IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAIIss IAOE OE?A?IE

II?NUeEEE A?Ae?IO?CE*IEE ?INOEOOO

Ao?aiia Ieaa Iaaiiae/

OAeE 551.465.15

AENIA?EIAIOAEUeIA AeINE?AeAEAIIss

NIAEO?AEUeIEO OA?AEOA?ENOEE OIIEI?

OA?IIOAEEIII? NO?OEOO?E AIAe IEAAIO

04.00.22 — aaio?ceea

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Naaanoiiieue — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ii?nueeiio a?ae?io?ce/iiio ?inoeooo? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaioaea?a
Ieeiea Ieaenaiae?iae/, Ii?nueeee a?ae?io?ce/iee ?inoeooo IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo oo?aoeaioiino?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Aiaoneaanueeee Na?a?e A?eai?iae/, Aenia?eiaioaeueia a?aeae?eaiiy
Ii?nueeiai a?ae?io?ce/iiai ?inoeoooo IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee;

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe Caiaaaeia Ieaenaiae? Na?a?eiae/,
Naaanoiiieuenueeee ?inoeooo yaea?ii? aia?a?? ? i?iieneiaino?
I?i?noa?noaa aia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaeanueeee a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee ?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie i.
Iaeana

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «24» a?oaeiy 1999 ?. a14 aiae.00 oa.

ia can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 50.158.02 i?e Ii?nueeiio
a?ae?io?ce/iiio ?inoeooo? Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

(99000, Naaanoiiieue, aoe. Eai?oainueea, 2)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ii?nueeiai
a?ae?io?ce/iiai ?inoeoooo Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «18» eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

I.I. Noai?ia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOeI?

Aeooaeueiinoue. Oiiea aa?oeeaeueia no?oeoo?a aiae?ioice/ieo iieia a
ieaaii iinoeoue iioi?iaoeith i?i oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeiaii/ieo i?ioeania,
ui aa?ooue o/anoue a ?? oi?ioaaiii. Aei /enea oaeeo aiaeiinyoueny
aioo?ioii oaeei, aaeaaeoeaii ?ooaiiy i eiiaaeoeiy, ui ii?iaeaeothoueny
iiaeaieiith aeeooci?th. Iaeiae aieeae ?icieo no?oeoo?iooai?thth/eo
iaoaiiciia a eiaeiie oi/oei i?ioieia oaiia?aoo?e, nieiiinoi i uieueiinoi
iiaenoiiaothoueny neeaaeiei, oaioe/iei /eiii, ui oo?oaeiy? i?ioean
aiaeico. O?oaeiiui o?aooaaiiy aieeaia ?icieo no?oeoo?iooai?thth/eo
i?ioeania i aieeao oiiiaeo oiia i?eaiaeyoue aei oiai, ui aei
oaia?ioiueiai /ano eaai?aoi?ia i /enaeueia iiaeaethaaiiy a
aeineiaeaeaiiyo oiiei? no?oeoo?e ieaaio iathoue iaiaaeaia canoinoaaiiy.
Aeaii ae iaoo?ieo aeii?thaaiue, a ia?aaaaeiie aieueoinoi nai?e o
aeaeyaei ciiaeoaaiue ?icieie i?eeaaeaie, i?iaeiaaeothoue
iaa?iiaaeaeoaaoeny i i?aaenoaaeythoue iaoe?iee iaoa?iae aeey
aeineiaeaeaiue.

Ineieueee ciiaeoaaiiy ? iaeiei c naieo i?inoeo i iaeieiooiaieo aeaeia
ieaaiia?aoi/ieo ?iaio, i?aaenoaaey?oueny aaaeeeaei i nai?/aniei ?icaeoie
iaoiaeia, ui aeicaieythoue iaeaieueo iiaii aeei?enoiaeaaoe ?acoeueoaoe
aeii?thaaiue, cie?aia, aeey aea/aiiy ae?iaiiianooaaieo aeeiaii/ieo
i?ioeania a ieaaii.

Aei oaia?ioiueiai /ano aieiaii aeinyaiaiiy a oeueiio iai?yii caiaeeeeny
aei ?ic?iaee iaoiaeia eeaneoieaoei? oeiia oiiei? aa?oeeaeueii? no?oeoo?e
ia iniiai aeayeeo ?? ia?aiao?ia, oienoth/eo aiaeiinio ?ieue ?icieo
aeeiaii/ieo /eiieeia o oi?ioaaiii oiieino?oeoo?ieo iaiaeii?iaeiinoae.
Eeaneoieaoeiy aeeiio?oueny ia yeiniiio ?iaii, ii ii?e aeecueeinoi
no?oeoo?e, ui niinoa?iaa?oueny aei oiio aai iioiio iiaeaeueiiio oeio.

Ca?ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ciino
aeena?oaoeii oeieeii aiaeiiaiaea? oaiaoeoe? ? iai?yio aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
aeeiioaaeeny i?ioyaii aaaaoueio e?o a?aeae?eii oo?aoeaioiino? IAI IAI
Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, a ?aieao:

Caaaeueiinithcii? eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeei?enoaiiy
Na?oiaiai ieaaio (i?iaeo «?ic??ce» 01.01.N? 0191.0044391);

Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a
Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio, aeeth/aii? aei a?aeii/iai ieaio
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie c ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
( i?iaeoe «*i?ia ii?a» N Ae? 0195U012256 ? «Aeeiai?ea aeinenoai» N Ae?
0194U044413).

Iaoa ?iaioe — noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee, ui aeicaiey? i?iaaaeeoe eieueeinii
aeineiaeaeaiiy ae?iaiiianooaaieo aeeiaii/ieo i?ioeania, nie?ath/enue
eeoa ia iaoa?iaee aa?oeeaeueieo ciiaeoaaiue, a oaeiae aea/aiiy ca
aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee oa?aeoa?enoee aa?oeeaeueiiai
ia?aiiooaaiiy, caeienithaaiiai aeacaieie i?ioeanaie.

Iniiaii caaea/i, ui ae?ioothoueny a ?iaioi:

— aea/aiiy aieeao aiia?aoo?ieo ia?aoeiae ia niaeo?e oiieino?oeoo?ieo
oeoeooaoei? i ?icaeoie oiieino?oeoo?iiai iiaeoiaeo aei ioeiiee yeinoi
ciiaeia, aeey aeei?enoaiiy i?e ia?iaoei ia?aeiieo aeaieo aeii?thaaiue;

— noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee noaoenoi/iiai ?icaeieaiiy oiieino?oeoo?ieo
oeoeooaoeie ca ?o iioiaeaeaiiyi, ia iniiai noeoiiiai aiaeico niaeo?ia
oaiia?aoo?e, nieiiinoi i uieueiinoi;

— ?ic?iaea aeey oeieae ii?iaiyiiy c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie
aeaieiiiiiaioii? neaaioo?aoeaioii? iiaeaei niaeo?o iiaeianaiue
ae?iaiiianoaaieo aioo?ioiio oaeeue;

— ?ic?iaea i?ia?aie iaeii/anii? niaeo?aeueii? ia?iaee ?yaeia
oaiia?aoo?e, nieiiinoi i oiiaii? iioaioeieii? uieueiinoi, ui ? aacith
aeey iiaeaeueoeo iiaeaeueieo ?ic?aooieia;

— i?iaaaeaiiy ia?iaee ianeaia ciiaeoaaiue a ieaainueeiio oa?iioaeieeeii
i a oa?i /i?iiii?nueeeo aiae, ?icoaoiaaiiio ieae/a eioiueiai iiiiioio
oaiia?aoo?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— iieacaii, ui aeey ii?iaiyiiy c oiieino?oeoo?ieie aeaieie i?eaeaoia
?ic?iaeaia neeaaeaia iiaeaeue aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?o ae?iaiiianooaaieo
aioo?ioiio oaeeue, ui yaey? niaith eiiaiiaoeith ?icieo neaaioo?aoeaioieo
?iciiaeieia;

— iieacaii, ui noeoiiee aiaeic niaeo?ia oaiia?aoo?e, nieiiinoi i
uieueiinoi aeicaiey? noaoenoe/ii aeaeieeoe eieueeinii aianee aaeaaeoei?,
aioo?ioiio oaeeue i aeaiaeeoocieii? eiiaaeoei? o aiaeiiaiaeie
oiieino?oeoo?ii aeenia?ni?;

— aiaeic niiaaiaeiioaiiy iaoeeia niaeo?ia aaeaaeoei? i nieueiaeo
iaeueoeia a ieaainueeiio oa?iioaeieeeii a na?aaeiueiio iiaeoaa?aeaeo?
iiaeeeainoue ia?aiao?ecaoei? iaeueoeueiaeo iioieia oaiea i niei c
aeiiiiiaith oi?iaeueieo eiaoioei?ioia aeeooci?;

— iieacaii, ui oaeei eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?o a ieaainueeiio
oa?iioaeieeeii noeeueii aei aeiaeaoeiaiai aeeneiaoeieiiio aieeao
eiiaaeoei? nieueiaeo iaeueoeia, a aoaeoeaia a’yceinoue aeey oaeeue
eieiiai?ianueeiai niaeo?o aeeth/a? ua i neeaaeiao oaeeueiaiai
ia?aiiooaaiiy ca ?aooiie aieueo ae?iaiiianooaaieo eiiiiiaioia c
eiiiainaoeieiiai iioa?aaeo;

— aecia/aii ia?aiao?e na?aaeiueiai niaeo?o oaeeueiaeo iiaeianaiue a
ieaainueeiio oa?iioaeieeeii;

