AeIIAANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss AOAe?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

Iac?i ss?ineaa A?eoi?iae/

OAeE 621.315

AENIEOAOAOe?EI? OAEOI?E AeIAAIA?*IINO? AAEEEEO IA?AOIAe?A IIA?O?ssIEO
E?I?E AEAEO?IIA?AAeA*?

05.23.01 – Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa nii?oaee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iae??aea – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?ioia ?aaai
Aaneeueiae/, Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e, ?aeoi?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oaiiaaeia Na?a?e Ieeieaeiae/,
Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eacaeaae/ Ieoaeei
?naaeiae/, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aaea?ia/ia Aaiiaae?e A?naio?eiae/,
E?einueeee ?inoeooo i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai ? eo?i?oiiai aoae?aieoeoaa,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
TH. Eiiae?aothea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Iieoaaa).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “24” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 12.085.01 o Aeiiaanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith: 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iae., i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2, I o/aiaee ei?ion,
Cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaanueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “24” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A.i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani? A.A. Iaoa??iei

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia?aoiaee iia?o?yieo e?i?e aeaeo?iia?aaea/? (IE)
/a?ac aaeee? aiaeyi? i?inoi?e ? aaaeeeaith eaieith a no?oeoo?? iniiaieo
ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a i?aei?e?inoa aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae. A Oe?a?i?
aenieoaoo?oueny 62 aaeeeeo ia?aoiaee IE iai?oaith 220–750 eA.
Oi?eaeuei?noue aaeeeeo ia?aoiae?a IE aecia/a?oueny aenieei nooiaiai
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? i?aeaeuaieie aeiiaaie aei ?o iaae?eiino? ?
aeiaaia?/iino?, aaaeeeie oiiaaie aenieoaoaoe??, neeaaeiei eiiieaenii
?iaeaia?ieo aeooeoaaiue oa ??oaiue i?e i?iaeooaaii?, iiioaaeaa?, ?aiiio?
aai ?aeiino?oeoe??. I?eae?eaia aa?o?noue ia?aoiae?a a e?eueea ?ac?a (a a
ie?aieo aeiaaeeao o aeanyoee ?ac?a) ia?aaeuo? i?eae?eaio aa?o?noue naii?
e?i??. Oea iio?aao? iniaeeaiai i?aeoiaeo a ieoaiiyo i?iaeooaaiiy,
?ic?aooieo, aoae?aieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe?? ia?aoiae?a.

Aeinoia??ia ioe?iea oaoi?/iiai noaio ? noai?aiiy aeiaaia?/ieo
ia?ao?aeieo iii? iaiiaeeea? aac o?aooaaiiy aieeao o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
i?ioean?a a aoiinoa?? oa oiia aenieoaoaoe??, a oaeiae oaeoe/ii?
i?ieeaino? iaaaioaaeaiue ? i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee eiino?oeoe??.
Iaei??th c aieiaieo ia?aoeiae aeey ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?i?a neoaeae
ia?ao?aeieo iii? IE ? i?iaeaia ei?ic?eiiai ?oeioaaiiy aeaiaio?a ? aoce?a
eiino?oeoe?e. Iaoeiaee ? i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an aeeeeeathoue ieoaiiy
aeeiai?/ii? iiaaae?iee ia?aoiae?a IE, ye nenoaie a oe?eiio, oae ?
ie?aieo ?? neeaaeiaeo (i?iaiae?a, iii?).

Cacia/ai? caaea/? aeooaeuei?, ine?eueee iaa?oue iacia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiaaia?/iino? ia?aoiae?a IE aea? aaeeeee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii c iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie ?iaioaie ca caiiaeaiiyi
I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie ? aaeocaaeie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie oaiaie ?088–I
“?ic?iaea aaeocaaeo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a ii ianoaaeaiith ?
ia?a?aooieo aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e” (1995 ?.), ? 64.08.005.5.7
“Aecia/aiiy aeiionoeiiai ciino iaoaeaaeo aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e:
iaoiaee, ?ic?iaea i?eeaae?a” (1996 ?.).

