IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?AAeA II AEA*AIITH I?IAeOEOEAIEO NEE OE?A?IE

OAeE 332.132:662.6

*OEA?AA ??EIA EINOssIOEI?AIA

AEIIII?*I? I?IAEAIE AEEI?ENOAIIss IAEEAA

A OE?A?I? OA ?? ?AA?IIAO

08.10.01 — ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee

? ?aa?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

E e ? a — 1 9 9 9

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aae? ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie

Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: N.?.Aei?iaoioeia /e.-ei?. IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?

aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: A.I.Oaaei?euaaa aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?, ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo

nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, caa.a?aeae?eii

A.I.*e?eei eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

I?i?noa?noai aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie,
caa.a?aeae?eii

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e i?iieneiaiai iioaioe?aeo

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 8 ea?oiy 1999 ?., i 11 aiae. 30 oa.

ia can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.160.01 a ?aae? ii
aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith 252032,
Ee?a-32, aoeueaa? O.Oaa/aiea, 60, 3 iiaa?o, cae cac?aeaiue

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?aaee ii aea/aiith
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith 252032, Ee?a-32,
aoeueaa? O.Oaa/aiea, 60

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 1 “ aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe
I.N.Eiaaeaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie ia?aaeeaa? aeeaieo nenoaiio e?eco, yea ioiieea
a?o/eciyia ae?iaieoeoai ? nioe?aeueio noa?o. Niaae ae?iaieoeoaa, ?iceaae
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo a?aeiinei, iayai?noue ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a,
cieaeaiiy ?aaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, ?icaeoie aa?oa?ieo iia?aoe?e,
?iciaae ainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a iaaaoeaii iicia/eeenue ia iieacieeao
?iaioe iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno. ?noioii oneeaaeieeiny
caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?ee iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieie ?ano?naie: cieceany
aeaeiaooie aoa?eey, iaooe, i?e?iaeiiai aaco, ciaioeeeny ianyae ia?a?iaee
iaooe ? ae?iaieoeoaa aeaeo?iaia?a??. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui iniiaiei
aeaniei aia?aiiin??i a Oe?a?i? ? aoa?eey, aaeain ia?aeiieo iaeeaieo
?ano?n?a o 1997 ?. ia 55% neeaaeaany c iaooe ? aaco, a iniiaiiio ca
?aooiie ?iii?oieo iinoaaie, i?e iayaiino? i?aeoe/ii iiiiiieueiiai
iinoa/aeueieea. A ca’yceo c ia?aoiaeii aei na?oiaeo oe?i, Oe?a?i?
aeiaiaeeoueny niea/oaaoe aaeee? noie a?ioae ca ?iii?o iaeeaa, ui ?
cia/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia aeiiii?eo aea?aeaae ? aieiaiei aeaea?aeii
aeao?oeeoo oi?a?aaeueii-ieao?aeiiai aaeaino.

E??i oiai, a ?aa?iiao e?a?ie i?ae aieeaii e?eciaeo yaeu neeaeiny
i?ioe??//y i?ae oa?eoi??aeueiei ?ici?uaiiyi ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae
aaaaoueio aaeocae i?iieneiaino? ? iio?aaith a ?o i?iaeoeoe?? ye a naiiio
?aa?ii?, oae ? a Oe?a?i?. A ?acoeueoao? a i?iieneiaino? ? cia/i?
iaaeiaaioaaeai? iiooaeiino? ? ia?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aaicee i?iaeoeoe??, a
oaeiae iaaoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy iaeeaa. Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a
aeiiii?oe? ni?e/eieeiny aei i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? aia?aaoe/iiai oaeoi?o o
ae??oaii? caaaeaiue iiaeaaaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
aeeooy ia?iaeo.

Oea iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo oeyo?a ?icaeoeo
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie ? aia?aicaaacia/aiiy aeiiii?ee,
ui iiaeeeai ae??oeoe o?eueee iath/e e?euee?ni? ioe?iee aca?iica’yceo
niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa ? aia?a?? c aeeiai?eith iae?i-oa i?e?iaeiiii?/ieo
iieaciee?a a ei?ioei-oa aeiaaino?ieia?e ia?niaeoea?.

I?iaeaiai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a
i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoueio a?aeiieo aeiiii?no?a Aeeiiaa I.I.,
Aiaiiieiaa I.O., Aenioeueei? A.O., Aeoeinueeiai I.I., Ai?aeiai I.A.,
Aei?iaoioeiaa N.?., Aeae/a ?.A., Aeoaiaeea A.N. E?eaeai?anueeiai A.I.,
Eaaaae?aa ?.I., Iaeaioue?aa E.I., Iaea?iaa A.A., I?ianoa A.A., Ieee
A.?., I???aoa?e? A.C., Noiey?iaa A.O., Oaaei?euaai? A.I., *e?eeia A.I.
oa ?i.

O ca’yceo c ?icaaeii N?N? ? i?iaieioaiiyi Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino? oa
ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee aeieeee iia? i?iaeaie
aia?aicaaacia/aiiy ? aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, ye? iia’ycaii? ia eeoa c
i?aeoe/iith i?aai?caoe??th ae??oaiiy oeeo i?iaeai, aea e c ?o
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iei iaa?oiooaaiiyi. Cie?aia, iinoaea i?iaeaia
?aoe?iiae?c?oe?? iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy, ?ic?iaee i?iaiiciiai
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino Oe?a?ie oa eiai aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee. Ana
oea e coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aecia/eei iaoo ?
caaaeaiiy, no?oeoo?o oa ci?no aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c iaeiei c iniiaieo iai?yi?a
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ?aaee ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie ii ae??oaiith iioi/ieo ? ia?niaeoeaieo i?iaeai
aia?aicaaacia/aiiy aaeocae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a; aeeiiaiiyi
a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?e?a oaie 3.1.5 “I?iaiic ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie ia 2001-2010 ?.” /eiiieaenia ooiaeaiaioaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy/ oa oaie 3.1.5. “Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai
iioaioe?aeo ? ia?niaeoea aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie
/?aa?iiaeueiee ?ic??c/. Aeeiiothoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaiiae
A?aeae?eaiiy aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo ?
i?aeoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a o aeine?aeaeaii? niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo
?ano?n?a oa i?iaiicoaaiiy iio?aae a iaeea? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? ia oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaea i?iaiiciiai
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino oa ioe?iea eiai aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei cacia/aii? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy :

— aecia/eoe nenoaio iieaciee?a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ??ci? aniaeoe
i?ioeano iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy ? iaoiaeeeo ?o ?ic?aooie?a;

— cae?enieoe iioaeoi?iee aiae?c ianya?a aeei?enoaiiy iaeeaa a Oe?a?i?
ca 1991-1996 ??.;

— aeyaeoe aieea ia ianya ? no?oeoo?o iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy a i?iieneiaino?
no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue oa oaoiieia?/ieo ci?i;

— iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaee i?iaiicoaaiiy iio?aae a iaeea? aaeocae
aeiiii?ee a caeaaeiino? a?ae /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo i?iaiicoaaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeoe ia iniia? aecia/aiiy ia?niaeoea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo e?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a i?iaiiciee iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iee aaeain
Oe?a?ie ? aeaoe aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo eiai aoaeoeaiino?.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — eiiieaenia nenoaia ae?iaieoeoaa ? niiaeeaaiiy
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo aia?aiiin??a oa
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oe??? noa?e.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ia ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aoe?
a/aieo c ieoaiue oai??? ? iaoiaeeee aiae?co ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee,
aia?aaoeee ? aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy, aeinyaiaiiy a?o/eciyiii? iaoeiai? aeoiee
c i?iaeai iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. I?e ae??oaii? iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue canoiniaoaaeenue
oae? iaoiaee, ye nenoaiiee aiae?c, oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a,
aaeainiaee, noaoenoe/i? ii??aiyiiy, oiui. O aeine?aeaeaii? aoee
aeei?enoai?: Eiioeaioe?y aea?aeaaii? ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
(iaae?neaia Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee 8.07.98,
?57-2135/4), Iaoe?iiaeueia aia?aaoe/ia i?ia?aia Oe?a?ie aei 2010 ?.
(IAI) (Iinoaiiaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ?191/96-A? a?ae 15.05.1996),
Eiiieaenia aea?aeaaia i?ia?aia aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy Oe?a?ie (Iinoaiiaa
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ?911 a?ae 15.10.95), aaeocaaa i?ia?aia
“Aoa?eey”(Iinoaiiaa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ?141 a?ae 2.03.94) oa
?io? caeiiiaeaa/? ? ii?iaoeai? aeoe ii aia?aicaaacia/aiith e?a?ie,
noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee ? aia?aaoeee, iaoeia? i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo
c oeeo i?iaeai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a
ianooiiiio:

— oaeineiiaeaii iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iio?aae a iaeea?
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie oa ?? aaeocae a oiiaao i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? aa?o?nieo
/eiiee?a o ae?iaieoeoa? i?iaeoeoe?? ? iineoa, ci?ie oi?i aeaniino? oa
cia/iiai iineaaeaiiy aieeao aea?aeaae ia ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue
i?aei?e?inoa;

— aecia/ai? /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ??ai?a oa no?oeoo?o
niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa, i?iaaaeaii ?o a?oioaaiiy ? ?aiaeoaaiiy, aeyaeaii
caeaaeiino?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?o e?euee?niee aieea ia
iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy, aeaia ioe?iea ?ie? aeiiii?/ieo ? i?aai?caoe?eieo
oaeoi??a a aeoea?caoe?? aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy
ni?eyoeeaiai aeiiii?/iiai ee?iaoo;

— anoaiiaeaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy oeo aai ?ioeo iaoiae?a
i?iaiicoaaiiy iio?aae a iaeea?, aeaia ?o ioe?iea a caeaaeiino? a?ae
ia’?eoa i?iaiicoaaiiy ? /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo, iaa?oioiaaia
i??i?eoaoi?noue aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy, ye iaoiaee
i?yiiai ?aooieo, aaeainiaee ? no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue, iaeiiai?oa
caaacia/aieo noaoenoe/iith ca?oi?noth;

— caaaa/aii iaoiae i?yiiai ?aooieo oeyoii cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aeiaeaoeiaiai ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co iaeeaii?noeino? aaeiaiai
aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo ? i?iaeoeoe?? i?iieneiaino? a i?iaiiciiio ?
aaciaiio ia??iaeao, ni?anoaaeaiiy oaii?a ci?ie iio?aae a iaeea? ?
aeeiai?ee caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a;

— oaeineiiaeaii i?iaiicoaaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oiai /eiieea aecia/aiiy
iio?aae a iaeea? ii iaoiaeo i?yiiai ?aooieo — ieoiieo aeo?ao iaeeaa c
o?aooaaiiyi aieeao no?oeoo?ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo ci?i ia iaeeaii?noe?noue
i?iaeoeoe?? o??? /e ?ioi? aaeoc? i?iieneiaino?;

— iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ae?noaa iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae aei
?aoe?iiae?caoe?? ?iciiae?eo iaeeaa a oiiaao aeao?oeeoo, caniiaaiee ia
aeei?enoaii? ieoiiiai niiaeeaaiiy oiai aai ?ioiai aeaeo iaeeaa a
?ao?iniaeoeaiiio ia??iae? c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao aa?o?niiai /eiieea ia
eiai aoaeoeai?noue o ia?niaeoea? ? cai?iiiiiaaii aeai?eoi ?iciiae?eo
iaeeaa;

— aecia/aia aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaeeaa a ?aa?iiao e?a?ie,
i?e/eie cia/ieo a?aeoeeaiue oeueiai iieacieea ye a?ae na?aaeiueiai ii
e?a?i?, oae ? ia i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?;

— ?ic?iaeaii i?iaiiciee iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iee aaeain Oe?a?ie ? aeaia
eiai aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea, ui neoaoaaoeia oi?ioaaiith i?iiiceoe?e ii
?icaeoeo IAEo ? aeaeiaiio iie?eooth iio?aae a iaeea? aeiiii?ee e?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aeeiiai? a ?aieao aeena?oaoe??,
neeaaeathoue iniiao iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a uiaei aeai?o
iai?yi?a ?icaeoeo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno ? iaeeaicaaacia/aiiy
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy o i?iaiicao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie oa ??
?aa?ii?a, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny I?i?noa?noaii aeiiii?ee, iaeanieie
aaei?i?no?aoe?yie, iaoeiaeie ? i?iaeoieie ?inoeoooaie aeiiii?/iiai e
aia?aaoe/iiai i?io?eth.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy o eiiieaenieo
?ic?iaeao ?aaee ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie
a?aeiia?aeii aei ieai?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, cie?aia, oaeeo, ye:

?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e ii i?aeaeuaiith naiicaaacia/aiiy Oe?a?ie
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieie ?ano?naie, 1993 ?.;

Aea?aeaaia i?ia?aia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Iie?nny, 1996
?.;

Oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ye aecia/aeueiee
/eiiee aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, 1996 ?.;

?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo iniia i?iaiicoaaiiy iio?aae Oe?a?ie a
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?nao a oiiaao noai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo
aia?ai?ano?n?a, 1997 ?.

Aeaeea?aoe?y iniaenoiai aianeo aaoi?a o io?eiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia iiooeoaa/ai iniaenoi. Aaoi?ia?
iaeaaeaoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? noi?ioeueiaai? o
aeena?oaoe?? oa aaoi?aoa?ao?.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo “I?iaeaie ? oeyoe aia?aicaaacia/aiiy Oe?a?ie”
(?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1993), “Oe?a?ia a na?oiaiio aeiiii?/iiio
i?inoi??”(Iaeana, 1994 ), “?aa?iiaeueia iie?oeea Oe?a?ie:
eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee, ?noi??y, ia?niaeoeae” (Ee?a,1994),
“Eiioeaiooaeueiua e iaoiaee/aneea aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey e ?aaeecaoeee
i?ia?aii noaaeeecaoeee yia?aaoe/aneeo io?aneae” (Ee?a, 1995),” Iaeeiueia
o i?inoi?? ? /an?”( Iaeei, 1996 ), “Iniiai? iai?yie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
ianaeaiiy oa no?eeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie i?e caa?ic?
aeieeiaiiy i?e?iaeieo oa oaoiiaaiieo eaoano?io” (Ee?a, 1996).

Ioae?eaoe??

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 6 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
caaaeueiei ianyaii 2.2 ae?oe. a?e., na?aae ieo 2 noaoo? a aeo?iae?
“Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie”.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a. Oaeno
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny 30 oaaeeoeyie, 23 aeiaeaoeaie. Ianya ?iaioe neeaaea?
187 noi??iie iaoeiiieno.

Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae neeaaea? 101 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa” aiae?cothoueny iaoiaee/i?
i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy iio?aae a iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?nao oa
cai?iiaiiaai? oeyoe ?o oaeineiiaeaiiy; ?icaeyaea?oueny no/aniee noai
aeiiii?ee (?? iniiai? ?iaeeeaoi?e) ? aeine?aeaeothoueny oaeoi?e, ui
aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ??ai?a niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaieo ?ano?n?a.
?aaeeeaeuei? ci?ie oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie iaoiiaeee
iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy anaa?/iiai aiae?co iaoiaeieia?? ? iaoiae?a
aecia/aiiy iio?aae a iaeea?, ui canoiniaothoueny ye a aeiiii?oe? a
oe?eiio, oae ? a ?? aaeocyo. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?ae?a?ai? ? ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aei aeei?enoaiiy iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeuei?
iaoiaee ieaioaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy iio?aae a iaeea?, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeai?
iia? iaoiaeieia?/i? ? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy iaeeaa. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy iaae?eieo aeaieo i?i iaea?eueo
aeioe?euei? ianooaae ? iai?yie aeei?enoaiiy iaeeaa iaa?oioiao?oueny
iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy ia iaeiiai, a aeae?eueeio iaoiae?a, aea?? ?
i?ei??oaoi?noue yeeo caeaaeaoue a?ae oe?eae ? caaea/, ui iinoaaeai?
ia?aae i?iaiicieie ?ic?iaeaie.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ae?noaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoiae i?yiiai
?aooieo, ye iaoiae aecia/aiiy iio?aae a iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?nao,
oeyoii aaaaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a iaeeaii?noeino? aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo ?
i?iaeoeoe?? i?iieneiaino? a i?iaiiciiio ? aaciaiio ia??iaeao,
ni?anoaaeaiiy oaii?a ci?ie iio?aae a iaeea? ? oaii?a ci?ie
caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a; oaeineiiaeaii i?iaiicoaaiiy
iaeaaaeeea?oiai /eiieea aecia/aiiy iio?aae a iaeea? ii iaoiaeo i?yiiai
?aooieo- ieoiieo aeo?ao iaeeaa c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao
no?oeoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ieo ci?i ia iaeeaii?noe?noue i?iaeoeoe?? o??? aai
?ioi? aaeoc? i?iieneiaino?. Oeae aieea a aeena?oaoe?? ioe?ith?oueny ia
iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo i?ia?ai aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy ye a Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio, oae
? ii ?? ?aa?iiao; iaea?aeaa iiaeaeueoo ?ic?iaeo iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae aei
?aoe?iiae?caoe?? ?iciiae?eo iaeeaa a oiiaao aeao?oeeoo, caniiaaiee ia
aeei?enoaii? ieoiiiai niiaeeaaiiy oiai aai ?ioiai aeaeo iaeeaa a
?ao?iniaeoeaiiio ia??iae? c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao aa?o?niiai /eiieea ia
eiai aoaeoeai?noue o ia?niaeoea? oa aecia/aii aeai?eoi ?iciiae?eo
iaeeaa. Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aeathoue iiaeeea?noue, ia
aeoieo aeena?oaioa, c a?eueoith oi/i?noth cae?enithaaoe i?iaiicoaaiiy
iio?aae a iaeea? c o?aooaaiiyi no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue, oaoiieia?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?ioeo /eiiee?a ?, c?aooith, c o?aooaaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy.

I?ia?aeia ?ieue aia?aaoe/iiai /eiieea a no/ani?e aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie, ui
iineeth?oueny aieeaii aeiiii?ee ia ianooaae, no?oeoo?o ? iai?yie
?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ii? aace, aecia/eea iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy
aca?iica’yceo ??aiy ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee e ianya?a niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, cae?eniaii aiae?c no/aniiai noaio aeiiii?ee ii
iniiaieo ?iaeeeaoi?ao a Oe?a?i? oa aeiiii?/ieo ?aa?iiao o 1991-1997 ??.
Ca oeae ia??iae Oe?a?ia iieieeany a aeeaie?e aeiiii?/i?e e?ec?. O
ii??aiyii? c 1990 ?. aaeiaee aioo??oi?e i?iaeoeo o 1997 ?. nei?ioeany ia
62%, i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai — ia 54.5% ? aaeiaa i?iaeoeoe?y
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa — a?eueo i?ae iaiieiaeio.

Iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iya?a ? iane?aee?a aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ? ??cea
ciaioaiiy eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue. Iacia/i? ianyae eai?oaeueieo
aeeaaeaiue ia aeicaieythoue aoaeoeaii i?iaiaeeoe no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao
aeiiii?ee ? cae?enithaaoe ?aeiino?oeoe?th aaeocae iaoa??aeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. sse ?acoeueoao, nei?ioeeiny eai?oaeueia aoae?aieoeoai, ui
i?ecaaei aei ??ceiai ciaioaiiy ianya?a aaaaeaiiy a ae?th iniiaieo
oiiae?a. Ii noo?, i?eieiaii aaaaeaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo ae?iaie/eo
iiooaeiinoae. O ?acoeueoao? ?ic?ea ii iieacieeao caaaeueiiai ??aiy
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a ia o?eueee ia ciaioeany, aea e ii/aa
c?inoaoe. Iaea?eueoa nei?i/aiiy i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa a?aeaoeiny a
eaae?e, iaeeai?e, o?i?/i?e ? iaooio?i?/i?e i?iieneiaino?, /i?i?e
iaoaeo?a??, iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? ? iaoaeiia?iaoe? oa ?ioeo aaeocyo. O
ca’yceo c oeei, iaeaeeaoee niaae aeiiii?/ii? aeoeaiino? niinoa??aa?oueny
a oeo ?aa?iiao, aea aieiaia i?noea caeiathoue ia?a?aoiaai? aaeoc?. Oea,
o ia?oo /a?ao, iaaaoeaii a?aeaeeiny ia No?aeiiio ? Oeaio?aeueiiio
?aa?iiao.

Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie — neeaaeia aaaaoiaaeocaaa nenoaia, ui aeeth/a?
eiiieaene iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?icaeiaio iaae?iaie/o noa?o. I?e
oeueiio aaeeeo ieoiio aaao a i?aeaaeocaaeo eiiieaenao caeiathoue
aia?aii?noe? ae?iaieoeoaa. Ia oi?ioaaiiy iio?aae a iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo
?ano?nao, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aieeaathoue oae? oaeoi?e, ye no?oeoo?i?
ia?aoai?aiiy a aeiiii?oe?, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an, ianooaae
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ci?ia oi?i
aeaniino?, iiaeeeaino? i?eaeaaiiy oiai aai ?ioiai aeaeo iaeeaa.
?icaeyioo? /eiieee iathoue iiaea?eiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy iio?aae a
iaeea?: ?o ci?ia ni?e/eiy?oueny ye aei i?aeaeuaiiy, oae ? aei cieaeaiiy
niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa. Ana caeaaeeoue a?ae aaeoi?a ni?yiiaaiino? oeueiai
aieeao. Aei iniiaieo /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ianyae niiaeeaaiiy
iaeeaa, ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia, a?aeiinyoueny ianya ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeoe?? ? ieoii? aeo?aoe iaeeaa. Aiae?c iieacaa, ui a inoaii? ?iee
cieaeaiiy iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy a Oe?a?i? iaoiiaeaii, aieiaiei /eiii,
nei?i/aiiyi ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??, a ia aeinyaiaiiyie a
aia?aicaa?aaeaii?. O ca’yceo c iaae?iiyi ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae
a on?o aaeocyo i?iieneiaino? eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 25.0-55.0%, ui
iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia ieoiieo aeo?aoao iaeeaa ia ae?iaieoeoai
i?iaeoeoe??. O no?oeoo?? niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa /anoea iaeeaii?noeeo aaeocae
i?iieneiaino? (aeaeo?iaia?aaoeea, iaoaeo?a?y, o?i?/ia ? iaooio?i?/ia,
aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a) cieceeany c 62.5% o 1990 ?. aei 51.0% o 1997
?. Oaeoi?iue aiae?c niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa aeicaieea aecia/eoe iniiai?
iai?yie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy ? e?aua c?icoi?oe
oaiaeaioe?? a iaeeainiiaeeaaii?, ui iai?oeeeny a aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aiae?c aeeiai?ee iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy a
i?iieneiaino?” ?icaeyaea?oueny ianya ? no?oeoo?a niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaieo
?ano?n?a oa i?iaiaeeoueny ioe?iea noaio no?oeoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ii?
ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee.