— aecia/aii ia?aiao?e oaeeueiaiai niaeo?o noiiao?iaiai oa?o
/i?iiii?nueeeo aiae, ?icoaoiaaiiai ieae/a eioiueiai iiiiioio
oaiia?aoo?e; iieacaii, ui oaeeueiaa aeoeaiinoue a oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii
ii?y iaioa, iiae a ie?aeieo iaeanoyo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ouinoue ?iaioe iaoiiaethaaaoueny cia/iith iaoiaee/iith
oeiiiinoth io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia, ineieueee aiie inoioii ?icoe?ththoue
iiaeeeainoi aeineiaeaeaiiy ae?iaiiianooaaieo i?ioeania a ieaaii. Aaeeea
cia/aiiy ia? oa ianoaaeia, ui ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aoiaaia ia
aeei?enoaiiy ?icieo CTD-ciiaeia i c iaaaeeeeie ciiithaaiiyie iiaea
canoiniaoaaoeny aeey i?aeoe/ii aoaeue-yeeo ianeaia aeineoue aeieeaaeieo
aeaieo ciiaeoaaiue. Ioeiiee i?inoi?iai? ?icaeieueii? caeaoiinoi ciiaeia
? ei?enieie aeey ?ic?iaieeia iiaeo i?eno?i?a. ?ic?aoiaaii na?aaeii
oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?oeeaeueiiai iaiiio, caeienithaaiiai ae?iaiiianooaaieie
iaeiiieieie oaeeyie i i?ioeanaii iiaeaieii? aeeooci?, aiaee?eaathoue
oeyo aeey aeaoaeueieo i aaia?aoi/ii aieueo eieaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue
aeeiaiiee ia?aiiooaaiiy aiaeii? iane i iioieia ?icieo aeiiioie ia iniiai
aeaieo ciiaeoaaiue, ui aaaeeeai aeey caaaeaiue aeieiai/iiai iiiioi?eiao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe i?eeiaa
aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o ?ic?iaoei aeii?thaaeueii? aia?aoo?e,
i?iaaaeaiii iaoo?ieo aenia?eiaioia a aeniaaeeoeiyo, o noai?aiii iiaeo
i?ia?ai i ia?iaoei aeaieo ciiaeoaaiue. Aiaeic i iioa?i?aoaoeiy io?eiaieo
?acoeueoaoia aeeiioaaeenue aaoi?ii naiinoieii.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe i ioaeieaoei? ii oaii aeena?oaoei?. Ie?aii
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeieeaaeaeeny ia O c’?caei ?aaeyinueeeo ieaaiieiaia
(Eaiiia?aae, 1987 ?.), ia O?aoie ananithciie eiioa?aioei? «Aeoi?e i
oo?aoeaioienoue a ieaaii» (Naaoeiai?nuee, 1990 ?.), ia eiioa?aioei? »
Aeiaaiic noaio aeinenoaie *i?iiai ii?y i ciie niieo/aiiy nooi i ii?y »
29 aa?aniy — 3 aeiaoiy 1997 ?., Naaanoiiieue — Eaoeeaaei (E?ei).

Ii oaii aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii 15 ?iaio, a oiio /enei iaeia ye
?icaeie iiiia?aoi?, o?e noaooi a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, /ioe?e a cai?ieeao
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iaeia a oacao eiioa?aioei? i oinoue aeaiiiiaaii a
AIIIOI, Iineaa.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icaeieia, aeniiaeo i nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Caaaeueiee ianya
noaiiaeoue 181 noi?iiie, c ieo 35 iaethieia ia 35 eenoao i 3 oaaeeoei ia
6 eenoao. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 77 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOeI?

O anooii iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeueiinoue ?iaioe, aeacaiee ?? ca’ycie c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie, aecia/aii iaoa i caaea/i
aeineiaeaeaiue, iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/ouinoue aeena?oaoei?.

O ia?oiio ?icaeiei ?icaeyaeathoueny ani ieoaiiy aia?aoo?iiai oa?aeoa?o.

Ii?iaiyeueii oa?aeoa?enoeee ?icieo ciiaeia. I?e no/aniiio ?iaii
ii?nueeiai i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy aeaii i?aeoe/ii aoaeue-yeiai ciiaeo
iiaeooue aooeaeei?enoaii aeey aeineiaeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee oiiei?
aa?oeeaeueii? no?oeoo?e. Iaeiae, oaeiio canoinoaaiith iiaeiai
ia?aaeoaaoe ?aoaeueiee aiaeic iiaeeeainoae i?eeaaeo, iaiaaeaiue ii
aeiaiaciio aa?oeeaeueieo ianooaaia i ia?aiao?ai yaeua, ui naia
aeineiaeaeo?oueny. Ia?aeie ciiaeia, aeaii yeeo caciaee oiieino?oeoo?io
ia?iaeo. aeeth/a?:

aiae?ieiai-aeae?ioiii/iee ciiae ENOIE-7; eiiieaen aiae?ieiai/iee
aoene?o?ii-ciiaeoaaeueiee IAI 1201 (Iiiiciiae); oiieino?oeoo?iee ciiae
Eiiieaen — 1; oiieino?oeoo?iee ciiae Eiiieaen — 1I; ciiae I. A?aoia Ia?e
O.

Ca iaoiaeeeith i?iaaaeaiiy aeii?thaaiue ia?a?aoiaaii ciiaee aeineoue
?icii?iaeii. Aieueoinoue c ieo iathoue neeiaee eaaaeue-o?iniaee ca’ycie
c noaeiii, ui ia? nai? aeinoieiinoi i iaaeieiee. Aei aeinoieiinoae
iaeaaeaoue aiaenooiinoue i?iaeai c aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiyi caio?thaaiiai
i?eno?ith i ia?aaea/ath iioi?iaoei?, aei iaaeieieia — aieea ea/aiiy ia
i?ioean i ?acoeueoao aeii?thaaiue. Ciiaee Eiiieaen-1 i Eiiieaen-1I a
i?ioeani aeii?thaaiiy eiacathoue ocaeiaae ?aiioa aeo?aaeaiiai
eaaaey-o?ina, iioi?iaoeiy i?e oeueiio ia?aaea?oueny ia ai?o noaeia /a?ac
iiaeoeoi?. Aei ia?aaaa oeueiai iaoiaeo aiaeiinyoueny aeeeth/aiiy aieeao
ea/aiiy i aaeeea ?iaiiii?iinoue aiaeeieia ii aeeaeii.

I?inoee aiaeic oaoii/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?icieo ciiaeia ia aeicaiey?
c’ynoaaoe, yeee c i?eeaaeia ? aieueo i?eaeaoiei aeey aeineiaeaeaiue
oiieino?oeoo?ieo iaiaeii?iaeiinoae. sseui oi/iinoii ia?aiao?e ia?aeiieo
aeii?thaaeueieo eaiaeia aaeeeiai cia/aiiy ia iathoue, aiaeiinii aaee/eie
eaaiooaaiiy ii ?iaith i aeene?aoiinoi aeaieo iiaeii ai?ii?ii
ia?aaeaa/aoe, ui aiie iiaeiii aooe ii iiaeeeainoi iaioeie, oi/ iaaioue
naiee a?oaee c i?eeaaeia, Iiiiciiae IAI 1201, oi?iaeueia caeaaaeiny ae,
? i?eaeaoiei aeey aeii?thaaiiy iaiaeii?iaeiinoae iao?iaiai ianooaao.
Iio?iaii aieueo aeaoaeueii ioeiiee, uia aeyaeoe eiie?aoii ia?aaaae
oiieino?oeoo?ieo ciiaeia o ii?iaiyiii c i?ea’ycieie.

Aieea ea/aiiy. Aoa ?icaeyiooee ie?aiee aeiaaeie niioai?aiiy
eiiieiiai i?ioieth neioni?aeaeueiei ea/aiiyi, iaiaaeoth/enue
aea/aiiyi ianeiaeeia oei/aniaeo cao?eiie, ineieueee a no/anieo
NOD-nenoaiao ?icii?e aeao/eeia cae/aeii iaei. Aiaeoeeaiiy aiae
eiiieiinoi aa?oeeaeueiiai i?ioieth O(z) iathoue oeeeei?aeaeueiee
oa?aeoa?, aea a aeaio aeiaaeeao eiiieiinoue caa?iaa?oueny: a) yeui
iinoieii /ano oaiia?aoo?iiai eaiaeo i eaiaeo oeneo iaeaeai ?iaii ioeth,
ui caaaeii c?icoiiei, aea ia?aaeico?ii; a) yeui oei iinoieii ?iaii iiae
niaith. ?aaeueiei ? oeyo iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiai ciaioaiiy anio
iinoieieo /ano, c oei, uia ?o ?icieoey oaeiae aoea iaeith.

I?eeaae ENOIE-7 ia? oT ia aieueoa ca 0,05 n, i i?e aiieiooaei ea/aiiy D
= 1 i i /anoioi u = 1 n-1 (ia?iiae to i?eaeecii 6 naeoiae)
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ia?aceoiiai iiaeianaiiy aoaea Dh ~ 3,5
ni. Oea cia/ii ieae/a na?aaeiueiai ?iaiy i?e?iaeieo oaeeueiaeo
iiaeianaiue, yeee a iioa?aaei ianooaaia eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?o
noaiiaeoue 0,25 i. Ia?aceoii iiaeianaiiy oaeiai ?iaiy iiaeia io?eiaoe
i?e aiieiooaei ea/aiiy D = 2i i oT = 0,2 n. Ia i?ioieyo iiaeooue
aeyaeyoeny ?aaoey?ii noiaeeiee.

