Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

OAIIAAE AAEAIOEIA IEOAEE?AIA

OAeE 338.43:331.5:369

AEIIII?*I? CANAAeE AAeINEIIAEAIIss NIOe?AEUeIIAI CAOENOO A AA?A?IIIO
NAEOI?? AIE A IA?AO?AeIEE IA??IAe

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.02 – Aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa AIE Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aieeaeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ieaen??iei Aaea??e
sseiae/, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo ? o?iain?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aeaaiaeaoiee Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/, Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ie?eiee A?eoi? sseiae/,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?iain?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaaIaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
aeiiii?ee i?aei?e?inoa aa?a?iiai na?a?no, Eaa?iao I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie,
i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “23”aa?aniy 1999?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E08.804.01 o Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 320600,
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-27, aoe.Ai?ioeeiaa, 25, aoae.342.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “22” na?iiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

i?ioani?

Iaea?aiei I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oni?o ?aaeeeaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?, iiaeeeai a?eueo oaeaeeee
ieei ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, aeey yeiai oa?aeoa?ia ??cea c?inoaiiy
aa?oino? aeeooy oa nioe?aeueii? iai?oae a noni?euenoa?, a cia/i?e i???
caeaaeaoue a?ae noai?aiiy eiino?oeoeaii? oa i?aeoe/ii? iniiae aeey
iaoai?cio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, a oiio /ene? ? n?euenueeiai.

N?euenueea ianaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eii ciaoiaeeeiny a a??oeo oiiaao ca
aoaeue-yeiai aoaio ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo. A ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia nae? ae??oo?oueny eiiieaen ae?iaie/eo,
aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo oa ?ioeo i?iaeai. Aea oeae i?ioean
a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao ianoaa?eueiino?, ?oeioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
ca’yce?a, no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae ? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny niaaeii
ae?iaieoeoaa, c?inoaiiyi oe?i, aeao?oeeoii aia?aiiin??a, iaae?iiyi
ieaoini?iiiaeiino?.

Ia i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee a
aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? aea?aeaae aieeaathoue iniaeeaino? oiia, a
yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai. Aei ieo iiaeia a?aeianoe:
iaaaoeai? aeaiia?ao?/i? c?ooaiiy, caiaiaae nioe?aeueii? noa?e, a oaeiae
aeenia?eoao oe?i ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th ? i?iieneia?
ae?iae, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, iaae?iiy
??aiy aeioiae?a, neeaaeiiu? ?aoi?ioaaiiy caiaeueieo ? iaeiiaeo
a?aeiinei.

A oaeeo oiiaao nioe?aeueiee caoeno naeyinoaa, yea aeeiio? iaeio c
aieiaieo ooieoe?e, ui iia’ycaia c ae?iaieoeoaii i?iaeiaieuenoaa aeey
anueiai ianaeaiiy, yaey?oueny iniaeeai aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi. Iaoith
nioe?aeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee i?e e?ecia?e neooaoe?? a
aeiiii?oe? iiaeiii aooe iaaeiiouaiiy iiaeaeueoiai coaiae?iiy naeyinoaa,
aeiiiiiaa c? noi?iie aea?aeaae oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
iaeiaio caoeuaiei aa?noaai, i?aeo?eiea oaeeo noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
ethaeeie, ye ioi?iia caei?ia’y, ina?oa, eoeueoo?a, iiaoo. A ia aoai?
noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?ee aaaeeeai noai?eoe iaiao?aei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey
oiai, uia aeeoe ia a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue niiaeeaaiiy, aeaoe nioe?aeuei?
aa?aio?? iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy n?iae c ae?oueie, ?iaae?ae?a,
aaoa?ai?a a?eie ? i?aoe?, ca?eueoeoe ianyae o?iainoaaiiy aeey ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e naea. Nioe?aeuei? aa?aio?? oa caoeno
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei
iiaeii? iaoe anainyaeiee oa?aeoa? ? i?iyaeyoenue, ia?o ca ana, a
caaacia/aii? i?aa ? naiaiae ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, i?aeo?eioe? iiaeo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? aeaniino?, i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, a aa?aioiaaiino?
i?euea oa e?aaeeo?a. Naia oea i?aeaaaea aeiiii?/io iniiao aeey oaeiai
caoenoo.

Iaoai?ci nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee ianaeaiiy iiaeiai ia?aaeaa/aoe
caeiiiaeaa/i cae??ieaio nenoaio aea?aeaaieo aa?aio?e, a naia: i?aai ia
i?aoeth, i?i?iaeueio ca?ia?oio ieaoo, iain??, noeiaiae??, a?ioiao
aeiiiiiao o aeiaaeeo oei/aniai? iai?aoeacaeaoiino?, ao?aoe caeiyoino?,
i?aai ia ina?oo ? iaaee/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy, i?eueae ca iaaieo oiia
i?aoe?, i?aai ia aeeoei oa a?aeii/eiie. Oea icia/a? ia o?eueee
caa?aaeaiiy ?nioth/eo nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e, a ? iaiiaiaiiy ?o iiaei
ci?noii, ci?oeiaiiy ?o o?iainiai? aace ?, ui aaaeeeai, — aeiiiaiaiiy
i?eioeeiiai iiaeie. I?e oeueiio iiaeiai caaacia/oaaoenue
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei ??cieo nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo a?oi
ianaeaiiy — a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy ?o aeiiii?/ii? naiino?eiino?,
i?aoeacaeaoiino? oa aeaea?ae io?eiaiiy aeioiae?a.

Iaiao?aei?noue ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy
aeiaaa? ea?aeeiaeueiiai ia?aaeyaeo an??? nenoaie iiaeyae?a ia oai??th ?
i?aeoeeo oi?ioaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a ia nioe?aeuei? caoiaee.

I?iaeaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy caaaeaee ciaoiaeeeany a oeaio??
oaaae iaoeiaoe?a. Na?aae eeanee?a, ui i?ena’yoeee aaaaoi i?aoeue oeei
i?iaeaiai, iiaeia iacaaoe A.Ni?oa, Ae.??ea?aei, A.Ia?oaeea, Ia?aoi, I?ao
? ?ioeo. Aaaiiee aianie o ?icaeyae oeueiai ieoaiiy c?iaeee a?aeii?
no/ani? a?o/eciyi? oa ?in?enuee? aeiiii?noe: I.Ai?oeia, A.Aaceeaae/,
?.Aiiaea?, I.Aoaooeueeee, I.Aaneeee, I.Aaeiae/aiei, I.Aeoiaanueea,
?.Aiea?aeaiei, O.E??’yi, E.Eieaoiy, I.Eoci?oeiaa, A.Eoiaeiaa,
A.Ith?aeaeue, A.Iaaeoi/?e, A.Iia?eia, A.Iaacia?, A.Ieaeny,
E.?aeai?oeeia, A.?i?e, N.?iiaiaiei, I.Naaeoe, ?.Ne?ioa, N.Oe?a?iaoeue,
?.O?aiaethe, A.*ooii, A.Oieoi, I.Oaeaiei, I.Oaiiaae, A.?i?i oa ?i.

A iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo oeeo aaoi??a aeine?aeaeai? i?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo, ??aiy aeeooy, oi?ioaaiiy aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy. I?ioa ?yae
ieoaiue c nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo naeyi iaaeinoaoiuei ?icaeyioo? ?
iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy oa niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o
o?niiio aca?iica’yceo c eiie?aoieie ?noi?e/ieie oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oiiaaie ?icaeoeo iaoi? aea?aeaae. Aeiiii?/ia
iaoea oa i?aeoeea Oe?a?ie nueiaiaei? ia iathoue iiaeae? ae??aiai
iaoai?cio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoiiai no/aniiio aoaio
?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue. Eiiieaeniee oa nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei oe???
i?iaeaie iaeaea a?aenooi?e. Aeeneon?eiei ? ieoaiiy uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaaee/iiai no?aooaaiiy. Iiaeeaeaiiai oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iio?aao? aea/aiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy i?noey aea?aeaae, ?iaioiaeaaoey ?
?ia?oieea a nenoai? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?. O
ca’yceo c iacaaeia?eueiei noaiii nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, a oiio
/ene? ? n?euenueeiai, oa iaaaeueiith iaiao?aei?noth eiai oaeineiiaeaiiy
ia no/aniiio aoai? e coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue aaoi?ii ia
eaoaae?? aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo oa o?iain?a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oaiaoe/iei
ieaiii AOCo ii ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeaie “Aaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo, eiio?ieth,
o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino? oa aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co c iaoith iineeaiiy ?o
ae?? ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa a nenoai? AIE” — iiia? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? — 01.87.0002674.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy yaey?oueny
aecia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? naea,
ooi/iaiiy ci?noo ? cia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee, ?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e oa iiooe oeyo?a a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy, ii?yaeeo ?o
oi?ioaaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoei ae??oaii oae? iniiai? caaea/?:

-i?iaiae?coaaoe no/aniee noai oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy;

-ooi/ieoe ci?no ? cia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a nenoai? aa?a?ieo
nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei;

-?icaeyiooe ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a ?nioth/eo oiiae?a
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo (Iain?eiiai oiiaeo, Oiiaeo nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy oa Oiiaeo ni?eyiiy caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy);

-?ic?iaeoe oeyoe a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a oeeo oiiae?a ia
no/aniiio aoai?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, no/aniee noai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? AIE ? o?iainia? a?aeiineie, ui
aeieeathoue o i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?aeiineie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa c Oiiaeii nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, Iain?eiei oiiaeii,
Oiiaeii ni?eyiiy caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy (ia i?eeeaae? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?
iaeano?).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui cae?eniaiee
eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, i?iaiae?ciaaia
i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a, ooieoe?? ?nioth/eo oiiae?a oa ?ic?iaeaia ?o
iiaa i?aai?caoe?eia nenoaia. ?ic?iaeai? iia? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo. Aeey oiai, uia nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aoea
aoaeoeaiith ? iaaaoeaii ia aieeaaea ia ?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa, a ye
iane?aeie ? ia ?ici?? aioo??oiueiai aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoo, iaiao?aeii, uia
aiia a?aeiia?aeaea oaeei i?eioeeiai: aeo?aoe ia oo?eiaiiy oiiae?a
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iiaeii? aooe i?i?iaeueieie; ii?yaeie iaia’yceiaiai
no?aooaaiiy iiaeiai aooe ianeeaaeiei, aeinooiiei ? i?inoei o
aeei?enoaii?; ne?ae /?oei ?iciiae?eeoe ooieoe?? i?aei?e?inoa ? oiiae?a
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, i?e yeiio an? aeiiiiiae ? aeieaoe iiaeii?
cae?enithaaoeny aia?aoaie oiiae?a; aecia/aiiy a /ene? ae?th/eo no?oeoo?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aieiaiiai i?aaio i?iaaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee ? eii?aeeiaoe?? ae?e ii ?? ?aae?caoe?? — I?i?noa?noaa
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy. Iaiao?aeii, uia a e?a?i? aoea
eiiieaenia no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii, yea oaeaeei
?aaaoaaea a ia iio?aae ianaeaiiy a nioe?aeueiiio caoeno?; caaacia/aiiy
iaeo?ni?oiai cayceo i?ae noiith no?aoiaeo ieaoaae?a, aianaieo o oiiae ?
noiith aeieao, ui io?eiothoueny; ii?yaeie ioi?ieaiiy aeieao iiaeiai aooe
i?inoei, aac aeiaeaoeiaeo oneeaaeiaiue oa oi?iae?cio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui c?iaeai?
caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/i? aeniiaee oa oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy yaeythoue
niaith iaaiee aianie o iiaeaeueoo ?ic?iaeo oeyo?a aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aeicaieeee noi?ioethaaoe eiie?aoi?
i?iiiceoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia iiaeieaiiy e?ece o nioe?aeuei?e noa?? oa
caaacia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo i?aoe?aiee?a aa?a?ii?
noa?e.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei ?ic?iaee ii?yaeeo oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
eioo?a ia nioe?aeuei? caoiaee iiaea aooe canoiniaaiee i?e ?aoi?ioaaii?
iei? ae?th/i? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