Aiae?c iieacaa, ui ianya ? aeaeiaa no?oeoo?a niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa
iaaeineiiae?. Niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a cieceeiny c
353.0 iei.o o.i. o 1990 ?. aei 215.1 iei.o o.i. o 1997 ?., o o./. ii
eioaeueii-i?/iiio iaeeao — c 280.6 aei 170.3 iei.o o.i., iioi?iiio
iaeeao — c 43.9 aei 16.2 iei.o o.i. Ii i?e?iaeiei aia?aaoe/iei ?ano?nai
niiaeeaaiiy caa??aa?oueny iaeaea ia iaeiiio ??ai? (o na?aaeiueiio 28.9
iei.o o.i.). Cia/i? ci?ie a?aeiinii 1990 ?. a?aeaoeeny a no?oeoo??
niiaeeoiai iaeeaa a a?e ca?eueoaiiy /anoee i?e?iaeiiai aaco (c 48.5% o
1990 ?. aei 58.8% o 1996 ?.) ? ciaioaiiy /anoee aoa?eey (c 33.0% o 1990
?. aei 29.1% o 1996 ?.) oa iaooii?iaeoeo?a (c 12.8% o 1990 ?. aei 5.3% o
1996 ?.). Iacaaaeath/e ia aenieo oe?io i?e?iaeiiai aaco, /anoea eiai
aeei?enoaiiy ye aia?aiiin?y a 1996 ?. neeaea 29.9%, a ye ne?iaeiiiai
eiiiiiaioa — 7.7%.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?i no?oeoo?e i?iieneiaino? a 1991-1997 ??. aeeiiaii
oeyoii aecia/aiiy aieeao ia ia? oe?iiaiai ? iaoe?iiaiai /eiiee?a. Aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy e?euee?niiai aieeao oeeo /eiiee?a ia no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao
i?iieneiaino? ?ic?aoiaai? aaeoi?e aaeocaaiai c?ooaiiy ? e?i?eiiai
eiao?oe??ioa c?ooaiiy no?oeoo?e (a?ae oe?iiaiai ? iaoeaiiaiai /eiiee?a
oa noia?iiai). Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo ?ic?aooie?a c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui
ci?ia no?oeoo?e i?iieneiaino? a?aeaoaaeany aieiaiei /eiii i?ae aieeaii
oe?iiaiai /eiieea, ui iia’ycaii c ia?aoiaeii aei na?oiaeo oe?i ia
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/i? ?ano?ne. Oaeei /eiii, a Oe?a?i? aea?aeaaia iie?oeea
a?aeiinii ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?iieneiaino? ia aoea
i?aai?caoe?eii-iia?e?coth/ith ? ia ni?eyea ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? ??
no?oeoo?e. Oiio an? ia?aoai?aiiy, ui o i?e a?aeaoaathoueny, eaeooue
oaioe/ii, c nooo?aeie aeiiii?/ieie ao?aoaie.

C on??? noeoiiino? /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ?ici?? ieoiii?
aia?aii?noeino? (iaeeaii?noeino?) i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, iaea?eueoa
cia/aiiy ia? ci?ia aaeocaai? no?oeoo?e i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ?
iaeeai-? aia?aii?noe?noue “ i “ aaeoc? ia caaaeueio aia?ai-?
iaeeaii?noe?noue i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??. Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy e?euee?niiai
aieeao oeeo iieaciee?a ia ??aaiue aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iaeeaa
aeena?oaio canoinoaaa ?iaeaeniee iaoiae aiae?co, yeee iieacaa, ui
i?aeaeuaiiy iaeeaii?noeino? i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ca ?aooiie
no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a?aeaoeiny /a?ac c?inoaiiy /anoee iaeeaii?noeeo
aaeocae (aeaeo?iaia?aaoeea ? iaoaeo?a?y), a oaeiae aeayeiai i?aeaeuaiiy
/anoee ?ioeo aaeocae o oi?ioaaii? a oe?eiio i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??.
Cieaeaiiy iaeeaii?noeino? i?iieneiaino? ca ?aooiie no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue
aoei io?eiaii /a?ac ciaioaiiy iaeeaii?noeino? a aeaeo?iaia?aaoeoe?,
i?iieneiaino? aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? ?
iaoaeiia?iaoe?.

Oaoiieia?/iee i?ia?an a aaeocyo, ye? ae?iaeythoue iaeeai ?
aeaeo?iaia?a?th, ? a aaeocyo, ui niiaeeaathoue iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/i?
?ano?ne, ia? aecia/aeueiee aieea ia ??aaiue ? aeeiai?eo
iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy a i?iieneiaino?. *ei aeuee, ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia,
oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/iee ??aaiue i?aei?e?inoa, oei ieae/ee ianya
niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a, iaeeai- ? aia?aii?noe?noue
i?iaeoeoe??. ?, iaaiaee, /ei ieae/ee oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/iee iioaioe?ae
ae?iaieoeoaa, oei aeua ieoiia iaeeai-? aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy.

O cae?eniaii? oaoiieia?/ii? iiaea?i?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa i??i?eoao
iiaeii? iaoe ?ic?iaea e inai?iiy iaeeai-? aia?aicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e.
O aaaaoueio aaeocyo i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie iaeeai-? aia?aii?noe?noue
i?iaeoeoe?? a 1.5-2 ?ace aeua, i?ae o ?icaeiooeo eai?oae?noe/ieo
e?a?iao. sseui ia iaoaeo?a?eieo caaiaeao Oe?a?ie ia ae?iaieoeoai 1 o
/aaoio aeo?a/a?oueny 672 ea o.i., noae? ia?oai?anueei? — 138, i?ieaoo —
145, noaeaaeo o?oa — 132, /aaoiieo o?oa — 365.9 ea o.i., oi ia
yiiinueeeo, a?aeiia?aeii, 520; 110; 88; 103 ? 255 ea o.i., aai a 1.3-1.5
?ace iaioa. Ia ia ei?enoue Oe?a?ie ? ii??aiyiiy c ?icaeiooeie e?a?iaie
ca ??aiai aeaeo?ii?noeino? i?iaeoeoe??. O eieuei?ia?e iaoaeo?a?? ?
o?i?/i?e i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ia ae?iaieoeoai 1 o aethi?i?th
aeo?a/a?oueny 17.9 oen.eAo.a, iaai?th — 27.9, i?eaeth — 31.7, oeaeioaio
— 26.7 oen.eAo.a., a a NOA ? Eaiaae? oe? iieacieee eieeaathoueny a
iaaeao 12-13; 21-22; 25-26 ? 22-23 oen.eAo.a, aai ia 20-35% iaioa. Ca
1991-1997 ?. aia?aii?noe?noue aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo Oe?a?ie
ca?eueoeeany a 1.4 ?ace.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/ai? oeyoe cieaeaiiy aia?aiaeo?ao o i?iieneiaiio
ae?iaieoeoa?. Aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo iiaei iao?aaeeoe?eiei aeaea?aeai
ae?iaieoeoaa aeaeo?iaia?a?? (aeei?enoaiiy aia?a?? a?o?o, niioey,
a?ae?iaia?a??, aaioa?iaeueieo ?ano?n?a, a?iaaco oa ?i.). Iaa?oioiaaii
iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aieiaiith neeaaeiaith aia?aicaa??aath/i? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie iiaeiia noaoe oaea no?oeoo?ia ? oaoiieia?/ia iiaea?i?caoe?y
aeiiii?ee e?a?ie, yea a caaacia/eea i?i?i?caoe?th aeo?ao
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a.