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? aaeeeeo
ia?aoiae?a iia?o?yieo e?i?e aeaeo?iia?aaea/? ca ?aooiie o?aooaaiiy
aieeao ?o eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae ? oiia ?iaioe.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoee ae??oai? ianooii? caaea/?:

 iaoo?i? ianoaaeaiiy oa aiae?c aeina?aeo aenieoaoaoe?? ia?aoiae?a
iia?o?yieo e?i?e aeaeo?iia?aaea/? /a?ac aaeee? aiaeyi? i?inoi?e aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy cia/ouino? aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a;

 ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy oeaioeaaeo ? iaeiic??cieo aieoiaeo
c’?aeiaiue i?e iiaeaethaaii? iai?oaeaiiai noaio aieo?a ? aa?aneaiino?
na?aaeiaeua;

 aea/aiiy aeeiai?/ii? iiaaae?iee i?iaiae?a ? a?icicaoenieo o?in?a
ia?aoiae?a IE i?e neeaeaii? iaeaeaae? ? ?o ia?ea? c canoinoaaiiyi
iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy;

 aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai (IAeN) ia?ao?aeieo iii? ia iniia?
/enaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ei?ioeee ci?no iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue ? ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo aaoi?ii,
iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

 anoaiiaeai? oa?aeoa?i? aeaoaeoe oa iioeiaeaeaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo
aeaiaio?a aaeeeeo ia?aoiae?a iia?o?yieo e?i?e aeaeo?iia?aaea/?;

 io?eiai? ?aa?an?ei? iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aaiiao?e/ieo ?
i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee aieo?a oeaioeaaeo ? iaeiic??cieo c’?aeiaiue o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy ?o iai?oaeaiiai noaio oa eiioeaio?aoe?? n??/aiiai
aia?ae?eaeo a aoiinoa??;

 cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeey iieno
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio i?iaiae?a ? o?in?a IE ii onueiio
i?ieueioo i?e i?aeneieia? a ?acoeueoao? neeaeaiiy iaeaeaae?, yea
aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe oi?io oa oa?aeoa?enoeee ?iioeuenieo iaaaioaaeaiue
ia iii?o;

 aeeiiaia ioe?iea aieeao aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue i?e neeaeaii?
iaeaeaae? c i?iaiae?a ? ?o ia?ea? ia ?iciiae?e oa aaee/eio coneeue a
aeaiaioao aiea?ieo ia?ao?aeieo iii?;

 iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue o?aooaaiiy aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia
eiino?oeoe?? ia?ao?aeieo iii?, i?iaiaea oa o?ine i?e i?iaeooaaii?,
ianoaaeaii? ? ?aeiino?oeoe?? aaeeeeo ia?aoiae?a IE.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoai?: i?e ?ic?iaoe? ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioa I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie
“Iaoaeaa? oa cae?ciaaoiii? iii?e iia?o?yieo e?i?e aeaeo?iia?aaea/?
iai?oaith 35 eA oa a?eueoa. Iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee c ioe?iee oaoi?/iiai
noaio oa ia?a?aooieo”; i?e i?iaaaeaii? iaoo?ieo ianoaaeaiue ia’?eo?a
Aei?i?ianueeeo ? Aeiiaanueeeo iaa?no?aeueieo aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae
iaoe?iiaeueii? aia?aaoe/ii? eiiiai?? “Oe?aia?ai”.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iaaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue io?eiai? caeiaoaa/ai naiino?eii. Iniaenoee
aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

 aaciina?aaeiy o/anoue o i?iaaaeaii? iaoo?ieo ianoaaeaiue, aei?iaoaaiue
? eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue;

 ?ic?iaea on?o iaoiaeee ? aeeiiaiiy /enaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a,
iaaaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??;

 noaoenoe/ia ii?aoethaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, iaea?aeaii? i?e ianoaaeaiiyo,
aei?iaoaaiiyo, /enaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo;

 nenoaiaoecaoe?y ? iaoeiaee aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