I?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a?ae aac?ia?ooy
?icaeyioo? ? noaaeai? ?aaeith niaoe?ae?no?a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
iaeaniiai oeaio?o caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy. Aeia?aeea aeiaea?oueny. E??i
oiai, i?iiiceoe?? aaoi?a uiaei ?icaeoeo ie?aieo iai?yie?a nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a «Iniiae no?aoiai? ni?aae», «Iiaeaoee ?
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy», «O?iaine AIE» oa a ?iaio? iaoeiaeo naeoe?e i?e
eaoaae??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, ui iaaaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi. Aiie aeicaieeee ia
eeoa ioe?ieoe no/aniee noai ? aeyaeoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, a e iaa?oiooaaoe
i?iiiceoe?? ii eiai aaeineiiaeaiith. A noaoo? «?ieue neoaeae caeiyoino?
a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?» iniaenoi aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii ca?? oa
ia?iaea oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, aiae?c ??cieo iiaeyae?a ia ?icaeoie
neoaeae caeiyoino? a Oe?a?i?. A ni?eueieo c? nooaeaioeith iaoa??aeao
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy ?nioth/eo nenoai
oa oi?i iieaoe i?aoe? a ??cieo aeiiii?/ii-i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?ioaaiiyo oa
?aaeaeoe?eio ia?iaeo iaoa??aeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? ?ic?iaee
a?aeia?aaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th ia:

i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «?eieia? ia?aoai?aiiy
aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa: ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino?, oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy» (1992?.,
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee);

?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei AIE» (1993?., i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee);

ui??/ieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ca i?aenoieaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe ca ??e AeAeAO (1994-1999??.,
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca i?aenoieaie aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii n?i
?ia?o caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,3 ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa, c yeeo /anoea aaoi?a
neeaaea? 1,1 ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa. O oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo ca ia?ae?eii AAE
Oe?a?ie iioae?eiaaii 3 i?aoe?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. Oaeno
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii ia 180 noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo. A oaeno?
?ici?uaii 15 oaaeeoeue oa 4 ?enoiee. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
aeeth/a? 164 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iiaea?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, i?aaeiao ? ia’?eoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a ?o iaoeiao iiaecio.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iiiyooy “nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo” oa eiai no/aniee
noai a Oe?a?i?” c?iaeaii anaa?/iee aiae?c ??cieo iiaeyae?a a?o/eciyieo
oa ?iicaiieo a/aieo ca oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii iniiai?
aaoi?nuee? i?aeoiaee uiaei aaeaioaoe?? iaoeiai? aeoiee aei oiia
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. Oea aeaei ciiao o oai?aoe/iiio ieai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeoe ianooiia. ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa ia iiaea
ioe?ithaaoenue o?eueee c iiceoe?e aeiiii?/ii? ?aoe?iiaeueiino? oa
aoaeoeaiino?, ine?eueee aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie ia?ic?eaii iia’ycai? ?c
nioe?aeueieie ? caeaaeaoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o iie?oeee, yea i?iaiaeeoueny,
a?ae noaio noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?. Nueiaiaei? ?noioii ci?ith?oueny
oyaeaiiy i?i aca?iica’ycie aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai. Ia?ao?ae
aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee aeiaaa? ci?ie i?aeoiae?a aei nioe?aeueieo
i?iaeai, ui neeaeeny a aea?aeaa?. A oiiaao ??ciiiai?ooy oi?i aeaniino?,
?icoe?aiiy aeae?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, ci?ie
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith, aeaiie?aoecaoe?? naiiai
i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy, nei?i/aiiy ? cai?ie niinia?a ? iaoiae?a
aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue eaiie aeiiii?ee,
iio??aieie ? caoiaee ii caaacia/aiith nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e ianaeaiith c
aieo aea?aeaae ia iaaiee ??aaiue aeaa ? iineoa.

Nioe?aeueiee caoeno — oea o/anoue noni?euenoaa a oo?eiaii? nai?o /eai?a,
eiee aiie c nioe?aeueiicia/oueo i?e/ei ia iathoue naiino?eieo cania?a
aei ?nioaaiiy o aeaeyae? aeiaai?iaee ca i?aoeth, aai io?eiothoue ?? a
ianyc?, iaaeinoaoiueiio aeey caaeiaieaiiy iaiao?aeieo iio?aa.

Uia caaacia/eoe oaeee caoeno, aea?aeaaa iiaeiia ianaiia?aae o
caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo anoaiiaeoe iniiai? nioe?aeuei? aa?aio??,
iaoai?cie ?o ?aae?caoe?? oa ooieoe?? iaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee.

?noi?e/iee aeina?ae ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue, ui ??aaiue nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo oea ia eeoa ?acoeueoao, a e aiaeii/an oaeoi? i?enei?aiiy /e
oiia?eueiaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Oey a?aeiia ?noeia ae?noaea ua
iaeia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a i?ioean? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i. Aaeaea nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy ia?
aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aea?aeaae, yea ciaoiaeeoueny ia noaae??
ia?aoiaeo a?ae aea?aeaaii-ieaiiai? aei no/anii? iiaeae? aeiiii?ee
?eieiaiai oeio. Aiia iieeeeaia caoeuaoe i?aoe?aiee?a oa ?oi? n?i’? a
ia??iae aeiiii?/ieo ci?i.

Iie?oeeo nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye aaaeeeaa aeiiiaiaiiy
aei aeiiii?/ii? oa athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee. Oiaoi iaiao?aeia iaaia
ocaiaeaeai?noue i?ae iie?oeeith i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueiiai aeeoo?aiai ??aiy
oeyoii i?enei?aiiy aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy e athaeaeaoiith iie?oeeith, ui
aa?aioo? ?aaeueio iaoa??aeueio i?aeo?eieo ianaeaiith. Oaea iie?oeea ia?
aeaa i/aaeaeieo iane?aeee. C iaeiiai aieo, ?icoe?aiiy nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo e c?inoaiiy aeo?ao ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae iathoue
i?aee??iethaaoeny aeiiii?/ieie caoiaeaie, ye? cae?enithaaoeiooueny a
i?ioean? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. C ?ioiai aieo, iie?oeea aeiiii?/ii?
ia?aaoaeiae iiaeiia a?aoiaoaaoe ?? aieea ia iioaioe?ae nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, caeaoi?noue oe??? nenoaie iaaeaaaoe
iniiaiee nioe?aeueiee caoeno iaeioaeaeaii?oei a?iiaaeyiai c o?aooaaiiyi
o?iainiaiai noaio aea?aeaae.

Ci?ia noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie a iao?e e?a?i? i?eaaea aei
caaino?aiiy o?ueio a?oi nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, ye? ? aecia/athoue
neeaaeia? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo:

-nioe?aeueiee caoeno i?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy, yeiio caa?iaeo? ia?ao?ae
ca iaaeo a?aeiino? a ?ac? ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino? aai i?noey ?iaioe;

-nioe?aeueiee caoeno iain?iia??a, ?iaae?ae?a ? ?ioeo eaoaai??e
iai?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy;

-iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e (ina?oa, iaaeeoeeia, ca’ycie oa
?i.).

Iei? a Oe?a?i?, ye ? ?ai?oa a aea?aeaaii-ieaiia?e aeiiii?oe?, aea?aeaaa
iana ia nia? iaeaea aanue oyaa? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo. ? oi/ aeciathoue,
ui /a?ac ciaioaiiy ??aiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ? iain?e, nei?i/aiiy
o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo onoaiia, iaoeiaeo caeeaae?a oyaa?
oeae ciaioeany, aea /a?ac niaae ae?iaieoeoaa, a?i ? aeoaea aaaeeei aeey
aea?aeaae. Iei? iiaeia aaea aeciaoe, ui a?i ? iaiineeueiei aeey ia?.
Iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo ia aenoa/a?, ? ia??aeei
?iicaii? e?aaeeoe ni?yiiaothoueny ia nioe?aeuei? aeieaoe.

Oi?iaeueii a Oe?a?i? caa??aa?oueny nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
aea?aeaaii-ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee, aeiiii?/ia aaca yei? (aea?aeaaia
aeani?noue) oaeaeei cieea?, a iaoai?ci eiio?ieth ca aoaeoeaiei
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi i?aei?e?inoa, ui caeeoeeeny a aea?aeaai?e aeaniino?,
c?oeiiaaii. A?aenooiy oaeiae iaeaaeia nenoaia eiio?ieth ca ?acoeueoaoaie
?iaioe iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a, i?i ui na?ae/eoue iecueeee ??aaiue
iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae iueiai.

Ioaea, nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, yea ooieoe?iio? a e?a?i?, ia
a?aeiia?aea? caaaeaiiyi, ye? iiaeiia ae??ooaaoe. Aaeaea ci?ie, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a aeiiii?/i?e nenoai?, aenoaathoue ye?nii iia? aeiiae
aei nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee. Nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy o ?icaeiooiio
noni?euenoa? iiaeiai aeeiioaaoe aea? aieiai? ooieoe??: e?eoaaeueio oa
caiia?aeio. Ia?oa iia’ycaia ?c cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi iaoai?ci?a ai?ioueae c
a?aei?noth, ye? aeeth/athoue aae?anio aeiiiiiao iaeicaaacia/aiei
aa?noaai ianaeaiiy, iaaeaiiy aeeoeiaeo noaneae?e, aeiiiiiae n?i’yi c
ae?oueie oiui. Ae?oaa iia’ycaia ?c caiia?aaiiyi a?aeiino? oeyoii
iaaeaiiy a?iiaaeyiai iiaeeeaino? i?ae /an naiai aeoeaiiai ia??iaeo
aeeooy caeiaooe i?aai ia nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy (i?ae /an aac?ia?ooy,
oai?iae, iauaniiai aeiaaeeo ia ae?iaieoeoa?, ?iaae?aeiino? a iioeeiio
a?oe? oiui).