No?oeoo?i? aeeni?iii?oe?? caeeoathoueny iaeiei c iniiaieo aeaea?ae
oi?ioaaiiy iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e o ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.
Iaea?eueo ?noioii no?oeoo?ia iaaeineiiae?noue aeiiii?ee aecia/a?oueny a
oaeeo ?enao: iaaeinoaoiy nioe?aeueia i???ioaoe?y, iacaaeainiaai?noue
i?ae ie?aieie aaeocyie, oaoiieia?/ia a?aenoae?noue ae?iaieoeoaa,
iaaei??ia ?ano?nii?noe?noue (aia?aii?noe?noue) iniiaii? iane i?iieneiai?
i?iaeoeoe??, iecueea eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue. Iacaaaeath/e ia aaaeeea?noue
no?oeoo?ii? iiaea?i?caoe??, oeae i?ioean eaea aeoaea iia?eueii.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? iai?yie ?aoe?iiae?caoe??
niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa” ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy aaoi?nueea aa/aiiy iai?yi?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a ? ?ic?iaeaii
i?iaiic niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa c o?aooaaiiyi no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue ?
oaoiieia?/ieo ci?i, cai?iiaiiaaii i?iaiiciee iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iee aaeain
? aeaia aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea eiai aoaeoeaiino?.

O ?iaio? ia iniia? aiae?co noaio aeiiii?ee ca 1991-1997??. ? iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue Eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaii? ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
i?iaaaeaii ei?aeooaaiiy i?iaiico iniiaieo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a
Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a. ?aeiino?oeoe?y aeiiii?ee ia? cae?enithaaoeny
i?ae aea?aeaaiei eiio?ieai. Aaaeeeaei iaoiaeii ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee ?aa?ii?a ? ?aae?caoe?y aea?aeaaieo ?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai, ui
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iiai?oa ocaiaeaeoaaoe oa?eoi??aeuei? ? aaeocaa?
?ioa?ane. O i?iaiiciee ia??iae i?aeaeueoueny ?ieue iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai
eiiieaeno a aia?aicaaacia/aii? aeiiii?ee. Ca?eueoothoueny aeaeiaooie
iaooe, aoa?eey, i?e?iaeiiai aaco e ianyae ia?a?iaee iaooe. A ?acoeueoao?
ae?iaieoeoai aeanieo ?ano?n?a i?e?iaeiiai iaeeaa c?inoa c 72.8 iei. o
o.i. o 1997 ?. aei 137.8 iei.o o.i. o 2015 ?., aai ia 89.3%. Ia?iuoaaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa i?e?iaeiiai iaeeaa aoaea caaacia/aii ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy
aeaeiaooeo aoa?eey, i?e?iaeiiai aaco e inai?iiy ?ano?n?a iaoaia
aoa?eueieo ?iaeiaeu (oaae.1). Ca?eueoaiiy aeaeiaooeo i?e?iaeiiai iaeeaa
aeicaieeoue iineaaeoe caeaaei?noue aeiiii?ee a?ae eiai ?iii?oo. Oae,
i?iaiico?oueny o 2015 ?. nei?ioeoe ?iii?o aoa?eey a Oe?a?io ia 66.5%
i?ioe 1995 ?., i?e?iaeiiai aaco — ia 14.3%. O oie aea /an ianya ?iii?oo
iaooe ca?eueoeoueny c 13.3 iei.o o 1995 ?. aei 27.5 iei.o o 2015 ?.,
oiaoi ia 106.8%. Oea iaoiiaeaii iaiao?aei?noth ia?iuoaaiiy ianya?a
ae?iaieoeoaa iaooii?iaeoeo?a ia IIC Oe?a?ie aeey caaeiaieaiiy
c?inoath/eo iio?aa aeiiii?ee. Ca?eueoaiiy iinoa/aiiy iaooe a Oe?a?io e
iaoiiaeth? c?inoaiiy ?iii?oo ia?aeiiiai iaeeaa a 2015 ?. ia 1.6% i?ioe
1995 ?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa aeiiii?ee niiaeeaaiiy eioaeueii-i?/iiai iaeeaa
ca?eueoeoueny c 176.3 iei.o o.i. o 1995 ?. aei 211.2 iei.o o.i. o 2015
?., aai ia 19.8%.O no?oeoo?? iie?eooy iio?aae a iaeea? a?aeaoaeooueny
ianooii? ci?ie. *anoea aoa?eey ? i?iaeoeo?a eiai ia?a?iaee i?aeaeueoueny
c 32.7% o 1995 ?. aei 38.5% o 2015 ?., iaooii?iaeoeo?a — c 7.9 aei 8.2%,
a /anoea i?e?iaeiiai aaco cieceoueny c 55.4 aei 46.9%. Oaea aeeiai?ea
no?oeoo?e iia’ycaia c oaiaeaioe??th aeo?niaiiy aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiiai
aaco.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeani? ?ano?ne i?e?iaeiiai (ia?aeiiiai) iaeeaa a Oe?a?i?

Aeaee ?ano?n?aIaeei.

aei??o199519961997199819992000200520102015Aeani?

?ano?ne,

anueiaiiei.

o o.i

77.5

70.2

72.3

78.9

83

87.3

104.3

121

137.8a oiio

/ene?:aoa?eey

(oiaa?ia)iei.o

iei.

o o.i.64

48.854.2

41.357.8

4463.2

49.267.1

52.469.7

55.486

66.2101

77.8113.3

87.8iaooaiei.o

iei.

o o.i.4.2

5.94.1

5.94.4

6.34.6

6.64.7

6.74.9

76

8.67

107.5

10.7aac i?e-

?iaeieeie?ae.i3

iei.

o o.i.18.2

20.918.4

21.218.1

20.818.5

21.319.2

22.120

2323.5

2726

29.930

34.5iaoai aoa?eueieo iieeaae?a

ie?ae.i3

iei.

o o.i.

0.087

0.1

0.085

0.1

0.09

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.12

0.1

0.15

0.1

0.5

0.6

1

1.2

2

2.3?io? aeaee

iaeeaa

iei.

o o.i.

1.8

1.7

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.9

2.1

2.3

2.5

Niiaeeaaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco a Oe?a?i? (c o?aooaaiiyi eiai
aeei?enoaiiy, ye iioi?iiai iaeeaa) ia? ca?eueoeoeny c 85.2 ie?ae.i3 o
1995 ?. aei 86.8 ie?ae.i3 o 2015 ?. ? aoaea iaioei ia 31.5 ie?ae.i3
i?ioe 1990 ?. I?e oeueiio eiai niiaeeaaiiy, ye iaeeaa ia aia?aaoe/i?
oe?e? ca i?iaiiciee ia??iae caa??aa?oueny ia ??ai? 76.4 ie?ae.i3 , ui
iia’ycaii c ?aae?caoe??th i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ieo caoiae?a ii
iaiaaeaiith eiai niiaeeaaiiy.

