2

Oa?e?anueeee i?aeaia O?oaeiaiai *a?aiiiai I?aii?a

aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? A.A.Aeieo/a?aa

A?EOEI A?eoi? Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 636.084.4:636.085.1:633.2./:338.109.4 (477.53)

AEIIII?*I? OA I?AAI?CAOe?EII-OAOIIEIA?*I? ?ACA?AE I?AeAEUAIIss
AIA?AAOE*II? AOAEOEAIINO?

AE?IAIEOeOAA ? AEEI?ENOAIIss EI?I?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.02 — Aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iieoaanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio
?inoeooo? (IAeNA?) I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?AAOOEIA Aaneeue Ieoaeeiae/,

Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee oa ia?eaoeiao

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

?EAEEIA Aaneeue A?eai?iae/,

?inoeooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo oaoiieia??
ae?iaieoeoaa yeiae/eie (i.Oa?e?a)

— eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

EAOEI?I Ieeiea Aiaoie?eiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, noa?oee aeeeaaea/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee, a?ciano oa
ia?eaoeiao

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee

oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 9 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 12
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.803.01 a
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. A.A.Aeieo/a?aa ca
aae?anith: 312131, i.Oa?e?a, i/a “Eiioi?no-1”, o/aiaa i?noa/ei OAeAO,
ei?ion 1, aoae. 213.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.A.Aeieo/a?aa.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 28 ” ea?oiy 1999
?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee IAEAAeIINUeEEE A.A

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith ia?aiiiith ae??oaiiy
i?iaeiaieue/i?, aia?aaoe/ii? ? aeieia?/ii? i?iaeaie Oe?a?ie ?
o?aaeeoe?ei? oyaeaiiy, ui iaea?aeaiiy aa?a?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? ? eeoa
?acoeueoaoii aeei?enoaiiy niiy/ii? aia?a??, yea o?ainoi?io?oueny caeaiei
eenoii. O oeueiio ?ac? iaooo?oueny ae?enia ia?iaiaioia c?inoaiiy i?yieo
aia?aiaeo?ao ia noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo aa?ioeaiic?a ? i?iaeoeo?a oaa?eiieoeoaa. Oiio
aoaeoeai?noue oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeiaieuenoaa c iiaeyaeo
aia?aaoeee, ia i?eaaaethaaea oaaae aeiiii?no?a, i?aeoe/ii ia
cae?enithaaeany iioei?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia
cieaeaiiy aia?ai?iiino? aa?a?ii? i?iaeoeoe??. I?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? iia’ycoaaeiny a iniiaiiio ?c
caeaoi?noth ethaeeie iie?iooaaoe naeaeoe?th, aa?ioaoi?eo, iae?i?aoe?th ?
iaaeinoaoi?noth oaaae ia’?eoeaiei caeiiai ? caeiiii??iinoyi. Iane?aeie —
ca aeoaea iao?eaaeee ?noi?e/iee i?ii?aeie /ano ??cei i?aeaeuaii
aia?ai?ii?noue aa?a?ii? i?iaeoeoe??, iniaeeai oaa?eiieoeoaa. Aeo?aoe
aia?a?? ia ia?ia?oie a?oioo, aeia?eaa, ianoeoeeaee, o?ainii?ooaaiiy,
caa??aaiiy, ia?a?iaeo aa?a?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? c?inee o aeanyoee ?ac?a, ui
i?aeaeueei aia?aaoe/io oe?io oa?/iai? eaei???: iiaeai?iiy ? iio?i?iiy a
inoaii? 2 aeanyoee?ooy a?iaeaeiino? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny c?inoaiiyi
ieoiieo aeo?ao iaa?aeoai?thaaeueii? aia?a?? (iaooa, aoa?eey, aac oiui) o
10-15 ?ac?a.

A ??cieo e?a?iao na?oo oea ca?eueoaiiy a?aeaoaaeiny iaiaeiaeiaeie
oaiiaie, ui e aecia/a? cia/i? eieeaaiiy aia?ai?iiino? i?iaeoeoe??. Oae,
a Oe?a?i? aia?ai?ii?noue ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa o 4-6
?ac?a aeua, i?ae o aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao.

Na?aae aaaaoueio /eiiee?a, ye? coiiaeththoue aenieo aia?ai?ii?noue
i?iaeoeoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa, iniiaio /anoeo aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy (50-60 %)
caeiathoue ei?ie. Oiio iniiaia oaaaa o caaacia/aii? aia?aiiuaaeiiai
oaa?eiieoeoaa iiaeiia i?eae?eyoeny aeyaeaiith ?aca?a?a o nenoai?
“ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”.

O?aaeeoe?eia no?oeoo?a nenoaie “ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”
noi?ioaaeanue a oiiaao aeinoaoiueiai caaacia/aiiy aeaoaaeie
aia?aiiin?yie, aeia?eaaie, ianoeoeeaeaie, oaoi?/ieie caniaaie oiui. Ia
aoai? ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ca aeao?oeeoiino? ? aei?iaiaecie
cania?a aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, nenoaia iio?aao? ia eeoa e?eoe/iiai
aiae?co, a e aeiei??iii? ia?aaoaeiae. Aea a?aeiinii inoaiiueiai
iaiao?aeii iaoe ae/a?iio ?ioi?iaoe?th noiniaii /eiiee?a, ui
iioei?cothoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/io ? oaoiieia?/io aaco nenoaie “ae?iaieoeoai
— aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”. Io?eiaiiy iio??aii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oneeaaeith?oueny
?ioeyoe?eieie i?ioeanaie ? a?aenooi?noth ia?eoaoo oe?i ia aa?a?io ?
i?iieneiao i?iaeoeoe?th. O oeeo oiiaao iaei?eiyoi?oith ? aia?aaoe/ia
ioe?iea, yea aaco?oueny ia oi?aa?naeueiiio aia?aaoe/iiio iieacieeo, ui
a?aeia?aaea? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeoioeueiaaii? o i?iaeoeoe?? oa aeo?a/aii?
ia ia? aia?a??. Oea ca aoaeue-yeeo aeiiii?/ieo oiia ia’?eoeaii
a?aeaeca?eaeth? ia eeoa i?yi? aeo?aoe aia?a??, a e aia?a?th, o?a/aaeaio
o caniaao ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?iaeoeoe??, aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe
aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/io aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a, ii??aiyoe ??ci?
oaoiieia?? ? aecia/eoe oeyoe caiuaaeaeaiiy noeoiii? aia?a??.

Aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy oa aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa
na?ae/eoue, ui /enaeuei? aniaeoe i?iaeaie aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei /a?ac
cia/io neeaaei?noue, iiaecio ? aaaaoia?aii?noue, cie?aia iaaeinoaoiuei
ii?aoeueiaai? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy aeo?ao noeoiii? aia?a??, aia?ai?iiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa, caaio?ae?, i?eaiooaaiiy ? ?icaeaaaiiy ei?i?a, a oaeiae
?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? cacia/aieo iia?aoe?e. Iaaeinoaoiy
aea/ai?noue i?iaeaie, aaaeeea?noue ?? aeey iaoee ? i?aeoeee aecia/athoue
iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy,
ui e aecia/a? aenieo aeooaeuei?noue iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eiiieaenii?
aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy Oe?a?ie (iinoaiiaa Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 5 ethoiai 1997?. ? 148), eiioeaioe??
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy a Iieoaanuee?e iaeano? ia 1998-2002 ?iee, iaeanii?
oe?eueiai? i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno oa
iioei?caoe?? niiaeeaaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a a ia?iaeiiio
ainiiaea?noa? iaeano? ia 1997-1998 ?iee (?icii?yaeaeaiiy aieiae
iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?? a?ae 6 ethoiai 1997 ?ieo ? 36) oa oaeoeueoaoo
iaiaaeaeiaioo Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
?inoeoooo, ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeaie
“I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe caaacia/aiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?
AIE oeyoii ?ano?ni- oa aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy (1997 — 2000 ?.?)”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ii?aoethaaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo, aia?aaoe/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ieo ?aca?a?a
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, caaio?ae?,
i?eaiooaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai,
iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy: nenoaiiee aiae?c noaio
aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo iaoeiaeo onoaiia, e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae noiniaii aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie; cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
ioe?iee nenoaie “ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a” a no/anieo oiiaao,
noaio eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? oaa?eiieoeoaa; iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeeee
aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee nenoaie “ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”;
iiaeeaeaia aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeei?enoaiiy
ei?i?a a oiiaao eiie?aoieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa;
aeyaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ieo ?aca?a?a
i?aeaeuaiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie “ae?iaieoeoai —
aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a” a aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoaao Iieoaanueei? iaeano?;
ii?aoethaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c aia?aiiuaaeaeaiiy.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe noaiiaeaiiy
aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie “ae?iaieoeoai —
aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii aa?a?i?
i?aei?e?inoaa Iieoaanueei? iaeano? — oeiiai? aeey ciie E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie, a iiaeeaeaiiai — ENI “Iaye” C?iuee?anueeiai ?aeiio.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeai?
ia?aeiiai aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo, ??/i? ca?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, noaoenoe/ia ca?oi?noue ?aeiiiiai, iaeaniiai, aea?aeaaiiai
??ai?a, niaoe?aeueia iaoeiaa oa aeia?aeeiaa e?oa?aoo?a.

Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa
aeine?aeaeaiiy — ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae i?ciaiiy, yeei ?ice?eaa?oueny ae?y
aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a, ? nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy noo? aeiiii?/ieo
yaeu ? i?ioean?a. Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiue ? ae?aeaeoe/ia
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a ? yaeu, caeiiiaeaa/? ? ii?iaoeai?
aeoe Oe?a?ie, iaoeia? i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo oa ca-?oa?aeieo a/aieo,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

A i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeei?enoai? iaoiaee ?
i?eeiie, i?eeiyo? o aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o: aiae?co oa
neioaco, iiiia?ao?/iee, aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iee,
?ic?aooieiai-eiino?oeoeaiee, aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iee, ei?aeyoe??,
ni?anoaaeaiue, ii??aiyiue, ?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co oiui.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? o nenoaii?e
aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/i?e ioe?ioe? oaoiieia?e ? oaoi?/ieo cania?a a nenoai?
“ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”, aecia/aii? ia oe?e iniia? ?aca?a?a
? oeyo?a ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy noeoiii? aia?a??, i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a. Ia caoeno
aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy:

— aecia/aia aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue ??cieo i?eeii?a ?
iaoiae?a ae?iuoaaiiy, caaio?ae? ? i?eaiooaaiiy ei?i?a;

— ?ic?aoiaaia aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo
iaoei oa cia?yaeaey i?e ae?iaieoeoa? oa aeei?enoaii? ei?i?a;

— aecia/aia oaeoe/ia aia?ai?ii?noue ei?i?a, iieiea, naeieie a oeiiaeo
ainiiaea?noaao Iieoaanueei? iaeano?;

— aeyaeaia no?oeoo?a aeo?a/aii? aia?a?? ia ae?iuoaaiiy ei?iiaeo
eoeueoo?;

— aecia/aia aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo
iaoei oa cia?yaeaey ia iiei/ieo oa?iao;

— ii?aoeueiaai? ?aca?ae aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy a nenoai? “ae?iaieoeoai —
aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a aeiaaaeaii? iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie aei
??aiy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e. Inai?iiy
ae?iaieoeoaii aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e cia/ii i?aeaeuo?
eiai aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue, caaaeyee eiie?aoiei ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yi c
aaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii-i?aai?caoe?eieo caoiae?a aia?aiaeei?enoaiiy.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??,
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo a eo?n? “Aeiiii?ea
aia?aiaeei?enoaiiy a AIE”.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a
oaeineiiaeaii? iaoiaeeee aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee oaoiieia?e ? oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a o ae?iaieoeoa? ? aeei?enoaii? ei?i?a, ii?aoethaaii? ?aca?a?a ?
oeyo?a ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? no?oeoo?e iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo
aeine?aeaeoaaii? noa?e aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, c iaeyaeo ia
aia?aiiuaaeaeaiiy, aecia/aii? caeaaeiino? i?ae aia?aaoe/ieie oa
aeiiii?/ieie /eiieeaie o nenoaiiiio caaacia/aii? eiieo?aioicaeaoiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue,
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe?? aeeeaaeai? a ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo
uiaei ?ano?ni- oa aia?aiiuaaeaeaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa, aeei?enoiaothoueny
a oai?aoe/i?e ? i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?, iia?aeiieai? ? noaaeai?
Iieoaanueeei ?aa?iiaeueiei iaa/aeueii-iaoeiai-ae?iaie/ei oeaio?ii c
ioi?iie i?aoe?, aeieia?/ii? aaciaee oa aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy (27.01.1999
?.), iaeanieie iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieie eiioa?aioe?yie: “Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee
i?ia?an — iniiaa caaacia/aiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ae?iaieoeoaa”
(Iieoaanueea iaeania aea?aeaaia aaei?i?no?aoe?y, i.Iieoaaa, 1996?.);
“Oaoi?/ia ia?aica?i?iiy ? ?aeiino?oeoe?y ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae
iaoa??aeueii? noa?e ae?iaieoeoaa — ia’?eoeaiee iai?yiie i?ia?aneaiiai
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee” (Iieoaanueea iaeania aea?aeaaia aaei?i?no?aoe?y,
i.Iieoaaa, 1996 ?.) ? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iith eiioa?aioe??th “Oeyoe
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa AIE” (IAeNA?, i.Iieoaaa, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? ?aea?, iieiaeaiiy oa
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiy aeeeaaeai? o iniaenoeo 11
(oaoiaeo — 5) iioae?eiaaieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 4,5
ae.a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee ianooiio no?oeoo?o ?iaioe:

Anooi.

?icae?e 1. Noai ae?iaieoeoaa, aeei?enoaiiy oa aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea
ei?i?a.

1.1. I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ia oa a?iee?iaoe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eoo
aeine?aeaeaiiy. 1.2. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue oa no/ani? oaiaeaioe??
ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a. 1.3. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a.

?icae?e 2. Iaoiaeeea aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee ae?iaieoeoaa oa aeei?enoaiiy
ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a.

2.1. Oai?aoe/i? i?eioeeie aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
2.2. Iaoiaeeea aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee ae?iaieoeoaa ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a. 2.3.
Iaoiaeeea aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a.

?icae?e 3. Aeiiii?/i? oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i? ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeei?enoaiiy ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a.

3.1. Aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa. 3.2.
Aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a. 3.3. Aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea
aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a. 3.4. ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a. 3.5. ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? caaio?ae?, caa??aaiiy ? i?eaiooaaiiy
ei?i?a. 3.6. ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a. 3.7. Oaoi?/ia ia?aica?i?iiy ?
?aeiino?oeoe?y ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae — oeyo ?ano?niiuaaeaeaiiy.

Aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe??.

Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.

Aeiaeaoee.

Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 186 noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, a oiio
/ene?: 68 oaaeeoeue, 38 oi?ioe, 11 ?enoie?a, nienie aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?c 196 iaeiaioaaiue, c yeeo 11 ?iicaiieo,
aeiaeaoee ia 11 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE.

O anooi? aena?oeaii nooi?noue, noai ? aeooaeuei?noue iaoeiai? i?iaeaie,
?? cia/ei?noue, i?aenoaae ? aeo?aei? aeai? noiniaii ii?aoethaaiiy oaie,
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoa, caaea/? oa iaoeiaa
iiaecia aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Noai ae?iaieoeoaa, aeei?enoaiiy oa aeiiii?/ia
ioe?iea ei?i?a” iaaaaeaii aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo noaio ae?iaieoeoaa,
caaio?ae? ? aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a a ia’?eo? aeine?aeaeaiiy. O 1990 — 1997
?.?. o aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee Iieoaanueei? iaeano? neeaeany
iaaaoeaia oaiaeaioe?y aeeiai?ee iiaie?a’y ? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei, yea
ii?yae c ?ioeie i?e/eiaie, aecia/aia iia??oaiiyi ae?iaieoeoaa, caaio?ae?
? aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a. Iie?ioaiiy noaio ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa ia?ic?eaii
iia’ycaia c aaeineiiaeaiiyi no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?,
?ioaineo?eaoe??th ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a, i?aeaeuaiiyi ?o yeino? oa
aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, c a?aooaaiiyi eiie?aoieo
i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia eiaeiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ei?iiao aaco iaiao?aeii noai?thaaoe ia iniia? ia’?eoeaii? aeiiii?/ii?
ioe?iee ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a a eiie?aoieo oiiaao, ui aeicaiey? iioei?coaaoe
aea?? eoeueoo?, ye? caaacia/othoue io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueii? e?eueeino?
iaeaeaoaaoeo ei?i?a ? noai?aiiy oiia iino?eiiai ia?iuoaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa. Oiio iioei?ciaaia nenoaia ii?aeiaiiy ei?iiaeo
eoeueoo? iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia eeoa ia aaeiaeo (ia’?iieo) iieacieeao, a
e aeiiii?/i?e ioe?ioe? ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a, ui ii?aeio? iaa?oiooaaiiy
iio?aae a ei?iao ? aeaea?ae ?o iaaeoiaeaeaiiy; aeo?ae iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei
o ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeyo oa ia?ao?aaiiio i?ioa?i? c aaeoa?a;
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?; nia?aa?o?noue ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ?
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io ie?aieo eoeueoo? ? ?o noeoiiino?; iieaoo ei?i?a
i?iaeoeoe??th o ?ic?aooieo ia ei?iiao iaeeieoeth. ?icae?eueia ioe?iea
ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? ca aeoiaeii ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai
i?ioa?io ia caaaeaee aea? ciiao ae?eoe aeniiaeo ?o aea?aeiino?. Onoiaiiy
oeueiai iaaeie?eo caaacia/o?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi oiiaieo
i?ioa?ii-ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue.

Iaeaoaeoeai?oeie ei?iiaeie eoeueoo?aie a oiiaao Iieoaanueei? iaeano? ?
iaeii??/i? ? aaaaoi??/i? o?aae, iniaeeai ia caeaiee ei?i (aei 4 oe/aa
ia?a-o?aaiiai i?ioa?io), eoeo?oaeca ia neein ? caeaiee ei?i, yea ia
aeeaey/enue ia iecueeee ai?no ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io, caaacia/o? cia/iee
aeo?ae ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue c aaeoa?a ca ieae/i? nia?aa?oino?. Aea
iaeaeuee aeo?ae ei?ii-i?ioa?iiaeo iaeeieoeue c aaeoa?a iaaeathoue
aaaaoi??/i? o?aae ia caeaiee ei?i (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? a noni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoaao

Iieoaanueei? iaeano? (a na?aaeiueiio ia ??e 1993 — 1997 ?.?.)