Oaeei /eiii, ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ni?eyoeia noai?aiith a Oe?a?i? iniiaieo canaae aeaiie?aoe/iiai
noni?euenoaa c nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaiith aeiiii?eith, aecia/aiith
i??i??oaoieie oe?iiinoae ethaeeie, ?? i?aa, naiaiae ? ?ioa?an?a,
ii?aeiaiith coneeue aeey caaacia/aiiy caei?iaiai ?icaeoeo e
i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeeooy naii? ethaeeie ? aea?aeaae. Aea aeey i?iaaaeaiiy a
Oe?a?i? iaa?oue ie?aieo nioe?aeueieo caoiae?a aaaeeeai ciaeoe “cieioo
na?aaeeio” i?ae iio?aaaie noni?euenoaa ? eiai iiaeeeainoyie. Iaiao?aeii
aecia/eoe iioeiaeueia ia nueiaiaei? ii?aeiaiiy oi?i ?aae?caoe??
?ioa?an?a ??cieo aa?noa noni?euenoaa. Ne?ae iino?eii iai’yoaoe i?i oa,
ui aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea, ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy noni?euenoaa
“caaaeueiiai aeia?iaooo”, iiaeeeaa eeoa i?e aenieiio ??ai? aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo. O?eueee a oaeiio aeiaaeeo nioe?ae?caoe?y aeiiii?ee ia aaaea
aei coaiae?iiy ?ioeo noa? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Noai oa ?icaeoie nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? AIE” i?iaiae?ciaai? aoaie noaiiaeaiiy iain?eii?
nenoaie a Oe?a?i?. Ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a Iain?eiiai
oiiaeo, ooieoe??, ye? a?i aeeiio?, iniiai? iaaeie?ee no/aniiai
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ? iaiao?aei?noue eiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy.

Nioe?aeueia oa aeiiii?/ia ?ieue iain?eii? nenoaie o no/aniiio
noni?euenoa? aecia/a?oueny oei, ui ?? iaae?ei?noue ? caii?oeith
nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino?, a o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao, ? aeiiii?/ii?. A ??
ooieoe?iioaaii? aeieeee i?iaeaie, ae??oeoe ye?, aac ci?ie i?eioeei?a ?
i?aeoiae?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyi o noa?ino?, i?aeoe/ii
iaiiaeeeai.

Ia?oa c ieo — iecueeee ??aaiue iain?e. Oae, na?aaei?e ?ici?? iain?? a
e?a?i? noaiiaeoue 51 a?i., ui a?aeiia?aea? 35% na?aaeiuei? ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe i?aoe?aiee?a, caeiyoeo o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? (c o?aooaaiiyi
i?aoe?aiee?a eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa).
?ici??e iain?e, ui i?ecia/athoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i
iain?eia caaacia/aiiy”, ia aeinyaathoue aa?o?nii? aaee/eie iaae?
iaeicaaacia/aiino?.

Ii-ae?oaa, ? oe? iacia/i? ca ?ici??ii iain?? aeiea/othoueny ?c
cai?ciaiiyi ia 3-4 i?nyoe?. Iniiaia i?e/eia cao?eiee c aeieaoaie iain?e
o oiio, ui cia/ia /anoeia ieaoiee?a cai??a aeieaoeea naiai /ano
ca?ia?oio ieaoo aac a?ae?aooaaiue aei Iain?eiiai oiiaeo. Aeieeea
caai?aiaai?noue ieaoiee?a ia?aae Iain?eiei oiiaeii. Ia e?iaoeue 1998
?ieo oey caai?aiaai?noue aei??aithaaea 3 ie?ae. a?i. Ieaoieee,
ii?oooth/e /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai, iaaienia ooeeyeeny (? ooeeythoueny)
a?ae nieaoe aei Iain?eiiai oiiaeo, ? oaeee aaee/aciee ai?a iaeiie/oaaany
iinooiiai ii/eiath/e c 1993 ?ieo. Caaaeai? 3 ie?ae. a?i. — oea ai?a eeoa
?c aeiea/aii? ca?ieaoe. Naith /anoeo o eiai iaeiie/aiiy aianea nenoaia
aeieaoe ca?ieaoe i?iaeoeoaie e oiaa?aie, ui aoei ? ? iniaeeai iioe?aiei
yaeuai o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. Oiio 1,4 ie?ae. a?i. ?c 3 ie?ae.
a?i., oae caaieo iain?eieo ai?a?a, i?eiaaea? ia i?aei?e?inoaa
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno. Oiae iei? aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi Iain?eiiai
oiiaeo ? iiaa?iaiiy oeeo eioo?a ? aeieaoa iain?e. Iaeiae caai?aiaai?noue
Iain?eiiai oiiaeo ca?eueoo?oueny ua e oiio, ui cia/io /anoeio ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe ia?aoiaaii, aea ia aeiea/aii. Oea iei? iiiaae 6 ie?ae. a?i. ? ia
eeoa o athaeaeaoi?e noa??, a e o noa?? iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Oae
ia 6 ie?ae. a?i. ia aeiea/aii?, aea ia?aoiaaii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ia
iio?aae Iain?eiiai oiiaeo iiaeiii aooe ia?aoiaaii 2 ie?ae. a?i. cai??a.
Oaea oe??? noie aeineoue aeey a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ai?ao c aeieaoe iain?e,
yeee noaiiaeoue iei? 1,8 ie?ae. a?i.

O?aoy i?iaeaia — iacia/ia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a ?ici??ao iain?e caeaaeii
a?ae aaee/eie o?oaeiaiai noaaeo e ca?ia?oeo. Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y
cae?enith?oueny ia ca i?eioeeiii o?oaeiaiai aianeo, a ca i?eioeeiii
aeiyoeiaino? nioe?aeueieo a?oi na?aae iain?iia??a. Aei aeiyoeiaeo a?oi
a?aeianai?: iain?iia?e c /enea a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ? i?aoe?aiee?a
neoaeae aaciaee, i?e?oe??, iain?iia?e c /enea aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ?
aeaiooao?a Aa?oiaii? ?aaee, iaoeiaoe?a, iain?iia?e c /enea in?a, ui
iino?aaeaeaee a?ae *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe. Ia ?aooo (iniiaio
e?euee?noue) iain?iia??a iioe?ththoueny oae caai? “caaaeuei? i?aenoaae”.

*aoaa?oa i?iaeaia — iia??oaiiy a ?acoeueoao? aeaiia?ao?/ieo ci?i
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae iain?iia?aie oa i?aoethth/eie. *anoea iain?iia??a a
Oe?a?i? a?ae /enea on?o, ooi i?aoeth?, noaiiaeoue 28%. O ?in?? oeae
iieaciee iaioee — 24%, o A?ei?on?? — 25%. Oe?a?ia ia nueiaiaei? ia?
iaea?eueoee oyaa? c oo?eiaiiy iain?iia??a o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie
?anioae?eaie eieeoiueiai N?N?. Oae a Oe?a?i? iino?eii ciaioo?oueny
e?euee?noue ethaeae, caeiyoeo o ae?iaieoeoa?. Ioaea, ciaioo?oueny
e?euee?noue i?aoe?aiee?a ia i?aei?e?inoaao, aea nai?/anii ieaoeoueny
ca?ia?oia ieaoa oa cae?eniththoueny a?aeiia?aei? a?ae?aooaaiiy aei
Iain?eiiai oiiaeo.

E??i oiai, iei? a Oe?a?i? ca?a?no?iaaii iiiaae 100 oen. iiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa ?c i?eaaoiith oa eieaeoeaiith oi?iaie aeaniino?.
A?eueo?noue ?c ieo ca?oo? i?i oa, ui aiie ia cae?eniththoue
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. A ia cae?eniththoue ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? — cia/eoue, ia aeiea/othoue ca?ieaoe i? aee?aeoi?ia?, i?
aieiaiiio aooaaeoa?ia?. Aiaeii/an ca?aeii c ia?aa??eaie, ia ?aooiee
aaaaoueio oaeeo i?aei?e?inoa iaaeoiaeyoue eiooe. Ioaea, ? ca?ia?oia
ieaoa iaea ia?aoiaoaaoeny.

Aeoaea aaaaoi ethaeae i?aoeth? ia ?eieao. ? aiie oaae i?/iai ia
niea/othoue aei Iain?eiiai oiiaeo. A /a?ac aeayeee /an iaoeiooue i?aai
ia iain??. Ae?th/a nie?aea?ia nenoaia iiee ui caaacia/o? oaeeo ethaeae —
iei?oi? iieie?iiy oeo, ooi i?aoeth?, oo?eio? noa?oeo. Ia nueiaiaei?
?iciiae?eue/a nie?aea?ia nenoaia iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy iaaiith i??ith
naaa aei?aaaeiao?.

E??i oiai, ia?aooaaiiy iain?e ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue cae?enith?oueny
a?aeae?eii nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, yeee nai ? iaaea? ??ci?
aeiiiiiae ? eiiiainaoe?? iai?aoethth/ei oa nioe?aeueiiiacaoeuaiei
a?iiaaeyiai. Ooieoe?y Iain?eiiai oiiaeo — oea aeoioeyoe?y oa
ia?a?iciiae?e eioo?a aeey aeieaoe iain?e. A no/anieo oiiaao aeieea?
ieoaiiy i?i aeioe?euei?noue ?nioaaiiy oaei? o?aiceoii? onoaiiae, ye
Iain?eiee oiiae.

Caa?aaeaiiy iaci?iiith iayaii? iain?eii? nenoaie iaaaoeaii aieeaaoeia ia
o?eueee ia aeia?iaoo e?oi?o ethaeae. I?ioean noa??iiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
?, a?aeiia?aeii, aaeeea iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eiai i?aoeacaeaoio /anoeio,
iaa?oue aeey cae?eniaiiy no/aniiai i?ca?iiai caaacia/aiiy iain?iia??a
iaieio/a aeiaaaoeia aenieeo ia?aooaaiue ia ca?ia?oio ieaoo, ui a naith
/a?ao i?ecaaaea aei oe?ei? iecee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a,
iaeaaaeeea?oeie c yeeo ?:

-ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ia ?iai/o neeo ? nei?i/aiiy iiieoo ia i?aoeth;

-ooeeyiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, iiaeaeueoee ia?aeea eai?oaeo ? ?iai/i?
neee aei o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee;

-ca?eueoaiiy athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo, ui i?ecaiaeeoeia aei c?inoaiiy
?ioeyoe??;

-ianoa/a eioo?a aeey aeinoaoiueiai aea?aeaaiiai o?iainoaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? noa?e, ianaiia?aae ina?oe, ioi?iie caei?ia’y,
iaoee oiui;

-caaino?aiiy “eiioe?eoo iieie?iue” i?ae iain?iia?aie ? oeie, ooi
i?aoeth? oa o?iaino? iain?ei? aeieaoe;

-iiaeaeueoa cieaeaiiy iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?, i?eaaoieo caiuaaeaeaiue oa
?iaanoeoe?e, ui eeoa iiaeeaethaaoeia aeiiii?/io e?eco.