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?iaiiciiai iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino
iieyaa? a ianooiiiio: iiaiiio ? iaae?eiiio caaacia/aii? aeiiii?ee
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieie ?ano?naie ca ?aooiie ia?iuoaaiiy aeaniiai
aeaeiaooeo (ae?iaieoeoaa) iaeeaa, i?iaaaeaiiy ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno i?ae eiio?ieai aea?aeaae ?
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? aeaea?ae iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy, iniaeeai, ii i?e?iaeiiio
aaco ? iaoo?, a oaeiae ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy.
Aia?aii?noe?noue AAI cieceoueny o 2015 ?. i?ioe 1995 ?. ia 15.5%, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?iaiiciiai
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino.

AENIIAEE

1. ?eieiaa o?ainoi?iaoe?y aeiiii?ee iaoiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy aeeaieiai aiae?co iaoiaeieia?? ? iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy
iio?aae a iaeea? c iaoith aeai?o iaea?eueo aaeaioiaaieo aei
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?ee a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae. Caaacia/aii iiaeaeueoa
oaeineiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie iaoiaee/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy iio?aae a iaeea?
a iiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aeiaaaeaia aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy
ia iaeiiai, a e?eueeio iaoiae?a, aea?? yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae oe?eae ?
caaea/, iinoaaeaieo ia?aae i?iaiicieie ?ic?aooieaie.

2. O?niee aca?iica’ycie ??aiy ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee ? ianyao niiaeeaaiiy
iaeeaa aeiaaa? i?iaaaeaiiy anaa?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy no/aniiai noaio
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a. Iaea?eueoee niaae ae?iaieoeoaa
niinoa??aa?oueny a ?aa?iiao, aea i?ia?aeio ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue aaeoc?,
ui iaea?eueoa iino?aaeaeaee a?ae aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, yea ioiieea e?a?io ?
ni?e/eieeany aei nooo?aeo ci?i ?? aia?aaoe/ii? aace. Ia aoai? ia?aoiaeo
aei iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia?aae Oe?a?iith iinoaei neeaaeia
caaaeaiiy caa?aaeaiiy ??aiiaaae i?ae ae?iaieoeoaii ? niiaeeaaiiyi
aia?a?? oa iiaeaeueoith ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??th aeiiii?ee.

3. Ia oi?ioaaiiy iio?aae a iaeea? ?noioiee aieea iathoue oae? oaeoi?e,
ye no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa aeiiii?ee, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an, ianooaae
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ci?ia oi?i
aeaniino?. On? oe? /eiieee ni?aaeythoue iiaea?eiee aieea. I?e ci?i? aiie
iiaeooue aieeaaoe ye ia i?aeaeuaiiy niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa, oae ? ia eiai
cieaeaiiy. Ana caeaaeeoue a?ae aaeoi?a ni?yiiaaiino? oeueiai aieeao.
Aiae?c iieacaa, ui a inoaii? ?iee cieaeaiiy iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy a Oe?a?i?
iaoiiaeaii, ia?aaeon?i, nei?i/aiiyi ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??, a ia
oni?oaie a aia?aicaa?aaeaii?.

4. No?oeoo?i? aeeni?iii?oe?? caeeoeeenue iaeiei c aieiaieo oaeoi??a
oi?ioaaiiy iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e o ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.
Iaea?eueo ?noioi? no?oeoo?i? iaaeie?ee i?iieneiaino? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
oaeeie ?enaie ye: iaaeinoaoiy nioe?aeueia i???ioaoe?y,
iacaaeainiaai?noue i?ae ie?aieie aaeocyie, oaoiieia?/ia a?aenoaaaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa, aeniea ?ano?nii?noe?noue (aia?aii?noe?noue) i?iieneiai?
i?iaeoeoe??, iecueea eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue. Iacaaaeath/e ia
aaaeeea?noue i?iaeaie no?oeoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ii? ia?aaoaeiae, oeae i?ioean
a?aeaoaa?oueny ae?ae iia?eueii.

5. Ianya ? aeaeiaa no?oeoo?a niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa caciaea i?ae aieeaii
e?ece (1991-1997 ??.) nooo?aeo ci?i ? ioe?iththoueny ye iaaeineiiae?.
Niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a a oe?eiio ciaioeeiny iaeaea
ia 40%. Aiaeii/an a no?oeoo?? iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy c?inea /anoea
i?e?iaeiiai aaco ia 10.3 i?ioeaioieo ioieoe i?e nei?i/aii? ieoiii? aaae
aoa?eey ia 3.9 i?ioeaioieo ioieoe.

6. Aaeeeee aieea ia niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a
ni?aaeythoue no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy a aeiiii?oe?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
no?oeoo?ieo ci?i, ye? a?aeaoeeny a i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ca 1991-1997
??., iieacaei: aieiaiith ?oo?eiith neeith oeeo ci?i noaa oe?iiaee
oaeoi?, ui iia’ycaii c ia?aoiaeii aei na?oiaeo oe?i ia iaeeai. Aeey
e?euee?niiai aei??o aieeao no?oeoo?ieo ci?i ia ??aaiue aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy iaeeaa canoiniaaii ?iaeaeniee iaoiae aiae?co.

7. Aecia/aeueiee aieea ia ??aaiue ? aeeiai?eo iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy a
i?iieneiaino? ia? oaoiieia?/iee i?ia?an a aaeocyo, ye? ae?iaeythoue
iaeeai oa aeaeo?iaia?a?th, ? a aaeocyo, ui niiaeeaathoue
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/i? ?ano?ne. *ei aeuee, ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia,
oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/iee ??aaiue i?aei?e?inoa, oei ieae/ee ianya
niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a, iaeeai-? aia?aii?noe?noue
i?iaeoeoe?? ?, iaaiaee, /ei ieae/ee oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/iee iioaioe?ae
ae?iaieoeoaa, oei aeua ieoiia iaeeai-? aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy. Ii??aiyiiy
iaeeai-? aia?aii?noeino? i?iaeoeoe?? aeayeeo a?o/eciyieo aaeocae
(iaoaeo?a?y, o?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue) cana?ae/o?, ui aiia a 1.2-1.5 ?ace
ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/i? iieacieee aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i. Ca 1991-1997
??. aia?aii?noe?noue aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo Oe?a?ie i?ae
aieeaii no?oeoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ieo ci?i ca?eueoeeany a 1.4 ?ace.

8. ?ic?aooiie ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a i?iaiicieo ianya?a
niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa ia o?eaaeo ia?niaeoeao, caaeainoaaiiy ianya?a eiai
aeei?enoaiiy c iiaeeeaei iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi ia?aeiieo aia?ai?ano?n?a,
?ic?iaea i?iaiiciiai aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueiiai iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai
aaeaino e?a?ie iiaeooue aooe cae?eniai? o?eueee ia iniia? aecia/aiiy
ia?niaeoea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a c
o?aooaaiiyi no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue ? oaoiieia?/iiai iiiaeaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa. A aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeaii i?iaiic aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
e?a?ie a ?ic??c? aaeocae ? ?aa?ii?a ia ia??iae aei 2015 ?ieo.
?aae?caoe?y i?iaiicieo ia?aiao??a ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee ia? aeaoe ianooii?
?acoeueoaoe: aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, caoooaiiy ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a,
oi?ioaaiiy ni?eyoeeaiai aeiiii?/iiai na?aaeiaeua, no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa
aenii?oo, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy. Ca 1998-2015 ??. aaeiaee
aioo??oi?e i?iaeoeo, ca i?iaiicii, ca?eueoeoueny ia 78.9%, i?iaeoeoe?y
i?iieneiaino? — ia 39.7% ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa — ia 31.9%,
eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy — ia 121%. ?ic?aoiaaii a?aeiia?aei? ia?aiao?e
?icaeoeo aaeocae ? ?aa?ii?a.