Aaaeeeaith ia?aaaaith oiieino?oeoo?ieo ciiaeia ? aiaenooiinoue
oeeeeieaeaeueieo niioai?aiue aiae ea/aiiy naieo ia?aeiieo, oei/aniaeo
?yaeia ia?aiao?ia, ui aeii?ythoueny, ui iieaaoo? iiaeaeueoo ia?iaeo.
Iiney eioa?iieyoei? ia aeaiaeenoaioii ii aeeaeii aiaeeiee i?ea’ycii
ciiaee iiaeooue aeaaaoe ii?iaiyiii ?acoeueoaoe, aea i?e oiiai iaeinoi
oei/aniaeo cao?eiie anio aeii?thaaeueieo eaiaeia, aeeth/ath/e eaiae
oeneo, iinoieia /ano yeiai cae/aeii ia ?aaeaiaioo?oueny. I?e
oiieino?oeoo?iie ia?iaoei ?iaaiue ia?aoeiae aiae ea/aiiy iiaea aooe
a?aoiaaiee, yeui aiaeiii ?? ia?aiao?e i oei/aniai cao?eiee
aeii?thaaeueieo eaiaeia.

Aieea aeene?aoiinoe. Oei/aniai ?yaee ia?aeiieo ia?aiao?ia —
oaiia?aoo?a, aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue, oene iiaeooue aooe aeii?yii c
aeineoue iaeith ooiiaith iia?ioiinoth, ui aecia/a?oueny, ii nooi,
oeiiith iaeeieoei iieiaeoiai ?ic?yaeo. Aeey oaiia?aoo?iiai eaiaeo
Iiiiciiaea oeiia eaaioa ?iaia 0,01 oN , ui ia ii?yaeie aieueoa,
iiae aeey ciiaea Eiiieaen-1. Aiaeiiaiaeii aeenia?niy ooiia
oaiia?aoo?iiai eaiaeo Iiiiciiaea ia aeaa ii?yaeee aieueoa,iiae o
Eiiieaeno-1. Iiiiiaeueiee ianooaa oiiei? no?oeoo?e oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey,
yeee aeinooiiee aeineiaeaeaiith ca aeiiiiiaith Iiiiciiaea i?e, ui /anoi
cono?i/a?oueny, na?aaeiueiio a?aaei?ioi OZ = 0,01 oC i -1 , aoaea eT ~
3,5 i. Ua ai?oa eaea ni?aaa c iieai nieiiinoi. Ooie oaiia?aoo?e /a?ac
aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue ia?a?aoiaothoueny a nieiiinoue c eiaoioei?ioii
i?eaeecii -1 o/oo oN-1, a oa?aeoa?ii na?aaeii a?aaei?ioe nieiiinoi a
ieaaii ia ii?yaeie iaioa oaiia?aoo?ieo. O ?acoeueoaoi a?aie/iee ianooaa
ii nieiiinoi aeoiaeeoue eS ~ 15 i .

Inoioii e?aui oa?aeoa?enoeee ia? ciiae Eiiieaen-1. I?e aaee/eii eaaioa
ii oaiia?aoo?i 0,001 oN i na?aaeiie aeene?aoiinoi ii aeeaeii 7,5 ni,
aeey oaiia?aoo?iiai a?aaei?ioa OZ = 0,01 oCi -1 iaea?aeo?oueny
a?aie/iee ianooaa eT ~ 0,45 i, a eS ~ 2,0 i i?e a?aaei?ioi nieiiinoi
1,0.10 -3 o/ oo i-1. Aiaeiiaiaeii aeey i?eeaaeo Eiiieaen-1I, o yeiai
eaaio ii oaiia?aoo?i 5,0.10 -4 oN i aeene?aoiinoue 2,5 ni, eT ~ 0,2 i i
eS ~ 1 i. O ciiaea ENOIE-7 oaiia?aoo?iee eaaio oaeiae 5,0 .10 -4 oN, a
aeene?aoiinoue ii aeeaeii ii?yaeeo 10 ni, ui aea? eT ~ 0,6 i i eS ~ 2,8
i. Ciiae I. A?aoia Ia?e O ii oeeo ia?aiao?ao aeecueeee aei Eiiieaeno-1I.

?icaeieaiiy ii ia?aiao?ao, ui ia/eneythoueny. ? niaoeeoi/iee aeaeyae
iia?ioiinoae, aeieeath/eo i?e ia/eneaiiyo nieiiinoi i uieueiinoi
iiaeii?yiei cia/aiiyi oaiia?aoo?e i aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoi. Oaei
ia/eneaiiy ?ai?acaioaoeaii oieueee ca oiia ocaiaeaeaiiy
i?inoi?iai-oei/aniaeo oa?aeoa?enoee aeacaieo aeii?thaaeueieo eaiaeia.
Ia’aeoiaiith ii?ith oaeiai ocaiaeaeaiiy ? eiaa?aioiinoue i oaca iiae
oaiia?aoo?ith i aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoth, ?ic?aoiaaii a oa?ao, aea
iiieeainoue oaiia?aoo?e aaeeea, a nieiiinoue aa?ith? neaai.

Aia?aoo?iee cnoa oace iiae oaiia?aoo?ith i aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoth a
iaeanoi aeniei? eiaa?aioiinoi i?eaiaeeoue aei «i?ini/aiiy» oaiia?aoo?ieo
oeoeooaoeie aei eaiaeo nieiiinoi. O aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao cnoa oace iiae
oaiia?aoo?ith i aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoth iiaea aooe ?icei ciaioaiee ia aoaii
iiia?aaeiuei? ia?iaee oeyoii ooo/iiai ciiuaiiy ?yaeia ia oieniaaia /enei
aiaeeieia. Ani iioi oa?aeoa?enoeee eaiaeia, ca aeeeth/aiiyi oaciaiai
cnoao, i?e oeueiio caa?iaathoueny. Aaee/eia ciiuaiiy aecia/a?oueny
?icoaooaaiiyi iaeneioia aca?iii? ei?aeyoeieii? ooieoei?.

Aia?aoo?iee caae eiaa?aioiinoi iiae oaiia?aoo?ith i aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoth
iaiiaeeeai nei?aeooaaoe iiia?aaeiueith ia?iaeith, i naia oea yaeua a
iaeaieueoie ii?i aecia/a? aeicaieyth/o caeiaiinoue NOD — nenoai ii
ia?aiao?ao, ui ia/eneythoueny. Aa?oeeaeueiee ianooaa aia?aoo?iiai caaeo
eiaa?aioiinoi caeaaeeoue a iniiaiiio aiae eiino?oeoei? aeao/eeo
aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoi. Ciiae I. A?aoia Ia?e O iniauaiee iiiiaoth?iei
eiioaeoiei aeao/eei aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoi, caaaeyee /iio caaacia/o?oueny
aeniea eiaa?aioiinoue c oaiia?aoo?iei eaiaeii aei aa?oeeaeueiiai
ianooaao ii?yaeeo 10 ni, oae ui iioaioeieii a niaeo?i iiaeooue
aeineiaeeoeny aeaaaeoeyoenaioeiao?iae ianooaae.

O ciiaeao Eiiieaen-1, Eiiieaen-1I, ENOIE-7 canoiniao?oueny
iiaeoeoeaii-o?ainoi?iaoi?iee aeao/ee aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoi, ui ia? aaeeei
?icie?e, /ei eiioaeoiee, i caae eiaa?aioiinoi ii/eia?oueny aaea ia
ianooaai ii?yaeeo iaeiiai iao?o. Ineieueee ia/eneaiiy nieiiinoi i
uieueiinoi ca iaaeaie iaeanoi eiaa?aioiinoe ia iathoue naino, aiaeeiee,
ui io?eiothoueny, o?aaa ina?aaeiyoe, i?e/iio ia ii/aoeiaiio aoaii
ia?iaee, aei ia/eneaiiy iiaoi?ieo ia?aiao?ia.

Ae?oaee ?icaeie i?enay/aiee niaoeiaeueiie iaoiaeeoei
aeenia?nieii-niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeico oiieino?oeoo?ieo aeaieo.

?icaeieaiiy aeenia?ni? oiieino?oeoo?ieo oeoeooaoeie ia neeaaeiai,
niieo/ii c ?icieie aeeiaii/ieie i?ioeanaie. Aaaeeeaei aeey ?icaeieaiiy
aianeia ie?aieo iaoaiiciia aei noia?ii? aeenia?ni? oeoeooaoei?
oaiia?aoo?e, nieiiinoi i uieueiinoi ? oa ianoaaeia, ui eiaeiee c
oi?iiia?acoth/eo i?ioeania i?iaiaeeoue oei oeoeooaoei? a ?icieo
aiaeiioaiiyo, ui aecia/athoueny nai?th oice/iith i?e?iaeith. Eiiaiioth/e
oei niiaaiaeiioaiiy c oiiaaie aaeeoeaiinoi, iiaeia neeaaeaoe nenoaie
?iaiyiue aeey iaaiaeiieo aianeia ?icieo iaoaiiciia aaia?aoei? a
aeenia?ni? oiieino?oeoo?ieo oeoeooaoeie.

Ia?oa iiaeaeue — aaeaaeoeiy i oaeei. Iaei?inoa iiaeaeue ia?aaeaa/a?
o/anoue oieueee aeaio no?oeoo?iia?acoth/eo iaoaiiciia — iciiieie/ii?
aaeaaeoei? i ae?iaiiianooaaieo aioo?ioiio oaeeue. Neeaaea?oueny nenoaia
?iaiyiue aeey /ioe?ueio ooeaieo aaee/ei: aeaio neeaaeiaeo aeenia?ni?
oeoeooaaoei? oaiia?aoo?e, ui aeeeeeathoueny oaeeyie DOA e aaeaaeoei?th
DOA , i aiaeiiaiaeii aeey nieiiinoi DSA e DSA . Nenoaia aeicaiey?
?ic?aooaaoe aianee aioo?ioiio oaeeue i aaeaaeoei? a caaaeueio ii anueiio
niaeo?o aeenia?nith oeoeooaoei? eiaeiiai c ia?aiao?ia, a oaeiae aeey
aoaeue-yei? ie?aii? niaeo?aeueii? nioae. Ii/aoeiaeie aeaieie ?
aeenia?niy oaiia?aoo?e DO , nieiiinoi DS , oiiaii? iioaioeieii?
uieueiinoi Do (aai aiaeiiaiaeii cia/aiiy niaeo?aeueieo neeaaeiaeo), a
oaeiae a?aaei?ioe Oz , Sz , oz i na?aaeii ii aeieueieoei i?ioieth
cia/aiiy eiaoioei?ioia oaiia?aoo?iiai ?icoe?aiiy a i nieiiinoii?
noeneeainoi a.