Aeae? aea?oueny aecia/aiiy iniiaieo aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy.
Aeae?eai? iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? oa
eiai no/aniee noai, ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a Oiiaeo
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, ooieoe??, ye? aeeiio? oeae oiiae oa
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy.

C on?o i?e/ei ?noioiiai a?aenoaaaiiy a i?iaaaeaii? ?aoi?i a nenoai?
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e.

Ii-ia?oa, ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe??? nenoaie i?iaiaeeoueny aac iaeaaeii? oa’ycee
c aea?aeaaiith nioe?aeueiith iie?oeeith. A e?a?i? aei oeueiai /ano ia
noi?ioaaeany ?aeaieia?y ci?i a aaeoc? nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. Iniiae
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie i?i caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaa aea?aeaaia nioe?aeueia
no?aooaaiiy eeoathoueny eeoa ia iaia??. Caeiie c ie?aieo aeae?a
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ia i?eeiyo?.

Ii-ae?oaa, oionea?oueny c aeaeo, ui nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy —
iaeei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoethaaiiy a nioe?aeueii-o?oaeia?e
noa??, caniiaaiee ia aca?iiae?? o?ueio nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a
(?iaioiaeaaoe?a, i?aoe?aiee?a ? aea?aeaae). sse na?ae/eoue na?oiaee
aeina?ae, nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy aeicaiey? eiaeiiio c oeeo noa’?eo?a
i?iyaeoe naith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ? ?aae?coaaoe oe?ieo aaio
iaia’yce?a. O ian aea ia nueiaiaei? i? iaeei ?c noa’?eo?a no?aooaaiiy ia
a?ae?a?a? aaeaeaaoii? eiai i?e?iae? ?ie? ? ia caaacia/o? aeeiiaiiy
i?eoaiaiieo eeoa eiio ooieoe?e. Oae, ?iaioiaeaaoe? ? i?aoe?aieee ia
aeiioneathoueny aei oi?aae?iiy oiiaeaie. A ?acoeueoao? oea i?ae?eaa?
nioe?aeueiee caoeno o?oaeyueo, ia caaeiaieueiy? i?i?iaeuei? iio?aae a
iueiio, oi/a ia ?iaioiaeaaoe?a ? eyaa? iaiii??ii aaaeeee oyaa? ieaoaae?a
ii no?aooaaiith. Aeey ii??aiyiiy: a a?eueoino? e?a?i c ?eieiaith
aeiiii?eith noia?iee aianie ?iaioiaeaaoe?a ii an?o aeaeao nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy neeaaea? 20-30% aei oiiaeo iieaoe i?aoe? (a A?aoe?? — 23,9%,
a Aano??? — 25,3%, a ?niai?? — 32% ? iaeaeuee a ?oae?? — 47,62%; a
eieeoi?o ?anioae?eao N?N? ? e?a?iao nioe?ae?noe/iiai oaai?o: a Eeoa? —
23%, a ?oioi?? — 30%, a ?in?? — 39% ? iaeaeuee a Oai?uei? ? Iieueu? —
48%) a Oe?a?i? ae — 37,5 % (aei 1997 ?ieo aoa 51%). Ui noino?oueny
“e?a?i-?aei?aeniai?a”, oi ne?ae a?aei?oeoe oo ianoaaeio, ui iiae?ai?
caaeuai? noaaee iiaee aooe “aei?aaaeai?” iaiao?aei?noth eiiiainaoe??
iane?aee?a oieiai? oa?ai?? ? aeiiii?/iith noaa?e?caoe??th, yeo iiaeia
niinoa??aaoe a oeeo e?a?iao.

Ii-o?ao?, iaaii?yaeeiaaiith ? iaceii?aeeiiaaiith eeoa?oueny o?iainiaa
noa?a nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. Ia iaa?oioiaai? ?ici??e cai??a, ia
aecia/ai? i?eioeeie ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ae ?iaioiaeaaoeyie,
i?aoe?aieeaie ? aea?aeaaith. Cai?e iinyoue iiaeaoeiaee oa?aeoa?. Ca iei?
ae?th/iai ii?yaeeo ni?aaeyiiy cai??a aeiionea?oueny cia/iee ?ic?ea i?ae
niea/oaaiei no?aooaaeueieeaie ?ici??ii ? ??aiai aeieao cano?aoiaaiei, ui
cae/aeii, aeeeeea? ia??eaiiy, ? oe?eeii ni?aaaaeeea?. Iaeiae a na?oia?e
i?aeoeoe? oae? i?iaeaie aeaaii ae??oai?. Iaia’yceia? no?aoia? aianee
ia?aoiaothoueny ia ca?ia?oio ieaoo, iaiaaeaio aa?oiueith iaaeath. C o???
ae ?? noie, yea ia?aaeuo? oeae ??aaiue, aianee ia ia?aoiaothoueny.

Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny caaino?aiiyi i?iaeaie
caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie yei? ? ia?iuoaaiiy i?ioean?a
aea?eueiaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a o aaeocyo aeiiii?ee, iineeaiiy
iaa?aeiia?aeiino? i?iiiceoe?? ?iai/i? neee ? iiieoo ia ia?, c?inoaiiy
/enaeueiino? aac?ia?oieo, ia?a?iciiae?e o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo ca
oi?iaie aeaniino? e noa?aie ae?yeueiino?, iioe?aiiy ia?aaeaiaioiaaii?
caeiyoino?. Ioaea, ianooaae caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy aecia/athoueny noaiii
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, ?? noaa?eueiino?, iie?oeeith aea?aeaae uiaei
caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e ianaeaiith. O naith /a?ao caeiyo?noue
aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaa? ia ianya ae?iaieoeoaa, noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoo, iaoa??aeueiiai aeia?iaooo noni?euenoaa, eiai iie?oe/io oa
nioe?aeueio noaa?euei?noue.

Iniaeeai neeaaeia neooaoe?y a noa?? caeiyoino? ia nae?, ui ? iane?aeeii
ia?aaeon?i iaea?iaaiino? AIE ia an?o ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy, a?aenooiino?
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee, aaeaeaaoii? aeiiaai ? iio?aaai oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?eieo,
?ioa?anai aeaniiai oiaa?iae?iaieea ? naeyinoaa caaaeii. Ci?ie o
caeiyoino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy iia’ycai? ?c ci?iaie a iioeaaoe??
o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Ianaiia?aae, ci?ie a iioeaaoe?? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy iia’ycai? c ia?aoai?aiiyi n?euenueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a o
noa’?eoe oaeoe/ii ia?aaoeueiaaiiai ?eieo i?iaeiaieuenoaa. Ca
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie iniiaiei caiiaieeii
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? aoea aea?aeaaa. ?nioth/a ia oie
/an nenoaia aea?aeaaieo caeoi?aaeue aa?aiooaaea caoo oa ?ic?aooiie ca
i?iaeoeoe?th an?i aac aeiyoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei i?aei?e?inoaai.
Oei naiei i?aeo?eioaaany aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue ?o aeioiaeiino?, ui ni?eyei
a?aeiinii noaa?euei?e caeiyoino? a aa?a?i?e aaeoc?.

Aeaa?aaeaoe?y aa?a?ii? aaeoc? i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui /eiaei
i?aoe?aiee?a c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae caeeoathoue ?? /a?ac iae? ca?ia?oee,
iaiaaath/enue ae??oeoe oeth i?iaeaio oeyoii ia?aoiaeo aei ?ioi? noa?e
ae?yeueiino?.

Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii aieeao ia n?euenueeee ?eiie i?aoe?, i?aeaaeeie yeiai
iei? caeeaaeathoueny ? ae?y yeiai aeyaeoueny o ia?niaeoea?, ?
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. Caeaaeii a?ae i???ioaoe?? ianaeaiiy
? oa?aeoa?o ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a ia nae? oi?ioaaoeiaoueny ?
no?oeoo?a caeiyoino?, i?aaenoaaeaia eiioeiaaioii naeyi-aeaniee?a,
iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a, aeeth/ath/e ? oeo, ooi ? aeanieeii caiaeueii?
/anoee. Oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ye ca ?ici??aie,
oae ? ca aioo??oiueith iiaoaeiaith, iai?yie ?o aca?iiae?? ?c ciai?oi?i
na?aaeiaeuai (/a?ac ooai?aiiy ?icaaeoaeaeaii? caooiai? oa aa?ina?a?nii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e oiui) aieeaaoeiooue ia oa?aeoa? caeiyoino? ia nae?. ??
aieiaiei i?iyaii iiaeiai noaoe ia?a?iciiae?e o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea a
ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? aeaee ae?yeueiino?, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
na?oiaei aeina?aeii ? a?aeiia?aea? iio?aaai aaaaoioeeaaeiiai ?icaeoeo
naea. Iei? aeaye? iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy a?aeaoeeny eeoa a noa?? caeiyoino?
o i?eaaoieo, ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aai n?iaeieo ainiiaea?noaao,
i?aei?e?iieoeoa?. Aeineoue ?ioaineaii c?inoa? caeiyo?noue o oa?ia?nueeeo
ainiiaea?noaao. Ca ni?eyoeeaeo oiia naia oey noa?a caeiyoino? iiaea a
caaacia/eoe iiaeeiaiiy aeineoue cia/ii? e?eueeino? n?euenueeeo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a ye aaciina?aaeiuei a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, oae ? a
iiainoai?thaaieo, ia i?eioeeiao eiiia?aoe?? ??ciiiai?oieo aa?ina?a?nieo,
ia?a?iaieo, caooiaeo oa ?ioeo no?oeoo?ao.

Aeueoa?iaoeaiei aeaeii caeiyoino? noa? aenieioiaa?ia i?aeniaia
n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai, yea iiaeeia? a?euei? o?oaeia? ?ano?ne.
I?aeniai? n?euenuee? ainiiaea?noaa ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye aaco aeey
iiaeaeueoiai noai?aiiy oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa. Ine?eueee iniaenoa
i?aeniaia ainiiaea?noai ia iiaea aooe ?aeeiei aeinoaoi?i aeaea?aeii
aeioiae?a n?i’?, cia/ia /anoeia iacaeiyoiai n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ooea?
?iaioo ca iaaeaie i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy. A?aae oaei? i?a?aoe?? aeineoue
aaeeeee. Oe?a?inuee? naeyie ae?aeaeaeathoue ia ??ci? ?iaioe ia o?eueee
aei ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a e?a?ie, a e ca ?? iaae?. I?e/iio i?ia?ano? naia
i?aeaea?aeaaia o?oaeiaa i?a?aoe?y.

