?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE AII OE?A?IE

AIE*OE IAO?I IEEEOIAE*

OAeE 373.82 : 330

AEIIII?*IA AEOIAAIIss NOOAeAIO?A IAAeAAIA?*IEO O*EEEU

13.00.01 – Oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aieeinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaaeaeea Ieaa Naiaiiae/,

i?i?aeoi? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ne?ioaiei Aiaoie?e Eineiiae/,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee eaai?aoi???

iaoiaeeee aaia?ao?? ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee AII

Oe?a?ie;

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Oiae Ieaenaiae? Oeoiiiae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ??aiainueeee aea?aeaaiee aoiai?oa?iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. ??aia

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26. 452. 03 a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252053, i. Ee?a, aoe. A?oaia, 52a

3 aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “14” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

i?ioani? I.I. Eaaeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy,
nie?ath/enue ia oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iniaenoino? ye
iaiao?aeii? oiiae aeey ooaa?aeaeaiiy iiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu, ia?aaeaa/a? aeae?eaiiy iaea?eueo
aaaeeeaeo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a iaoiaee/ieo ciaiue o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy
o/i?a. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeiaaa? aoaeoeaiiai oaeineiiaeaiiy e aoiai?caoe??
ci?noo iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? iaoiae?a o canai?ii?
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aniaeo?a aeoiaiiai i?ioeano iaeaooi?ie oao?aoeyie.

Aaaeeeaei aniaeoii o nenoai? aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? ? aeyaeaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo cae?aiinoae nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu, oe?eani?yiiaaiee
?icaeoie ?o no/aniiai aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy. Iecueea aoaeoeai?noue
oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino? iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? iaaeo/eeeu ? ?acoeueoaoii iaaeinoaoiuei?
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iniaenoino?. Iaei??th c i?e/ei oaeiai noaio ?
iaaeiioe?iea ?ie? aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ia no/aniiio aoai? noaiiaeaiiy
iieiaeoiai niaoe?ae?noa. sse iane?aeie, cai?noue iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii?
nenoaie aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? o iaaeo/eeeuao i?iaiaeyoueny
iiiaeeiie? caoiaee aeiiii?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy, ui ia aea? iiaeeeaino?
iiaiith i??ith noi?ioaaoe iaoiaee/i? iaae/ee aeey i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?. Naia oiio iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu ? iaei??th c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai ?iaioe
iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a ?-?? ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??.

Nooaeaio iaaeo/eeeua ? ia’?eoii ? noa’?eoii ?icaeoeo, iaa/aiiy oa
aeoiaaiiy ae?eiaeo yeinoae iniaenoino?. Ioaea, aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy ?
iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo eiiiiiaio?a i?aeaioiaee no/aniiai oao?aoey, ui
aaco?oueny ia iaa?oiooaaii? oa ocaaaeueiaii? iaoeiai? oai???,
a?aoiaoth/e aii??e/i? oaeoe oa yaeua, a?aeiia?aeii aei ?icaeoeo
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee oa aeiiii?ee noni?euenoaa.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeee, ui /anoi aeieea? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue
i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? oei caaaeaiiyi, ye?
noaaeoue noni?euenoai ia?aae ina?oith, oiio ui a?aenooi? ie?ai?
iaoiaeeee, iaiao?aei? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ia’?eoeaiiai ineoieia?/iiai
noaio nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue
i?aenoaao c?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiiy i?i oa, ui oaeee noai coiiaeaiee
iaaeinoaoiueith oaaaith c aieo iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee.

I?iaiaey/e aeine?aeaeaiiy, anoaiiaeee, ui ie?ai? a/ai? i?eae?eyee
aeinoaoiuei oaaae aeiiii?/i?e ina?o? o/i?a a caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie?
(E.?. Aiooaei, A.A. Aaneeue?a, A.N. I?n?i/oe, ?.O. I?ieiiaiei,
I.O. Oiae); aeiiii?/i?e i?aeaioiaoe? nooaeaio?a (I.I. E?aa/oe,
A.I. Iaaec?aii, A.E. Ne?ioaiei, ?.I. Niiethe, I.N. Iaaeaeea oa ?i.);
aeiiii?/iiio aeoiaaiith o/i?a i?nueeeo oe?e (?.I. Ia/oeea, I.I. Nia/oe
oa ?i.).

I?iaeaie aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iieiae? ae??ooaaeeny ia o?einionueeiio
(A.I. Aiae?ouaiei, A.N. Aeaca?iai, A.A. Cae?aaiieneia,
I.?. Ieoaeue/aiei, A.I. Oo?aa?iia, A.ss. ssaeia), nioe?ieia?/iiio
(E.I. Ao?aa, A.A. E?ooaoeueeee, E.E. Ieaoiiia) oa ?i. ??aiyo. O
iaaeaaia?/iiio ieai? caaaeueiioai?aoe/ia ?ice?eooy ieoaiue o?oaeiaiai oa
aeiiii?/iiai, ii?aeueiiai oa anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy ye aaaeeeaeo noi??i
?icaeoeo yeinoae iniaenoino? no/aniiai i?aoe?aieea ciaeoei
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo A. Aauaiea, I.?. Aieaee?aaa,
Ae.A. Niaoai?ia, A.?. Ianeiaa, A.I. Iaaec?aiia, I.Ae. ss?ia/aiea oa ?i.