A ioae?eaoe?yo c? ni?aaaoi?aie iniaenoi caeiaoaa/ai aeeiiaii ia?a?aooiie
i?iaiae?a ? o?in?a IE ca aeaieie iaoo?iiai iaeyaeo [1, 2]; noaoenoe/ia
ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ei?ic?eieo i?ioean?a aieoiaeo
c’?aeiaiue [3, 4]; ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy iiaeaeae oeaioeaaeo
? iaeiic??cieo c’?aeiaiue oa aiae?c ?o ?acoeueoao?a [5]; /enaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aa?iaeeiai?/ieo yaeu i?iaiae?a oa o?in?a IE [6].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
c iaoiaee/ieo ieoaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaae?eiino? aaeeeeo nenoai
aia?aaoeee “Iaae?ei?noue ? aaciaea noa??th/eo nenoai aia?aaoeee” o
i. Ee?a? (1995 ?.), ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oai??y ? i?aeoeea
iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e” o i. Aeiiaoeueeo (1997 ?.), ia IV-e
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??-aenoaaoe? “Ei?ic?y–98. I?iaeaie ei?ic?? oa
i?ioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a” o i. Eueaia? (1998
?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 7 ae?oeiaaieo ?ia?o, ui
a?aeaeaathoue ?? iniiaiee ci?no, o oiio /ene?: 1 aaeocaaee ii?iaoeaiee
aeieoiaio, ?icae?e a iiiia?ao?? oa 5 noaoae o ca??eao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?noeoue anooi, 4 aeaae,
iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? aeniiaee, nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (143
iaeiaioaaiiy), 3 aeiaeaoee. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 193 noi??ieao, o
oiio /ene? 112 iniiaiiai oaenoo, 14 noi??iie nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, 33
iiaieo noi??iee c ?enoieaie ? oaaeeoeyie, 34 noi??iee aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe io?eiai? aaoi?ii, iieacaii
?o iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O aeaa? 1 aiae?cothoueny noai ieoaiiy ? iaoeia? aeinyaiaiiy a aaeoc?
aea/aiiy aieeao oiia aenieoaoaoe?? oa iniaeeainoae aeeiai?/ii?
iiaaae?iee eiino?oeoe?e ia aeiaaia?/i?noue ? iioeiaeaeoaai?noue
ia?aoiae?a iia?o?yieo e?i?e aeaeo?iia?aaea/?. Aeeiiaii iaeyae
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ? ii?iaoeaii? e?oa?aoo?e o o?ueio iai?yieao
aeine?aeaeaiue: ?ic?aooiie ? i?iaeooaaiiy aaeeeeo ia?aoiae?a;
iniaeeaino? i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ?
aieea?a, a oaeiae ?o o?aooaaiiy i?e aeeiai?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a ia?aoiae?a
IE; aeiaaia?/i?noue eiino?oeoe?e a oiiaao aa?aneaiino? aoiinoa?e.

Caaaeuei? ieoaiiy i?iaeooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a ia?aoiae?a IE
aeinoaoiuei iiaii ?ice?eo? a i?aoeyo E.I. E?theiaa, I.Ae. Aioiyeia?/a,
?.I. Aooa??ia oa ?ioeo. Iniaeea?noth ?iaioe aaeeeeo ia?aoiae?a IE ?
aeeiai?/iee oa?aeoa? iaeaeaaeii-a?o?iaeo iaaaioaaeaiue oa aieea?a,
aea/aiith yeeo i?enay/ai? i?aoe? A. Aaeaa?aena, I.I. Aeacoiiaa,
A.?. Ao/einueeiai, A. ?e/a?aeniia, E.Eoia?a. ??aaiue ciaiue a aeai?e
aaeoc? aecia/ea ?icaeoie aeine?aeaeaiue eieeaaiue i?oaeieo nenoai ?
aa?iaeeiai?/ii? iano?eeino? nii?oaeaeaiue (i?aoe? Aaoa?aea, O. Ea?iaia,
Aeae. Aeai-Aa?oiaa, Ia?e?iniia, I. Iiaaea, A. N?i?o, ?. Neaieaia,
I.?. Eacaeaa?/a oa ?ioeo). ?icaeoeo oai??? aeeiai?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a
aaooiaeo nii?oae ia a?o?ia? aieeae i?eneoaeeee i?aoe? I.O. Aa?ooaeia,
A.A. Ei?ai?aa, I.A. Nieieiaa, A.I. Naaeoeueeiai oa ?ioeo.

Aeeiai?/iee oa?aeoa? iathoue iaaaioaaeaiiy, ye? aeieeathoue i?e
neeaeaii? iaeaeaae? c i?iaiae?a. Aeey ?nioth/i? i?aeoeee i?iaeooaaiiy
ia?aoiae?a IE iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an ia? aecia/aiiy ia?ai?uaiiy oi/ie
i?iaiaeo c oe?eeth ia?aa??ee aeiaea?aeaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo aaaa?eo?a (i?aoe?
A.A. Ao?anaei?oa, I.?. Eo?iiniaa, O. Aaaa?eaiaea). Aeeiai?/i?
iaaaioaaeaiiy, ye? aeieeathoue i?e oeueiio ia aea/ai?.