O?iaeaei?noue, oe/aaNia?aa?o?noueAeo?aoe

Eoeueoo?e

a iaoo??ei?ii-aeo iaee-ieoeueia?a-o?aa-iiai i?ioa-

?ioei?ii-i?ioa?-iiaeo iaee-ieoeue1 oe ei?i. iae., a?i (a ni?a-noaaieo
oe?iao 1996?.)i?aoe? ia

1 oe ei?i. iae., ethae.-aiae.Ei?iia?
ei?aiaieiaee175.624.61.4119.3521.366.05Eoeo?oaeca ia neein ? caeaiee
ei?i

162.8

34.2

2.28

28.50

3.97

0.40Aaaaoi??/i? o?aae:

ia n?ii

ia caeaiee ei?i

28.8

166.1

12.7

29.9

1.73

3.49

15.00

32.40

6.50

4.93

1.63

0.48Iaeii??/i? o?aae:

ia n?ii

ia caeaiee ei?i

25.5

98.2

12.2

15.7

1.30

2.26

12.60

19.15

6.39

4.72

1.69

0.61I?e?iaei? n?iiaeao? 17.0 4.20.48 4.5012.053.92

O?ainoi?iaoe?y ei?i?a o i?iaeoeoe?th oaa?eiieoeoaa aaciina?aaeiuei
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o a?eeiai-i?ia?aeueii-a?oai?iii? iiaiioe?iiino?,
caaacia/aiino? ieie ooaeiae oa ??aiy ?? i?iaeoeoeaiino?. *ei aeu?
i?iaeoeoeaiee iioaioe?ae oaa?eie ? caeaoi?noue o?ainoi?iaoe?? ei?i?a,
oei cia/i?oa /anoea ei?i?a ia?aoai?th?oueny o i?iaeoeoe?th ? aeua iieaoa
ei?i?a. Oeei aecia/a?oueny iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
oaa?ei ia iniia? iioei?caoe?? nenoaie caoiae?a noai?aiiy i?oeii?
ei?iiai? aace, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy oa yeino? aiaeoaaiiy oaa?ei,
oaeineiiaeaiiy naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe ? ciioaoi?/ii? eoeueoo?e.
Iaiaeaaeiee ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy oeeo /eiiee?a a aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoaao
Iieoaanueei? iaeano? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ieoiieo ia?aaeo?ao ei?i?a: ia 1 oe
iieiea — 0.4 oe.ei?i. iae., ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei ui??/iiai (a?ey 200
oen.o) iaaeiai?o iioaioe?eii iiaeeeaiai ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaeeea aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee ae?iaieoeoaa oa
aeei?enoaiiy ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a” aeeeaaeaia nooi?noue aia?aaoe/ii?
ioe?iee, iniiaith yei? ? oa, ui i?iaeoeoe n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?,
c iaeiiai aieo, aeoioeyoi?aie aeo?a/aii? ia ?o ae?iaieoeoai aia?a??
(?ineeie, oaa?eie), a c ?ioiai — ?? o?ainoi?iaoi?aie (ca?ii, iieiei,
i’yni oiui) a iiao ye?noue (i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy), ui iiaeeeai
e?euee?nii oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iaaieie aia?aaoe/ieie iaeeieoeyie c
a?aooaaiiyi nenoaie i?eioeei?a: iaaea?aaeaioi?noue aia?ainenoai,
eieaeuei?noue ioe?iee, aeeeth/aiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a, a?aooaaiiy
aeo?ao noeoiii? i?aoe?, oiiaiee aeenaaeain aia?ainenoaie,
ii??aiyeuei?noue oaoiieia?e, oe?eani?yiiaai?noue ioe?iee, aeiiii?/i?noue
aia?ainenoaie.

Iaie aia?aaoe/io ioe?ieo cae?eniaii ca iieacieeaie, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ia’?eo, oaoiieia?th, oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ? e?ioeaaee
i?iaeoeo: noeoii? aeo?aoe aia?a?? ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoo
(aia?ai?ii?noue); aia?aia?aeaea/a (aia?aaoe/ia oe?ii?noue) ?
aia?aaoe/iee eiao?oe??io ei?enii? ae?? (AEEAe) oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ?
oaoiieia??. Aia?aaoe/i? aea?aaeaioe, aeei?enoai? a ?ic?aooieao,
?icae?eaii ia iniiai? caniae, iai?ioi? eiooe, e?iii-?o/iee ?aiaiaio ?
o?oaeia? ?ano?ne.

Aea?aaeaioe noeoiii? aia?a?? iniiaieo ? iai?ioieo cania?a ?ioaa?othoue
aia?a?th, aeo?a/aio ia aeiaoaaiiy ne?iaeie, ?? oaoiieia?/io ia?a?iaeo,
aeaioiaeaiiy ? o?ainii?ooaaiiy iaoei, iaeaaeiaiiy, ?aiaiaioo, aeia?ea ?
o?i?/ieo i?aia?ao?a, aia?a?th aeei?enoaio ia aeaioiaeaiiy caianieo
/anoei ? ?aiiio oaoi?ee; ?iai/eo oaa?ei — ia eeoa aia?a?th nooi?
?a/iaeie (i’yna), a ? ei?i?a oa ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo (aei iiiaioo
aeinyaiaiiy oaa?eiaie aenieoaoaoe?eiiai a?eo).

Aea?aaeaioe noeoiii? aia?a?? (ca 1 ethae.-aiae.), ii?aeiothoue i?yi?
aeo?aoe aia?a?? ? aeo?aoe ?? ia nioe?aeueii-iiaooia? ? iaa/aeuei?
eiiieaene. Eiao?oe??ioe noeoiii? aia?a?? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a
aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? ii oaoiaeo a?oiao i?aoe?aiee?a, ine?eueee aeo?aoe
aia?a?? o ??cieo o?oaeiaeo i?ioeanao aeiaaathoue ??ciiai ??aiy
i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a. A aea?aaeaioao noeoiii? aia?a?? ia iniiai? caniae
ae?iaieoeoaa (iaoeie, o?ainii?oi? caniae oiui) a?aoiaaii, ui aiie
ui??/ii ia?aiinyoue ia aa?a?i? i?iaeoeoe eeoa /anoeio aia?a??
i?iii?oe?eio oa?i?io neoaeae ? /ano, aeo?a/aiiio ia aeeiiaiiy iaeeieoe?
?iaioe. Iai?ioi? caniae ? o?oaeia? ?ano?ne iiai?noth ia?aiinyoue noeoiio
aia?a?th ia nia?aa?o?noue aa?a?iiai i?iaeoeoo a ??e ?o aeei?enoaiiy (ca
aeiyoeii aiith).

Noeoii? aeo?aoe aia?a?? ia ae?iaieoeoai ei?io (A; AAeae, IAeae, Aeae)
aecia/aii ca ae?acii:

wmetafile8? ??t???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy`??n?? ???&?
?MathType??a????u?th??????aea ? — aeaee aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai ei?io,
ae?aaeai? a iaeeieoeyo aia?a??;

A1 — aeo?aoe noeoiii? aia?a??, ia?aianai? iniiaieie caniaaie
ae?iaieoeoaa (e??i aa?aoe??); A2 — oaae — aa?aoe??th; A3 — iai?ioieie
caniaaie; A4 — e?iii-?o/iei ?aiaiaioii; A5 — aeo?aoe noeoiii? aia?a??
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. Eiaeia A? aecia/aii ca ae?acii:

A? = A? F? ,

aea A? — aia?aaoe/iee aea?aaeaio noiniaii ?-ai aeaeo aeo?ao ia
ae?iaieoeoai ei?io a ieoiieo iaeeieoeyo aia?a?? (IAeae/ea, IAeae/i2,
IAeae/ethae.-aiae. oiui); F? — aaee/eia ?-ai aeaeo aeo?ao ia iaea?aeaiiy
e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo a iaoo?aeueieo aei??ieeao (ea, i2, ethae.-aiae.
oiui).

Aia?a?th, iaeiie/aio a ei?iao aecia/aii c a?aooaaiiyi ?? ai?noo a
ainiiaea?nueei-oe?ii?e ? iia?/i?e (nieiia, noaaea oiui) /anoeiao
i?iaeoeoe??:

Vfoe = Af 1f lf ,

aea Vfoe — ai?no aia?a?? a ainiiaea?nueei-oe?ii?e /anoei? a?iaeath f-ii?
ei?iiai? eoeueoo?e, IAeae/aa; Af — ainiiaea?nueei-oe?iia /anoeia
a?iaeath f-ii? eoeueoo?e, ea/aa; 1f — eiao?oe??io ia?aaiaeo i?iaeoeoe??
a nooo ?a/iaeio; lf — ai?no caaaeueii? aia?a?? a 1 ea nooi? ?a/iaeie,
IAeae/ea.

Vf = Vfoe 2f ,

aea Vf — ai?no aia?a?? o caaaeueiiio a?iaea? f-ii? ei?iiai? eoeueoo?e
(c o?aooaaiiyi iia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??), IAeae/aa; 2f- eiao?oe??io aeoiaeo
iia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??.

Eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a ?ic?aoiaaii
ca ae?acaie:

Voe V

1 = ; 2 = ,

A A

aea 1 — ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aia?a?? ainiiaea?nueei-oe?iii? /anoeie
a?iaeath (Voe) ? aeei?enoaii? noeoiii? aia?a?? (A) ia ae?iaieoeoai
ei?io; 2 — a?aeiioaiiy aia?a?? ainiiaea?nueei-oe?iii? /anoeie a?iaeath ?
iia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? (V) aei aeei?enoaii? noeoiii? aia?a?? (A).

E?eoa??? 1 ? 2 iieacothoue yeith i??ith aia?a?y, iaeiie/aia a o?iaea?,
ia?aaeuo? aia?a?th, aeeaaeaio a oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane ae?iuoaaiiy ?
cae?aiiy iaaii? eoeueoo?e. C aia?aaoe/iiai iiaeyaeo oaoiieia?y
aaaaea?oueny aoaeoeaiith, yeui ca ?ic?aooieiaiai ??aiy a?iaeaeiino?
caaacia/aii oiiao V>A ? >1.0, aea aeiionea?oueny ? oaea oiiaa: 1<1.0, a 2>1.0.

Aeyaeaiiy aia?aiiuaaeieo ??oaiue aaco?oueny ia aecia/ai? aia?aaoe/ieo
iieaciee?a (aeo?aoe noeoiii? aia?a?? ? aia?a??, iaeiie/aii? a o?iaea?)
aeueoa?iaoeaieo oaoiieia?e, ui a?ae??ciythoueny iiiaieeaoo?ith iniiaieo
? iai?ioieo cania?a, ioe?ioe? eiaeii? c ieo ca aoaeoeai?noth
aia?aaoe/iiai aeoiaeo. Oea aeicaiey? iaa?oioiaoaaoe iaeaoaeoeai?oo c
aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iiai iiaeyaeo oaoiieia?th.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aeiiii?/i? oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i? ?aca?ae
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeei?enoaiiy ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a”
aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee nenoaie “ae?iaieoeoai —
aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a” ? ia oe?e iniia? aecia/aii ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie. Ioe?iea iieacaea, ui iaenooo?a?oa /anoea aia?a?? o
ae?iaieoeoa? i?iaeoeoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa i?eiaaea? ia ei?ie — iiiaae 50 %
a neioa?noa? ? 60 % a naeia?noa?.

Ioaea, aieiaia oaaaa a aia?aiiuaaeaeaii? ae?iaieoeoaa oaa?eiieoeueei?
i?iaeoeoe?? iiaeiia i?eae?eyoeny ae?iaieoeoao ? aeei?enoaiith ei?i?a.
Ae?iaie/? aeo?aoe c ae?iuoaaiiy ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? ca iniiaieie
oaoiieia?/ieie eiiiiiaioaie, aeu? ii?iaoeaieo. Oea iia’ycaii a iniiaiiio
c aeei?enoaiiyi iaiioei?ciaaieo oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a ?
eiiieaeo?a iaoei, a oaeiae ia?aoe?iiaeueiei, c
i?aai?caoe?eii-aia?aaoe/iiai iiaeyaeo, aeei?enoaiiyi oaoi?ee. Aeineoue
cacia/eoe, ui aeo?aoe ??aeeiai iaeeaa o ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa ae?iuoaaiiy
ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? ia 16 — 35 % aeu? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ii?iaoea?a.
Aiaeia?/ii i?aeaeuai? ieoii? aeo?aoe c?a/aaeaii? a iaoeiao ? iaeaaeiaii?
aia?a??. A ?acoeueoao? ieoii? noeoii? aeo?aoe aia?a?? ia ae?iuoaaiiy
??cieo ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? caeeoathoueny aenieeie: 21.9-85.1 AAeae/aa.

Iniiaia ieoiia aaaa aeo?ao noeoiii? aia?a?? ia ae?iuoaaiiy ei?iiaeo

Oaaeeoey 2

Aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iuoaaiiy

ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? a ENI “Iaye” C?iuee?anueeiai ?aeiio

Nia?aa?-o?noue iniia-

Aia?ai-Aia?aa-oe/ia oe?i- Aia?aaoe/iee eiao?oe??ioAia?ai-?ii?noue

N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?

eoeueoo?eii? oa ii-a?/ii? i?i-aeoeoe??, (a ni?ano. oe?-iao 1996 ?.,
a?i./o)?ii?noue iniiaii? oa iia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? IAeae/ei?i.

iae.i?noue in-iiaii? oa iia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??, IAeae/ei?i. iae.iniia-ii?
oa iia?/-ii? i?i-aeoeoe??ia?a-o?aa-iiai i?i-oa?ioia?a-o?aaii-ai
i?i-oa?io*/, IAeae/eaIceia ioaieoey ia ca?ii49.4 8.429.43.50.3
94.7ss/i?iue61.9 9.124.22.70.2140.8Iaan69.010.229.02.80.2132.6Eoeo?oaeca
ia ca?ii40.8 15.0 23.41.60.7 35.7Ai?io60.212.020.61.70.3
80.9Niy80.517.719.61.10.3 89.8Ei?iia? ao?yee120.610.531.73.00.3
82.1Ii?eaa477.9 5.722.54.00.3
80.6Aaooaii?167.139.818.20.50.04597.5Eaionoa ei?iiaa300.010.731.52.90.3
82.1Aaaaoi??/i? o?aae ia n?ii77.918.615.30.80.3 70.9Iceia ioaieoey ia
caeaiee ei?i

56.1

10.5

25.7

2.5

0.3

75.6 */ — aia?aaoe/ia oe?ii?noue ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io — 23.7
IAeae/ea

eoeueoo? ca ?nioth/eie oaoiieia?yie i?eiaaea? ia i?ia?aeuei? aeia?eaa ?
ianoeoeeaee — 3.3 — 14.9 % (c ieo acioi? aeia?eaa — 3.0 — 13.3), ian?iiy
(ca aeiyoeii eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii, ei?iiaeo ao?ye?a, ii?eae ?
aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa) — 8.4 — 62.5, ??aeea iaeeai — 23.7 — 51.5 ? iaoeie —
4.3-21.7%. Iecueea a?iaeaei?noue ca a?aeiinii aenieeo aia?aiaeo?ao ia 1
aa iin?a?a iaoiiaeea ?o aenieo oaoiieia?/io aia?ai?ii?noue: a?ae 5.7
IAeae/ei?i.iae. (ii?eaa) aei 39.8 IAeae/ei?i.iae. (aaooaii?). C
o?aooaaiiyi ai?noo aia?a?? iia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? aia?aaoe/iee eiao?oe??io
a?eueoino? ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? neeaaea? iiiaae 100%, a aaooaiieo eoeueoo?
? aaaaoi-??/ieo o?aa ia n?ii — aei 100% (oaae. 2).

Aia?aaoe/iee eiao?oe??io a?eea eieeaa?oueny a?ae 4 % (aaooaii?) aei 66
% (eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii), ui a 2 — 3.5 ?ace ieae/a iioaioe?eii iiaeeeaiai
??aiy. Ae?iaieoeoai aaooaiieo eoeueoo? ca ?nioth/ith oaoiieia??th c
aia?aaoe/ieo iiceoe?e iaaea?aeia, ai ia? iaeieae/ee aia?aaoe/iee
eiao?oe??io iiaeeaiino? (46 %) ? a?eea (4 %). Aaaeeea?oee iai?yiie ?o
iie?ioaiiy-i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino? oeyoii iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia??,
cie?aia, nenoaie aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea. Ae?iaieoeoai o?aa ia caeaiee ei?i
ia? aeineoue aenieee aia?aaoe/iee eiao?oe??io iiaeeaiino? (245 %) ?
a?eea (30 %). Ia?a?iaea aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ia n?ii caa??aa? eiao?oe??io
a?eea iaeaea ia oiio ae ??ai?. Aea i?e oeueiio cieaeo?oueny aia?aaoe/iee
eiao?oe??io iiaeeaiino? o 3 ?ace /a?ac nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy aia?aiaeo?ao
ia ia?a?iaeo.

Cia/i? aia?aiaeo?aoe ca a?aeiinii iecueei? o?iaeaeiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? iaoiiaeee aenieo ?o nia?aa?o?noue
(40.8 — 478.0 a?i. 1 o ei?i.iae.). sseui a?aooaaoe o ?ac? aeei?enoaiiy
a?iaeath ia ei?iia? oe?e?, ? aeo?aoe ia i?aeaioiaeo ei?i?a aei
caiaeiaoaaiiy, oi nia?aa?o?noue ei?i?a c?inoa ia 20 — 35 %, a
i?i?iaeueia nia?aa?o?noue 1 o ei?i.iae. neeaaea 83 — 1033 a?i., aai
cia/ii ia?aaeueoue ii?iaoea aeey eiieo?aioicaeaoiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeo?a oaa?eiieoeoaa (50 — 110 a?i.). Oiio aaaeeea?oiai cia/aiiy
iaaoaa? aeyaeaiiy ? inai?iiy ?aca?a?a cieaeaiiy aia?ai?iiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a.