9. A i?iaiiciiio ia??iae? i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ieue iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai
eiiieaeno a aia?aicaaacia/aii? aeiiii?ee. Ianya ae?iaieoeoaa aeanieo
?ano?n?a i?e?iaeiiai iaeeaa c?inoa c 77.5 iei.o o.i. a 1995 ?. aei 137.8
iei.o o.i. a 2015 ?., aai ia 77.5%. Ca?eueoaiiy aeaeiaooeo i?e?iaeiiai
aaco aeicaieeoue iineaaeoe caeaaei?noue aeiiii?ee a?ae eiai ?iii?oo. A
2015 ?. i?iaiico?oueny nei?ioeoe ?iii?o aoa?eey a Oe?a?io ia 66.5%
i?ioe 1995 ?., i?e?iaeiiai aaco — ia 14.3%. A oie aea /an ianya ?iii?oo
iaooe ca?eueoeoueny c 13.3 iei.o. a 1995 ?. aei 27.5 iei.o a 2015 ?.,
oiaoi ia 106.8%. Oea iaoiiaeaii iaiao?aei?noth ia?iuoaaiiy ianya?a
ae?iaieoeoaa iaooii?iaeoeo?a ia IIC Oe?a?ie aeey iio?aa aeiiii?ee ?
ianaeaiiy. Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue ia? noaoe aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy
ia iniia? no?oeoo?ieo ci?i ? oaoiieia?/ii? iiaea?i?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa,
iaoe?eaieo ia cieaeaiiy iaeeai-? aia?aii?noeino? ae?iaieoeoaa. Ioaea, a
iaeeainiiaeeaaii? a?aeaoaeooueny noooaa? e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni? ci?ie, ye?
a oe?eiio iaoeiooue iiceoeaiee oa?aeoa?.

10. ?ic?iaeaii iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iee aaeain Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae aei
2015 ?. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue eiai iieyaa? a iiaiiio ? iaae?eiiio
caaacia/aii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieie ?ano?naie ca
?aooiie ia?iuoaaiiy aeaniiai aeaeiaooeo (ae?iaieoeoaa) iaeeaa,
i?iaaaeaiiy i?ae eiio?ieai aea?aeaae ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno ? aeeaa?n?o?eaoe?? aeaea?ae
iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy, iniaeeai ii i?e?iaeiiio aaco ? iaoo?, a oaeiae
?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy. A 2015 ?. aei 80% onueiai
i?e?inoo niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa ii??aiyii c 1995 ?. aoaea caaacia/oaaoenue
ca ?aooiie eiai e?auiai aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, ui aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
caeiiiieoe 49.8 iei.o o.i. Aia?aii?noe?noue aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai
i?iaeoeoo ciaioeoueny a 2015 ?. ia 15.5% i?ioe 1995 ?.

IA?AE?E IIOAE?EIAAIEO IAOEIAEO I?AOeUe,

UI A?AeIA?AAEATHOUe INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aiaeec oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia oi?ie?iaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiie
iio?aaiinoe a oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nao //”Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?”, Ca??iee iieiaeeo a/aieo, ? 2, I?i?noa?noai
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo/ — Ee?a,
1996 — 0.4 ae?oe.a?e., n. 166-171.

2. Iio?aaeaiea oiieeaa a Oe?aeia. // “Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu”
iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ? 7, etheue 1997 a./ — Ee?a, 1997.- 0.4
ae?oe.a?e., n.87-89

3. Ia?niaeoeaiia yia?aiiaania/aiea Oe?aeiu. // “Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu”
iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ? 8, aaaono 1998 a./ — Ee?a, 1998. 0.6 —
ae?oe.a?e., n. 37-43

4. Ia?niaeoeae caaacia/aiiy Oe?a?ie iaeeaieie ?ano?naie.
//”I?iaeoeoeai? neee ? ?aa?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea” Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue,
?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie / — Ee?a, 1998
— 0.4 ae?oe.a?e. n.196-202

5. Aii?inu aa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey yia?ainaa?aaeaieai

a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee // Eiioeaiooaeueiua e iaoiaee/aneea
aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey e ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aii noaaeeecaoeee yia?aaoe/aneeo
io?aneae / oace aeiiia?ae? 2-3 aa?aciy 1995 ?., Ee?a/ — Ee?a, 1995. —
0.2 ae?oe.a?e.

6. Aeaye? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? // oace
aeiiia?ae? Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-e?a?ciaa/i? eiioa?aioe??, 25-27
aa?aniy 1996 ?., Iaeei/ — Iaeei, 1996. — 0.2 ae?oe.a?e.

AIIOAOe?ss

*oea?aa ?.E. Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie aeei?enoaiiy iaeeaa a Oe?a?i? oa ??
?aa?iiao.

?oeiien aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.10.01 — ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo
nee ? ?aa?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea.?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1999.

Aeeeaaeaii iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ? i?eeeaaei? i?aeoiaee aei ?aaoethaaiiy
niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa a Oe?a?i?. Aecia/aii iniaeeaino? caaacia/aiiy
aeiiii?ee iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieie ?ano?naie e iaa?oioiaai? iaoiaee
?aaoethaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa (aeaeiaooeo) ? niiaeeaaiiy
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a; ?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie ? iaoiaee/i? iniiae
?aoe?iiae?caoe?? niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa; i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c /eiiee?a, ui
aieeaathoue ia niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa aaeocyie i?iieneiaino?; aeaia
aia?ai-aeiiii?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aa?ii?a e?a?ie; ?icaeyioo? ia?niaeoeae
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a; aecia/aii
i?iaiic iio?aae a iaeea? c o?aooaaiiyi no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue ?
oaoiieia?/ieo ci?i; ?ic?iaeaii i?iaiiciee iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iee aaeain ?
aeaia aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea eiai aoaeoeaiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa, ?ano?ne, ?aa?iie, no?oeoo?i?
c?ooaiiy, oaoiieia?/i? ci?ie, aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, /eiieee, i?iaiic,
i?iieneia?noue, iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iee aaeain.

THE SUMMARY

CHUKAEVA I.K. Economic problems of use of fuel in Ukraine and it
regions.

Manuscript of a thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the
candidate of economic sciences on a speciality 08.10.01. Accommodation
of productive forces and regional economy. Council for study of
productive forces of Ukraine National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Kiev, 1999.

Are stated scientific — methodical and applied approaches to
regulation of consumption of fuel in Ukraine. The features of
maintenance of economy by fuel and energy resourcesare determined and
the methods of regulation of production and consumption of fuel and
energy resourcesare justified; the principles and methodical
fundamentalses of rationalization of consumption of fuel are developed;
the analysis of the factors influencing to consumption of fuel
industries is conducted; the energo-economic performance of regions of
country is given; the perspectives of socio economic development of
Ukraine and it of regions are considered; the needs for fuel with
allowance for of structural shifts and technological modifications are
determined; is developed future fuel and energy balance and the economic
evaluation it of efficiency is given.

Key words: consume a fuel, resources, regions, structural shifts,
technological modifications, energy saving, factors, prognosis,
industry, a fuel and energy balance.

AIIIOAOeEss

*oeaaaa E.E. Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu eniieueciaaiey oiieeaa a Oe?aeia e
aa ?aaeiiao.