Aei aiae?co i?aoeue iacaaieo aeua aaoi??a ie i?aeoiaeeee e?eoe/ii c
iiceoe?e no/aniiai ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee, a?aooaaiiy aeinyaiaiue
c oaoiieia?? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?.

A?eueo oe?iea aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy
iieiae? i?iaaee A.O. Aiaiae, A.E. Aooeae, TH.E. Aaneeue?a,
E.TH. Ai?ae?i, I.A. Iaeeoaa, ?.A. Naniaa, ?.I. Niiethe oa ?i. a/ai?.

C i?iaeaie aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu iaaecae/aeii
iaei aeine?aeaeaiue ye i?eeeaaeiiai, oae ? eiiieaeniiai ieaio. Oea a
ia?oo /a?ao noino?oueny aiae?co ci?noo, oi?i oa iaoiae?a oi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy iaeaooi?o oao?aoe?a o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio
i?ioean?; ia aecia/ai? iaeaaaeeea?o? iaaeaaia?/i? aeiiae aeey ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino?; iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiee iayaiee aeina?ae
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu. Ana oea cieaeo?
aoaeoeai?noue aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?, ia aeicaiey? a iaai?e
i??? ?aae?coaaoe iiaeeeaino? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo iaeaooi?o oao?aoe?a.
Oiio oaiith iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ie ia?aee “Aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu”.

Ca’ycie i?iaeaie c iaoeiaeie oaiaie, ieaiaie oa i?ia?aiaie.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoiaeeoue ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia aei
caaaeueii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiue Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee – “No/ani? iaaeaaia?/i? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy ?
aeoiaaiiy o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe, IOO, iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeuao”.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, ai?iue
oa iaae/ie o nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, oaoiieia?y, caniae,
oi?ie, iaoiaee aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaeaooi?o oao?aoe?a.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – ia iniia? aiae?co oai?aoe/ieo aeaea?ae,
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee ?iaioe iaaeo/eeeu iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu.

A iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai? ie?ai? aniaeoe eiioeaioe?? iiaiai
i?aeoiaeo aei i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo
o/eeeu, nooue yei? iieyaa? a ea?aeeiaeueiiio ia?aaeyae? iaoe, ci?noo,
oi?i oa iaoiae?a aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaeaooi?o oao?aoe?a o i?ioean?
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, a?aooaaii? no/anieo aeiia
?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino?, ieneaiiy, i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
iniaenoino? a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Aieiaia ?aeay oa iniiai? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeai? o
caaaeuei?e a?iioac?, yea ia?aaeaa/a? aeeth/aiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo
o/eeeu a canai?iiy aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie, a noai?aiiy
iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae aeey noni?euenoaa, ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith
iaoiaee/ieo canaae aeoiaii? ?iaioe c iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie, oaeineiiaeth?
i?aeoe/io iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue, ui iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie
aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino? iniaenoino?, ?? ii?aeueieo yeinoae.

Aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu ie ?icaeyaea?ii /a?ac
oe?e?nio nenoaio aeiiii?/ii? i?aeaioiaee, ?icaeoie eia?/iiai ieneaiiy oa
iiceoeaio iiaaae?ieo iniaenoino?; nenoaiaoe/ia canai?iiy i?eeii?a
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? iieiaeoeie
niaoe?ae?noaie, ?o oai?/a ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c aeeeaaea/aie.

Ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa oa a?iioaca aeiaaathoue ae??oaiiy oaeeo iniiaieo
caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Cae?enieoe nenoaiii-?noi?e/iee aiae?c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a
oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu.

2. Aea/eoe oa ocaaaeueieoe iiceoeaiee i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae ?iaioe
iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu, aeine?aeeoe iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a.

3. I?iaiae?coaaoe ? ai?iaoaaoe ??aaiue i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy oa aoaeoeai?noue canai?iiy aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue nooaeaioaie o
i?ioean? aea/aiiy ii?iaoeaii-niaoe?aeueieo i?aaeiao?a.

4. Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu, ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aeeeaaea/?a iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a ?-?? ??ai?a
ae?aaeeoaoe??.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue nenoaia ciaiue i?i
aeo?aei? aeiiii?/ii-o?einionuee? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? oae? aniaeoe: ?aoe?iiaeueia a/aiiy i?i no?oeoo?o ? ooieoe??
iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy; no/ani? ooiaeaiaioaeuei?, caaaeueiiiaoeia?
iieiaeaiiy (a?iioace, eiioeaioe??, oai???); a/aiiy i?i iaoiaee iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy; aiae?c aii??e/ieo oaeo?a aeey noai?aiiy oai???
aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe a?aeiia?aeii aei ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee oa
aoae?aieoeoaa aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith oai?aoe/ieo oa aii??e/ieo
iaoiae?a. Iniiaieie oai?aoe/ieie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue:
iaoiae oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co oa neioaco; ?noi?eei-eia?/iee iaoiae; iaoiae
eia?/iiai ieneaiiy a?ae aano?aeoiiai aei eiie?aoiiai, iaoiae aea/aiiy
aeieoiaioaoe??, iaoiae iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue c 1993 aei 1999 ?ieo aeeth/ii o
iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeuao Aieeinueei? oa ??aiainueei? iaeanoae Oe?a?ie.
Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aee aeaa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeua: Eooeueea oa Aieiaeeie?-Aieeinueea, a yeeo aoei
i?aai?ciaaii nenoaiaoe/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ca 467 nooaeaioaie oa
ai?ciaee/ia – ca 228. A aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ?iaio? a?aee o/anoue 63
aeeeaaea/?-i?aaeiaoieee, 28 ea??aiee?a a?oi, 4 canooiieee aee?aeoi??a,
4 aee?aeoi?e iaaeo/eeeu.