Iaeaeu? noeoii? aeo?aoe aia?a?? i?eiaaeathoue ia iaaaioaaeaiiy,
i?eaiooaaiiy ? ?icaeaaaiiy ei?aiaieiae?a (1410.3 IAeae/o),
eiioeaio?iaaieo ei?i?a (877.2 IAeae/o), iaoiee (763.9 IAeae/o), /a?ac
cia/i? aeo?aoe ?o/ii? i?aoe?, a o ?ac? i?eaiooaaiiy eiioeaio?iaaieo
ei?i?a — aeaeo?iaia?a?? (59.1%). Cia/ia /anoea aeo?ao aia?a?? o ?ac?
iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?eaiooaaiiy ? ?icaeaaaiiy ?ioeo aeae?a ei?i?a i?eiaaea?
ia iaeeaii-ianoeeuei? iaoa??aee (nieiia — 63.3%, n?iaae — 72.3%, neein
eoeo?oaece — 70.7%, caeaia iana — 77.6%). Oiio naia ia oe? eiiiiiaioe
ne?ae caa?oaoe oaaao o i?ioean? aeyaeaiiy ?aca?a?a aia?aiiuaaeaeaiiy.

Na?aae iniiaieo ?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a a ia’?eo? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?eaii:

a?aoiaioiaaia ii?aeiaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ?aeiiiaaieo ni?o?a ei?iiaeo
eoeueoo?, ui aeicaiey? c ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe?? iioei?coaaoe eenoiao
iiaa?oith, caeaoio iiaeeiooe 85 — 90 % aeoeaii? ?aae?aoe?? oioineioaco
(OA?) ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeaiaio?a ei?aiaaiai aeeaeaiiy;

aia?ai?ii?noue i?aiee caeaaeeoue a?ae e?eueeino? ei?ion?a ieoaa
(ca?eueoaiiy ei?ion?a cieaeo? aia?ai?ii?noue ia 12.1 — 29.5 %); ??aiy
aia?aiiane/aiino? o?aeoi?a (c ?? i?aeaeuaiiyi aeo?aoe iaeueiiai
ca?eueoothoueny ia 5.1 — 20.5 %); oeio oiaeiai? nenoaie (iai?eeeaae,
O-150E aeo?a/a? ia 3 — 9 % iaeueiiai a?eueoa, i?ae O-150); a?ae ?iai/i?
oaeaeeino? iaoeii-o?aeoi?ieo aa?aaao?a — i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? ia
e?eiiao? iiiaae 6 ei/aiae. i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy ieoiiiai iii?o
a?oioo ia 1.5 — 5 % caeaaeii a?ae iane a?oioo, a eiaeai oeae a?aenioie
coiiaeth? i?e??no aia?ai?iiino? i?aiee ia 0.4 — 0.6 %) (oaae. 3);

aenieo aia?aaoe/io aoaeoeai?noue ia? i?i?iaeueiee oa ioeueiaee
ia?ia?oie a?oioo. Ioe?iea ieinei??ciiai ia?ia?oeo oa a?aeaaeueii? i?aiee
iieacaea, ui i?iaeoeoeai?noue aa?aaao?a ca ieinei??ciiai ia?ia?oeo
c?inoa? o 1.5 ?ace, aeo?aoe i?aoe? oa iaeeaa ciaioothoueny ia 60 ? 40%;

aenieee aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iee aoaeo caaacia/o? ii?aoethaaiiy oa
inai?iiy caoiae?a iuaaeeeaiai aeei?enoaiiy aia?a??, o?a/aaeaii? a
iaoeiao, o ?ac? iioei?caoe?? a?ao?e?a, ia?o?oo?a oa ?aaeei?a
iaoeiiei?enooaaiiy, eiiieaeo?a iaoei, oaoiieia?e oa i?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
?ia?o, ui aeeeth/athoue iiaoi?i? iia?aoe??;

Oaaeeoey 3

Caeaaei?noue aeo?ao iaeueiiai ia i?aieo a?ae ieoiiiai iii?o ?iai/eo
iaoei

EeanIeoiieeAeo?aoe iaeueiiai i?e i?aioe? ieoaaie, %a?oiooii??,
%6-ei?ioniei5-ei?ioniei4-ei?ioniei2100.0100.0100.0100.03115.4109.6100.21
07.04130.6117.4116.8114.75146.2127.8126.9122.16161.5136.5134.5128.77176.
9148.7142.0133.1 c iaoith ??aiii??iiai aeei?enoaiiy aia?a??, nei?i/aiiy
e?euee?niiai neeaaeo oaoi?ee ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o ?ac? ae?iuoaaiiy
aeae?eueeio ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?, ne?ae iioei?coaaoe ei?iiaee eiiaaea? ca
iaoo?aeueieie, aa?o?nieie ? aia?aaoe/ieie iieacieeaie c a?aooaaiiyi
/aniaiai /eiieea aeei?enoaiiy aia?a??;

iaiao?aeia oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia ii?aoethaaiiy aia?aiiuaaeieo
oaoiieia?e ia iniia? iioei?caoe?? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ia?aeueieo ?
i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea, i???iooth/enue ia oa, ui i?aai?/i? aeia?eaa
caaacia/othoue ia iaioa i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?, i?ae
i?ia?aeuei?. Aea aeo?aoe aia?a?? ia ae?iaieoeoai i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea o
10 — 80 ?ac?a (caeaaeii a?ae aeaeo) aeu? i?ae aiith (oaa?aeiai aiith —
0.42 AAeae/o, eae?th — 9.21; oinoi?o — 13.55, acioo — 82.89 AAeae/o);

ii?aoethaaiiy ? iiaioaaiiy ?ioaa?iaaieo iaoiae?a (aa?ioaoi?/i?, o?i?/i?
? a?ieia?/i?) caoenoo iin?a?a a?ae oe?aeiee?a, oai?ia, ao?’yi?a,
aeicaieythoue ciaioeoe aeo?aoe aa?a?oeeae?a, ?inaeoeoeeae?a,
ianoeoeeae?a, ooiaeoeeae?a, aia?ai?ii?noue yeeo ia 2 — 3 ii?yaeee aeua,
ii??aiyii c a?ii?aia?aoaie.

Aaaeeea?oeie ?aca?aaie i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
caaio?ae?, caa??aaiiy ? i?eaiooaaiiy ei?i?a a ia’?eo? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

o ?ac? caaio?ae? ei?i?a (neein, n?iaae, ooo/ii aenooai? ei?ie)
iaeaia?ai?ii?oith oaoiieia?/iith iia?aoe??th ? iiae??aiaiiy neioaii?
iane. Ieoii? aeo?aoe aia?a?? i?e oeueiio cai?ioiuei i?iii?oe?ei?
aeiaaeei? ??cee, a i?iaeoeoeai?noue neeinicae?aeueieo eiiaaei?a — i?yii
i?iii?oe?eia. C iaoith cieaeaiiy aia?ai?iiino? oa iie?ioaiiy
iiae??aiaiiy ?ineeiieo ei?i?a iaiao?aeii oaeineiiaeeoe ia?aiao?e
iiae??aithth/iai aia?aoo, ?iai/eo i?aai?a (iiae?a), i?ioean
iiae??aiaiiy, iioei?coaaoe aeiaaeeio ??cee c i???ioaoe??th ia
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? ? iiaeeaiino? ei?i?a;

c iaoith iineaaeaiiy caeaaeiino? noo?iiy n?ia a?ae iiaiaeieo oiia ?
cieaeaiiy ao?ao a?iaeath o i?ioean? caaio?ae? oe?iei ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe
niiniae i?anoaaiiy c aeinooeith aeoeaiei aaioeethaaiiyi, aeei?enoaiiyi
niiy/ii? aia?a?? (eieaeoi?e niiy/ii? aia?a?? aeey i?ae?a??aaiiy iia?o?y
ia aeinoooe? n?ia — caa??aa? 25 — 50 % aia?a??);

o ?ac? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea caaacia/o?oueny iiceoeaiee aia?aaoe/iee
aaeain ca noia?ieo aeo?ao 2.5 IAeae aia?a?? (yeiae/eie — 1.5 IAeae) ia
ae?iuoaaiiy, caaio?aeth, caa??aaiiy oa i?aeaioiaeo caiaeiaoaaiiy iaei???
ei?iiai? iaeeieoe? ei?io (oaoiieia?? caaio?ae? n?ia iieueiaiai noo?iiy;
aieiaiai n?ia o ?ac? caa??aaii? a o?aioayo; aeoeaiiai aaioeethaaiiy aac
i?ae?a??aaiiy iia?o?y; caaio?ae? n?iaaeo ? ??cieo aeae?a neeino aac
o?i?/ieo eiina?aaio?a) (oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4

Aeo?aoe aia?a?? ca ??cieo oaoiieia?e caaio?ae? neeino, n?iaaeo oa n?ia

Aeo?ae c 1 aa, oeAeo?aoeAeo?aoe

Aeaee ei?ioAo?aoe nooi? ?a/iaeie, %nooi? ?a/i-aeieei?i.
iaee-ieoeueaia?a?? ia caaio?aeth, IAeae/aaaia?a?? ia caaio?aeth ei?i.
iae. ei?io, IAeaeNeein eoeo?oaece156451.122730.44Neein eoeo?oaece + 4
ea/o na/iaeie ? 3 ea/o eiina?aaioo — io-?aoeii? eeneioe

10

67

54

15073

2.79Neein c aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, aieia?noue aei 80 %

20

40

32

2273

0.71N?iaae1542.535.016500.47N?ii iieueiaiai noo?iiy (?icneiia)

35

32.5

23.1

1291

0.56N?ii aeoeaiiai aaioeethaaiiy:

ia i?ae?a??oei iia?o?yi

i?ae?a??oei iia?o?yi

23

15

38.5

42.5

31.2

35.2

3217

10221

1.03

2.90N?ii iiae??aiaia, aieia?noth 22-28% o ?ac? caa??aaiiy a o?aioayo

25

37.5

28.1

1439

0.51

O?aa’yia n?/ea746.539.58044420.36

Iaeaia?ai?ii?oith ? aei?iaith oaoiieia?/iith iia?aoe??th caaio?ae?
ei?i?a ? ooo/ia noo?iiy iiae??aiaieo caeaieo ?ineei. Iiia?aaei?
i?ia’yeaiiy ? iethuaiiy neioaieo ?ineei aeicaiey? ciaioeoe ai?no aieiae
ia?aae noo?iiyi ? cieceoe ia 20 — 30 % aeo?aoe iaeeaa.