Iiaeaeueii ?ic?aooiee aeeiioaaeeny ia iniiai aeaieo, io?eiaieo c
iiiiooaeiinoth ciiaea Eiiieaen-1 a o?iii/iie ciii Iiaii/ii? Aoeaioiee.
Aeieueieoei i?ioieia aiaeiineeeny aei iaeanoi ieaainueeiai
oa?iioaeieeeio, aea oaiia?aoo?a i nieiiinoue iaeii/anii iaioathoue c
aeeaeiith. Oaeeueiaa neeaaeiaa uieueiinoi a ia?aaaaeiie aieueoinoi
aeiaaeeia aoea inoioii iaioa caaaeueii? aeenia?ni? uieueiinoi, i?e/iio
«iaaeeeoie» ia iiaea aooe iiyniaiee aieeaii ooiia aia?aoo?e.

Ae?oaa iiaeaeue — aianie nieueiaeo iaeueoeia. O oa?iioaeieeeiao nieueiai
iaeueoei caaaeaee yaeythoue niaith iaeei c eiieo?oth/eo iaoaiiciia
oi?ioaaiiy oiiei? no?oeoo?e, iineeaiiy aai ineaaeaiiy aei? yei?
aiaeaoaa?oueny eieaeueii a ?icieo iaeanoyo aea?aii? aeieueieoei
aa?oeeaeueiiai i?ioieth. Iiaeaeue, ui caaacia/o? ?icaeieaiiy aianeia
iciiieie/ii? aaeaaeoei?, ae?iaiiianooaaieo aioo?ioiio oaeeue i
eiiaaeoei? nieueiaeo iaeueoeia, iinoeoue ainii ?iaiyiue.

O ii?iaiyiii c iiia?aaeiueith iiaeaeeth ooo aeiaeathoueny aianee
eiiaaeoei? nieueiaeo iaeueoeia a aeenia?nith oaiia?aoo?e DTI , a
aeen1ia?nith nieiiinoi DSI , a aeenia?nith oiiaii? iioaioeieii?
uieueiinoi DoI . Ni?aaaei aeyaeeiny, ui oa?aeoa?iee aeey ia?oi? iiaeaei
uieueiinoiee caeeoie (eiai iiaeia aecia/eoe ye DoA1) a iniiaiiio
iiaeeia?oueny iaeueoeueiaei aianeii DoI .

O?aoy iiaeaeue — iaeie iaiciiieie/iinoi. Iiaeia iiaoaeoaaoe iiaeaeue
?icaeieaiiy aeenia?nie, a yeie nieueiai iaeueoei aiaenooii, a iaaeeeoie
oeoeooaoei? uieueiinoi aaaaea?oueny aeeeeeaiei iaiciiieie/iinoth. Oey
nenoaia iinoeoue nii ?iaiyiue i aeicaiey? ?ic?aooaaoe iieaciee
iciiieie/iinoi RA , yeee ia? noaoenoe/ia cia/aiiy i aecia/a?
ia?aaaaeaiiy aaeaaeoiaieo aianeia nieiiinoi aai oaiia?aoo?e a
oeoeooaoei? uieueiinoi. O?aoy iiaeaeue caaeiaieueii i?aoeth? i?e iaeeo
iaaeeeoeao uieueiinoi DoA1, yeui ae oeae iaaeeeoie aaeeeee, aeoiaeyoue
iiiaaeii?ii cia/aiiy RA . O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aieueo aoaeoeaiith
aeyaey?oueny ae?oaa iiaeaeue, ui a?aoiao? aeith nieueiaeo iaeueoeia.
Iaoo?aeueiei aoei aaaeaiiy iicaooeny iaio iaeaaeicaoeie i ?ic?iaeoe aeey
oa?iioaeieeeio aieueo ?aaeueio iiaeaeue, a yeie iaeii/anii aoee
i?enooiiii ae nieueiai iaeueoei i iaiciiieie/iinoue.

*aoaa?oa iiaeaeue — nieueiai iaeueoei i iaiciiieie/iinoue. Iaaeaeue,
iiaia nenoaia a oeueiio aeiaaeeo iinoeoue aeanyoue iaaiaeiieo, a aieueoa
aeaa’youeio iacaeaaeieo niiaaiaeiioaiue io?eiaoe ia aaea?oueny. Iaeei c
niiniaia ae?ioaiiy i?iaeaie — ooo/ia aaaaeaiiy a nenoaio ia?aiao?a
iciiieie/iinoi RA , ui io?eio?oueny c yeeo-iaaoaeue iioeo ii?eoaaiue,
iai?eeeaae, oeyoii eiiaiioaaiiy ?acoeueoaoia ?ic?aooieia ii ia?oeo
o?ueio iiaeaeyo. Aeai? ?iaeoueny ia ei?enoue oiai aa?iaioo /aoaa?oi?
iiaeaei, yeee caaacia/o? iiceoeaii ?ioaiiy nenoaie ?iaiyiue o anueiio
aeiaiaciii, ui aeineiaeaeo?oueny, ianooaaia oiiei? aa?oeeaeueii?
no?oeoo?e.

O ?ic?iaeaiie noaii oiieino?oeoo?ii? ia?iaee aa?oeeaeueii niaeo?e
i?ioieia oaiia?aoo?e, nieiiinoi i uieueiinoi iathoue aeiiiiiaeia
cia/aiiy i neoaeaoue iaoa?iaeii aeey iiaeaeueieo ?ic?aooieia.
Iai?eeeaae, a /aoaa?oie iiaeaei eiaeiee c aeacaieo niaeo?ia
?ic/eaiiao?oueny ia o?e neeaaeiai, aiaeiiaiaeii aianeai
ae?iaiiianooaaieo aioo?ioiio oaeeue, iaiciiieie/ii? aaeaaeoei? i
eiiaaeoei? nieueiaeo iaeueoeia, oae ui a ?acoeueoaoi aeoiaeeoue
aeaa’youe niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

O o?aoueiio ?icaeiei ?icaeyaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee
neaaioo?aoeaioieo niaeo?ia ae?iaiiianooaaieo aioo?ioiio oaeeue,
i?eaeaoieo aeey i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy i?e ia?iaoei aeaieo
aeii?thaaiue.

Niaeo? eieiiai?ianueeiai oeio. Iniiaith aia?aoo oai?i? neaai?
oo?aoeaioiinoe ? eiiaoe/ii ?iaiyiiy, ui iienothoue aaeain /enea oaeeue
nk c oaeeueiaei aaeoi?ii k . *enei oaeeue — oa?aeoa?enoeea aia?ai?
oaeeueiaeo i?ioeania aac o?aooaaiiy ?o /anoioe uk . Iaeaieueo neeaaeiee
aeaiaio eiiaoe/iiai ?iaiyiiy — iioaa?ae cioeiaiue, iieacoth/ee niaith
?acoeueoao aca?iiaei? oaeeue, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeeueiaei aaeoi?ii
k , c aniia oaeeyie iioeo aeiaaeei i iai?yiia iioe?thaaiiy.

Aeey ?ioaiiy eiiaoe/iiai ?iaiyiiy iaiaoiaeii aeeiiaoe neeaaeii
ia?aoai?aiiy iioaa?aea cioeiaiue aai a /anoioiie iaeanoi, aai a i?inoi?i
oaeeueiaeo /enae. ?acii c oei o aeiaaeeo iiaii? aaoiiiaeaeueiinoi
?ioaiiy, ui io?eiothoueny, caeiiiii?ii niiaiaaeathoue c iaeaeaieie c
ii?eoaaiue ?icii?iinoi, ineieueee inoaiii aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e
aecia/aiii aeaeyaeo iao?e/iiai aeaiaioa aca?iiaei?. O aiaenooiinoi
aaia?aoei? i iiaeeiaiiy iiaea inioaaoe ia?iaiiaaaeia ?ioaiiy, ui
ia?aoai?th? iioaa?ae cioeiaiue a ioeue. I?e oeueiio inio? iinoieiee
iioie aia?ai? ii niaeo?o Q, ui aecia/a?, ia?iaii c eieaeueiith /anoioith
Ayenyey-A?aioa N, ?iaaiue aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a. Iioaa?oaaiiy ii
ai?eciioaeueiei neeaaeiaei oaeeueiaiai /enea aea? ooeaiee niaeo? aiae kz
:

E (kz) = 6.8 (QN)1/2 kz -2

Iinoieiinoue iioieo aia?ai? ii niaeo?o iiaea ii?oooaaoeny aeeneiaoei?th
oaeeue, iai?eeeaae, ca ?aooiie iieaeoey?ii? a’yceinoi i . Oiiaia
ae?iaiiianooaaiei ei?aeiiii niaeo?o kza iiaeia aaaaeaoe oaeeueiaa
/enei, ia yeiio ao?aoe aiae aeeneiaoei? aeinyaathoue 3/4 Q:

kza = 0,1 i -1 (Q/N) 1/2

I?e na?aaeiueiio cia/aiii iioieo Q=1,8.10 -6 ni2/n3 i na?aaeiie aaee/eii
N ~ 2 oe/aiae a’yceinoiee ei?aeii niaeo?o eieiiai?ianueeiai oeio (c
iinoieiei iioieii aia?ai?) ciaoiaeeoueny ia ianooaai i?eaeecii 40 ni.
Iaeiae aaea ia ianooaaao ii?yaeeo aeanyoe iao?ia iaoee aa?oeeaeueiiai
niaeo?o ciiith?oueny ia iiion o?e.