Eiio?ieueieie iaaeaaia?/ieie o/eeeuaie aoee ia?ai? Aeoai?anueea oa
Na?iainueea, ye? ?ici?uai? ia oa?eoi??? ??aiainueei? iaeano?. A
aeine?aeaeaii? oiiaii aeae?ey?ii o?e iniiai? aoaie.

Ia?oee aoai – iiooeiaee. A?i ioiieth? ia??iae c 1993 ii 1994 ??e, ui
aeeth/a?: aea/aiiy iaoeiaeo aeaea?ae i?i aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy; ca??
iaoa??aeo i?i o?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy, aeiiii?/io ina?oo, aeiiii?/i? ciaiiy
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaiaoe/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue, aieaooaaiue, aeei?enoaiiy oano?a.

E??i nenoaiaoe/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue, iaie aeei?enoiaoaaany iaoiae aan?aee,
aieaoe ?c i?ae?a?aieie ieoaiiyie. Ie aeine?aeeee ? ii?aoethaaee 917
aieao nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu.

Ae?oaee aoai – aeine?aeieoeueei-aenia?eiaioaeueiee. A?i ioiieth? ia??iae
c 1994 ii 1998 ?iee aeeth/ii. Ia oeueiio aoai? i?iaiaeeany aenia?eiaio o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?ic?iaeaiith ?ai?oa i?ia?aiith oa iaoiaeeeith
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aoei aea/aii aieea ia?aaeaa/aieo a aenia?eiaio?
iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia oa iaoiaee/ieo i?eeii?a ia aoaeoeai?noue aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu ye ?aaeueio iiaeeea?noue
?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy (1998 ?. ii aeaiee /an)
cae?enithaaeinue oaeineiiaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaie iaoiaeeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoaiaoe/ii-noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea iaea?aeaieo aeaieo,
i?iaiaeeeinue ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iaaeaaiue oa ioae?eaoe??
iaoa??ae?a iiooeiai-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa
oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaothoueny
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae nenoaiaoe/iiai aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu. Oaeineiiaeaii oaoiieia?th aeiiii?/ii?
ina?oe, eiie?aoeciaaii iaoiaee aeoeaiiai aeoiaiiai aieeao ia
iniaeno?noue oa iaa?oioiaaii i?eioeei oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai ci?noo
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu aeey ?icaeoeo ?o
noni?eueii? aeoeaiino?, ine?eueee ?ioaa?oaaiiy ?aeiino? yeinoae
iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a (aa?aaeeea?noue, ae?eiaeo?noue, ?i?oe?aoeai?noue
oa ?i.) oi?iothoue iiceoeaio aeiiii?/io na?aeii?noue.

A?aoiaioiaaii ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy, aecia/aii
??ai? noi?iiaaiino? canai?iiy aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue nooaeaioaie
iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu o i?ioean? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo i?iaaaeaiiy aeoiaieo caoiae?a aeiiii?/iiai
ni?yioaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o
ae?iaeaii? eiie?aoieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, ni?yiiaaiiai ia nenoaiaoecaoe?th
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu, iaiao?aeieo aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy aeoiaii? ?iaioe c o/iyie. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? ye aeey ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiiy i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a, oae ? a i?ioean? i?neyaeeieiiii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoae?a ii/aoeiai? oeiee.

?ic?iaeaii i?iaeoe iaa/aeueieo ieai?a aeey niaoe?aeueiinoae “Ii/aoeiaa
iaa/aiiy”, “Aeioe?eueia aeoiaaiiy”, “Ioce/ia aeoiaaiiy”, “Iaaeaaia?ea ?
iaoiaeeea na?aaeiuei? ina?oe. O?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy”, a yeeo a?aoiaaii
iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o aecia/aii? oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue,
ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniaeeaino? aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a
iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu, o ?ic?iaoe? iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, ui caaacia/othoue
aoaeoeai?noue canai?iiy aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue iieiaeoeie niaoe?ae?noaie,
iaa?oioiaaieo o iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee a?aoiaai? i?e iaienaii? iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, i?e neeaaeaii? ?iai/eo iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai c i?aaeiao?a:
iaaeaaia?ee, aaia?ao??, iaoaiaoeee, o?ceee, iniia aeiiii?/ii? oai???,
iniia i?aaa, iniia oi?aae?iiy ? i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio,
ui ie nie?aeenue ia i?aai?/i? ca’ycee aeiiii?/ii? oai??? oa i?aeoeee,
aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/aee cia/aiiy o?oaeiai? oa aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu, aiae?coaaee nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaeaooi?o iaaeaaia?a.