Ioaea, oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y iie?oeee caeiyoino? ia nae? ca no/anieo
oiia iia’ycai? c e?eciaei noaiii aeiiii?ee, caiaiaaeii aa?a?ii? aaeoc?,
aeao?oeeoi?noth ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a, iaiaaeai?noth ?eieiaiai iiieoo,
iaea?iaai?noth aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie ia an?o ??aiyo aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee, ?oeiaoe??th i?iaeoeoeaieo nee naea. Ca oaeeo oiia aea?aeaaia
iie?oeea caeiyoino? ia nae? ia? neiioeaio?oaaoeny o aeae?eueeio
i??i?eoaoieo iai?yieao, a naia: noeioethaaiiy iaeneiaeueii iiaii?
caeiyoino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ca i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy; ni?eyiiy
iia?eueiino? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ia ?eieo i?aoe?, ?aaoethaaiiy
o?oaeiai?, ia?aaeon?i caei?aeiiii?, i?a?aoe?? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy;
i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ia ?eieo
i?aoe?.

Ca nai?i ci?noii ? aoaeoeai?noth aieeao ia ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?
aeaeaoee Oiiaeo ni?eyiiy caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy iiae?eythoueny ia aea?
a?oie: aeoeai? ? ianeai?. Aei neeaaeo ia?oi? a?oie a?aeianai? aeo?aoe ia
noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue ca o/anoth Oiiaeo, i?ioan?eio
i?aeaioiaeo ? ia?ai?aeaioiaeo ianaeaiiy, i?aai?caoe?th ? i?iaaaeaiiy
a?iiaaenueeeo ?ia?o, ia?anaeaiiy n?iae o n?euenueeo i?noeaa?noue,
?ioi?iaoe?th oa oo?eiaiiy aia?aoo neoaeae caeiyoino?.

Aeaeaoee ia ianeai? caoiaee neeaaeathoueny ?c aeaeaoe?a ia noai?aiiy
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace neoaeae caeiyoino?, ?? oaoi?/ia iniauaiiy oa
aeaeaoe?a ia aeiiiiiao a?iiaaeyiai, ye? ao?aoeee ?iaioo.

Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui i?ae aeo?aoaie ia aeoeai? caoiaee ? caeiyo?noth
ianaeaiiy ?nio? i?yia caeaaei?noue, a aeo?aoaie ia ianeai? caoiaee —
cai?ioia. Aeoeai? caoiaee cae?eniththoueny caaaeyee ?icoe?aiith noa?e
i?eeeaaeaiiy i?aoe?, i?aeaeuaiith eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? ianaeaiiy ia
?eieo i?aoe? ? c?inoaiith eiai caeiyoino?, ui a naith /a?ao ca?eueoo?
oiiae iieaoe e iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a aei Oiiaeo. E?ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii
aeo?ao ia ianeai? caoiaee, iniaeeai ia aeiiiiiao a ?ac? aac?ia?ooy, ?
c?inoaiiy /enaeueiino? aac?ia?oieo, nei?i/aiiy oiiaeo iieaoe i?aoe? ?
aiane?a aei Oiiaeo ni?eyiiy caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy.

Ioaea, aeieaoa aeiiiiiae a ?ac? aac?ia?ooy — ianeaia i??a ?aaoethaaiiy
?eieo i?aoe?. Iaeiae ca oiia aeiiii?/iiai niaaeo, ianiaiai aea?eueiaiiy
i?aoe?aiee?a ?c ae?iaieoeoaa, iaoa??aeueia i?aeo?eiea aac?ia?oieo
a?iiaaeyi ? oo?aioith aea?aeaae. Aiia iieeeeaia eiiiainoaaoe, oi/a a
/anoeiai, ao?aoo o?oaeiaiai aeioiaeo, a oaeiae ?io? iiaeeea? ao?aoe,
ni?e/eiai? aac?ia?ooyi, ? caaacia/eoe nioe?aeueii i?eeiyoee ??aaiue
?nioaaiiy. I?ioa ia iiaeia ia a?aoiaoaaoe ? oiai, ui aeiiiiiaa a ?ac?
aac?ia?ooy iieeeeaia aeeiioaaoe e iioeaaoe?eio aei i?aoe? ooieoe?th.
sseui ae a?aei?iiino? i?ae ?ici??aie aeiiiiiae ? iiia?aaeiueiai
ca?ia?oeo ia aoaeooue aeineoue a?ae/ooieie, oi ia aoaea e
caoe?eaaeaiino? a iiooeao iiai? ?iaioe. Aeina?ae i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo
e?a?i na?ae/eoue, ui i?e aeieao? aeiiiiiae aac?ia?oiei o?aaa
aeio?eioaaoenue oaeeo aeaio i?eioeei?a: o i??o iiaeeeainoae aeiiiiiaa
ia? aooe iia’ycaia c iiooeaie ?iaioe; ia aeiioneaoe iiaeeeaino?
iino?eiiai i?iaeeaaiiy ca ?aooiie aeiiiiiae.

A no/anieo oiiaao iaiao?aeia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaei? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee
?, cie?aia, nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee aeioiae?a aac?ia?oieo, yea aoea a
ni?yiiaaia ia ia?ai???ioaoe?th nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a?ae oioaeueii?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaiae?eiino? aei noai?aiiy a?iiaaeyiai oaeeo aeiiii?/ieo
oiia, eiee eiaeiee, ooi caeaoiee i?aoethaaoe, iiaeiai ia?aaeian?i
oo?aoaaoeny i?i naaa nai.

Oeueiio aoaea ni?eyoe ?ic?iaeaiiy aoaeoeaii? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie aac?ia?ooy, o?iainoaaiiy yei? ia? nie?aoeny ia
oaeee aaaeeeaee i?eioeei, ye iaia’yceiaa caeo/aiiy aei neeaaeo ieaoiee?a
naieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ?iaioiaeaaoe?a ? aea?aeaae. Aaeaea iaoa no?aooaaiiy
o ?ac? aac?ia?ooy — no?aoiaee caoeno ?eceeo ao?aoeoe ?iaioo ? noaoe
aac?ia?oiei. Oiiae, ca yeeo c?inoa? ??aaiue aac?ia?ooy, iiaeooue aooe
iia’ycai?, c iaeiiai aieo, c iiieeeiaei aeai?ii i?ioan?? /e iaaeinoaoi?i
??aiai oaoiai? i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aieea, c ae?oaiai — oeaiith no?aoaa??th
?iaioiaeaaoey o ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa, a c o?aoueiai — iaaeie?eaie a
i?iaaaeaii? aeiiii?/ii? e nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee. I?ioa oi/ii
aecia/eoe nooi?iue ?eceeo caeaaeii a?ae i?eeiyooy iaaieo ??oaiue
i?aoe?aieeii, ?iaioiaeaaoeai ? aea?aeaaith iaiiaeeeai, oiio ui a
e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? aiie aca?iiiia’ycai?. *a?ac oea iaoa??aeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oeeie ?eceeaie aeioe?eueii ?iciiae?eeoe i?ae
on?ia o/anieeaie. Aea a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee a aa?a?i?e noa??,
ia iao iiaeyae, ia iiaeia ca?eueoeoe ?ici?? a?ae?aooaaiue ?c ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe ?ia?oiee?a, ui iei? noaiiaeoue 0,5%. Oea, ianaiia?aae, iia’ycaii
?c iacia/ieie ?ici??aie ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, ianai?/aniith ?? aeieaoith ?
aeieaoith a iaoo?aeuei?e oi?i?. Oiio ia aeaiiio aoai? aanue oyaa?
o?iainoaaiiy iiaeiai aooe ?iciiae?eaiee i?ae aea?aeaaith ?
?iaioiaeaaoeyie. E??i oiai, ie aaaaea?ii, ui ? oe? 0,5% iiaeiai
niea/oaaoe ?iaioiaeaaaoeue, a ia ?ia?oiee. Ine?eueee, a ?acoeueoao?
a?ae?aooaaiue ie io?eio?ii iacia/i? noie (iai?eeeaae, ?c ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe 150 a?i. 0,5% noaiiaeoue 0,75 a?i.), ui eeoa oneeaaeith? iae?eiao
?iaioo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo” ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oa
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy, ?aoi?ioaaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, i?iaeaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaaee/iiai
no?aooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? oa oeyoe iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a?ae
aac?ia?ooy.

Aeoiaey/e c no/aniiai noaio iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy oa a?aoiaoth/e
iaeiie/aiee aeina?ae a ?ioeo e?a?iao na?oo, i?e ?aoi?ioaaii? nenoaie
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ne?ae /?oei aecia/eoe oe?e? ?aoi?ie ? i?eioeeie
?iciiae?eo o?iainiaeo o?oaeiiu?a i?ae i?aoethth/eie ? iain?iia?aie.

O ?aieao ?aoi?ioaaiiy iain?eii? nenoaie ia ia?ao?aeiiio aoai?
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny:

-aaanoe ia?nii?o?eiaaiee iae?e no?aoiaeo aiane?a ii iain?eiiio
no?aooaaiith;

-anoaiiaeoe i?yio caeaaei?noue ?ici???a aeieao a?ae noaaeo ?iaioe
(nieaoe aiane?a) oa ?ici??o ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, c yei? niea/oaaeeny
no?aoia? aianee;

-ni?eyoe eaaae?caoe?? aeioiae?a ? nei?i/aiith iaoi?iaeueii? caeiyoino?;

-?icae?eeoe ooieoe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy ? iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, ianaiia?aae oeyoii ?iciaaeoaaiiy
aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy;

-ia?aaeyiooe ae?th/? iieiaeaiiy iain?eii? nenoaie uiaei iaaeaiiy i?euea
ie?aiei eaoaai??yi oeyoii cai?ie ?o ?ioeie iaoa??aeueieie noeioeaie;

-cai?iaaaeeoe aeia?ia?eueia i?eaaoia iain?eia no?aooaaiiy.

C iaoith noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey naiicaaacia/aiiy
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ia?aeaeueii c o?oaeiaeie iain?yie a ?aieao
caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaiai aea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy ?
aea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, cai?iaaaeeoe aeiaeaoeia? iain?? a
nenoai? iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy /a?ac ?inoeooo
iaaea?aeaaieo iain?eieo oiiae?a. Iiaoaeiaaia ia /?oe?e caeiiiaeaa/?e
aac? ?iaioa iaaea?aeaaieo iain?eieo oiiae?a aeicaieeoue oeea?e?ciaaieie
caniaaie i?aeo?eioaaoe onoaeaiee ??aaiue aeeooy.