Eiiiainaoeieiee niaeo?. Niaeo? c iaoeeii iiion o?e oaeiae iiaea aooe
io?eiaiee c eiiaoe/iiai ?iaiyiiy, yeui a?aooaaoe aaia?aoeith i
iiaeeiaiiy. Aeey aeiaaeeo aaoiiiaeaeueiiai iiaeeiaiiy aaiaeeoueny
aac?icii?iee ia?aiao? a = 2|ak|/uk , ui oa?aeoa?eco? aiaeiinio
oaeaeeinoue ao?ao ia eiaeiie /anoioi. Iiney iioaa?oaaiiy ii
ai?eciioaeueiei oaeeueiaei /eneai io?eio?ii ae?aaeaiiy aeey
aa?oeeaeueiiai niaeo?o aia?ai? a iioa?aaei aaoiiiaeaeueiiai iiaeeiaiiy:

A (kz) = 1,8 a N2 kz -3

Niaeo? aaoiiiaeaeueiiai iiaeeiaiiy aecia/a?oueny ae?aaeaiiyi:

Ei (kz) = 1,6 a2 N3 kz -3

I?e aeieaiii ia N2 aeoiaeeoue niaeo? «ao?ao iiaeianaiiy», aiaeiiaiaeiee
niaeo?o eiaoioei?ioa aa?oeeaeueiiai iaiiio K(kZ), caeienithaaiiai
neaaiiaeiiieieie ae?iaiiianooaaieie aioo?ioiiie oaeeyie a iioa?aaei
aaoiiiaeaeueiiai iiaeeiaiiy. Iioaa?ae a iaaeao oeueiai iioa?aaeo aea?
aaee/eio eiaoioei?ioa oaeeueiaiai iaiiio Ka :

Ka = 0,8 a2 N ko -2

Ooo ko aiaeiiaiaea? eiaiio ei?aeiio iioa?aaeo iiaeeiaiiy.

Aiaeiai/ii ae?ace aeoiaeyoue aeey niaeo?o aaoiiiaeaeueii? aaia?aoei?, a
yeiio aia?aiy ia?aaea?oueny o cono?i/iiio iai?yii, aiae iaeeo ianooaaia
aei aaeeeeo. Aeaea?aeii aia?ai? neoaeeoue iiea oaeaeeinoi oa/i?.

Iniothoue, oaeei /eiii, aeai nenoaie ae?iaiiianooaaieo aioo?ioiio
oaeeue: a iaeiie c ieo aia?aiy aeoyao?oueny c iiey oaeaeeinoi oa/i? i
ia?aaea?oueny aiae iaioeo ianooaaia aei aaeeeeo ca ?aooiie i?ioeano
iiaeoeiaaiiai ?icniyiiy ia /anoeao; a iioie — aia?aiy, iaaiaee,
ia?aaea?oueny aiae aieueo aeiaaeo oaeeue aei ei?ioeeo caaaeyee cae/aeiei
o?eoaeeaaei aca?iiaeiyiiyi, c ao?aoaie ia ia?aiiooaaiiy. O
noaoeiiia?iiio aeiaaeeo oaeaeeinoi aaia?aoei? i aeeneiaoei? iiaeiii aooe
?iaii, i aiaeiiaiaeii ie i?eoiaeeii aei aeniiaeo i?i ?iaiinoue aia?aie
oaeeue a oeeo aeaio nenoaiao.

Iienaiee niaeo? nei?i/aii iiaeia iacaaoe eiiiainaoeieiei,
aiaeia?aaeoaath/e oei naiei eiai iniiaio aeanoeainoue — aaeain iiae
aaia?aoei?th i iiaeiuiiiyi. Oaeeueiaa /enei kzo , ia yeiio oaeaeeinoue
aaia?aoei? aei?iaith?oueny iieaeoey?ii? aeeneiaoei?, aecia/a?oueny
ae?aaeaiiyi:

kzo = 0,62 (aN/i)1/2 .

*aoaa?oee ?icaeie ?iaioe iinoeoue ?acoeueoaoe canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee oiieino?oeoo?iiai niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeico aei aeaiei
ciiaeoaaiue. Iienaia noaia oiieino?oeoo?ii? ia?iaee aeaieo ?icaeaaeany i
aei?iaiaoaaeany a iniiaiiio ia ianeai aeaieo, io?eiaieo a 39 ?aeni IAeN
«Aeaaeaiie Aa?iaaenueeee» ca aeiiiiiaith ciiaea Eiiieaen-1. Ciiaeoaaiiy
aeeiioaaeeny a o?iiieao, iiiooii ci ceiieith Aiaciinueeiai iieiaiia, a
iniiaiiio i?e iinoaiiaeao i ceiii aoeeiaeo noaioeie. Aaia?aoi/ia
i?ea’ycea iinoey ?iaio aiaeiiaiaea? oi/oei c eii?aeeiaoaie 6 i i. o. i
46 i c. ae. Ae?oaee, aieueo iaoe?iee ianea oiieino?oeoo?ieo aeaieo aoa
io?eiaiee ca aeiiiiiaith ciiaea Eiiieaen-1I a 43 ?aeni IAeN «Aeaaeaiie
Aa?iaaenueeee», ia iieeaiii a ?aeiii ino?iaia Iaaeae?a.

Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeeee ?icaeieaiiy oiieino?oeoo?ieo oeoeooaoeie ia
neeaaeiai, iia’ycaii c ?icieie aeeiaii/ieie i?ioeanaie, iaaea? aieueo
iaoe?iee iaoa?iae aeea aiaeico a ii?iaiyiii c aeoiaeieie niaeo?aie
aa?oeeaeueieo i?ioea oaiia?aoo?e, nieiiinoi i uieueiinoi. Oeieaai
aeniiaee aeicaiey? c?iaeoe, cie?aia, niieueiee aiaeic niaeo?ia
aaeaaeoei? i nieueiaeo iaeueoeia.

Aieea iaeueoeueiaiai ia?aiiooaaiiy ia e?ooinoue niaeo?ia aaeaaeoei?.
Aoei iiii/aii, ui niaeo? aaeaaeoei? niaaea? ic c?inoaiiyi oaeeueiaiai
/enea aieueo e?ooi, iiae niaeo? nieueiaeo iaeueoeia. Ca’ycie iiae
iaoeeaie oeeo niaeo?aeueieo ooieoeie iiaeia aeyaeoe, anoaiiaethth/e
caeaaeiinoue aiae oaeeueiaiai /enea iioieo nieiiinoi FS (k) i a?aaei?ioa
nieiiinoi a eio?ociyo SZ (k), ia iniiai ae?aaeaiiy:

FS = KSF SZ (1)

Ooo KSF — iaeueoeueiaee eiaoioei?io nieueiaiai iaiiio, ui ia
caeaaeeoue aiae oaeeueiaiai /enea. sseui iaeueoeueiaa neeaaeiaa niaeo?a
nieiiinoi PSI (k) ia? noaiiiith oi?io, PSI (k) ~ km , oi aeenia?niy
iaeueoeueiaeo oeoeooaoeie DSI ~ km+1 , a iioie nieiiinoi, FS (k) ~
k4/3(m+1). Iaoae aaeaaeoiaia neeaaeiaa niaeo?a nieiiinoi Psa (k) oaeiae
ia? noaiaiaao oi?io, Psa ~ kn , oiaei SZ (k) ~ kn+2. Ineieueee a (1) KSF
ia caeaaeeoue aiae oaeeueiaiai /enea, ia?ii 4/3 (m + 1) = n + 2, aai

m = 3/4 n + 1/2 (2)

Iaoeee iaeueoeueiai? neeaaeiai? niaeo?a nieiiinoi PSI (k) ~ km , i
aaeaaeoiaii? neeaaeath/i? Psa (k) ~ kn aecia/aeeny aeey i’yoiaaeoeyoe
ciiaeoaaiue i?eeaaeii Eiiieaen-1 ia Aiaciinueeiio iieiaiii i
/ioe?iaaeoeyoe i?eeaaeii Eiiieaen-1I ia iieiaiii a ?aeiii ino?iaia
Iaaeae?a. Io?eiaii cia/aiiy caaaeii iaiiaaii a?oiothoueny aiey
?ic?aooieiai? i?yii?, aiaeiiaiaeii? ia?aiao?icaoei? iaeueoeueiaeo
iioieia nieiiinoi c aeiiiiiaith aeayeiai eiaoioei?ioa iaiiio. Na?aaei?
cia/aiiy aiaeiioaiiy me / m? , aea me — aeii?yiee iaoee iaeueoeueiaiai
niaeo?a, m? — ?ic?aoiaaiee ii ae?aaeaiith (2), aeey 29 ciiaeoaaiue
aeyaeeiny ?iaiei 0,96. Iiaeia c?iaeoe aeaiae, ui aeey e?oiiiianooaaieo
caaea/ ia?aiao?icaoeiy iaeueoeueiaeo iioieia c aeiiiiiaith aiaeiiaiaeieo
eiaoioei?ioia iaiiio i?eeiyoia.

No?oeoo?a niaeo?ia oaeeueiaeo iiaeianaiue, ?? ca’ycie c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
ia?aiiooaaiiy. Oiieino?oeoo?iee oaeeueiaee niaeo? iieno?oueny i’youeia
ia?aiao?aie: iioieii aia?ai? Q ia aeieueieoei c iaoeeii k -2 i
a?aie/iith aeiaaeeiith oaeei oei?? aeieueieoei e1 = 2?/kZA, eiaei
ei?aeiiii aeieueieoei c iaoeeii k -3, e2 = 2? / ki , iieacieeii
iaeiiieiinoi e i i?aaei ei?aeiiii eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?a e3 = 2? /
kZO.