Aeine?aeieoeueei-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa, yea i?iaeiaaeoaaeany
aeae?eueea ?ie?a, caeiaea o aeine?aeaeaii? oeaio?aeueia i?noea. Iaoeia?
iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye? noi?ioeueiaai? o
aeena?oaoe??, iaiaeii?aciai ia?aa??yeeny o i?ioean?
aeine?aeieoeueei-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio
i?ioean? iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu. Aiie aeiiiiiaee oaeineiiaeeoe oai??th oa
i?aeoeeo aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaeaooi?o iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ai?iaaoe?y
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeanue o i?ioean?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, ia?aa??ee ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu, iaaiai?thaaeany ia eaoaae?ao
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee (1995, 1996,
1997, 1998), ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo o i. Eooeueeo,
i. ??aiiio, i. Ee?a?, i. A?ano? (A?ei?on?y).

Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? ?iaioe aeei?enoiaoaaeeny o aenooiao oa iia?aeiieaiiyo
ia iaeanieo iaaeaaia?/ieo /eoaiiyo, ia iaoiaee/i?e ?aae? Aieeinueeiai
iaeaniiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa. Aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny o eaeoe?yo, ye? /eoaeeny aaoi?ii o aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao Aieei? ?-?? ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??.

Ioae?eaoe??.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii o 7 iaoeiaeo oa
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeyo, o oiio /ene? o 4 ca??ieeao oa aeo?iaeao,
caoaa?aeaeaieo AAE, 4 iaeiiin?aieo – caaaeueiei ianyaii 6 ae?oeiaaieo
a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, 3 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
aeiaeaoe?a. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? ia 147 noi??ieao
ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, i?noyoue 43 oaaeeoe? ? 2 ?enoiee. O aeena?oaoe??
aeei?enoaii 200 e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, c yeeo 8 ?iicaiiith iiaith.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii iaoo, ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, a?iioaco ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneaii
aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue i?iaeaie iaoeiaiai iiooeo, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoeiao
iiaecio, ?ice?eoi i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a,
ai?iaaoe?th iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiai-iiooeiai? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
iniaenoino?” ?icaeyaeathoueny ?noi?e/i? aniaeoe aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
iieiae?; iaaeaaia?/i? iniaeeaino? aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy nooaeaio?a;
oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino? iniaenoino?.

O aeine?aeaeaii? ieoaiue aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo
o/eeeu, aiae?co ca’yceo iaa/aiiy c noni?eueii ei?eniith i?aoeath oa
?ioeie i?iaeaiaie aeiiii?ee ie aeei?enoaee iaoeia? i?aoe? aeaeaoieo
iaaeaaia?a – I.I. Aeiinueeiai, N.O. Oaoeueeiai, A.N. Iaea?aiea,
A.I. Nooiieeinueeiai.

A ?o iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo iaa?oioiao?oueny oaca i?i oa, ui ?icaeoie
iniaenoino? iaiiaeeeaee, yeui o/i? ia aoaeooue a?aoe nenoaiaoe/ii?
o/ano? a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e oa iicaiaa/aeuei?e ae?yeueiino?.
I.I. Aeiinueeee o nai?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo a?aecia/aa, ui a
?iaeono??aeueiiio aeoiaaii? iaeaaaeeea?oee iiiaio – oea eiai
i?aai?caoe?y, eiee iieiaeue naia ciaoiaeeoue iaiao?aeiee iaoa??ae,
caaacia/o? naaa iaiao?aeiei ?iaaioa?ai, i?aai?ciao? athaeaeao,
i?iaiaeeoue eoeueoo?ia aeica?eey oa ?icaaae ? o.ae. Cia/aiiy oeueiai
aeey aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy thiae?a oa ae?a/ao i/aaeaeia. Aeei?enoaiee o
o? ?iee oa?i?i “?iaeono??aeueia aeoiaaiiy” a?aeiia?aea? no/aniiio
?icoi?iith aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?.

Na?aae inoaii?o iaoeiaeo iia?aeiieaiue iaoo oaaao i?eaa?ioee iaoiaee/i?
iin?aieee I.I. Aa/aanueeiai, I.N. Iaaeaeee, I.O. Oiaea, A.I. Oaiioueea
“Iciaeiieaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae? c iniiaieie iiiyooyie ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee ia o?ieao o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy” (1995) oa “O/eoaeth i?i
aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy o/i?a: ieoaiiy aaiaceno ? eiiiaoaioiino?” (1998), a
yeeo iiaeathoueny iia? i?aeoiaee aei ?icoi?iiy aeooaeueiino?
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? a ?aaeueieo oiiaao ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei.

I?iaaaeaiee iaie aiae?c aeeiai?ee ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? i?iaeaie
aeicaieea iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeeeo aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe o oae?e
iine?aeiaiino?: ?ice?eoe ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniaeeaino? aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a ?-?? eo?n?a iaaeo/eeeu; caaacia/eoe oai?/o oa
aeiiii?/io ni?yiiaai?noue iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? i?aoe? iaeaooi?o
niaoe?ae?no?a ???-?V eo?n?a c a?aooaaiiyi ?aaeueieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia,
ui caaacia/othoue aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?; ?icaeaaoe o
aeioneiee?a iaaeo/eeeu oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? oa oi?iiy ioe?ieoe naith
i?aoeth ? i?aoeth iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

I?iaiaey/e aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie anoaiiaeee, ui aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy
iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a – oea ae?iaeaiiy o nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu /?oei?
oyae i?i iaoeia? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, iniaeeaino? ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, oe?eani?yiiaaia, nenoaiaoe/ia oi?ioaaiiy o aeioneiee?a
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, aeniei? i?aai?ciaaiino? oa oai?/i? ?i?oe?aoeae,
ai?eiai, aa?aaeeeaiai noaaeaiiy aei i?e?iaee, oaeineiiaeaiiy iaae/ie
i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o iaeaooi?e iaaeaaia?/i?e
ae?yeueiino?.