Ui noino?oueny ?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, oi ia?ao?ae aei
iiai? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?eioeeiiai ci?ith? ?ieue
iniiaieo noa’?eo?a i?aaa a aaeoc? nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy: aea?aeaae,
i?aei?e?inoa, i?aoe?aiee?a ? no?aoiaeo i?aai?caoe?e.

sseui ?ai?oa aea?aeaaa aoea aeanieeii cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? iaeii/anii
aoea iieeeeaia caaacia/oaaoe ?ioa?ane i?aoethth/eo, oi oaia? ?? ?ieue
iiaeiia noaoe i?eioeeiiai ?ioith:

-aooe iina?aaeieeii a o?oaeiaeo a?aeiineiao ca aeiiiiiaith
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caeii?a, a yeeo iaeiaeiai a?aoiaoaaoeiooueny ?ioa?ane ye
i?aoe?aiee?a, oae ? ?iaioiaeaaoe?a, ?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a
? nenoai nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy;

-aooe aa?aioii nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo i?aoethth/eo ca aeiiiiiaith
aeeiiaa/i? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, yea iieeeeaia eiio?iethaaoe aeeiiaiiy
caeii?a ? ??aaiue nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo i?aoe?aiee?a, iaaeaaaoe
oe?eueiao aeiiiiiao iaea?eueo nioe?aeueii a?aceeaei a?oiai ianaeaiiy;

-noai?thaaoe aeiiii?ei-i?aaia? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
noa?e oa ?io?ano?oeoo?e a aaeoc? ioi?iie i?aoe?, ioi?iie caei?ia’y,
nenoai iaaee/ii?, i?ioan?eii? oa nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??, i?aeaioiaee
oa ia?ai?aeaioiaee eaae??a.

I?aei?e?inoaa iiaeii? oaeiae caeiyoe a?aeiia?aeia ?i i?noea noa’?eo?a a
nenoai? nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, a iiai?e i??? caaacia/oth/e:

-nioe?aeueiee caoeno i?aoe?aiee?a, yeeo aiie iaeiathoue, ia an?o aoaiao
— i?e i?eeii? ia ?iaioo, a i?ioean? ?iaioe, a oaeiae o ?ac? ao?aoe
i?aoeacaeaoiino? /e nei?i/aiiy ?iai/eo i?noeue;

-iie?eooy iniiaii? /anoee o?iainiaeo aeo?ao ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno, yeee
iiaeiai ioiiethaaoe aanue o?oaeiaee ? i?neyo?oaeiaee ia??iae
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie.

?aaeeeaeueii iiaeiia ci?ieoenue ? ?ieue i?aoe?aiee?a. ?o o/anoue a
oi?aae?ii? ia i?aei?e?inoaao iiaeiia ni?eyoe noai?aiith caei?iaeo,
aacia/ieo oiia i?aoe? ia ae?iaieoeoa?. Aiie iiaeii? aoiaeeoe ? a ea??ai?
i?aaie no?aoiaeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Iiaeiia c?inoe ? ?ieue no?aoiaeo i?aai?caoe?e (oiiae?a). Aaeaea aiie
noaiooue iniiaieie iina?aaeieeaie o aca?iia?aeiineiao i?ae
?iaioiaeaaoeyie ? i?aoe?aieeaie, ae??ooth/e aanue eiiieaen caaaeaiue a
iaeano? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo (no?aoiaiai) — eiiiainaoe?th ao?aoe
i?aoeacaeaoiino? i?aoe?aieeii, i?aai?caoe?th iaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy, a
oiio /ene? oeo, ooi iino?aaeaeaa ia ae?iaieoeoa?, iaaee/ii?,
nioe?aeueii? oa i?ioan?eii? ?o ?aaa?e?oaoe??, a oaeiae oi?ioaaiiy oa
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, yea a caaacia/oaaea iaeaaeiee
caoeno.

I?iaeaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaaee/iiai no?aooaaiiy, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeiia
?icaeyaeaoenue ye ia?niaeoeaia iiaeaeue o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy
iaaee/ieo iineoa ianaeaiith. Aaeaea oea iia’ycaii, ianaiia?aae, c
iaiao?aei?noth ei??iiiai iie?ioaiiy an??? nenoaie ioi?iie caei?ia’y ? a
ia?oo /a?ao — iaaee/ieo iineoa. A oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo an???
aeiiii?ee iaieio/a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? a oe?e noa??. Aac
?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe??, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei
iaiiaeeeaee ?? ye?niee ??no, iaaeeaeaiiy ??aiy ianeoaiaoaaiiy ianaeaiiy
aei na?aaeiueina?oiaiai ??aiy.

A iaoeo oiiaao ia?oei e?ieii iiaeiii aooe ia?aaaaeaiiy /anoeie onoaiia
ioi?iie caei?ia’y ia aini?ic?aooiie oeyoii aeae?eaiiy ?o ia naiino?eiee
aaeain, aeiiii?/iiai a?aeie?aieaiiy ?c no?oeoo?e aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a
ioi?iie caei?ia’y c ianooiiei noai?aiiyi ia oe?e iniia?
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i, ye? aacoaaeeny a ia iaaea?aeaaieo oi?iao
aeaniino?. Naiaiae? ae?iaiee?a iiaeiia a?aeiia?aeaoe naiaiaea
niiaeeaa/?a iaaee/ieo iineoa. Aiia ia?aaeaa/a? a?eueiee aea??
e?eoaaeueii? onoaiiae, e?ea?y. sseui ieaoiee ? niiaeeaa/ — ia iaeia e oa
ae iniaa, oi a?aeaoaa?oueny ??cea i?aeaeuaiiy iiieoo. Niiaeeaa/ ciaioo?
nai? aeiiae aei yeino? iineoa, oae ye aiie iaaeathoueny eiio aacieaoii ?
a?i ia a ciic? aieeaaoe ia ae?iaieea. Oiio iaiao?aeii ciaeoe oaeiai
ieaoieea, yeee aoaea a?aeie?aieaiee a?ae aaciina?aaeiueiai niiaeeaa/a,
aea a oie aea /an ni?iiiaeiee aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeae?eai?
noni?euenoaii o?iainia? ?ano?ne ? eiio?iethaaoe ye?noue iaaee/ieo
iineoa, ye? aoaeooue iaaeaaaoeny niiaeeaa/aa?. Iei iiaea noaoe iaaee/ia
no?aooaaiiy.

Aaeineiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a?ae aac?ia?ooy, ia iaoo aeoieo,
ne?ae iia’ycoaaoe c aeoeaiith iie?oeeith caeiyoino?, ci?no yei?
caiaeeoueny aei nenoaie caoiae?a, ye? noeioeththoue yeiaeoaeaeoee iiooe
?iaioe aai i?eaeaaiiy iiai? i?ioan??. C iaeyaeo ia oea i??i?eoaoieie
iai?yiaie o aeaeaoeao eioo?a Oiiaeo ia iaeaeeae/o ia?niaeoeao ia? aooe
o?iainoaaiiy cania?a aeoeaii? iie?oeee, caoiae?a i?yii? ae?? ia ?eieo
i?aoe?, a naia: aeoea?caoe?y ?ioi?iaoe?eii?, aiae?oe/ii? ? ?aeeaiii?
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? neoaeae caeiyoino?; ?icoe?aiiy noa?e
i?eeeaaeaiiy i?aoe?; ?icoe?aiiy ianya?a i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa
ia?ai?aeaioiaee aac?ia?oieo ? iacaeiyoiai ianaeaiiy; ni?eyiiy caeiyoino?
iieiae?; oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio i?aeo?eiee aeioiae?a aac?ia?oieo
a?iiaaeyi.

AENIIAEE

1.Iie?oeeo aea?aeaae uiaei ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iio??aii
?icaeyaeaoe a ?aeeiiio eiioaeno? c ?? aeiiii?/iith oa o?iainiaith
iie?oeeith. Iaa?oue iacia/iee aeiiii?/iee ??no noai?th? ni?eyoeea?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey ?icoe?aiiy aace iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ? cai??a a oiiaee
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, ni?ey? cieaeaiith ??aiy aac?ia?ooy ?
?icoe?th? aeinooi aei nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo. ?icaeioo? nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo caeaoi? iiceoeaii aieeaaoe ia noai aeiiii?ee oa
nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua i?aoethth/eo oeyoii ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo
aeioiae?a, aeoeaiiai noeioethaaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy
eiai eoi?aaeueii? caeaoiino?.

2.O nenoai? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oei aeaiaioii
aenooia? nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy, aei neeaaeo yeiai iaeaaeaoue iain?eia,
iaaee/ia, no?aooaaiiy a?ae aac?ia?ooy oa a?ae iauanieo aeiaaee?a ia
ae?iaieoeoa?. Ia aeaiiio aoai? a Oe?a?i? ae?thoue o?e oiiaee: Iain?eiee
oiiae, Oiiae nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy oa Oiiae ni?eyiiy caeiyoino?
ianaeaiiy. sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, a i?aeoeoe? nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy iaa?iiaaeeeinue aeoaea aaaaoi iaae??oaieo i?iaeai.
*anoeia c ieo iia’ycaia c ?nioaaiiyi aaaaoueio canoa??eeo ? ia??aeei
noia?a/eeaeo iaeei iaeiiio ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a.

3.Noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a iaeaeeae/ee /an i?ecaaaea aei
ona?aeiieaiiy aaaaoueia ethaeueie oiai, ui nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy
cae?enith?oueny ca ?aooiie ?o aeanieo eioo?a ? iaaeaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo
i?euea iaeiei eaoaai??yi aaaea aei cieaeaiiy ??aiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
?ioeo. A oea aacia?a/ii caaino?eoue i?iaeaio ia o?eueee oiia ? ??aiy
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, aea ? eiai i?aai?caoe?? a oe?eiio. Oiio iio??ai?
ei??ii? ci?ie oe??? nenoaie, ?? i?enoinoaaiiy aei iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei oeyoii a?aeiiae oa iaiaaeaiiy i?eoiaaiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo
eioo?a ii eaiaeai nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ? caaacia/aiiy.