Iniaeeao iaaaciaeo ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe?e iii? ianooue oaea?i?
?iioeuene i?e ia?ea? i?iaiae?a. Noaoe/iee iaoiae ??oaiiy caaea/?
aecia/aiiy oyae?iiy a i?iaiae? i?ieueioo IE, ui caeeoeany oe?eei, oeyoii
?icaeyaeo noaio ??aiiaaae nenoaie aei oa i?ney ia?eao i?iaiaeo a iaeiiio
c i?ieueio?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?aaeoeoe??, yeee aoa cai?iiiiiaaiee
I.Ae. Aioiyeiae/ai, oi/ ? iaaea? yeonue ?ioi?iaoe?th, aea ia aeicaiey?
aecia/aoe iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy coneeue a aeaiaioao IE. A i?aoeyo
A.A. Caa?ia, A.A. Ooaeia, Aeae. Ae?aia aecia/ai? oa?aeoa? ci?ie
?iioeueno a?ae iiiaioo ia?eao i?iaiaeo aei noaeiai noaio ??aiiaaae aeey
??ciiiai?oieo oi/ie nenoaie i?iaiae?a IE. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?/iiai
i?ioeano i?e ia?ea? i?iaiaeo, ye? iathoue, ia?oa ca ana, oe?eue
iaea?aeaiiy ioe?iee i?oeiino? oa no?eeino? iii?, ia io?eiaee iaeaaeiiai
?icaeoeo aeey ia?aoiae?a IE.

Aiae?c i?aoeue A.?. E?e?ia, ?.?. A?e?iy, ?.?. Aieoa?aa, ?.A. Ai?ioiaa oa
?ioeo iieaco?, ui ei?ic?eia ?oeioaaiiy iaoaeo – iniiaia i?e/eia
cieaeaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? noaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e a oiiaao a?aee?eoi?
aoiinoa?e. Aeeiai?/iee oa?aeoa? iaaaioaaeaiue ia eiino?oeoe?? iii?
ia?aoiae?a aenoaa? aeiaeaoeia? aeiiae aei iaae?eiino? aeaiaio?a,
aeiaea?aeaiith ?o i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??.
Iaae?ei?noue oa aeiaaia?/i?noue ia?ao?aeieo iii? a oe?eiio caeaaeeoue
a?ae aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee aoceiaeo c’?aeiaiue aeaiaio?a. O
ca’yceo c oeei ia ia?oee ieai aeoiaeyoue ieoaiiy ?o ei?ic?eii?
no?eeino?. A i?aoeyo I.?. Noaeeiaa, TH.E. Aieueaa?aa i?aaeiaoii
niaoe?aeueieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ieoaiiy
aeiaaia?/iino? caa?ieo c’?aeiaiue. I?e nii?oaeaeaii? iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e
ia?aoiae?a ianiaa canoinoaaiiy iaea?aeaee c’?aeiaiiy aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e ca aeiiiiiaith aieo?a. A aeine?aeaeaiiyo N.I. Oaiiaaeiaa,
N.I. Aaea?aa aea/aii aieea eiino?oeoeaii? oi?ie aieoiaeo c’?aeiaiue iii?
IE ia ei?ic?eiee ciin aeaiaio?a, ui c’?aeiothoueny, a oaeiae ae?y
ioeeieiaee oa ei?ic?? ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? iaoec?a. Aieea
iai?oaeaiiai noaio aieo?a oa aa?aneaiino? na?aaeiaeua aenieoaoaoe?? ia
?o ei?ic?eiee ciin ? i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino? ia aeine?aeaeaii.

Ia iniia? iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e ? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co noi?ioeueiaai?
iniiai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue.

O aeaa? 2 iaaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? i?e noaoenoe/iiio
ii?aoethaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ii oaoi?/iiio noaio aaeeeeo ia?aoiae?a IE a
aia?ainenoaiao Oe?a?ie.

A Oe?a?i? aenieoaoo?oueny 62 ia?aoiaee /a?ac aaeee? aiaeyi? i?inoi?e ia
42 iia?o?yieo e?i?yo aeaeo?iia?aaea/? a 6 aia?ainenoaiao.

C iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy oaeoe/iiai oaoi?/iiai noaio aaeeeeo ia?aoiae?a,
ye? aenieoaoothoueny a Oe?a?i?, aoei aeeiiaii iaoo?ia ianoaaeaiiy
ia’?eo?a Aei?i?ianueeeo iaa?no?aeueieo aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae iaoe?iiaeueii?
aia?aaoe/ii? eiiiai?? “Oe?aia?ai”: 14 aaeeeeo ia?aoiae?a IE caaaeueiith
aeiaaeeiith 22 ei, ia yeeo caoaeiaaii 46 iii?.

A aeaa? iaaeaii aiae?c aeina?aeo aenieoaoaoe?? ia?aoiae?a, nii?oaeaeaieo
ca ??ciiiai?oieie eiino?oeoeaieie noaiaie c canoinoaaiiyi ??cieo oei?a
ia?ao?aeieo iii?.