*anoioa ca ana a aeinooiiiio niaeo?aeueiiio aieii iaeaieueo /ioei
cia?aaeaii iaeanoue eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?a c iaoeeii iiion o?e.
Aeiaaioaeeueiaa aeieueieoey, aiaeiiaiaeia eieiiai?ianueeiio niaeo?o c
iaoeeii iiion aeaa, ieaaii ia?ae?eaath/enue, ia?aoiaeeoue a
eiiiainaoeieiee niaeo? c iaoeeii iiion o?e. Oeae ia?aoiae, eiee
ae?iaiiianooaaiee c?ic eieiiai?ianueeiai niaeo?a iaeeaaea?oueny ia
aeiaaioaeeueiaee iaeneioi eiiiainaoeieiiai, iiaea aooe ?icoeo?iaaiee c
aeaeieaiiyi cacia/aieo aeua ianooaaia ?1 i e2. sseui e1 inoioii aieueoa
e2, a noia?iiio niaeo?i iiaea ooai?eoeny iaaaea/a, ui ?icaeiey? iaeanoi
eieiiai?ianueeiai i eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?ia.

Aoee ?ic?aoiaaii na?aaeii cia/aiiy eiaeiiai c i’yoe oaeeueiaeo
ia?aiao?ia:

e1 e2 e3 Q a

8,4 i 6,8 i 2,4 i 1,6.10 -6ni2n-3 5,0.10 -2

Aei oeeo oa?aeoa?enoee iieth ae?iaiiianooaaieo aioo?ioiio oaeeue
iaiaoiaeii aeiaeaoe iaeaaaeeeaioee oiiiaee ia?aiao? — na?aaeith /anoioo
Ayenyey-A?aioa N, yea ?iaia 3,6.10 -3 n -1, aai i?eaeecii 2 oeeeee /
aiae.

Aoee ?ic?aoiaaii cia/aiiy KA aeey 24 ciiaeoaaiue, yei iaee a niaeo?ao
oaeeueiai? neeaaeiai? eiiiainaoeieiee iioa?aae c iaoeeii iiion o?e, a
oaeiae: oi?iaeueii iaeueoeueiae eiaoioei?ioe iaiiio nieeth KSF i
uieueiinoth KnF; aoaeoeaiee eiaoioei?io a’yceinoi aeey oaeeue
eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?a Ka; aoaeoeaiee eiaoioei?io a’yceinoi aeey
oaeeue eieiiai?ianueeiai niaeo?a ia. Aianeiaeie ina?aaeiaiiy aeeoei: KA=
13,7.10-2 ni2/n; KSF = 14,8.10-2 ci2/n; Ka = 10,3.10-2 ci2/n; KnF=
5,9.10-2 ci2/n; ia = 28,9.10-2 ci2/n. Aoaeoeaia a’yceinoue aeey oaeeue
eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?a Ka eyaa? oi/ia a na?aaeeio iiae cia/aiiyie KSF
i KnF i iaaaaaoi ia?aaeuo? cia/aiiy iieaeoey?ii? a’yceinoi. Iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui nieueiai iaeueoei iaaeathoue inoioia aeenneiaoeaia
aeiyiiy ia ae?iaiiianooaaii aioo?ioii oaeei. Aoaeoeaia a’yceinoue aeey
oaeeue eieiiai?ianueeiai niaeo?a ny aeyaey?oueny i?eaeecii ?iaiie noii
KA i KSF. Iaaooue, aieueo aeiaaiianooaaii oaeei eieiiai?ianueeiai
niaeo?a caciathoue aeeneiaoeaia aeiyiiy ia oieueee c aieo nieueiaeo
iaeueoeia, aea i aiae aieueo ae?iaiiianooaaieo eiiiiiaioia c iioa?aaeo
eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?a.

Iniaeeainoi oiiei? oa?iioaeeiii? no?oeoo?e aiae *i?iiai ii?y.
Ia?aiao?e, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue oi?io niaeo?a iiaeianaiue
ae?iaiiianooaaieo aioo?ioiio oaeeue, iieacoaaee aeinoaoith
noaaieueiinoue a oa?i, ui aeineiaeaeo?oueny. Aeeneiaoeaiee ei?aeii
eieiiai?ianueeiai niaeo?a e1 i ianooaa iaeneioia eiiiainaoeieiiai
niaeo?a e2 aeyaeee iaaaeeei eieeaaiiy aiey na?aaeia? aaee/eie 3,3 i,
?ic?aoiaaiee ianooaa a’ycei? aeenneiaoei? eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?a e3 ai
anio aeiaaeeao aoa iaioa iaeiiai iao?a, oiaoi iaoiaeeany ca iaaeaie
niaeo?aeueiiai aieia.

Ia?aiao?e, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?iaaiue niaeo?a, iioie aia?ai? Q i
iieaciee iaeiiieiinoi ? — iaaiaee, aeaee aaeeeo ?icieoeth cia/aiue.
Na?aaei? cia/aiiy iioieo aia?ai? ii niaeo?o oaeeue eieiiai?ianueeiai
eioa?aaea Q aeyaeeiny ?iaiei 4,4.10-6 ni2n-3, ui iaeaea a o?e ?ace
aieueoa, iiae a ieaainueeiio oa?iioaeieeeio. Na?aaeiy aaee/eia iieacieea
aaia?aoei?- iiaeeiaiiy oaeeue eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?a ? o oa?i, ui
aeineiaeaeo?oueny, ? = 4,9.10-2, i?aeoe/ii niiaiaea c eiai cia/aiiyi
aeey oa?iioaeieeeio, ? = 5,0.10-2. Iiieeainoue eiaoioei?ioo
aa?oeeaeueiiai oaeeueiaiai iaiiio EA , i?e aeineoue noaaieueieo N i ki ,
iaeaea oeieeii caeaaeeoue aiae ?icieoei cia/aiue iieacieea iaeiiieiinoi
? . O na?aaeiueiio EA aeyaeeiny ?iaiei 10,9.10-2 ni2n-1, ui aeaeieueea
iaioa eiai cia/aiiy aeey ieaainueeiai oa?iioaeieeeio EA=
13,7.10-2ni2n-1.

Aoea aeeiiaia oiieino?oeoo?ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoaoia aeaio eioiio NOD-
ceiiie *i?iiai ii?y 1991-92 ?ieia. Aeey aeenia?nieiiai aiaeico
aeae?aeany aeieueieoey i?ioieth i?ioyaeiinoth 100 i, ui ?icoaoiaaia
ieae/a eioiueiai iiiiioio oaiia?aoo?e. O oeueiio oa?i ?ic?aoiaoaaeeny
cia/aiiy a?aaei?ioia oaiia?aoo?e TZ i nieiiinoi SZ, aeey na?aaeiuei?
oi/ee oa?a ?ic?aoiaoaaeeny eiaoioei?ioe nieiiinoii? noeneeainoi a i
oaiia?aoo?iiai ?icoe?aiiy a. Io?eiaii cia/aiiy neoaeeee ii/aoeiaeie
aeaieie aeey ?ic?aooieia oaeeueiaeo i aaeaaeoeaieo neeaaeath/eo
oiieino?oeoo?ieo aeenia?nie oaiia?aoo?e i nieiiinoi. Ii oaeeueiaie
neeaaeath/ie aeenia?ni? nieiiinoi DSB aeey eiaeiiai ciiaeoaaiiy
?ic?aoiaoaaeiny n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/ia iiaeianaiiy ae?iaiiianooaaieo
aioo?ioiio oaeeue Dz, Dz = (DSB / SZ2)1/2.

Na?aaeeiia /anoeia ii?y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaioith oaeeueiaith
aeoeaiinoth. Iaeaieueo iaoe?ia ciia iiaeaeuaii? iioaineaiinoi
?iciiuo?oueny a iiaaeaiiie /anoeii, iioi eieaeueii iaeanoi caieueoaiiy
oaeeueiaeo iiaeianaiue ?icoaoiaaii ia ia?eoa?i? aeeaieiaiaeii? /anoeie
ii?y. Iio?iaii aiaeiioeoe iaiiaaio iiae?ieiao iiaoi?thaaiinoue cii
iiaeaeuaii? oaeeueiai? aeoeaiinoi, ui iiaea naiae/eoe i?i iayaiinoue
noaoeiiia?ieo aeaea?ae aia?ai? oeio aeo?iaeo oi?ioaaiue.

INIIAII ?ACOEUeOAOE I AENIIAEE

1. C oiieino?oeoo?ii? oi/ee ci?o iaeaieueo aaaeeeaeie eiino?oeoeaieie
ia?aiao?aie ciiaeia ? ii?a aieeao ea/aiiy, oeiia eaaioa ii ?iaith i
/anoioa aeaieo, a oaeiae eiaa?aioiinoue i oaca iiae eaiaeaie oaiia?aoo?e
i aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoi. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? aeaeieeoe aeey
eiaeiiai ciiaea aeiaiacii aa?oeeaeueieo ianooaaia, a eioi?iio niaeo?e,
ui ?ic?aoiaothoueny, ? aeinoiai?ieie aeey eiie?aoieo oiia aeii?thaaiiy.

2. Noeoiiee aiaeic niaeo?ia oaiia?aoo?e, nieiiinoi i uieueiinoi
aeicaiey? noaoenoe/ii aeaeieeoe eieueeinii aianee aaeaaeoei?, aioo?ioiio
oaeeue i aeaiaeeoocieii? eiiaaeoei? o aiaeiiaiaeii oiieino?oeoo?ii
aeenia?ni?. ?ic?iaeaii /ioe?e iiaeaei ?icaeieaiiy ia?aaeaa/athoue aanue
aeiaiacii iiaeeeaeo aiae?ieiai/ieo neooaoeie.