4.No/ani? aca?iia?aeiineie, ye? aeieeathoue i?e nieao? cai??a ia
iaia’yceiaa aea?aeaaia iain?eia no?aooaaiiy oa ia iaia’yceiaa
nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy (o oiio /ene? cai?o ia iaia’yceiaa nioe?aeueia
no?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie aac?ia?ooy) aecia/athoueny ?o iiaeaoeiaith
i?e?iaeith. Aea?aeaaa a oeaio?ae?ciaaiiio ii?yaeeo aecia/a? ii?io cai?o
oa eiei ieaoiee?a. Ii?iaoeaiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy aiane?a aii?yaeeiao?
ca?? eioo?a, oaeoe/ii i?e??aithth/e ?o aei iiaeaoeiaeo a?ae?aooaaiue.
An? oe? aianee a?aeiinyoueny ia nia?aa?o?noue i?iaeoeoe??, ?ia?o oa
iineoa ieaoiee?a. A yeino? iiiaeaoeiaoaaii? aace aeei?enoiao?oueny oiiae
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. Iiaeaoeiaee oa?aeoa? aiane?a a oe? oiiaee
i?iyaey?oueny oaeiae o o?iainiaeo ? ?ioeo naieoe?yo. Ieaoieee, ye? ia
aeio?eiothoueny ii?yaeeo nieaoe aiane?a ianooue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ye
ca ii?ooaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Naia i?eioeei i?e??aithaaiiy
aei iiaeaoe?a aiane?a a oe? oiiaee aea? inoaii?i aaaiio ia?aaaao i?e
cai?? eioo?a. Aea ii?yae c oeei aeieeathoue i?iaeaie eiio?ieth ca
i?aaeeuei?noth ?ic?aooie?a, aeio?eiaiiyi ii?yaeeo nieaoe, iaeiie/aiiyi,
caa?aaeaiiyi oa aeei?enoaiiyi eioo?a.

5.Aeacai? oiiaee oa ?o oa?eoi??aeuei? i?aaie nai? caeiathoueny
iia?e?caoe??th eioo?a, a aeey ?o cai?o oa i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
?ic?aooie?a, a eiaeiiio c ieo noai?ththoueny niaoe?aeuei? aeeiiaa/?
no?oeoo?e (a?aeae?ee). A oo?eiaiiy inoaii?o iio?aao? aeo?aoe /anoeie
c?a?aieo eioo?a, aei oiai ae, i?aoe?aieee oeeo oiiae?a a?aeaie?eathoueny
ia ia aeanoea? ?i aeaee ae?yeueiino?. A?aenooi?noue aeinoaoiueiai
oaoi?/iiai oa iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy, eaae?o?eiaaieo eaae??a
iicia/a?oueny ia iiaiio? cai?o oa yeino? iae?eo ieaoaae?a. A i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeeany ia?aeaeuei?noue ?iaioe iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae ?
cacia/aieo oiiae?a. A naia: eiaeai ?c oiiae?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
?iaeoue ia?aa??eo i?aaeeueiino? ia?aooaaiiy oa nai?/aniiai ia?a?aooaaiiy
eioo?a ia i?aei?e?inoa?, oeei aea naiei caeia?oueny ? iiaeaoeiaa
neoaeaa, eiee ?iaeoue eiiieaenio ia?aa??eo i?aei?e?inoaa. Ioaea, iayaia
ia?aeaeuei?noue ? aeoaethaaiiy iae?eo, noyaiaiiy aiane?a oa ?o
eiio?ieth. I?iiiio?ii ia’?aeiaoe coneeey c iia?e?caoe?? oa aeei?enoaiiy
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae. Cina?aaeeoe a iaeieo ?oeao
?iaioo ii cai?o eioo?a, ?o iae?eo, eiio?ieth ca ieaoaaeaie ? ia?aaeaoe
?? iiaeaoeiaei i?aaiai. ?aeeia aaca iaeeaaeaiiy, iiaeaoeiaa i?e?iaea
ieaoaae?a, iiae?ai?noue iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy aiane?a, ??ai?noue naieoe?e
ca ii?ooaiiy ii?yaeeo nieaoe — ana oea aea? aeinoaoi? iaa?oiooaaiiy.
E??i oiai, aoei a aoaeoeaii ? ?aoe?iiaeueii cina?aaeeoe ieaoaae? ia
iaeiiio iioi/iiio ?aooieo, iaaeaaoe ieaoieeai i?aai ia?aoiaoaaoe oa
niea/oaaoe aianee o oiiaee iaeiei ieao?aeiei aei?o/aiiyi. C?a?ai? ia
?aeeiee iioi/iee ?aooiie eiooe iio?i ca anoaiiaeaieie ii?iaoeaaie
ia?a?aoiaoaaoe aei oiiae?a. Oaeei /eiii, ?nioth/? oiiaee io?eiathoue
iiaeeea?noue neiioeaio?oaaoe oaaao ia aeanieo caaaeaiiyo. ?acii c oei
oea noai?eoue iniiao aeey e?auiai aeei?enoaiiy oa aoaeoeaiiai
?iaanooaaiiy eioo?a ia nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie. Aei oiai ae aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue nei?ioeoe /anoeio aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy oeeie oiiaeaie, ui
i?ecaaaea aei ciaioaiiy aeo?ao ia ?o oo?eiaiiy, a aea?eueiai? oaeei
/eiii eiooe iiaeia aoaea iai?aaeoe ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae.

6.sse iieacaei nioe?ieia?/ia iieooaaiiy, ?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa
no?eiothoue oae? oaeoi?e: aenie? iiaeaoeia? noaaee, aaeeea e?euee?noue
iiaeaoe?a ? ieaoaae?a, /ano? ci?ie a iiaeaoeia?e nenoai?, aaeeeee ianya
ca?oiino?. Aeey nei?i/aiiy ianyao ca?oiino? i?iiiio?ii iiao oi?io ca?oo,
yeee aoaea caeaaaoenue eeoa aei iiaeaoeiai? ?iniaeoe??. Oea,
ianaiia?aae, i?ecaaaea aei ciaioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?aoe?aiee?a
aooaaeoa???. Ia o?aaa aoaea caeaaaoe ca?oe aei eiaeiiai oiiaeo ? a
iiaeaoeiao ?iniaeoe?th iaeii/anii. Nei?ioeoueny e?euee?noue ia?aa??ie ia
i?aei?e?inoaao c aieo oeeo oiiae?a. A?aeiaaea iio?aaa ?a?no?oaaoe
i?aei?e?inoai a eiaeiiio c oiiae?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, oea oaeiae
ni?inoeoue iiaeaoeiao nenoaio.

7.Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ooieoe?? oiiae?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ?
i?aei?e?inoa aei e?ioey ia ?iciaaeiaai?. Oea noino?oueny, ianaiia?aae,
aeieao aeiiiiiae ii oei/ania?e iai?aoeacaeaoiino?, ii aaa?oiino? ?
iieiaao, i?e ia?iaeaeaii? aeeoeie, ia iioiaaiiy, aeiiiiiae ii aeiaeyaeo
ca aeeoeiith oiui. Ia?aooaaiiy ? aeieaoa oeeo aeiiiiia i?aoethth/ei
a?iiaaeyiai cae?enith?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei ia i?aei?e?inoa?. Ca
iai?aaeeueia ia?aooaaiiy oeeo aeieao aei i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aoe?aiee?a
aooaaeoa???, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca i?aaeeuei?noue ia?aooaaiiy,
canoiniaoththoueny o?iainia? naieoe?? o aeaeyae? oo?ao?a. Ia iao
iiaeyae, oeth ?iaioo iiaeii? aeeiioaaoe oiiaee nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo,
oiio ui iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi i?aei?e?inoaa ? ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe?? /e
iaaeaiiy iineoa. Oiio, ia i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?inoaao aaaaoi nioe?aeueieo
aeieao ia aeiea/othoueny acaaae?, uia oieeiooe o?iainiai?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. sseui nioe?aeuei? aeieaoe aoaeooue ia?aoiaoaaoenue
? aeiea/oaaoenue oiiaeaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, oi iaaaaaoi aoaea
ni?iuaiee aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e ia i?aei?e?inoaao, ciaioeoueny ianya
iae?eiai? ?iaioe.

8. A no/anieo oiiaao ia?aooaaiiy iain?e cae?enith?oueny a?aeae?eii
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy, a?i aea niea/o? ??ci? aeiiiiiae ?
eiiiainaoe?? iai?aoethth/ei oa nioe?aeueiiiacaoeuaiei a?iiaaeyiai.
Ooieoe?y Iain?eiiai oiiaeo — oea aeoioeyoe?y oa ?iciiae?e eioo?a aeey
aeieaoe iain?e. Oiio aeieea? ieoaiiy i?i aeioe?euei?noue ?nioaaiiy oaei?
o?aiceoii? onoaiiae, ye Iain?eiee oiiae. C aaaaeaiiyi ia?nii?o?eiaaiiai
iae?eo a?ae?aooaaiue ia iain?eia no?aooaaiiy iio?aaa a no/aniiio
Iain?eiiio oiiae? a?aeiaaea. Ia?aooaaiiy iain?e o?aaa cae?enithaaoe ye ?
?ai?oa o a?aeae?eao nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, aea e??i oiai oe?
a?aeae?ee iiaeii? caeiaoeny caoenoii iaeicaaacia/aieo a?iiaaeyi oa ?ioeo
aa?noa ianaeaiiy, yeee aoaea cae?enithaaoenue aaciina?aaeiuei ca ?aooiie
athaeaeaoo.

9.Ooieoe?? i?ioni?eie ? Oiiaeo nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy aeioe?eueii
?iciaaeoaaoe. I?ioni?eee iiaeii? ooieoe?iioaaoe ia aeia?ia?eueieo
canaaeao ? caoeuaoe ?ioa?ane i?aoethth/eo (i?aai ia i?aoeth, ia
a?aeii/eiie oiui). A aei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaaee/iiai no?aooaaiiy, caoeno
i?aoethth/eo o aeiaaeeo ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino? ne?ae cae?enithaaoe
Oiiaeo nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ? ia ia?aeeaaeaoe nai? ooieoe?? ii
aeieao? aeiiiiiae ia i?aei?e?inoaa. Aeieaoe iiaeiai cae?enithaaoe aia?ao
naiiai Oiiaeo. Ca ?aooiie eioo?a Oiiaeo nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy
iaiao?aeii a?aeoeiaeiaoaaoe aeo?aoe a ia??iae oei/aniai?
iai?aoeacaeaoiino?, naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oia e?eoaaiiy oa icaei?iaeaiiy.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1.Ieaen??iei A.ss., Oaiiaae A.I. ?ieue neoaeae caeiyoino? a i?ioean?
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?//Iaoeiaee a?niee iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.-1999.-Aei. 18.-N.55-60.

2.Oaiiaae A.I. Ii?yaeie aecia/aiiy ?ici??o i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe//A?niee Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.-1998.-?1(4).-N.100-103.

3.Oaiiaae A.I. Iain?eia caaacia/aiiy, ye iaeei c aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo//I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.-1998.-? 57(124).-N.19-24.