?aca?ae iano/i? ni?iiiaeiino? ia?ao?aeieo iii?, ye? aenieoaoothoueny,
iiaeooue aooe io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? ooi/iaiiy oaeoe/ieo a?o?iaeo ?
iaeaeaaeieo iaaaioaaeaiue, iaaaioaaeaiue a?ae aeanii? aaae eiino?oeoe?e,
o?aooaaiiy oaeoe/ii? aaiiao??? i?iaiae?a. O i?ioean? ianoaaeaiue aaeeeeo
ia?aoiae?a aeeiioaaeiny ooi/iaiiy aaiiao?e/ieo noai ia?ao?aeieo iii?,
eiio?ieue oi/ie i?aea?no, no??e i?ia?no i?iaiae?a ? a?icicaoenieo
o?in?a, a oaeiae ieaiiai-aenioiiai iieiaeaiiy iii?. Aaiaeace/iee
eiio?ieue no??e i?ia?no aeicaieea ia?aa??eoe aeio?eiaiiy aaaa?eo?a
ia?aoiae?a. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iieacothoue, ui a aeayeeo i?ieueioao
no??ee i?ia?no ca?eueoai? a na?aaeiueiio ia 5–10% o ii??aiyii? c
i?iaeoieie, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai cieaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia
eiino?oeoe?? iii?. I?e oeueiio aa?oeeaeuei? aaaa?eoe a?aeiia?aeii
ciaioai? ia oeae ?ici??. Ci?io no??e i?ia?no iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e
aeeiiaii? iaoai?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a i?iaiae?a.

A?aenooi?noue aaa??e ia?ao?aeieo iii? iiynith?oueny iniaeeaith
aaaeeea?noth aeey aia?ainenoaie e?a?ie oa aenieei ??aiai oaoi?/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy. I?ioa, aeey iniiaii? iane ianoaaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e
(85%), iacaeaaeii a?ae oa?i?io aenieoaoaoe??, a?aecia/athoueny ii?ooaiiy
iie?eoo?a aeaiiiai ia?e??oaaiiy oa aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo (o ia?oo
/a?ao ?ico??neoaaiiy, a?aeoa?oaaiiy, a oaeiae ?icaeoie i?aeie?aeiai?
ei?ic??), ii?ooaiiy oeeieiaiai iie?eooy (ei?ic?y ieyiaie).

Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iei aeaeii ei?ic?eiiai ciino ia?ao?aeieo iii? ?
nooe?eueia ??aiii??ia ei?ic?y (o?aaeaii 38% ianoaaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e).
?ioaineaia u?eeiia ei?ic?y niinoa??aa?oueny ia?aaaaeii ia iii?ao, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny a aenieoaoaoe?? a?eueo 20 ?ie?a (o?aaeaii 25% iii?).
I?noeaaa ei?ic?y o aeaeyae? yca oa?aeoa?ia aeey aoce?a iie?aiiy noiyea
iii? ia ooiaeaiaio.

Ia aeiaaia?/i?noue eiino?oeoe?e, ye? aenieoaoothoueny, ?noioiee aieea
?iaeyoue iaoai?/i? ooeiaeaeaiiy, ye? aeieeathoue aiane?aeie aeeiai?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o iaaaioaaeaiue a?ae a?o?o ia eiino?oeoe?? iii? ? iaaaioaaeaiue
a?ae i?iaiae?a oa o?in?a: ineaaeaiiy aieoiaeo c’?aeiaiue (54%
ianoaaeaieo iii?), ne?eaeaiiy aeaiaio?a (16%), i?noeaa? iiaiooino?
(30%), cnoae aeaiaio?a iiyn?a ?c aaiiao?e/ii? in? (18%).

Noaoenoe/iee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ianoaaeaiiy oaoi?/iiai noaio ia?aoiae?a
IE, ye? aenieoaoothoueny a Oe?a?i?, aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe
iioeiaeaeoaai?noue eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a ia?aoiae?a (?en. 1).

?en. 1. Iioeiaeaeoaai?noue aeaiaio?a aaeeeeo ia?aoiae?a IE

Aeeiiai? iaoo?i? ianoaaeaiiy oa aiae?c aeina?aeo aenieoaoaoe??
ia?aoiae?a IE /a?ac aaeee? aiaeyi? i?inoi?e aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe
iioeiaeaeoaai?noue ?o eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a oa iaea?eueo cia/ou?
oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia iaae?ei?noue oa aeiaaia?/i?noue: ciin
aoceiaeo c’?aeiaiue iii? a oiiaao aa?aneaiino? na?aaeiaeua oa aeeiai?/i?
iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae i?iaiae?a oa o?in?a i?e iaeaeaaeii-a?o?iaeo aieeaao.