Iniiaieie iai?yieaie oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? noo?iiy, ye? aeicaieyoue
ciaioeoe aeo?aoe ??aeeiai iaeeaa, ? ooee?caoe?y noai?iaeoeo?a ?
a?aeoiae?a c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy aia?a??, aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco,
aoa?eey oa ?ioeo a?aeiinii aeaoaaoeo aeae?a iaeeaa, ii?aoethaaiiy
eiino?oeoe?e nooa?ie, ui caiuaaeaeothoue aeei?enoaiiy oaieiai? aia?a??.

Iaaeio?eiaiiy ii?iaoeaieo aeiia uiaei caa??aaiiy ei?i?a i?ecaiaeeoue
aei cieaeaiiy ?o iiaeeaii? oe?iiino?, a cia/eoue ? ieoiieo ao?ao
aia?a??. Neein aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueii caa??aaoe a eai?oaeueieo o?aioayo,
ai a ao?oao ao?a/a?oueny a?ey 50 % iiaeeaieo eiiiiiaio?a i?ioe 10 — 25 %
a o?aioayo. Iaiao?aeii iioei?coaaoe ? oei iie?eooy: iaiie?eoee neein a
eai?oaeueieo o?aioayo ao?a/a? 30 % iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, iie?eoee nieiiith
— 22 %, caieath — 16 %, a iie?ia?iith ie?aeith — aei 8 %.

Aaaeeea?oei aniaeoii aia?aiiuaaeaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??
oaa?eiieoeoaa ? ii?aoethaaiiy aia?aicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e i?eaiooaaiiy
ei?i?a, ui iiaeeia? 25 — 30% noeoiieo aeo?ao aia?a?? o ae?iaieoeoa?
ei?i?a.

Na?aae 3 ioe?iaieo aa??aio?a oaoiieia?e i?eaiooaaiiy ? ?icaeaaaiiy
ei?i?a (1 — ?icae?eueia ?icaeaaaiiy eiiiiiaio?a ca aeiiiiiaith EOO-10A;
2 — ei?ii?icaeaaa/a-ci?ooaa/a ?NI-10; 3 — i?eaiooaaiiy ei?iinoi?oee a
ei?iioeaoo (OI 801-461) ? ?icaeaaaiiy EOO-10A) iaeaoaeoeai?oith c
aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iiai iiaeyaeo aeyaeeany oaoiieia?y ci?ooaaiiy ?
?icaeaaaiiy ei?i?a ca aeiiiiiaith ?NI-10 + o?aeoi? IOC-80, ine?eueee
aiia ia? iaeaeuee aia?aaoe/iee eiao?oe??io 220%, a oaa?eie io?eiothoue
iiaii?aoe?iiio ei?iinoi?oeo, ui i?aeaeuo? ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia 12 — 14
%.

Aaaeeeaei iai?yieii inai?iiy iaeiaia?ai?iieo ? aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaieo
oaoiieia?e i?eaiooaaiiy ca?ia ne?ae aaaaeaoe iiae??aiaiiy, aia?aaoe/iee
eiao?oe??io neeaaea? 116.8 %, ui aeua ii??aiyii c iethuaiiyi ia 16.4 ?
i?eaiooaaiiyi eiia?ei?io — ia 21.7 %, a aa?o?ni? aeo?aoe o ?ic?aooieo
ia 1000 o ieae/? ia 2.81 ? 6.77 oen.a?i.

Eiiieaeniee aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/iee aiae?c ae?iaieoeoaa ??cieo ei?i?a
na?ae/eoue, ui iaeaoaeoeai?oeie ? caeai? ei?ie ? a?aeoiaee ca?iiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa (nieiia eieiniaeo ca?iiaeo, noo? noaaea eoeo?oaece oiui).
Nia?aa?o?noue 1 o ei?i.iae. ? ?o aia?aaoe/iee eiao?oe??io neeaaea? 32.8
— 6.8 a?i. ? 295 — 1400 %. Aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe oaeiae neein,
n?iaae, i?aniaaia n?ii. A?aoiaoth/e oeae oaeo, iniaeeai? oaaae iaaoaa?
ii?aoethaaiiy ? ao?eaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai oaoiieia?e, ui i?aeaeuothoue
iiaeeaio oe?ii?noue ei?i?a, ui aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue:

iiaioaaiiy no/anieo nenoai ioe?iee iiaeeaiino? ei?i?a ? ii?ioaaiiy
aiaeoaaiiy oaa?ei ca iai?iiith aia?a??th, ui aaco?oueny ia aia?aaoe/i?e
ei?iia?e iaeeieoe? a aeaeioeyo (AEIAe) ? ia? ia?aaaae aeinooiiino?
i?yiiai aei??thaaiiy, a oie /an ye ioe?iea a a?anyieo iaeeieoeyo (iaooi
aia?a?? aee?iaeae?eaiiy) cae?enith?oueny ?ic?aooieiai ca aeei?enoaiiy
eiao?oe??io?a, iaea?aeaieo o aaeainiaeo aeine?aeao c canoinoaaiiyi
?ani??aoe?eiiai iaeaaeiaiiy ? ia a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei aeiiaai, ia iiaea
aooe canoiniaaia aeey oaa?ei ??cieo aeae?a ? iai?yie?a i?iaeoeoeaiino?,
a no/ania aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe caaeainoaaiiy ?aoe?ii?a noiniaii aeae?a
oaa?ei, caaacia/o? cieaeaiiy ieoiieo aeo?ao, iai?eeeaae, eiioeaio?iaaieo
ei?i?a ia 10 — 15%.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy aiaeoaaiiy oaa?ei ia?aaeaa/a? iioei?ciaaia ii?aeiaiiy
ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a. Iaaeeeoie yeiainue /eiieea aiae?ae?, eiee ?io? a
i?i?ioi?, ia aea? iiceoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo, ai aiaeoaaiiy oaa?ei
i?aeaeuaieie ii?iaie, aea ia caaeainiaaieie i?ecaiaeeoue aei ao?aoe 35 %
iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei.

?aca?aii i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
ei?i?a a neioa?noa? ? ciaioaiiy ieoiii? aaae eiioeaio?ao?a ? i?aeaeuaiiy
ieoiii? aaae a?oaeo ? nieiaeoeo a ?aoe?ii?, ine?eueee aeniea /anoea
eiioeaio?ao?a ia caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a ca
eaeoaoe?th. Ae??aei /eiieeii aia?aiiuaaeaeaiiy ? aeniea ieoiia aaaa ?
ye?noue ia’?ienoeo ei?i?a. E?euee?noue eiioeei?i?a (1 — 13 ea) a
?aoe?ii? caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a, ieie iaiao?aeii
aeiiiaithaaoe ?aoe?iie ca aia?a??th, i?ioa?iii, aoaeaaiaeaie ? oinoi?ii.
C aeiiii?/iiai iiaeyaeo aeioe?euei?noue oaeiai aeniiaeo iiynith?oueny o
2.5 ?ace aeuith nia?aa?o?noth ei?iiai? iaeeieoe? eiioeaio?ao?a ii??aiyii
c ia’?ienoeie ei?iaie. Aea iaiao?aeiith oiiaith i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??
oaeiai oaeoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo ? aeniea ye?noue ia’?ienoeo ei?i?a, ui
aeinyaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeo i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e,
iaeiaia?ai?iieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a aenieiye?nii? caaio?ae? a iioeiaeuei?
oa?i?ie, ?o caa??aaiiy, ia?a?iaea, a oaeiae oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ii?
no?oeoo?e aa?oino? oaa?eiieoeueeeo ia’?eo?a a iai?yieo i?aeaeuaiiy
ieoiii? aaae ia’?eo?a caa??aaiiy ei?i?a (neeini-, n?iaaea-, n?iinoiaeu
oiui).

AENIIAEE

1. E?eciaee noai aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aecia/a? iia??oaiiy
?ano?niaeei?enoaiiy a AIE, cie?aia a oaa?eiieoeoa?, aecia/a?
caeoeia?noue aaeoc?, ui aeiaaa? iaiao?aeiino? iiaeeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeyaeaiiy ?aca?a?a ? oeyo?a i?i?i?caoe??
?ano?ni- ? aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?
oaa?eiieoeoaa. I?ae oei, /enaeuei? aniaeoe i?iaeaie aea/ai?
iaaeinoaoiuei /a?ac cia/io neeaaei?noue, iiaecio ? aaaaoia?aii?noue,
cie?aia iaaeinoaoiuei ii?aoeueiaai? i?aeoiaee aecia/aiiy aeo?ao noeoiii?
aia?a??, aia?ai?iiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, caaio?ae?, i?eaiooaaiiy,
?icaeaaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a, a oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy oeeo iieaciee?a
ye ?ino?oiaio?a iiooeo aia?aiiuaaeieo ??oaiue. Iaaeinoaoiy aea/ai?noue
i?iaeaie, aaaeeea?noue ?? aeey iaoee ? i?aeoeee aecia/athoue
iaiao?aei?noue ?? iiaeaeueoiai oai?aoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy. Aoaeoeai?noue
oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa aa?a?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? c iiaeyaeo aia?aaoeee ia
i?eaaaethaaea oaaae niaoe?ae?no?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?aeoe/ii
ia cae?eithaaeany iioei?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia
cieaeaiiy aia?i?iiino? aa?a?ii? i?iaeoeoe??. A ?acoeueoao? a Oe?a?i?
aia?ai?ii?noue ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa o 4 — 6 ?ac?a
aeua, ii??aiyii c aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiaieie e?a?iaie.