Iniiaia caaaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy – oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy o nooaeaio?a a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, iio??aii ?ic??ciyoe ? i?ii?aei? caaaeaiiy: a)
?ice?eooy aeey eiaeiiai niaoe?ae?noa nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aniaeo?a
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?, aacoth/enue ia aeina?ae? i?aeoe/ii?
?iaioe no/aniiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo oa aeinyaiaiiyo iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaoee; a) iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? iino?eiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiaeeee aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu o ?aaeueieo oiiaao
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano; a) aeoea?caoe?y oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a /a?ac iiaeaaaeaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaa/aeueii?, a?iiaaenueei-i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ocaaaeueiaii oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino?
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu:

aea/aiiy iaeaooi?ie iieiaeoeie niaoe?ae?noaie iniiaieo iai?yie?a
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie;

oi?ioaaiiy aeaaeeeaiai noaaeaiiy aei i?e?iaee, aa?aaeeeaiai – aei
i?iaeoeo?a i?aoe?, iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae, eieaeie, iniaenoeo ?a/ae;

ae?iaeaiiy oa i?euaieaiiy iaae/ie ?aoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? oa
aeiiiiiiai aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoo /ano, ye iaa/aeueiiai, oae ?
iniaenoiai;

oi?ioaaiiy aeaiaioa?ieo iaae/ie aeiiii?/iiai ?aooieo, ai?iiy
ni?aa?aeiineoe cao?aoe i?aoe? e e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao c eiaeiiai aeaeo
ae?yeueiino?, ?icaeoie oa oaeineiiaeaiiy oaeeo ?en, ye aa?aaeeea?noue,
ethaeyi?noue, ?i?oe?aoeai?noue, ae?eiaeo?noue, aeenoeeie?iiaai?noue oa
?i.;

i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oiuei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a
iaaeo/eeeu c? nooaeaioaie.

Ie i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo, ui aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? – oea
i?aai?/ia ?aei?noue caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oa i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a, yea iaiao?aeia aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe c o/iyie ii/aoeiai? oeiee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Nenoaia aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a
iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu” aiae?cothoueny ?icaeoie aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue
iniaenoino? o iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?; oi?ioaaiiy o
nooaeaio?a iniia aeiiii?/ii? eoeueoo?e; aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo
niaoe?ae?no?a o iicaiaa/aeuei?e ae?yeueiino?.

I?ia?aeiith eaieith aeey nenoaiaoe/iiai aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaio?a ? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueia oa noni?eueii ei?enia
ae?yeuei?noue, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue oae? aeaee: iaa/aeueio,
ae?iaie/i-o?oaeiao, i?aai?caoe?eii-noni?eueio, oai?/o i?aoeth. Iniiaiei
e?eoa???i aeae?eaiiy i?ia?aeiiai oeio ae?yeueiino? aaaaea?oueny ?? aieea
ia iaaeaaia?/iee ?icaeoie i?ioan?eieo yeinoae iaeaooi?o iieiaeoeo
niaoe?ae?no?a. Aieiaiei o oeueiio i?ioean? ? ia o?enaoe?y oiai, ui
nooaeaio aeeiio? iaaio ae?yeuei?noue, a oi?ioaaiiy iaiao?aeieo iiaeo
aeiiii?/ieo yeinoae iniaenoino?.

I?ciaiiy – oea ineo?/iee i?ioean, ui a?aeia?aaea? iaaeieeoi?e na?o,
aeiiiiaaa? oi?ioaaoe aeiiii?/ia ieneaiiy, aieth, oa?aeoa?, i?ioan?ei?
yeino?.

I?ciaaaeueio ae?yeuei?noue a naith /a?ao iiaeia oiiaii iiaeaoe ye
nenoaio a?ae/ooo?a, ni?eeiaiue, i?ioean?a iai’yo?, iia?aoe?e ? oi?i
ieneaiiy oa oyae. Aac oaeiai aiae?co iaiiaeeeai eiie?aoii aea/eoe
ineo?/io ae?yeuei?noue iniaenoino?, oiio ui ciaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a
aieeaa? ia iaoeiao i?aai?caoe?th aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a
iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu.

Aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy aaco?oueny ia ni?eeiaii? iaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.
Ni?eeiaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? nooaeaioii caeaaeeoue a?ae ci?noo
iaa/aiiy, iaoiaeeee aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy, aeaniiai aeina?aeo.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy, yea aeei?enoiaoaaeanue iaie aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeueiiai noaaeaiiy ae?oaieo?niee?a aei ni?eeiaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, aeinoaoiuei /?oea, ia? iaaio iioeaaoe?th,
aeicaiey? oiiaii iiae?eeoe ?o ia a?oie, ui: 1) caeiathoue aeoeaio
iiceoe?th – 23%; 2) aeia?inia?nii aeeiiothoue a?iiaaenuee? aei?o/aiiy –
47%; 3) ?iaeeoa?aioii noaaeyoueny aei oe??? ?iaioe – 19,7%; 4)
oieeathoue o/ano? o i?e, aaca?aeiia?aeaeueii noaaeyoueny aei aei?o/aiue
eieaeoeao –10%.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai-iiooeiai? ?iaioe cana?ae/eee, ui ??aaiue ?icoi?iiy
iaeaooi?ie iieiaeoeie niaoe?ae?noaie aca?iica’yceo iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue
c aeiiii?/ieie caeiiii??iinoyie, i?i ye? aiie ae?ciathoueny a i?ioean?
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ? iaeiei ?c nooiai?a aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?. Cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy o
iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeuao ?icoe?th? noa?o i?ciaiiy, iniaeeaino?
canoinoaaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo aeiiii?/ieo yaeu, iiiyoue, caeiiii??iinoae,
caeii?a, aeiiiiaaa? iiaa/eoe ?o o ?icaeoeo, aeeaoa i?iieeiooe a
nooi?noue. Oea ni?ey? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, oi?ioaaiith ai?iue oa
iaae/ie oai?/iai ae??oaiiy iaaieo aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai, i?aeaeuaiith
caaaeueiiina?oiueiai oa i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui nooaeaioe aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie iaaaaaoi oni?oi?oa
canai?ee aeaiaioe aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, ye? iia’ycai? c iiaeie ia’?eoaie
i?aoe?: ca iieacieeii aeei?enoaiiy i?eeii?a oai?/i? ?iaioe ia 50% aeua,
i?ae o eiio?ieuei?e a?oi?, a ca iieacieeii yeino? oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? –
ia 25%. Aiae?c iaaaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo aea? i?aenoaao
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy iiceoeaiiai aeiiii?/iiai aeina?aeo
aoaea i?ioiaeeoe a?eueo aoaeoeaii o oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui oi?iiy, iaae/ee
oai?/iai noaaeaiiy aei aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy o nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu
aoaeooue oi?ioaaoenue c iii?ith ia aeyaeai? eiiiiiaioe, ye? aecia/athoue
?o no?eeee ??aaiue, ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy.

Ie ia?aaeaa/eee, ui a iiiyooy “aeiiii?/ia eoeueoo?a” iiaeii? aoiaeeoe
oae? aniaeoe: 1) caaaeueiiina?oi? oa niaoe?aeuei? aeiiii?/i? ciaiiy; 2)
i?aaeea oaoi?ee aaciaee ? oaoiieia?y oai?/i? i?aoe?; 3) ai?iiy
nooaeaio?a ieaioaaoe ? ?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe /an; 4)  aaaeaiiy
nooaeaio?a aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iia?oi? oaoiieia??; 5) oi?iiy
iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a ?iaeoe aeiiii?/iee aiae?c i?iaaaeaii? noni?eueii
ei?enii? i?aoe?.

Oaeei /eiii, i?ae iiiyooyi “aeiiii?/ia eoeueoo?a” aa?oi ?icoi?oe
canai?iiy iaaii? noie aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue oa i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue
nooaeaioaie, iaiao?aeieo aeey i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
c iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie, yeee ae caaacia/ea ye?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue ?o
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiae?ciaaii oiiae aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a o i?ioean? iicaiaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?. Ca ??aiai
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o noaaeaii? aei noni?eueii ei?enii? i?aoe?
nooaeaio?a oiiaii ?icae?eeee ia o?e a?oie: 1 a?oia – iaeaooi? iieiaeo?
niaoe?ae?noe, ye? iaaeathoue ia?aaaao noni?eueii ei?eni?e i?aoe?;
2 a?oia – nooaeaioe, ye? iathoue aaaeaiiy, iaae/ee, ?i?oe?aoeao aei
aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?; 3 a?oia – nooaeaioe, ye? ia aeyaeee
aaaeaiiy caeiaoeny iicao?i/iith ae?yeuei?noth. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
iiaea?ii o oaaeeoe? 1.

Oaaeeoey 1

A?oie Nooaeaioe aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie Nooaeaioe eiio?ieueii? a?oie

?? eo?n ??? eo?n ?V eo?n ?? eo?n ??? eo?n ?V eo?n

? 36,5 38,7 33,5 17,6 18,5 18,3

?? 32,4 31,6 33,4 39,0 39,2 39,5

??? 31,1 29,7 33,1 43,4 42,3 42,2

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iaea?aeaieo aeaieo aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiiy
i?i oa, ui a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao nooaeaio?a, oiiaii a?aeianaieo
iaie aei ? a?oie, aoei: ia ?? eo?n? – 36,5%, ia ??? – 38,7%, ia ?V –
33,5%, oiae? ye o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao a?aeiia?aeii: ia ?? eo?n? – 17,6%,
ia ??? – 18,5%, ia ?V – 18,3%.