O aeaa? 3 iaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/ieo
aei?iaoaaiue aieo?a o c’?aeiaiiyo iii? IE. sse ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoee ia?ai? iaeiic??ci? iaeiiaieoia? oa oeaioeaa? c’?aeiaiiy, ye?
canoiniaothoueny a eiino?oeoe?yo o?aaa?n ia?ao?aeieo iii?. Iaoith
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei iaea?aeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i aieea
aa?aneaiino? na?aaeiaeua oa iai?oaeaiiai noaio aieoiaeo c’?aeiaiue ia
ci?io aaiiao?e/ieo ? i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee aieo?a. Aoee aeeiiai?
i?enei?ai? ei?ic?ei? aei?iaoaaiiy iiaeaeae aieoiaeo c’?aeiaiue,
iaoai?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy aieo?a (ia ?ic?ea) ? iaoaeia?ao?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aieo?a.

Aea/aiiy i?ioean?a ei?ic?eiiai ?oeioaaiiy aieo?a i?ae iai?oaeaiiyi
i?iaiaeeeiny ia iaoa??aeueieo (o?ce/ieo) iiaeaeyo oeaioeaaeo ?
iaeiiaieoiaeo iaeiic??cieo c’?aeiaiue. A?aeiia?aeii aei i?ia?aie
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeae? ?icae?eai? ia aea? a?oie
(oaae. 1). I?iaiaeeeeny iaeii/anii ei?ic?ei? aei?iaoaaiiy aieo?a o
iai?oaeaiiio noai? (oei A), a oaeiae aei?iaoaaiiy aieo?a aac
iaaaioaaeaiiy (oei A).

Oaaeeoey 1 –Iiaeae? aieoiaeo c’?aeiaiue

Iiia?OeiIiaeaeue aeey aei?iaoaaiueE?euee?noue iiaeaeaeOeaioeaaa
c’?aeiaiiy ia aieoao I1660 ii?iaeueii? oi/iino?1A

54A

27Iaeiiaieoiaa c’?aeiaiiy ia c??c ia aieoao I1650 ii?iaeueii? oi/iino?2A

54A

27

Iiaeaethaaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? iaoai?/ieo aieea?a cae?enithaaeiny
oeyoii aa??thaaiiy aeaio oaeoi??a ia o?ueio ??aiyo.

A aenia?eiaio? ye ao?aeiee aieea aa?aneaiino? na?aaeiaeua i?eeiyoee
oaeoi? O1 – eiioeaio?aoe?y a aoiinoa?? n??/aiiai aia?ae?eaeo SI2, i?e
aacoieiiiio aieeaia? oaciai? oa aaeni?aoe?eii? aieiae. Cia/aiiy oaeoi?a
O1 aeey ??cieo ??ai?a aa??thaaiiy neeaaeaei 20; 80 ? 140 ia/(i2ae?a).

Iai?oaeaiee noai aieoa i?aaenoaaeyany aeaiia oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. ??aaiue
iai?oaeaiino? (oaeoi? O2) aecia/aany ?ici??ii a?aeiioaiiy ooai?thaaiiai
iai?oaeaiiy a aieo? aei eiai iano/i? ni?iiiaeiino? (0,3; 0,6 ? 0,9 a?ae
?ic?aooieiaiai iii?o). Eiio?ieue iai?oaeaiue a aieo? cae?enithaaany ca
aeiiiiiaith oaiciiao?e/ii? noaioe?? N??O–3 oa oaiciaeao/ee?a IEA10200.
Aeae iai?oaeaiiai noaio aecia/aany oa?aeoa?ii i?eeeaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy
aei c’?aeiaiiy, yea aeeeeea? aai ?icoya aieoa (aeey oeaioeaaeo
c’?aeiaiue), aai c??c aieoa. Aeae iai?oaeaiiai noaio ia aa??thaaany ?
i?eeiaany iino?eiei aeey eiaeiiai oeio c’?aeiaiiy.

?aae?caoe?y on?o eiia?iaoe?e ao?aeieo aieea?a i?e i?iaaaeaii? iiaiiai
oaeoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo iio?aao? iinoaiiaee aaeeei? e?eueeino?
aeine?ae?a ? aeaioiaeaiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? iiaeaeae. C iaeyaeo ia oea,
a aenia?eiaio? canoiniaaiee ianeiao?e/iee iane/aiee ieai ?aoooaoia?a, ui
aecia/a? /enei, oiiae ? ii?yaeie ?aae?caoe?? aeine?ae?a. Oi/ee ieaio
a?aeia?aaeaee oii?yaeeiaaio noeoii?noue /enaeueieo cia/aiue ao?aeieo
oaeoi??a ia ??cieo ??aiyo aa??thaaiiy, yea a?aeiia?aea? oiiaai
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a.