2. Na?aae aaaaoueio /eiiee?a, ye? coiiaeththoue aenieo aia?ai?ii?noue
i?iaeoeoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa, iniiaio /anoeo aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy (50 — 60 %)
caeiathoue ei?ie. Oiio iniiaia oaaaa o caaacia/aii? aia?aiiuaaeiiai
oaa?eiieoeoaa iiaeiia i?eae?eyoeny aeyaeaiith ?aca?a?a o nenoai?
“ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”.

3. I?ioean aia?aiiuaaeaeaiiy aeiaaa? iayaiino? ae/a?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??
uiaei /eiiee?a, ye? oi?iothoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/io,
aeiiii?ei-i?aai?caoe?eio ? oaoiieia?/io aaco nenoaie “ae?iaieoeoai —
aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”. Io?eiaiiy oe??? ?ioi?iaoe?? oneeaaeith?oueny
?ioeyoe?eieie i?ioeanaie ? a?aenooi?noth ia?eoaoo oe?i ia aa?a?io ?
i?iieneiao i?iaeoeoe?th. O oeeo oiiaao iaei?eeiyoi?oei iaoiaeii
iaaeaaiiy aeinoia??ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea nenoaie
“ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”.

4. Aia?aaoe/i? iieacieee a?aeia?aaeathoue ?aaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aeoioeueiaaii? o i?iaeoeoe?? oa aeo?a/aii? ia ia? aia?a??, ui aeicaiey?
ca aoaeue-yeeo aeiiii?/ieo oiia ei?aeoii a?aooaaoe ia eeoa i?yi? aeo?aoe
aia?a?? ia oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe??, a e aia?a?th, o?a/aaeaio o caniaao
ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?iaeoeoe??. Oea aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue
aeueoa?iaoeaieo i?aeoiae?a o nenoai? “ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy
ei?i?a”, ii??aiyoe ?o c iiaeyaeo aeo?ao noeoiii? aia?a?? ? aecia/eoe
oeyoe ?? caiuaaeaeaiiy. Oiio, aeciath/e cia/ei?noue ? ei?eni?noue
o?aaeeoe?eieo aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeo?ao ? a?aeaea/?
noeoiii? i?aoe?, ia-yaia iaiao?aei?noue ?o iiaeaeueoiai oaeineiiaeaiiy
ia iniia? ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy aia?a??.

5. Aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea cae?enith?oueny ca iieacieeaie, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ia’?eo, oaoiieia?th, oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ? e?ioeaaee
i?iaeoeo — caaaeuei? aeo?aoe aia?a?? a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoo
(aia?ai?ii?noue), aia?aia?aeaea/a (aia?aaoe/ia oe?ii?noue) ?
aia?aaoe/iee eiao?oe??io ei?enii? ae?? (AEEAe) oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano.

6. Nooi?noue i?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee iieyaa? o aecia/aii? aia?aaoe/iiai
eiao?oe??ioa () /a?ac ni?aa?aeiioaiy aeoioeueiaaii? o e?ioeaa?e
i?iaeoeoe?? oa aeo?a/aii? ia ia? aia?a??. Oaoiieia?y aaaaea?oueny
aoaeoeaiith, yeui caaacia/o?oueny oiiaa > 1.0.

7. Aeyaeaiiy aia?aiiuaaeieo ??oaiue aaco?oueny ia aecia/aii?
aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a aeueoa?iaoeaieo oaoiieia?e, ui a?ae??ciythoueny
iiiaieeaoo?ith iniiaieo ? iai?ioieo cania?a, ia ioe?ioe? eiaeii? c ieo
ca aeiiii?/iith ? aia?aaoe/iith aoaeoeai?noth. E??i oiai,
cae?enith?oueny aiae?c neeaaeiaeo noeoiii? aia?a??, caae?yii? o
i?ioean?, c iaoith iiooeo ua aoaeoeai?oeo i?eeii?a.

8. Aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea oaoiieia?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aaco?oueny ia nenoai? i?eioeei?a: iaaea?aaeaioi?noue
aia?ainenoai, eieaeuei?noue ioe?iee, aeeeth/aiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a,
a?aooaaiiy aeo?ao noeoiii? i?aoe?, oiiaiee aeenaaeain aia?ainenoaie,
ii??aiyeuei?noue oaoiieia?e, oe?eani?yiiaai?noue ioe?iee, aeiiii?/i?noue
aia?ainenoaie.

9. Aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a a ia’?eo? aeine?aeaeaiiy
na?ae/eoue, ui c aia?aaoe/iiai iiaeyaeo oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane
ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a ia ? aia?aicaa??aath/eie — 1 < 1 (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aia?a?? ainiiaea?nueei-oe?iii? /an-oeie a?iaeath ? aeei?enoaii? noeoiii? aia?a??). Aea, a?aoiaoth/e oa, ui 2 > 1 (a?aeiioaiiy aia?a??
ainiiaea?nueei-oe?iii? /anoeie a?iaeath ? iia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? aei
aeei?enoaii? noeoiii?) aiie ? aia?aiaoaeoeaieie (e??i aaooaiieo ?
aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ia n?ii). Noeoii? aeo?aoe aia?a?? ia ae?iuoaaiiy
??cieo ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?, ca ?nioth/eie a ainiiaea?noa? oaoiieia?yie,
caeeoathoueny aenieeie (21.9 — 85.1 AAeae/aa), aiane?aeie ia?o ca ana
ia?aaeo?ao ??aeeiai iaeeaa ia 16 — 35 % a?aeiinii iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo
ii?iaoea?a, i?aeaeuaieo ieoiieo aeo?ao c?a/aaeaii? a iaoeiao ?
iaeaaeiaii? aia?a?? oiui.

10. Aeey cieaeaiiy aia?ai?iiino? oaa?eiieoeueei? i?iaeoeoe?? iaiao?aeia
eiiieaenia iia?e?caoe?y oaoi?/ieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo, aeiiii?/ieo ?
nioe?aeueieo /eiiee?a, ?aae?caoe?y an?o ?aca?a?a, ?nioth/eo a AIE,
eiaeiiio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio i?aei?e?inoa? ? ia ?iai/iio i?noe?.

11. Aeei?enoaiiy aeyaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?aca?a?a aeicaieeoue
o ae?iaieoeoa? ei?i?a caiuaaeeoe 25 %, caaio?ae? 22 %, caa??aaii? 20 %,
i?eaiooaaii? 15 %, aeei?enoaii? 18 %, caaaeueia aia?ai?ii?noue nenoaie
“ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a” ciaioeoueny ia 20 %.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. A?eoei A.A. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoa?,
caaio?ae? ? aeei?enoaii? ei?i?a.- Iieoaaa: Eaiaeio, 1999.- 37 n.

2. A?eoei A.A. Aoceia? i?iaeaie ?aa?iiaeueiiai aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy //
?aa?iiaeuei? ia?niaeoeae.- 1998.- ? 1 (2).- N. 40-43.

3. A?eoei A.A. ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a // Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea, oaoi?ea,
ae?iaieoeoai.- 1999.- ? 3 — 4.- N. 19-20.

4. A?eoei A.A. ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
caaio?ae?, caa??aaiiy ? i?eaiooaaiiy ei?i?a // Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea,
oaoi?ea, ae?iaieoeoai.- 1999.- ? 5 — 6.- N. 15-16.

5. A?eoei A.A. Oeyoe cieaeaiiy aia?aiaeo?ao o ei?iiae?iaieoeoa?: Ca.
iaoe.i?. IAeNA?.- Iieoaaa: Iie?a?ao, 1997.- N. 161-166.

6. A?eoei A.A. Nooi?noue ? cia/aiiy a?iaia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee ei?iiaeo
?ano?n?a: Ca. iaoe.i?. IAeNA?- Iieoaaa: Iie?a?ao, 1997.- N. 166-169.

7. A?eoei A.A. ?aca?ae ?ano?niiuaaeaeaiiy oeyoii oaoi?/iiai
ia?aica?i?iiy ? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo ia’?eo?a // I?eaei?i?ianueeee
iaoeiaee a?niee.- 1998.- ? 126 (193).- N. 94-100.

8. A?eoei A.A. Aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/i? aniaeoe ioe?iee ae?iaieoeoaa ?
aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a // A?niee Iieoaanueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
?inoeoooo.- 1999.- ? 2.- N. 37-40.

9. A?eoei A.A. Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea ?aca?a?a ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoa? ei?i?a // A?niee Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo.- 1999.- ? 3.- N. 44-46.