?oeiienue aeenna?oaoeee ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.10.01. ?aciauaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea. Niaao ii eco/aieth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee Oe?aeiu IAI Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1999.

Eceiaeaiu iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneea e i?eeeaaeiua iiaeoiaeu e ?aaoee?iaaieth
iio?aaeaiey oiieeaa a Oe?aeia. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey
ioia?aiu e ?aeiiaiaeiaaiu e eniieueciaaieth iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiua
iaoiaeu ieaie?iaaiey e i?iaiice?iaaiey iio?aaiinoe a oiieeaa, a oaeaea
?ac?aaioaiu iiaua iaoiaeieiae/aneea iiaeoiaeu e iaoiaee/aneea i?eaiu
ii?aaeaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey oiieeaiuo ?ano?nia. A
aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeeiaeai aiciiaeiue iaoiaee/aneee iiaeoiae e
?ani?aaeaeaieth oiieeaiuo ?ano?nia a oneiaeyo eo aeaoeoeeoa, a oaeaea
oniaa?oainoaiaai iaoiae i?yiiai n/aoa e aai aaaeiaeoee iieacaoaeue —
oaeaeueiue ?anoiae oiieeaa. I?aaeeiaeaiiua iaoiaee/aneea i?eaiu aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue n aieueoae oi/iinoueth auiieiyoue i?iaiice?iaaiea
iio?aaiinoe a oiieeaa.

Aaaeiaeoay ?ieue yia?aaoe/aneiai oaeoi?a a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea
Oe?aeiu, oneeeaathuayny aicaeaenoaeai yeiiiieee ia ianooaau, no?oeoo?o e
iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey yia?aaoe/aneie aacu, ii?aaeaeeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue
enneaaeiaaiey acaeiinayce o?iaiy ?acaeoey yeiiiieee e iauaiia
iio?aaeaiey oiieeaa. Enoiaey ec yoiai, i?iaaaeai aiaeec nia?aiaiiiai
ninoiyiey yeiiiieee a Oe?aeia e aa ?aaeiiao a 1991-1997 aa. Ca
oeacaiiue ia?eiae Oe?aeia ieacaeanue a io/eia aeoaieiai yeiiiie/aneiai
e?ecena. Ii n?aaiaieth n 1991 a. a 1997a. aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo
nie?aoeeny ia 62%, i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai — ia 54.5% e aaeiaay
i?iaeoeoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa — aieaa /ai iaiieiaeio. Ii i?e/eia
i?iaeieaeathuaainy niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa e oeiainiaie noaaeeecaoeeae,
eioi?ay ieacaeanue iaonoie/eaie e iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiie, ia iineaaeiaaei
icaei?iaeaiey yeiiiieee a oeaeii. Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu — yoi neiaeiay
iiiaiio?aneaaay nenoaia, aeeth/athuay eiiieaenu iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?acaeooth iai?iecaiaenoaaiioth noa?o. A
aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa ?anniio?aii aeeyiea ia iio?aaeaiea oiieeaa
oaeeo oaeoi?ia, eae no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey, iao/ii-oaoie/aneee
i?ia?ann, ianooaau yia?ainaa?aaeaiey, ia?aoiae e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi,
eciaiaiea oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. I?iaaaeaiiue oaeoi?iue aiaeec iicaieee
ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iio?aaeaiey
oiieeaa e eo/oa iiiyoue oaiaeaioeee a oiieeaiiio?aaeaiee, iaiaoeaoeany
a io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe. O?iaaiue oiieeaiiio?aaeaiey caaeneo io
iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee e oaeaeueiuo ?anoiaeia
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia ia aa i?iecaiaenoai. Oaeaeueiua
?anoiaeu oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia a naith i/a?aaeue a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaenyo io oaoiieiae/aneiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa.
Yooaeoeaiay yia?ainaa?aaathuay iieeoeea aeieaeia iaania/eoue oaeoth
no?oeoo?ioth e oaoiieiae/aneoth ia?ano?ieeo yeiiiieee no?aiu e
i?iaaaeaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, eioi?ua au iaania/eee
ieieiecaoeeth ?anoiaea oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia. Ianiio?y ia
aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaiu, yoio i?ioeann eaeao e?aeia iaaeeaiii.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?eaaaeaia yia?ai-yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea Oe?aeiu e
aa ?aaeiiia. Auiieiai iaiauathuee aiaeec iieacaoaeae a ?aaeiiao, a
oaeaea ia iaae?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia. Nouanoaaiiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey yoeo
iieacaoaeae naycaia ni neiaeeaoaeny io?aneaaie no?oeoo?ie yeiiiieee.
Aiaeec i?iaiaeeeny a oaycea n o?iaiai oicyenoaaiiie niaoeeaeecaoeee
?aaeiiia. A ?aaioa ooi/iai i?iaiic iniiaiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae ?acaeoey yeiiiieee ia ia?eiae aei 2015 a. ?ac?aaioea e
?aaeecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
iieiaa niaeaniauaaoue oa??eoi?eaeueiua e io?aneaaua eioa?anu.

A i?iaiiciii ia?eiaea iiauoaaony ?ieue oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai
eiiieaena a yia?aiiaania/aiee yeiiiieee. Ia?aueaaiea aeiau/e
i?e?iaeiiai oiieeaa iicaieyao nieceoue caaeneiinoue yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu
io aai eiii?oa. Ia?aueaaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa i?e?iaeiiai oiieeaa
iaania/eaaoueny ca n/ao ?inoa aeiau/e oaey, iaooe, i?e?iaeiiai aaca e
inaiaiey ?ano?nia iaoaia oaieueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. I?iaiice?oaony
oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa oiaa?iiai oaey ca n/ao oaeoaeaiey oaeaiaiaauaiey.

Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iaiiciiai oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai
aaeaina caeeth/aaony a iieiii e iaaeaaeiii iaania/aiee yeiiiieee
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeie ?ano?naie ca n/ao ia?aueaaiey nianoaaiiie
aeiau/e (i?iecaiaenoaa) oiieeaa, i?iaaaeaiey ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena iiae eiio?ieai ainoaea?noaa e
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee enoi/ieeia oiieeaiiio?aaeaiey, iniaaiii, ii i?e?iaeiiio
aaco e iaooe, a oaeaea ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aii yia?ainaa?aaeaiey.A 2015 a.
aei 80% anaai i?e?inoa iio?aaeaiey oiieeaa (ii ioiioaieth e 1995 a.)
aoaeao iie?uaaoueny ca n/ao aai eo/oaai eniieueciaaiey, /oi iicaieeo
nyeiiiieoue 49.8 iei.o o.o. Yia?aiaieinoue aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai
i?iaeoeoa nieceony a 2015 a. ia 15.5% i?ioea 1995 a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iio?aaeaiea oiieeaa, ?ano?nu, ?aaeiiu, no?oeoo?iua
naeaeae, oaoiieiae/aneea eciaiaiey, yia?ainaa?aaeaiea, oaeoi?u,
i?iaiic, i?iiuoeaiiinoue, oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee aaeain.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 11.02.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60o84/16.

Iai?? oei.? 1. Ion.ae?oe.Oiia.ae?oe.a?e.1.0.

Iae.-aeae.a?e.0.7. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Aaceiooiaii.

?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo ne Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

252032, Ee?a-32, aoeueaa? O.Oaa/aiea, 60.

Ae?eueieoey iia?aoeaiiai ae?oeo ?AIN Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

252032, Ee?a-32, aoeueaa? O.Oaa/aiea, 60

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