O?eaae?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue a eaia?ao aeey
aei?iaoaaiue neeaaeaea 210 ae?a.

I?ney caaa?oaiiy ei?ic?eieo aei?iaoaaiue aieoiaeo c’?aeiaiue on? aieoe
i?aeeyaaee aei?iaoaaiiyi ia ?icoya ca aeiiiiiaith oi?aa?naeueii?
?ic?eaii? iaoeie OII–50.

sse ia?aiao?e “aeo?aeii?” ?ioi?iaoe?? i?eeiyo? ao?aoe iane aieo?a
(a/i2), aecia/ai? a?aa?iao?e/iei iaoiaeii, ? ci?ia i?oei?nieo
aeanoeainoae aieo?a (oei/aniaee ii??, yeee aecia/a?oueny ca ?ic?eaiei
coneeeyi).

Io?eiaia ii/aoeiaa “aeo?aeia” ?ioi?iaoe?y na?ae/eea i?i ?noioia
cieaeaiiy i?oeiino? aieo?a (?ic?eaiiai coneeey) oa cia/iee ei?ic?eiee
ciin aieo?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae aa?aneaiino? na?aaeiaeua ? iai?oaeaiiai
noaio aieo?a.

Aeey aeiaeaoeiai? ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a i?enei?aieo ei?ic?eieo
aei?iaoaaiue aoa aeei?enoaiee iaoaeia?ao?/iee iaoiae, yeee aeicaieea
anoaiiaeoe aeae oa aeeaeio ei?ic?eii? ii?acee aieo?a.

O ?acoeueoao? noaoenoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy aeo?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??
ei?ic?eieo ? iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue aieo?a io?eiai? aeaioaeoi?i?
?aa?an?ei? iiaeae?, ye? iienothoue ciaioaiiy ?ici???a iiia?a/iiai
ia?aoeio ? ci?io i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee aieoa a /an? a caeaaeiino?
a?ae aa?aneaiino? na?aaeiaeua (O1) oa ooai?thaaiiai a iueiio iai?oaeaiiy
(O2).

Aeeaeia ei?ic?eii? ii?acee aieoa iieno?oueny eaaae?aoe/iith ooieoe??th
aeaeo:

wmetafile8? ??“???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyya??~?? ???&?
?MathType??`????u»y????aea t – /an aenieoaoaoe?? eiino?oeoe?? iii?e,
??e;

l, l, l – ia?aiao?e, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ei?ic?ei? ao?aoe aieoa a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia aenieoaoaoe??.

?ic?aooieiaee ii?? aieo?a iieno?oueny e?i?eiith ooieoe??th aeaeo:

wmetafile8? ??F???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ``
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u1/4y????R, R – ia?aiao?e, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino? aieoa a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia aenieoaoaoe??.

Ia?ao?ae aei ?aaeueiiai /ano aenieoaoaoe?? a iaoo?ieo oiiaao a?ae
o?eaaeino? aeniiceoe?? iiaeaeae a eaia?ao aeey aei?iaoaaiue
cae?enithaaany ca noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeeeaie ia iniia? ei?ic?eieo ao?ao
eiio?ieueieo c?ace?a ?c eenoiai? noae?.

I?e ?aa?an?eiiio aiae?c? canoiniaaiee i?eioeei iine?aeiaiiai
oneeaaeiaiiy iiaeae?, oiaoi ia?ao?ae a?ae i?inoeo iiaeaeae aei a?eueo
neeaaeieo. Aeey iieno ooieoe?e a?aeaoeo , ? ae?aaeaiue (1), (2)
canoiniaoaaeenue iie?iii?aeuei? iiaeae? ia?oiai oa ae?oaiai nooiaiy.
Aecia/aiiy noi eaaae?ao?a a?aeoeeaiue oa aeia??/eo ?ioa?aae?a cia/aiue
aeey ooieoe?e a?aeaoeo aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe, ui ia?aiao?e, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue e?iaoeeo ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a a aieoao e?aua
iienothoueny e?i?eieie iiaeaeyie.

