oe/ii naiiaooi?o” ?aa?ii?a a iaeieo aeiaaeeao
iiynith?oueny iaai?noth iie?oe/ieo onoaiia ?o aeai?oe?a, a ?ioeo,
iaaiaee, ?o iaiaai?noth. Oaeiae iie?oe/ia aieaaeyaeaiiy aeai?oe?a
aecia/aeiny ?in?enueeei iaoe?iiaeueiei, eiioi?noe/iei,
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeei oa ??ciiiai?oieie iie?oeei-i?aai?caoe?eieie
iioeaaie.

Iniiaiei aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iei aiaei?icae?eii E?eio ? e?i?y
«i?noi-naei». Aecia/iei o no?oeoo?oaaii? iie?oe/ieo ia?aaaa aeai?oe?a ca
e?i??th «i?noi-naei» ? iioea i?ioenoiyiiy, eio?ee ye o 1994 ?., oae ? a
1998 ?., aecia/aa aeaeoi?aeueio iiaaae?ieo a?eueoi? iieiaeie e?einueeeo
aeai?oe?a.

E?i?y «i?noi-naei» iineoue cia/iith i??ith aano?aeoiee oa?aeoa?, aeeiio?
?ieue nai???aeiiai nioe?aeueiiai ?icae?eueieea. Aeoiaey/e o?eueee c ia?,
iiaeia iiaoaeoaaoe oeiieia?th ?aa?ii?a E?eio ca ia?aiao?aie ?o
iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e. Ca a?eueo i?ene?ieeaei ?icaeyaeii e?i?? «i?noi —
naei» o ?aaeueiiio (o?ce/iiio, a ia iciaeiaiio) i?inoi??, aiia iaea?aeo?
yne?aa? aaia?ao?/i? ?ene. Oae, ia caoiae? i?aino?iaa ia?aaaaea? i?nueea
ianaeaiiy, ia noiae? — i?eaeecii ii??aio n?euenueea ? i?nueea, ia
i?aii/? — n?euenueea. A?aeiia?aeii ?icoiaeaeaiiy o iie?oe/i?e eoeueoo??
i?nueeiai ? n?euenueeiai aeaeoi?aoo aecia/a? ae?y a E?eio oae?o
aiaei?icae?e?a, ye «i?ai?/-i?aaeaiue», ? «cao?ae-no?ae».

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia i???ioaoe?y n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? iaaeiei i?no
aecia/a? ? ?? iie?oe/io i???ioaoe?th. Eieae?caoe?y ?aeii?a c aecia/aieie
iie?oe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iaaeiei i?no iii?oia aaea ca aaia?ao?/iei
aiae?cii i?aenoie?a aeai??a, aea /?oe? ia?ene iiaeaeue
«oeaio?-ia?eoa??y» iaea?aeo? i?e aiae?c? iioea?a aieinoaaiiy. Oea
iia’ycaii c oei, ui oiiae aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae aaaaoi a /iio
aecia/athoue ?oi? aieaaeyaeaiiy. Ine?eueee i?ino??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a eiioeioaeueiee, oiae ? iioeae
aieinoaaiiy iathoue a?eueo caeaaeaeaiee oa?eoi??aeueiee ?iciiae?e, i?ae
no?oeoo?a i?aenoie?a aeai??a, iaeththoue a?eueo ia’?eoeaio ea?oeio
iioe?aiiy noni?eueii? aeoiee.

sse iieacaa aaia?ao?/iee aiae?c aeai??a o 1994 ?., ca oiiaaie
aeii?ioaaiiy i?nueei? iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e, yea oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany
i?aeaeuaiith «?aaiethoe?ei?noth», aeeooc?y i?aeo?eiee ?aaiethoe?eieo
iie?oe/ieo nee iaae?eoea ?c caoiaeo i?aino?iaa (a ia noiae? — a?ae Ea?/?
? Oaiaein??) ia iaaeieeoi? oa?eoi???. I?noa aoee iie?oe/ieie oeaio?aie,
iaaeiei ieo oi?ioaaeany iai?aia?aoa??y ? iio?i iie?oe/ia ia?eoa??y.