3. Aeey ii?iaiyiiy c oiieino?oeoo?ieie aeaieie ?ic?iaeaia neeaaeaia
iiaeaeue aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a ae?iaiiianooaaieo aioo?ioiio oaeeue, ui
yaey? niaith eiiaiiaoeith ?icieo neaaioo?aoeaioieo ?iciiaeieia. O
aeiaaiianooaaiee iaeanoi iioie aia?ai? ii niaeo?o iinoieiee,
ei?ioeioaeeueiaa /anoeia oi?io?oueny ia iniiai aaeaino iiae eieaeueiith
aaia?aoei?th oaeeue i ?o iiaeeiaiiyi. Aeeneiaoeaia aieea oaeiai
eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?o aiaeiiaiaeaeueia ca ia?aiiooaaiiy, ui
iieno?oueny eiaoioei?ioii aa?oeeaeueiiai oaeeueiaiai iaiiio.

4. Aiaeic niiaaiaeiioaiiy iaoeeia niaeo?ia aaeaaeoei? i nieueiaeo
iaeueoeia a ieaainueeiio oa?iioaeieeeii a na?aaeiueiio iiaeoaa?aeaeo?
iiaeeeainoue ia?aiao?ecaoei? iaeueoeueiaeo iioieia oaiea i niei c
aeiiiiiaith oi?iaeueieo eiaoioei?ioia aeeooci?.

5. Oaeei eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?o a ieaainueeiio oa?iioaeieeeii noeeueii
aei aeiaeaoeiaiai aeeneiaoeaiiai aieeao eiiaaeoei? nieueiaeo iaeueoeia.
Na?aaei? cia/aiiy eiaoioei?ioo aoaeoeaii? iaeueoeueiai? a’yceinoi
ciaoiaeeouey iiae oi?iaeueieie eiaoioei?ioaie nieueiaiai i uieueiinoiiai
iaiiio. Aoaeoeaia a’yceinoue aeey oaeeue eieiiai?ianueeiai niaeo?o
aeeth/a? ua i neeaaeiao oaeeueiaiai ia?aiiooaaiiy ca ?aooiie aieueo
ae?iaiiianooaaieo eiiiiiaioia c eiiiainaoeieiiai iioa?aaeo.

6. Na?aaeiie niaeo? oaeeueiaeo iiaeianaiue a ieaainueeiio oa?iioaeieeeii
ia? oaee ia?aiao?e: iioie aia?ai? a eieiiai?ianueeiio iioa?aaei Q = 1,6
10-6 ni2/n3, aeeneiaoeaiee eiai ei?aeii ?icoaoiao?oueny ia ianooaai e1 =
8,4 i. Ianooiio aeieueieoeth, aei e2 = 6,8 i, caeia? ia?aoiaeia
iaeanoue, iioii eaea eiiiainaoeieiee niaeo?, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iieacieeii aaia?aoei?-iiaeeiaiiy a = 5,0 10-2. Aeeneiaoeiy oaeeue
eiiiainaoeieiiai niaeo?o a na?aaeiueiio aiaeaoaa?oueny ia ianooaai e3 =
2,4 i. Eiaoioei?io oaeeueiaiai iaiiio ?iaiee EA = 13,7 10-2 ni2/n.

7. Oaeeueiaee niaeo? noiiao?iaiai oa?a /i?iiii?nueeeo aiae,
?icoaoiaaiiai ieae/a eioiueiai iiiiioio oaiia?aoo?e, ia iinoeoue
ia?aoiaeii? iaeanoe iiae eieiiai?ianueeei i eiiiainaoeieiei
aeiaiaciiaie, i ?1 = e2 = 3,3 i. Iieaciee iaeiiieiinoe e oiai ae
ii?yaeeo, ui i a ieaainueeiio oa?iioaeieeeii, na?aaeiie iioie aia?ai? ia
eieiiai?ianueeie aeieueieoei Q = 4,4 10-6 ni2/n3. Na?aaeiie eiaoioei?io
oaeeueiaiai iaiiio EA = 10,9 10-2 ni2/n. Oaeeueiaa aeoeaiinoue a
oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii ii?y iaioa, iiae a ie?a?ieo iaeanoyo.

Nienie iioaeieiaaieo i?aoeue caeiaoaa/a ca oaiith aeena?oaoei?

1. A?aoeineee A.TH., Aeueiai A.C., Ao?aiia I.E., Eenaeaaa I.A. Oiieay
aa?oeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey a ciia aeo?aauo ia?aciaaiee
// Neiiioe/aneea aeo?e a ieaaia.- Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea,1980.-N.167-177.

2. Aeueiai A.C., Eenaeaaa I.A., Ao?aiia I.E. Enneaaeiaaiea yia?aee
aioo?aiieo aiei a neiiioe/aneeo aeo?yo ii no?oeoo?a iiey oaiia?aoo?u //
Ieaaiieiaey.- 1981.- 21. aui. 3.-N. 441-446.

3.Ao?aiia I.E., Iaioaeaaa I.A. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua ioeaiee oa?aeoa?enoee
aa?oeeaeueiiai ia?aiaoeaaiey a ieaaineii oa?iioaeieeeia ia iniiaa
oiieino?oeoo?iuo niaeo?ia aaeaaeoeee, nieaauo iaeueoeaa e
iaeeiianooaaiuo aioo?aiieo aiei.// Ii?neie aeae?ioece/aneee aeo?iae.
-1998.-N2-N.30-55.

4.Ao?aiia I.E. Oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aiaoeaathuaai aicaeaenoaey
iaeeiianooaaiuo aioo?aiieo aiei a aa?oiai neia *a?iiai ii?y ii aeaiiui
oiieino?oeoo?iuo ciiaee?iaaiee // Ii?neie aeae?ioece/aneee
aeo?iae.-1998.-N3.-N.3-12.

5. Aeueiai A.C., Ao?aiia I.E., Ei?ioaaa A.E., Iaioaeaaa I.A.
Enneaaeiaaiea ioeuenaoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey a ieaaia a iaeanoe ianooaaia
ei?ioeeo aioo?aiieo aiei // Enneaaeiaaiey oo?aoeaioiie no?oeoo?u
ieaaia».-Naaanoiiieue: IAE AI ONN?,1975.- N. 30-40.

6. Aeueiai A.C., Ao?aiia I.E., Iaioaeaaa I.A. Ciiaee?othuee eiiieaen
aeey enneaaeiaaiey oiieie aa?oeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u ieaaia. //
Yenia?eiaioaeueiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey ieaaia.- Naaanoiiieue: IAE AI
ONN?, 1978.- N.105-136.

7. Ao?aiia I.E., Aeueiai A.C. Ciiaee?othuee eiiieaen «Ciiae-NO» //
I?eai?u aeey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e nenoaiu aaoiiaoecaoeee a AI ONN?.-
Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1981.-N. 239-241.

8. Ao?aiia I.E. Ia eioa?aaea ianuuaiey a niaeo?a iiaa?oiinoiuo aiei //
Aioo?aiiea aieiu e oo?aoeaioiinoue.-Naaanoiiieue: IAE AI ONN?, 1984.-
N.126-137.

9. Ao?aiia I.E. Ioeaiea aa?oeeaeueiiai iaiaia, aucuaaaiiai iaeeiaeiuie
aioo?aiieie aieiaie, ii aeaiiui ciiaee?iaaiee // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
O?aoueae Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee «Aeo?e e oo?aoeaioiinoue a ieaaia».-
Eaeeieia?aae, 1990.- N.79.

10. Ao?aiia I.E., Eiceia A.I., Iao?ia A.A. Oiieino?oeoo?iue ciiae
«Eiiieaen-1» // «Enneaaeiaaiey aa?oeeaeueiie oiieie no?oeoo?u
aeae?ioece/aneeo iieae a O?iie/aneie e Noao?iie/aneie ciiao Aoeaioeee a
49 ?aena IEN «Ieoaee Eiiiiinia».- Aeai. ?oeiienue N 378-A89.- I.:
AEIEOE,1989.-N.56-60.

11. Ao?aiia I.E., *aeaeei E.A., Aaaouaiei A.A. Acaeiinaycue iieae
oa?aeoa?enoee iaeeiianooaaiiai aa?oeeaeueiiai aieiiaiai iaiaia n iieyie
oiiiauo aeae?ioece/aneeo ia?aiao?ia no?aoeoeeaoeee a iniiaiii ieeiieeeia
O?iie/aneiai iieeaiia Naaa?iie Aoeaioeee // «Aeae?ioece/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey a 37 ?aena IEN «Aeaaeaiee Aa?iaaeneee».- Aeai. ?oeiienue N
3491-B90.- I.: AEIEOE , 1990.- N.164-180.

12.Ao?aiia I.E. ?acaeaeaiea aeenia?nee oeoeooaoeee oiieino?oeoo?iuo
i?ioeeae oaiia?aoo?u, nieaiinoe e ieioiinoe a ieaaia ia ninoaaeythuea,
naycaiiua n ?acee/iuie aeeiaie/aneeie i?ioeannaie // Aeaiii. ?oeiienue N
2660-B97.-I.:AEIEOE,1997.- 21n.

13.Ao?aiia I.E. Neaaioo?aoeaioiua niaeo?u iaeeiianooaaiuo aioo?aiieo
aiei a ieaaia, eo naycue n oiieino?oeoo?iuie niaeo?aie // Aeaiii.
?oeiienue N 2661-B97.-I.:AEIEOE,1997.-29n.

14.Ao?aiia I.E. Aiia?aoo?ii-iaoiaee/aneea aniaeou enneaaeiaaiey oiieie
aa?oeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u ieaaia // Aeaiii. ?oeiienue N
2662-B97.-I.:AEIEOE,1997.-21n.

15.Ao?aiia I.E. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua ioeaiee ia?aiaoeaathuaai aicaeaenoaey
nieaauo iaeueoeaa e iaeeiianooaaiuo aioo?aiieo aiei a ieaaineii
oa?iioaeieeeia ii aeaiiui oiieino?oeoo?iuo ciiaee?iaaiee // Aeaiii.
?oeiienue N 2659-A97.-I.:AEIEOE,1997.-31n.