?acoeueoaoe, ye? ie io?eiaee i?e ocaaaeueiaii? iioea?a, ui aecia/athoue
noaaeaiiy iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a aeaio ia?oeo a?oi aei noni?eueii ei?enii?
i?aoe?, iieacaa, ui iaei? nooaeaioe ni?eeiathoue oeth i?aoeth ye
iaiao?aei?noue, ae?oa? – ye a?iiaaenueeee iaia’ycie, o?ao? – noaaeyoueny
aei ia? c ii/oooyi a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, o /aoaa?oeo (aiie neeaaeathoue
iniaeeai aaeeeo a?oio) – i?iyaey?oueny iioya aei a?iiaaenueei-ei?enii?
i?aoe? ye ?aaeueii? iiaeeeaino? cayaeoe i?i naaa, aeyaeoe naaa e?aea?ii
na?aae iaeiieo?niee?a.

Ioaea, cai?iiiiiaai? oiiae aeicaieythoue cia/ii i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaeaooi?o iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?aae?caoe?y oaoiieia?? aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
iaeaooi?o iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a” ocaaaeueith?oueny oaoiieia?y
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy; aeeiai?ea
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo ?en iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a.

O i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ie cae?enieee oiiaiee ?iciiae?e
nooaeaio?a ia a?oie, i?iaiae?coaaee ???a?o?th noaaeaiiy ?o aei iaa/aiiy,
o/ano? a eiie?aoi?e a?iiaaenuee?e ae?yeueiino?, ii/eiath/e c 1994 aei
1998 ?.?. Oea aeaei ciiao ?aaeueii ioe?ieoe ?icaeoie aeiiii?/ieo yeinoae
o nooaeaio?a 7 aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa 7 eiio?ieueieo a?oi. ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiai aenia?eiaioo iiaeathoueny o oaaeeoe? 2.

Aeei?enoiaoaaeany niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaia ea?oa, a ye?e ??ciee nooi?iue
aeiiii?/ieo yeinoae ioe?ithaaany a aaeao. Nii/aoeo eiaeai iaeaooi?e
iieiaeoee niaoe?ae?no aeaa naiiioe?ieo nooiaith ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo
yeinoae: i?aoeueiaeoino?, aa?aaeeeaino?, aeiiiiiino? oa ?i. Iio?i
ioe?iea aeaaaeany a?oiith “aenia?o?a” (ea??aieee a?oi, aeeeaaea/?
aaciaeo i?aaeiao?a, iaoiaeenoe-ea??aieee iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee), ye?
aecia/aee nooi?iue ?icaeoeo yeinoae eiaeiiai nooaeaioa.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aeiiii?/i? yeino? nooaeaio?a Nooi?iue ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo yeinoae (o
aaeao)

Naiiioe?iea Ioe?iea aenia?o?a ??cieoey a ioe?ieao

1. I?aoeueiaeo?noue 4,5 4,7 -0,2

2. Aa?aaeeea?noue 4,3 4,1 +0,2

3. Aeiiiii?noue 3,9 4,2 -0,3

4. Aeenoeeie?iiaai?noue 3,6 3,7 -0,1

5. ?i?oe?aoeai?noue 3,6 3,2 +0,4

6. I?aai?ciaai?noue 3,8 3,5 +0,3

7. Ae?eiaeo?noue 3,5 3,4 +0,1

Na?aaei?e aae 3,74 3,82 0,02

C aiae?co aeaieo, iaaaaeaieo o oaaeeoe? 2, aeaeii, ui a oe?eiio
naiiioe?iea nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi nooiaiy ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?/ieo yeinoae ? ioe?iee c aieo “aenia?o?a” i?aeoe/ii
ni?aiaaeathoue (??cieoey 0,02 aaee). Aea ca ie?aieie yeinoyie ??cieoey
eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao a?ae -0,1 aei +0,4.

I?e/iio iaeiaio ?icaeiooeie aaaaeaeeny oae? yeino?, ye aeiiiii?noue,
ae?eiaeo?noue, aeenoeeie?iiaai?noue, ?i?oe?aoeai?noue o i?ioean?
iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe, noni?euei?e i?aoe?, naiiianeoaiaoaaii?. Ioaea,
aeiiii?/i? ciaiiy, ye? io?eiai? i?e aea/aii? eo?n?a iniia iaoe oa ia
caiyooyo, a oaeiae ia iniia? naiiina?oe, aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo,
aeyaeythoueny iaaeinoaoi?ie aeey oi?ioaaiiy o iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a
iaiao?aeieo yeinoae.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee a?iioaco i?i oa, ui ai?iiy
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a ieaioaaoe aeeiiaiiy oai?/eo caaaeaiue a i?ioean?
iaa/aiiy c?inoa? a?ae eo?no aei eo?no. Eiee ia ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo, a
yeiio a?aei o/anoue 17 nooaeaio?a 2 a?oi (6 o eiio?ieueieo ? 11 a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo), iaeaeui? ioe?iee ia iaea?aeaa aeiaeai nooaeaio,
aeia?o – eeoa 7,3% ? 18,8%, a na?aaeith – 28,5% ? 23,7% a?aeiia?aeii o
eiio?ieueieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao, oi i?ney cae?i/aiiy
aenia?eiaioo o nooaeaio?a 2 a?oi iaeaeu? ioe?iee aoee o 4,4% oa 12,2%, a
aeia?? – o 15,3% oa 32,7% a o?e aea a?aeiia?aeiino?.