*eiiee iie?oe/iiai ?aa?iiae?cio aecia/aa aieaaeyaeaiiy i?eaeecii /aa?o?
aeai?oe?a ? a?aa aaeeeo ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? oa?eoi??aeueii? no?oeoo?e
aieinoaaiiy. ?acii c iie?oe/iith ia?eoa???th «iniaeea?» oa?eoi??? (ui ia
i?aeiaaeathoue i? i?ae iaeei c aeae?eaieo oei?a) a?aeiinyoueny aei /enea
iie?oe/ii neaaei i?aai?ciaaieo. O ca’yceo c oei, ui ia i?aino?ia? aaeeea
/enei ia?eoa??eieo ? «iniaeeaeo» ?aa?ii?a, ie aiai?eii i?i iueiai, ye
i?i neaaei i?aai?ciaaiee aeaeoi?aeueiee i?ino??.

Aiineoue «cao?aiiy» o ??aiii??ii aaia?ao?/iee ?iciiae?e ? c?inoaiiy
cia/aiiy iie?oeei-i?aai?coth/eo /eiiee?a o aecia/aii? ?acoeueoao?a
aieinoaaiiy. Neaaei iaoiiaeai? «?aeaaeueieie oyaeaiiyie»
iie?oeei-i?aai?caoe?ei? iioeae aieinoaaiiy, «aeiaaeathoue» c
iiaoaeiaaii? aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ii? iiaeae?.

Iiaoaeiaaia aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ia iiaeaeue E?eio (iae. 3) a??ia?aeii
iieno? aeaeoi?aeuei? aca?iiae?? ?aa?ii?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ia
oa?eoi??? i?aino?iaa, a oiio aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe ?aa?iiaeueio
aeeiai?eo aeaeoi?aeueieo i?ioean?a. Onoaeai?noue aeaeoi?aeueii?
iiaaae?iee ?aa?ii?a o 1994-98 ?. na?ae/eoue i?i aenieee iioaioe?ae
iiaeae?. A oie aea /an, neaaea iie?oe/ia i?aai?caoe?y
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai i?inoi?o i?aino?iaa iaaea? aenieiai cia/aiiy
aeiaaeeiaiio /eiieeo i?e i?iaiicoaaii?, ciaioo? iiaeeeaino? eiai
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy.

Oae ye aaia?ao?y aieinoaaiiy ? aaia?ao?y iioea?a aieinoaaiiy ?
iie?oe/ieo oyaeaiue aeai?oe?a E?eio aaea aea/ai? o aeai?e ?iaio?,
iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei iaoeiaei iai?yieii iiaeaeueoeo
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aino?iaa ? aeaeoi?aeueia
aeaiia?ao?y. Ca i?aenoieaie i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, o ?aieao
aeaiiai iaoeiaiai iai?yieo iaoeia aenieo aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy
nioe?ieia?/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??y.

Iieiaeaiiyie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ui caoeuathoueny ?:

Ia c?oeiaii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaoaeiaaii aaaaoii??io
iiaeaeue aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co oa?eoi???. Iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo aieiaieo eiiiiiaio?a a aeaeoi?aeuei?e aaia?ao?? ye
caniao aeae?eaiiy iniiaieo iioea?a aieinoaaiiy. Aeae?eaii iniiai?
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee E?eio. Iiaoaeiaaii
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/io iiaeaeue i?aino?iaa. Any ?iaioa a oe?eiio aea?
oai?aoe/io, iaoiaee/io ? i?aeoe/io aaco aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a aoaeue-yeiio ?aa?ii?
Oe?a?ie. ?iaioa ia? ae??aa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

?iaioe, ui ioae?eoaaeeny ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

Oai ?.A. Aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iee aiae?c i?aceaeaionueeeo aeai??a a
Oe?a?i? // Oe?a?inueeee aaia?ao?/iee aeo?iae. — 1999. — ?1. — N.59-62.

Oai A.A. Aaia?aoey auai?ia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa E?uia a 1994 a. //
Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. –– 1997. –– ?2. — N.75-82.