Ao?aiia I.?. Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy niaeo?aeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oiiei? oa?iioaeeiii? no?oeoo?e aiae ieaaio.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 04.00.22 —
aaio?ceea.-Ii?nueeee aeae?io?ce/iee ?inoeooo IAI Oe?a?ie, Naaanoiiieue,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy ae??aiiianooaaieo
aeeiaie/ieo i?ioean?a a ieaai? ia iniia? aeaieo ciiaeoaaiue. O ?iaio?
?icaeaa?oueny iaoiae aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei niaeo?aeueiiai
neeaaeo oiieeo oa?iioaeeiieo iaiaeii??aei?noae a ieaai?, a caeaaeiino?
a?ae oi?ioth/eo iaoai?ci?a. Iieacaii, ui noeoiiee aiae?c niaeo??a
oaiia?aoo?e, nieiiino? ? u?eueiino? aeicaiey? noaoenoe/ii aeae?eeoe
e?euee?ni? aianee aaeaaeoe??, aioo??oi?o oaeeue ? aeaiaeeooc?eii?
eiiaaeoe?? a a?aeiia?aei? oiieino?oeoo?i? aeenia?n??. Aecia/ai?
ia?aiao?e na?aaeiueiai niaeo?o oaeeueiaeo i?aeianaiue a ieaainueeiio
oa?iioaeieeei? ? a noiiao?iaiio oa?? /i?iiii?nueeeo aiae,
?icoaoiaaiiio ieae/a e?oiueiai i?i?ioio oaiia?aoo?e; ?ic?aoiaai?
eiie?aoi? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?oeeaeueiiai iai?io, cae?enithaaiiai
ae??aiiianooaaieie iae?i?eieie oaeeyie ? i?ioeanaie iiaea?eii?
aeeooc??. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea iiaea canoiniaoaaoeny aeey i?aeoe/ii
aoaeue-yeeo ianea?a aeineoue aeieeaaeieo aeaieo ciiaeoaaiue ??cieie
CTD-ciiaeaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oiiea no?oeoo?a, NOD-ciiaeoaaiiy, niaeo?aeueiee aiae?c,
aioo??oi? oaee?, aaeaaeoe?y, iiaea?eia aeeooc?y, aa?oeeaeueiee iai?i.

Ao?aiia I. E. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea niaeo?aeueiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee oiieie oa?iioaeeiiie no?oeoo?u aiae ieaaia.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 04.00.22 — aaioeceea.-
Ii?neie aeae?ioece/aneee einoeooo IAI Oe?aeiu, Naaanoiiieue, 1999.

Oeaeue ?aaiou caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee iaoiaeeee, iicaieythuae
i?iaiaeeoue eiee/anoaaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iaeeiianooaaiuo aeeiaie/aneeo
i?ioeannia, iie?aynue eeoue ia iaoa?eaeu aa?oeeaeueiuo ciiaee?iaaiee, a
oaeaea a iieo/aiee n iiiiuueth ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeee oa?aeoa?enoee
aa?oeeaeueiiai ia?aiaoeaaiey, inouanoaeyaiiai oeacaiiuie i?ioeannaie.
Eco/aiea aeeyiey aiia?aoo?iuo iiiao ia niaeo?u ecia?yaiuo oeoeooaoeee
iieacaei, /oi n oiieino?oeoo?iie oi/ee c?aiey iaeaieaa aaaeiuie
eiino?oeoeaiuie ia?aiao?aie ciiaeia yaeythony noaiaiue aeeyiey ea/ee,
oeaia eaaioa ii o?iaith e /anoioa nuaia aeaiiuo, a oaeaea eiaa?aioiinoue
e oaca iaaeaeo eaiaeaie oaiia?aoo?u e yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe. ?ac?aaioaiiue
oiieino?oeoo?iue iiaeoiae e ioeaiea ea/anoaa ciiaeia eniieueciaaeny i?e
ia?aaioea ia?ae/iuo aeaiiuo ecia?aiee.

A ?aaioa iieacaii, /oi niaieoiiue aiaeec niaeo?ia oaiia?aoo?u, nieaiinoe
e ieioiinoe iicaieyao noaoenoe/anee au/eaieoue eiee/anoaaiiua aeeaaeu
aaeaaeoeee, aioo?aiieo aiei e aeaooaeeoooceiiiie eiiaaeoeee a
niioaaonoaothuea oiieino?oeoo?iua aeenia?nee. ?ac?aaioaiiua /aou?a
iiaeaee ?acaeaeaiey ia?ae?uaatho aanue aeeaiacii aiciiaeiuo
aeae?ieiae/aneeo neooaoeee. Aeey n?aaiaiey n oiieino?oeoo?iuie aeaiiuie
?ac?aaioaia ninoaaiay iiaeaeue yia?aaoe/aneiai niaeo?a iaeeiianooaaiuo
aioo?aiieo aiei, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie eiiaeiaoeeth ?acee/iuo
neaaioo?aoeaioiuo ?ani?aaeaeaiee. A aeeeiiiianooaaiie iaeanoe iioie
yia?aee ii niaeo?o iinoiyiai, ei?ioeiaieiiaay /anoue oi?ie?oaony ia
iniiaa aaeaina iaaeaeo eieaeueiie aaia?aoeeae aiei e eo iiaeiuaieai.
Aeenneiaoeaiay aaoaue oaeiai eiiiainaoeeiiiiai niaeo?a ioaaonoaaiia ca
ia?aiaoeaaiea, iienuaaaiia eiyooeoeeaioii aa?oeeaeueiiai aieiiaiai
iaiaia.

Aiaeec niioiioaiey iaeeiiia niaeo?ia aaeaaeoeee e nieaauo iaeueoeaa a
ieaaineii oa?iioaeieeeia a n?aaeiai iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aiciiaeiinoue
ia?aiao?ecaoeee iaeueoeaauo iioieia oaiea e niee n iiiiuueth oi?iaeueiuo
eiyooeoeeaioia aeeooocee. Iieacaii, /oi aieiu eiiiainaoeeiiiiai niaeo?a
a ieaaineii oa?iioaeieeeia iiaeaa?aeaiu aeiiieieoaeueiiio
aeenneiaoeaiiio aeeyieth eiiaaeoeee nieaauo iaeueoeaa, a yooaeoeaiay
ayceinoue aeey aiei eieiiai?ianeiai niaeo?a aeeth/aao aua e
ninoaaeythuoth aieiiaiai ia?aiaoeaaiey ca n/ao aieaa iaeeiianooaaiuo
eiiiiiaioia ec eiiiainaoeeiiiiai eioa?aaea.

Ii?aaeaeaiu ia?aiao?u n?aaeiaai niaeo?a aieiiauo aicauoaiee a ieaaineii
oa?iioaeieeeia e a noiiao?iaii neia /a?iiii?neeo aiae, ?aniieiaeaiiii
ieaea eaoiaai ieieioia oaiia?aoo?u; ?ann/eoaiu eiie?aoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee
aa?oeeaeueiiai iaiaia, inouanoaeyaiiai iaeeiianooaaiuie iaeeiaeiuie
aieiaie e i?ioeannaie aeaieiie aeeooocee.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou ?anoe?ytho aiciiaeiinoe enneaaeiaaiey
iaeeiianooaaiuo i?ioeannia a ieaaia. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ?ac?aaioaiiay iaoiaeeea ?ann/eoaia ia
eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo CTD-ciiaeia e n iaaieueoeie eciaiaieyie iiaeao
i?eiaiyoueny aeey i?aeoe/anee ethauo ianneaia aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaiuo
aeaiiuo ciiaee?iaaiee.

Ioeaiee i?ino?ainoaaiiie ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe ciiaeia yaeythony
iieaciuie aeey ?ac?aaio/eeia iiauo ciiaee?othueo ono?ienoa. ?ann/eoaiiua
n?aaeiea oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?oeeaeueiiai iaiaia, inouanoaeyaiiai
iaeeiianooaaiuie iaeeiaeiuie aieiaie e i?ioeannaie aeaieiie aeeooocee,
ioe?uaatho iooue aeey aeaoaeueiuo e aaia?aoe/anee aieaa eieaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee aeeiaieee ia?aiaoeaaiey aiaeiuo iann e iioieia ?acee/iuo
i?eianae ia iniiaa aeaiiuo ciiaee?iaaiee, /oi aaaeii aeey caaea/
yeieiae/aneiai iiieoi?eiaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oiieay no?oeoo?a, NOD-ciiaee?iaaiey, niaeo?aeueiue
aiaeec, aioo?aiiea aieiu, aaeaaeoeey, aeaieiay aeeooocey, aa?oeeaeueiue
iaiai.

Efremov O. I. Experimental research of spectral characteristics of fine
thermohaline structure of ocean waters .- Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate`s degree by speciality 04.00.22 — geophysics. —
Marine Hydrophysical Institution of National Academy of Science of
Ukraine, Sevastopol, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to a research of small scale dynamic
processes in the ocean on basis of soundings data. The work develops a
method of differential approach to spectral composition of ocean fine
thermohaline structure, which depends from physical processes that cause
fine structure. It is shown, that joint spectral analysis of
temperature, salinity and density allows to separate statistical
contributions from advection, internal waves and doubl diffusive
convection in proper fine structure dispersions. The parameters of
average wave elevations spectrum in oceanic thermohalocline and in
hundredmetre layer of Black Sea waters situated beneath summery minimum
temperatures are defined; the concrete characteristics of vertical
fluxes effectuated by small scale nonlinear waves and double diffusion
processes are calculated. The worked up methods can used in practice for
any sufficiently detailed soundings data from different CTD-probes.

Key words: fine structure, NOD-sounding, spectral analysis, internal
waves, advection, double diffusion, vertical exchange.

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