10. A?eoei A.A. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an ? aia?aiiuaaeia
ei?iiae?iaieoeoai // Iaoa??aee iae. Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiio.
“Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an — iniiaa caaacia/aiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ae?iaieoeoaa”. — Iieoaaa.- 1996.- N. 82-88.

11. A?eoei A.A. Oeyoe oaoi?/iiai ia?aica?i?iiy oa ?aeiino?oeoe?y
ei?iioeao?a i?aei?e?inoa Iieoaanueei? iaeano? // Iaoa??aee iae.
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiio. “Oaoi?/ia ia?aica?i?iiy ? ?aeiino?oeoe?y
ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae iaoa??aeueii? noa?e ae?iaieoeoaa — ia’?eoeaiee
iai?yiie i?ia?aneaiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee”.- Iieoaaa: Iieoaaa.- 1996.-
N. 58-62.

AIIOAOe??

A?eoei A.A. Aeiiii?/i? oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i? ?aca?ae
i?aeaeuaiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeei?enoaiiy
ei?i?a.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe

ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.02. — Aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
AIE.- Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.A.Aeieo/a?aa.
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi ?ano?ni- ? aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy o
nenoai? “ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a” (ia i?eeeaae? aa?a?ieo
i?aei?e?inoa Iieoaanueei? iaeano? — oeiiai? aeey ciie E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie). A aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeaii iiaee iai?yiie a aeiiii?oe?
“ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a”, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia nenoaiiiio ?
eiiieaeniiio aeei?enoaii? aeiiii?ei-aia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee oaoiieia?e,
oaoi?/ieo cania?a ? aioiai? i?iaeoeoe??. Iaa?oioiaaii ?aca?ae ? oeyoe
?ano?ni- ? aia?aiiuaaeaeaiiy a nenoai? “ae?iaieoeoai — aeei?enoaiiy
ei?i?a”.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aia?aaoeea, ?ano?niaeei?enoaiiy, aeiiii?ei —
aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea, aia?aaoe/i? aea?aaeaioe, ae?iaieoeoai ?
aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a, caiuaaeaeaiiy.

Gryshko V.V. Economical, organizational and technological reserves of
inresing energetical effectiveness of feeds’ production and using.- The
theses is a manuscript.

The theses is delivered for scientific degree of a Candidate of
Economic sciences, Speciality 08.07.02.- Economy of Agriculture and
AIC.- Kharkiv State Agrarian V.V.Dokuchayev University. Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to saving energy at the system of
“producing — using feeds” (at the example of agrarian enterprises of
the Poltava region — typical forest — steppe zone of Ukraine). A new
direction in economy “producing — using feeds” is elaborated which is
based on the system and complex using economic — energetic esimation of
technologies, techniques and production. There are grounded reserves and
ways of saving energy at the system of “producing — using feeds”.

Key words: energetics, resources’ utilization, economic-energetic
estimation, energetic equivalents, producing and using of feeds,
economy.

A?eoei A.A. Yeiiiie/aneea e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneea ?aca?au
iiauoaiey yia?aaoe/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey
ei?iia.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.02. — Yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e
AIE.- Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao ei.
A.A.Aeieo/aaaa. Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ?ano?ni- e yia?ainaa?aaeaiey a nenoaia
“i?iecaiaenoai — eniieueciaaiea ei?iia” (ia i?eia?a aa?a?iuo
i?aaei?eyoee Iieoaaneie iaeanoe — oeiiaie aeey ciiu Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu).
A aeenna?oaoeee ?acaeaaaony iiaia iai?aaeaiea a yeiiiieea nenoaiu
“i?iecaiaenoai — eniieueciaaiea ei?iia”, iniiaaiiia ia eiiieaeniii
eniieueciaaiee yeiiiieei-yia?aoe/aneie ioeaiee oaoiieiaee, oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

Yia?aaoe/aneay ioeaiea aace?oaony ia oieaa?naeueiii yia?aaoe/aneii
iieacaoaea (), eioi?ue io?aaeaao niioiioaiea aeeoioee?iaaiiie a
i?iaeoeoeee yia?aee e cao?a/aiiie ia aa i?iecaiaenoai. Yoi iicaieyao a
ethauo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo oi/ii iiaen/eoaoue ia oieueei i?yiua
cao?aou yia?aee ia oaoiieiae/aneea iia?aoeee, a e yia?aeth,
iaauanoaeaiioth a n?aaenoaao i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi iicaieyao
ioeaieoue yooaeoeaiinoue aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iiaeoiaeia a nenoaia
“i?iecaiaenoai — eniieueciaaiea ei?iia”, n?aaieoue eo ioiineoaeueii
cao?ao iauae yia?aee e ii?aaeaeeoue iooe aa yeiiiiee. Oaoiieiaey
n/eoaaony yooaeoeaiie, anee niaethaeaaony oneiaea > 1.0

A no?oeoo?a cao?ao niaieoiiie yia?aee ia i?iaeoeoeeth aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
iaeaieueooth /anoue (50 — 60 %) yia?aiiio?aaeaiey caieiatho cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai e eniieueciaaiea ei?iia. N yia?aaoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey
nouanoaothuea oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey
ei?iia ia yaeythony yia?ainaa?aaathueie.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie oiaiueoaiey cao?ao niaieoiiie yia?aee a
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiu: a?aoiaioe?iaaiiia eniieueciaaiea
?aeiie?iaaiiuo ni?oia ei?iiauo eoeueoo?; inaiaiea ia?ii?eyoee yeiiiiiiai
?anoiaeiaaiey oiieeaa e yia?aee, iaauanoaeaiiie a iaoeiao e
iai?iaeoaaiee; iioeiecaoeey ninoaaa eoeueoo? ei?iiaiai eiiaaea?a ii
noieiinoiui e yia?aaoe/aneei iieacaoaeyi n o/aoii oaeoi?a a?aiaie,
iiaeai? ei?iiauo eoeueoo? n ianiaiaaeathueie ai a?aiaie ?aai/eie
ia?eiaeaie; ?ac?aaioea e inaiaiea iaeiyia?aiaiiuo nenoai oaeia?aiee n
o/aoii iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaeneiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey iaaica, eiathuaai
yia?aiaieinoue ia ianeieueei ?aiaia ieaea, /ai ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey;
iioeiecaoeey niiniaia (eieaeueiue, eaioi/iue e ae?.) e aeic aianaiey
oaeia?aiee; aeaeueiaeoay ?ac?aaioea e inaiaiea eioaa?e?iaaiiuo iaoiaeia
(aa?ioaoie/aneeo, oeie/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo) caueou iinaaia io
a?aaeeoaeae, aieaciae, ni?iyeia, iicaieythueo oiaiueoeoue ?anoiae
ianoeoeeaeia, yia?aiaieinoue eioi?uo ia 2 — 3 ii?yaeea auoa, /ai
aeii?aia?aoia.

N?aaee ?aca?aia iiauoaiey yeiiiieei-yia?aaoe/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
caaioiaee e i?eaioiaeaiey ei?iia auaeaeaiu neaaeothuea: ioaeaaaoue
i?aeiouanoai oaoiieiaeyi caaioiaee naia iieaaie nooee, aeaaeiiai naia
i?e o?aiaiee a o?aioayo, caaioiaee naiaaea, ?aciuo aeaeia neeina aac
oeie/aneeo eiina?aaioia, i?e i?eaioiaeaiee e ?acaea/a ei?iia ioaeaaaoue
i?aaeii/oaiea iaeaieaa yia?aiyooaeoeaiui ei?ii?acaeao/eeai-nianeoaeyi
(oeia ?NI-10) a aa?aaaoa n o?aeoi?ii eeanna IOC-80.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaiyie iiauoaiey yeiiiieei-yia?aaoe/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey ei?iia ii?aaeaeaiu: i?aeoe/aneia inaiaiea nia?aiaiiie
nenoaiu ioeaiee ieoaoaeueiinoe ei?iia e ii?ie?iaaiey ei?ieaiey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aeeaioiuo ii iaiaiiie yia?aee, eioi?ay
iniiauaaaony ia yia?aaoe/aneie ei?iiaie aaeeieoea a aeaeioeyo (YEAAe);
iiauoaiea a no?oeoo?a ?aoeeiiia ei?ieaiey aeeaioiuo oaeaeueiiai aana
iaeiyia?aaoe/aneeo ei?iia n o/aoii iaania/aiey o?aaiaaiee ii eo
aeinoaoi/iie ieoaoaeueiinoe e aaeeiaie oeaiiinoe, a oii /enea caeaiuo
ei?iia, neeina, naiaaea, iooiaeia ca?iiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa; nie?auaiea
aei oeceieiae/anee iaiaoiaeeiie ii?iu aeiee eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ei?iia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yia?aaoeea, ?ano?ni- e yia?aieniieueciaaiea,
yeiiiieei-yia?aaoe/aneay ioeaiea, yia?aaoe/aneea yeaeaaeaiou,
i?iecaiaenoai e eniieueciaaiea ei?iia, yeiiiiey.

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? IAEAAeIINUeEEE A.A.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 16.04.99. Oi?iao 60 o 84/16 Oi.- ae?oe.
a?e. 1.3.

1.0 iae.- aeae. a?e. Oe?aae 120. Caiiaeaiiy 16.

Ae?eueieoey iia?aoeaiiai ae?oeo noaoenoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy Iieoaanueei?
iaeano?

i.Iieoaaa, aoe. Iooe?ia, 103

Похожие записи