4.Oaiiaae A.I. Nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy, ye iniiaiee aeaiaio
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy//I?e?iaea ethaeeie ? aeeiai?ea
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a, aeione 1: Ca??iee noaoae.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, «Iaoea ? ina?oa», 1998.-N.156-163.

5.Oaiiaae A.I. A?iiaaenuee? ?iaioe — a nenoai? i?aeaeuaiiy caeiyoino?
ianaeaiiy//Aeiiii?/i? oa o?iainia? i?iaeaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei ?eieo: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue/Aei?i?iiao?. aea?ae. aa?. oi-o. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1997.-N.122-124.

6.Oaiiaae A.I. I?aaiecaoeey o/aoa a oa?ia?neeo oicyenoaao//?uii/iua
i?aia?aciaaiey aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa: ?aoi?ie?iaaiea ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe, oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey e yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia eo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie
eiioa?aioeee/Aeiai?iiao?. ainaa?ioieaa?neoao. Aeiai?iiao?iane,
1992.-N.133.

7.Oaiiaae A.I., Iinaiei E.I. I?aaiecaoeey iieaou o?oaea a oneiaeyo
?uii/iie yeiiiieee//Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee
«Oi?ie?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee
AIE»/Aeiai?iiao?. ain. aa?. oi-o. Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1993.-N.33.

Oaiiaae A.I. Aeiiii?/i? canaaee aaeineiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? AIE a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.02 — aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
AIE. — Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aaeineiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? AIE a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae. A ?iaio?
i?iaiae?ciaaiee no/aniee noai oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy, a oiio /ene? ? n?euenueeiai, ?icaeyiooee ii?yaeie
oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a Iain?eiiai oiiaeo, Oiiaeo
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy oa Oiiaeo ni?eyiiy caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy,
ooi/iaii ci?no ? cia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a nenoai? aa?a?ieo
nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
iaoai?cio caeiyoino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? AIE a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae.
Cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?th/i? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo oa a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a ia nioe?aeuei?
iio?aae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueiee caoeno, iain?eia caaacia/aiiy, nioe?aeueia
no?aooaaiiy, no?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie aac?ia?ooy, iaaee/ia no?aooaaiiy,
caeiyo?noue, oiiae, ca??.

# 14.2. Oaiiaae A.I. Yeiiiie/aneea iniiau oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
nioeeaeueiie caueou a aa?a?iii naeoi?a AIE a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.02 — yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e AIE. —
Aeiai?iiao?ianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao,
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia aii?inai oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey a aa?a?iii naeoi?a AIE a ia?aoiaeiue
ia?eiae. A ?aaioa naeaeai aiaeec nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey e oaiaeaioeee
?acaeoey nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey, a oii /enea e naeueneiai,
?anniio?ai ii?yaeie oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa Iaineiiiiai
oiiaea, Oiiaea nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey e Oiiaea niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey, ooi/iaia nooue e cia/aiea nioeeaeueiie caueou a nenoaia
aa?a?iuo nioeeaeueii-o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee. Auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe
oi?ie?iaaiey iaoaiecia caiyoinoe a aa?a?iii naeoi?a AIE a oneiaeyo
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee. I?aaeeiaeaiu iooe oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
aeaenoaothuae nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie caueou e aieaa yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu.

Nioeeaeueiay caueoa naeueneiai ianaeaiey ?anniao?eaaaony ia oiia
nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Ieceee o?iaaiue
nioeeaeueiie caueou naeueneiai ianaeaiey iaoneiaeai oneiaeyie, a eioi?uo
iaoiaeeony naeueneia oicyenoai: ?ac?ooaiea yeiiiie/aneeo naycae, niaae
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ino oeai, aeaoeoeeo yia?aiiineoaeae, iaaeaiea
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo nioeeaeueiay caueoa e?anoueyinoaa, eioi?ia auiieiyao
iaeio ec aeaaiuo ooieoeee, /oi naycaia n i?iecaiaenoaii i?iaeiaieuenoaey
aeey anaai ianaeaiey, yaeyaony iniaaiii aaaeiie caaea/ae. Oeaeueth
nioeeaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoe aa?a?iie iieeoeee a oneiaeyo e?eceniie
neooaoeee a yeiiiieea aeieaeii auoue iaaeiiouaiea aeaeueiaeoaai
iaieuaiey e?anoueyinoaa, iiiiuue ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee iaeiaiaa caueuaiiui neiyi,
iiaeaea?aeea oaeeo noa? aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, eae io?aia
caei?iauey, ia?aciaaiea, eoeueoo?a, auo. A ia yoaia noaaeeecaoeee
yeiiiieee aaaeii nicaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee aeey oiai, /oiau
aueoe ia aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey, aeaoue nioeeaeueiua
aa?aioee iaoa?eaeueiiai iaania/aiey naiae n aeaoueie, eiaaeeaeia,
aaoa?aiia aieiu e o?oaea, oaaee/eoue iauaiu oeiaine?iaaiey aeey ?acaeoey
nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u naea.

Nioeeaeueiua aa?aioee e caueoa naeueneiai ianaeaiey a ia?eiae ia?aoiaea
e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi aeieaeiu eiaoue anaiauaiethuee oa?aeoa? e
i?iyaeyoueny, i?aaeaea anaai, a iaania/aiee i?aa e naiaiae
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, iiaeaea?aeea iiauo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey e
nianoaaiiinoe, i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, a aa?aioee eueaio e e?aaeeoia.
Eiaiii yoi iiaeaaaeao yeiiiie/aneoth iniiao aeey oaeie caueou.

Iieeoeeo ainoaea?noaa ii ?acaeoeth nioeeaeueiie caueou iaiaoiaeeii
?anniao?eaaoue a aaeeiii eiioaenoa n aai yeiiiie/aneie e oeiainiaie
iieeoeeie. Aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino nicaeaao
aeaaii?eyoiua i?aaeiinueee aeey ?anoe?aiey aacu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e
nai?ia a oiiaeu nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey, niinianoaoao nieaeaieth
o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu e ?anoe?yao aeinooi e nenoaia nioeeaeueiie caueou.
?acaeoua nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie caueou niiniaiu iieiaeeoaeueii aeeyoue ia
yeiiiie/aneia ninoiyiea e nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea ianaeaiey iooai
?aoeeiiaeueiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia, aeoeaiiai noeioee?iaaiey
naa?aaeaiee ianaeaiey, iiauoaiey aai iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe.

A ?aaioa inouanoaeai eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e i?iaeaia nioeeaeueiie
caueou, i?iaiaeece?iaaia i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a, ooieoeee
Iaineiiiiai oiiaea, Oiiaea nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey, Oiiaea niaeaenoaey
caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, i?aaeeaaaaony eo iiaay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay nenoaia.
?ac?aaioaiu iiaua i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie caueou. Aeey
oiai, /oiau nenoaia nioeeaeueiie caueou auea yooaeoeaiie e
io?eoeaoaeueii ia aeeyea ia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa, a eae ?acoeueoao e
ia ?acia? aioo?aiiaai aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa, iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau iia
ioaa/aea oaeei i?eioeeiai:

-?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea oiiaeia nioeeaeueiie caueou aeieaeiu auoue
ieieiaeueiuie;

-ii?yaeie iaycaoaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey aeieaeai auoue ianeiaeiui,
aeinooiiui e i?inoui a eniieueciaaiee;

-iaiaoiaeeii /aoei ?acaeaeeoue ooieoeee i?aaei?eyoee e oiiaeia
nioeeaeueiie caueou. I?e yoii iiiiuue e auieaoa iiniaee aeieaeiu
inouanoaeyoueny aiia?aoaie oiiaeia;

-ii?aaeaeeoue a /enea aeaenoaothueo no?oeoo? ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey aeaaiiai i?aaia i?iaaaeaiey nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee e
eii?aeeiaoeee aeaenoaee ii aa ?aaeecaoeee — Ieienoa?noaa nioeeaeueiie
caueou ianaeaiey. Iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau a no?aia auea eiiieaeniay no?oeoo?a
oi?aaeaiey nioeeaeueiie caueoie, eioi?ay auno?i ?aaae?iaaea au ia
ioaeaeu ianaeaiey a nioeeaeueiie caueoa;

-iaania/aiea oaniie nayce iaaeaeo noiiie ieaoaaeae, aianaiiuo a oiiae e
noiiie iieo/aiiuo auieao;

-ii?yaeie ioi?ieaiey auieao aeieaeai auoue i?inoui, aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo
neiaeiinoae e oi?iaeecia.

Iaoeeiiaeueiay nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea aeieaeia auoue i?iiecaia eaeayie
?aaainoaa, iauiinoe ioaaoa e aeinooiiinoe aeey anao neiaa ianaeaiey
nenoai io?aiu caei?iauey, ia?aciaaiey, nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey. Eaeae
nieeaea?iinoe a iauanoaa iaiaoiaeeii ?aaeeciauaaoue /a?ac oeiainiaoth
iiaeaea?aeeo iaineiia?ia, eiaaeeaeia, naiae n aeaoueie, oao, eoi ia ii
naiae aeia iioa?ye o?oaeiniiniaiinoue e ia a ninoiyiee a aeinoaoi/iie
noaiaie iicaaioeoueny i naaa. Eiaiii oaeay iieeoeea ioaa/aao nooe
nioeeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa. *oi eanaaony o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey, oi
ainoaea?noai aeieaeii i?iyaeyoue naith caaioo i iai a oi?iao, eioi?ua
iaania/eaaee au ee/ioth ioaaonaaiiinoue eaaeaeiai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiay caueoa, iaineiiiia iaania/aiea,
nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea, no?aoiaaiea ia neo/ae aac?aaioeoeu,
iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea, caiyoinoue, oiiae, nai?.

# 14.3. Shapoval V.M. Economical bases improvement of the social
defence in an agrarian sector of agricultural industry complex the
transitional period.-Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree in economics by speciality 08.07.02 —
economics of agriculture and agro-industrial complex. — Dniepropetrovsk
State Agrarian University, Dniepropetrovsk, 1999.

Present dissertation devotes learing the problems of improvement of the
social defence of Ukrainian people in an agrarian sector in the
transitional period. A modern state’s analysis and the tendencies of a
social defense’s the development made in present dissertation, including
agriculture analysis. Present dissertation considers an order of forming
and using Pension fund’s means, Fund of socil insurance and Fund of
assistance beeing busy of population. The main point and sence of a
social defence makes the information more exact in an agrarian and socil
— work relations in present dissertation. The peculiarities of forming
the mechanism of employment in an agrarian sector and agricultural
industry complex are exposed in the transitional period. The ways of
improvements of modern system in a socil defence and more effective
using means for socil needs are proposed in present dissertation.

Key words: a social defence, a pension guarantee, a social insurance, an
employment insurance, a medical insurance, an employment, a fund, a tax.

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