Oai A.A. Yeaeoi?aeueiay aaia?aoey E?uia (ii ?acoeueoaoai auai?ia a 1994
a.) // O/aiua caienee Neioa?iiieueneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa.
–– 1997. –– ?3(42). –– N. 83-95.

Oai A.A. Yeaeoi?aeueiay aaia?aoey Oe?aeiu: iiaeaee?iaaiea i?aaeiaoa e
no?oeoo?u iaoee // O/aiua caienee Neioa?iiieueneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oieaa?neoaoa. –– 1998. –– ?6 (45). –– n.47-53.

Oai A.A. E?ui eae iauaeo eco/aiey iieeoe/aneie aaia?aoee // Iaoa?eaeu
Aoi?uo e?uineeo /oaiee ei. I.ss.Aeaieeaaneiai. –– Neioa?iiieue, 1995. ––
n.63-65.

Oai A.A., Iaaeaaaeaa A.I. Ia?oey yeiiiie/aneiai aic?iaeaeaiey E?uia
(1993-1996 aa.) // Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee «I?iaeaiu
iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee E?uia: eoiae e ia?niaeoeau». –– Neioa?iiieue, 1996.
–– N.135-137.

Aiioaoe??

Oai ?.A. Aeaeoi?aeueia aaia?ao?y E?eio. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe ca oaoii
11.00.02. – aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y. – Niaoe?ae?ciaia a/aia
?aaea Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Iaeana, 1999 ?.

O ?iaio? ?icaeaa?oueny iiaee aeey oe?a?inueei? iaoee iai?yiie ––
aeaeoi?aeueia aaia?ao?y. O aeine?aeaeaii? ?icaeyioo? iaoiaee/i?
i?aeoiaee ? aeinyaiaiiy cao?aeieo, ?aaeyinueeeo, ?in?enueeeo ?
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo. Iiaoaeiaaia iiaeaeue aeaeoi?aeueii? aaia?ao??
Oe?a?ie, o ye?e iiaeai? ye o?aaeeoe?ei?, oae ? iia? iaoeia? iai?yiee.
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?aa?iiaeueiiai aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co,
ai?iaiaaia ia i?eeeaae? Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei. Ca i?aenoieaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaoaeiaaia aeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ia iiaeaeue ?aa?iio,
ui iieno? iaoai?ci eiai iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe??. ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee ?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy a ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a aeaaee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeoi?aeueia aaia?ao?y, E?ei, iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee a
aaia?ao??, iiaeaethaaiiy.

Oai A.A. Yeaeoi?aeueiay aaia?aoey E?uia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.02. – yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay aaia?aoey. –
Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue o/aiue niaao Iaeanneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oieaa?neoaoa, Iaeanna, 1999 a.

A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony iiaia aeey oe?aeineie iaoee iai?aaeaiea ––
yeaeoi?aeueiay aaia?aoey. Caeiaeaiu oai?aoe/aneea iniiau yeaeoi?aeueiie
aaia?aoee Oe?aeiu (?ac?aaioaia iiiaiia?iay iiaeaeue iaoee),
i?aaenoaaeaiu i?eaeiaeueiua iaoiaee/aneea ?aoaiey (?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea
?aaeiiaeueiiai yeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca), i?iaaaeaii
i?aeoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea (aiaeec auai?ia a Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeea
E?ui).