Aeey eiaeiiai oeio aieoiaiai c’?aeiaiiy io?eiai? ?aa?an?ei? iiaeae?:

wmetafile8? ??I???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @ A
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy? ??u?? ???&?
?MathType??0???u1/4y????aea wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
``???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????uAth??????wmetafile8? ??]???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????u1/4y???? wmetafile8? ??t???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyya???? ???&?
?MathType??`????uAth??????Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a a0, a1, a2
?aa?an?eieo iiaeaeae (3) c ae?aaeaiue (1), (2) ??cieo oei?a aieoiaeo
c’?aeiaiue iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 2.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Eiao?oe??ioe ?aa?an?eieo iiaeaeae

Eiao.Aaiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aieo?aI?oei?ni?
aeanoeaino? aieo?aoeaioeaa? c’?aeiaiiyc’?aeiaiiy ia c??ceeano i?oeiino?
6.6

o oeaioeaaiio c’?aeiaii?eeano i?oeiino? 5.8

o c’?aeiaii?
ia c??cllllllRRRRa017,099-6,1265,9293,3906,4980,682697,540-19,086598,025
-19,770a11,831-6,7637,0000,4614,2840,886-0,473-17,081-4,284-15,245a2-0,3
241,226-1,104-0,0352,459-0,549-1,0121,063-12,2400,841

Aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ?ic?eao aieo?a, a oaeiae ocaaaeueiaiee aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a ei?ic?eieo, iaoai?/ieo ? iaoaeia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aieo?a aeicaieeee c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ei?ic?y aieo?a a oiiaao
?aaeueii? ?iaioe oa aa?aneaiino? aoiinoa?e yaey? niaith neeaaeiee
i?ioean. ?? oaeaee?noue ianaiia?aae aecia/a?oueny nooiaiai aa?aneaiino?
na?aaeiaeua aenieoaoaoe??. ?noioii ?ioaineo?eo? oaeaee?noue ei?ic??
aieo?a iayai?noue eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oaeaiiy o cii? c’?aeiaiiy aieiaee
aieoa c? noa?aeiai. E??i oiai, ia iineeaiiy i?ioeano ?oeioaaiiy iaoaeo
aieo?a aieeaa? u?eeiia ei?ic?y a caci?ao aieoiaeo c’?aeiaiue.

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe? 2, ia ?? ?icaeoie aieeaathoue ? ??aaiue
iai?oaeaiino? aieoa, ? oa?aeoa? eiai ?iaioe a c’?aeiaii?. Oaeei /eiii, a
?acoeueoao? ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue anoaiiaeaia cia/ou?noue
oaeoi??a iai?oaeaiiai noaio aieoiaeo c’?aeiaiue oa aa?aneaiino?
aenieoaoaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua ia ei?ic?eiee ciin oa i?oei?ni?
aeanoeaino? aieoa. Cai?iiiiiaai? ?aa?an?ei? iiaeae? aeicaieythoue
i?iaiicoaaoe aeiaaia?/i?noue aieo?a a c’?aeiaiiyo iii? IE.

O aeaa? 4 i?iaaaeai? /enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio ia?aoiae?a IE i?e o?aooaaii? aeeiai?/ieo iaeaeaaeii-a?o?iaeo ?
aaa??eieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ye? aeieeathoue aiane?aeie i?aeneieo i?iaiae?a
i?e neeaeaii? iaeaeaae? oa i?e ia?eaao i?iaiae?a. ?nioth/a ii?iaoeaia
aaca ia ia?aaeaa/a? o?aooaaiiy oeeo iaaaioaaeaiue ia eiino?oeoe??
ia?ao?aeieo iii?.

Aiae?c i?e?iaee yaeua neeaeaiiy iaeaeaae? aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe, ui
ae??oaeueiee oaea?iee aieea ia ia?ao?aei? iii?e iaaea? iaae?iiy, oiaoi
cai?ioiee ?oo i?iaiae?a i?ney ?o i?aeneieo.

?en. 2. Eieeaaiiy i?iaiaeo i?e neeaeaii? iaeaeaae?

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iicaeiaaei?o eieeaaiue i?iaiaeo
aeiaaeeiith L o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei? i?ney neeaeaiiy iaeaeaae? c
o?aooaaiiyi iaae?iiy i?iaiaeo c aenioe i?aeneieo (?en. 2) i?ae ae??th
?eaea c ieoo?aei ?iciiae?eii iiey oaeaeeinoae:

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???u?????????»????-?????0i???0X????i????* ???u??
???????»????-????¦*???`???-?????`‡???E?o???E
?o???E?O???0U???0???0n???0c???0???0=

???aea ciae “i?ion” – i?e 0

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