Iainiiauaaaony, /oi yeaeoi?aeueiay aaia?aoey aeeth/aao /aou?a iao/iuo
iai?aaeaiey: aaia?aoey aieiniaaiey, ecae?aoaeueiay aaiiao?ey,
yeaeoi?aeueiay aeaiiaaia?aoey, aaia?aoey iioeaia aieiniaaiey e
iieeoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ecae?aoaeae. Iiaeaee iaoee no?iyony ii
noauaeoii-iauaeoiiio (no?oeoo?iay iiaeaeue iaoee) e noauaeoiiio
i?eioeeiai (ooieoeeiiaeueiay iiaeaeue). Oaeaea aeieacuaaaony, /oi
oi?ie?iaaiea yeaeoi?aeueiiai iiaaaeaiey ecae?aoaeae eaeao ii eeiee:
«eaeaaeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey – iioeau aieiniaaiey – eoiae auai?ia», aaea
eaeaaeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey eco/athony yeaeoi?aeueiie aeaiiaaia?aoeae,
iioeau aieiniaaiey –– aaia?aoeae iioeaia aieiniaaiey, ?acoeueoaou
auai?ia –– aaia?aoeae aieiniaaiey. Oae eae yeaeoi?aeueiay aaia?aoey
yaeyaony iia?aie/iie iaoeie, iia ?aniieiaeaia a i?ino?ainoaa,
ia?aciaaiiii aeaoiy inyie: aaia?aoe/aneie e iieeoe/aneie. Iino?iaiiua
iiaeaee (iiaeaeue yeaeoi?aeueiie aaia?aoee e iiaeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey
yeaeoi?aeueiiai iiaaaeaiey) yaeythony niioaaonoaothueie i?iaeoeeyie
auai?iiai iaoa?eaea. A cia/eo a oiaea ?aaiou enneaaeiaaoaeai iino?iaia
iiiaiia?iay iiaeaeue yeaeoi?aeueiie aaia?aoee Oe?aeiu, eioi?ay
caeeaaeuaaao aacen aeey i?iaaaeaiey eiiieaeniuo
yeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.

A niioaaonoaee n oai?aoe/aneeie iieiaeaieyie ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea
?aaeiiaeueiiai yeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca, i?aaeiieaaathuay
iieeoeei-aaia?aoe/aneoth aaeaioaoeeth nouanoaothueo a
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aaia?aoee iiaeoiaeia e i?aaiecaoeee
oa??eoi?ee, ii?aaeaeaiea ?acee/ee iaoiaeieiaee eco/aiey aieiniaaiey ii
iiiaiiaiaeaoiiio e iaaei?eoa?iui ecae?aoaeueiui ie?oaai, io?aaioeo
iiaeoiaeia e aiaeeco yeaeoi?aeueiie aeeiaieee ?aaeiiia, iino?iaiea
yeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?aoe/aneie iiaeaee oa??eoi?ee.

Eniieuecothony iaoiaeu ia?ae/iie noaoia?aaioee, ei??aeyoeeiiiue aiaeec,
iaoiae aeaaiuo eiiiiiaio, eeanoa?-aiaeec, a?aoe/aneee e ea?oia?aoe/aneee
iaoiaeu. A ?aaioa aia?aua iainiiaaia aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey
iaoiaea aeaaiuo eiiiiiaio, eae iaoiaea auaeaeaiey iniiaiuo iioeaia
aieiniaaiey, a oaeaea ?acaeou iieiaeaiey ae?oaeo enneaaeiaaoaeae i
aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey ei??aeyoeeiiiiai aiaeeca eae iaoiaea
eco/aiey i?aaenoaaeaiee ecae?aoaeae i noauaeoao i?aaeauai?iie ai?ueau.

A iniiaa iaoiaeeee eaaeeo i?eioeei ioaeaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey e
niiinoaaeaiey aeaoo iao/iuo iai?aaeaiee yeaeoi?aeueiie aaia?aoee —
aaia?aoee aieiniaaiey e aaia?aoee iioeaia aieiniaaiey. Iaoiaeeea ninoieo
ec o?ao yoaiia: iieeoeei-yeaeoi?aeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea, aaia?aoe/aneay
oa?aeoa?enoeea, ea?oia?aoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea. Ia ia?aii yoaia
enneaaeiaaiey iienuaaaony iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey, iiaeaee?othony
i?aaenoaaeaiey ecae?aoaeae i iieeoe/aneeo noauaeoao, ii?aaeaeythony
aaeoi?a iaaeoo?iaiai e iaaeauai?iiai ia?aiauaiey yeaeoi?aoa,
?ann/eouaathony iniiaiua iioeau aieiniaaiey ecae?aoaeae. Ia aoi?ii yoaia
eco/aaony oa??eoi?eaeueiay no?oeoo?a yaeaiey (a?aoe/aneee,
ea?oia?aoe/aneee iaoiaeu), a caoai no?ieony oeiieiaey ai?iaeia, ?aeiiia
ii niaieoiiinoe ?acoeueoaoia auai?ia, iioeaia aieiniaaiey a ieo
(eeanoa?-aiaeec). Ia o?aoueai yoaia ?acoeueoaou oeiieiaee eeaaeoony ia
ea?oo, iniuneaiea eioi?ie i?iecaiaeeony a ?aieao
yeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?aoe/aneie iiaeaee «ai?iae-naei», ii?aaeaeythuae
oa??eoi?eaeueiua ?acee/ey ?acoeueoaoia aieiniaaiey, e iiaeaee
«oeaio?-ia?eoa?ey», ii?aaeaeythuae oa??eoi?eaeueiua ?acee/ey iioeaia
aieiniaaiey.

Yeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue «oeaio?-ia?eoa?ey»,
iinooee?othuay, /oi iaeie yeaeoi?aeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee oiaiueoathony io
oeaio?a e ia?eoa?ee, a ae?oaea ?anooo, ?anniao?eaaaony eae ia?acaoe
ciiaeueiiai aaia?aoe/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey, a aa iino?iaiea — eae
aeueoa?iaoeaa ?aeiie?iaaieth. Aeaaiui aciiaeueiui oaeoi?ii yaeyaony
oaeoi? iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeiiaeecia. Oeaio?aeueiua e iieoia?eoa?eeiua
ai?iaea e ?aeiiu ia?acotho iieeoe/anee no?iai i?aaieciaaiiia
i?ino?ainoai, a inoaeueiay oa??eoi?ey –– neaai i?aaieciaaiiia.

A niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeiaeaiiie iaoiaeeeie enneaaeiaaiey i?iaaaeai
aiaeec auai?ia a Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeea E?ui. I?aeoe/anee iiaeoaa?aeaeaia
iainiiaaiiinoue anao cayaeaiiuo oai?aoe/aneeo e iaoiaee/aneeo
iieiaeaiee. Ii?aaeaeai iaoaieci iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee oa??eoi?ee
?aaeiia — io «?aaiethoeeiiiuo» ai?iaeia e «eiina?aaoeaiui» ?aeiiai
(iioea i?ioeainoiyiey). Iino?iaia yeaeoi?aeueii-aaia?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue
iieoino?iaa, eieaeecothuay ia ea?oa iieeoe/aneea oeaio?u, ?aaeiiu
iieeoe/aneie iieoia?eoa?ee e ia?eoa?ee, ?aaeiiu aioo?aiiaai
iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeiiaeecia. Auyaeaia onoie/eainoue
iieeoeei-oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u E?uia, i?aainoaaiiinoue
i?ienoiaeyueo a nenoaia eciaiaiee, iaoneiaeaiiay eiina?aaoeaiinoueth
eaeaaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee.

?acoeueoaou i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey iaoee i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea a
aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia aeanoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeoi?aeueiay aaia?aoey, E?ui, iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu
a aaia?aoee, iiaeaee?iaaiea.

Khan E.A. An Electoral Geography of the Crimea. – A Manuscript.

A Dissertation Submitted in Candidacy for the Degree of Candidate of
Geographical Sciences in Speciality of Economic and Social Geography
11.02.02. – The Specialized Academic Council of the Odessa State
University, 1999.

This work develops a new trend in the Ukrainian science, namely, an
electoral geography. Methods of approach and achievements of the
western, Soviet, Russian and Ukrainian scholars have been considered,
and a model of an electoral geography of the Ukraine, which represented
both traditional and new scientific trends, has been created. An
original methodics of the electoral geographical analysis has been
elaborated. This particular approach was applied towards the pattern of
the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea. As a result of the investigation,
an electoral geographical model of the region has been constructed. It
depicted the mechanism of political organization of the region. Results
of the research have found their practical implementation in the
activity of the state authorities.

Key words: electoral geography, the Crimea, mathematical methods of
approach in geography, modeling.

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