O ieai? i?aai?caoe?? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aeinue aeyaeoe
aeeiai?eo oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo ?en nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu, ?o
noaaeaiiy aei iiaeeeainoae aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
i?ae /an aea/aiiy i?aaeiao?a i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/iiai oa aoiai?oa?iiai
oeeee?a, a oaeiae o i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy iicao?i/ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe.
Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeyaeaiiy ?ioa?ano aei cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?a o iicaiaa/aeuei?e ae?yeueiino? iiaea?ii o oaaeeoe? 3.

Oaaeeoey 3

Niaoe?aeuei?noue No?eeee

?ioa?an Ciai?oi?e

?ioa?an Ianeaiee

?ioa?an ?iaeeoa?aioiee

?ioa?an Iaaaoeaiee

?ioa?an

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? a?oie

1994 1996 1994 1996 1994 1996 1994 1996 1994
1996

Ii/aoeiaa iaa/aiiy 33,7 37,2 28,1 28,3 22,1 22,6
10,1 11,1 6,0 0,8

Ioce/ia aeoiaaiiy 29,1 32,1 25,4 26,2 28,1 29,3
9,2 9,5 8,2 2,9

Aiae?c aeaieo, iaaaaeaieo o oaaeeoe? 3, aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiiy
i?i oa, ui no?eeee ?ioa?an aei i?iaaaeaiiy aeoiaii? iicaiaa/aeueii?
?iaioe c ieoaiue aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? aeyaeythoue 37,2%
iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, a a/eoae?a ioceee – 32,1%.

O i?ioean? oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo, yeee i?iaiaeeany o Eooeueeiio oa
Aieiaeeie?-Aieeinueeiio iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeuao, iai aaeaeinue
anoaiiaeoe, ui iaei??th ?c iniaeeainoae i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy no?eeeo
aeiiii?/ieo yeinoae o nooaeaio?a ? aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie iniaenoino?,
aoaeoeai?noue yeiai caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ioaineaiino? iaa/aiiy ia iaaiiio
eo?n?. Iaea?aeai? noaoenoe/i? aeai?, i?ney a?aeiia?aeii? iaoaiaoe/ii?
ia?iaee, iiaea?ii o oaaeeoe? 4.

Oaaeeoey 4

Iioeae ?iee oa eo?ne

? ?? ??? ?V

1996 1998 1996 1998 1996 1998 1996 1998

No?ee? 56,4 55,8 63,9 61,6 68,3 70,5 75,4
76,1

Iano?ee? 43,6 44,2 36,1 38,4 31,7 29,5
24,6 23,9

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiiy i?i
oa, ui, ii/eiath/e c ae?oaiai eo?no, o Eooeueeiio ?
Aieiaeeie?-Aieeinueeiio iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeuao niinoa??aa?oueny
noaa?eueia oi?ioaaiiy no?eeeo aeiiii?/ieo yeinoae.

Ioaea, aeeiai?ea oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo ?en o iaeaooi?o iieiaeoeo
niaoe?ae?no?a o?nii iia’ycaia oa aca?iiiaoiiaeaia c ?icaeoeii
aeiiii?/ieo yeinoae ? caeaaeeoue a?ae aoaeoeaiino? i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeno
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caoiae?a ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy iia?oi?o aeinyaiaiue
iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e.

I?iaiaey/e oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio, ?aae?coth/e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
cae?enithth/e iiooeiao ?iaioo ca aeiiiiiaith oano?a, aieao, aan?ae,
aea/aiiy oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, ie ?ic?iaeee aoaeoeaio
iaoiaeeeo aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a aeey
iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a ?-?? ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeeeaaeaii iniiai?
eiai ?acoeueoaoe:

1. ?noi?eei-nenoaiiee aiae?c iaoeiaeo ia?oiaeaea?ae aeicaieea ae?iaeoe
aeania aa/aiiy i?iaeaie, nie?ath/enue ia oa, ui aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy
iniaenoino? ? iaeiei ?c cania?a i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ?-?? ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??, aaaeeeaith oi?iith
aeeth/aiiy iaeaooi?o iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a o iaaeaaia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue.

2. Aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? – oea i?aai?/ia ?aei?noue
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oa i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a,
yea iaiao?aeia aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeoiaii? ?iaioe c o/iyie
ii/aoeiai? oeiee, aeyao oa ?icaeoeo a ieo oaeeo yeinoae, ye
aa?aaeeea?noue, aeaaeeea?noue, ae?eiaeo?noue, ?i?oe?aoeai?noue, ai?iiy
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeaiaioa?i? aeiiii?/i? ciaiiy oa iaaoo? iaae/ee a
?aaeueiiio aeeoo? noni?euenoaa.

3. I?iaiaey/e aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie anoaiiaeee, ui aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy
iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a – oea ae?iaeaiiy o nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeu /?oei? oyae
i?i iaoeia? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, iniaeeaino? ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, oe?eani?yiiaaia, nenoaiaoe/ia oi?ioaaiiy o ieo aeiiii?/ieo
ciaiue, aeniei? i?aai?ciaaiino? oa oai?/i? ?i?oe?aoeae, i?aeaioiaea aei
i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe?, ai?eiai, aa?aaeeeaiai noaaeaiiy aei
i?e?iaee, ae?iaeaiiy cae/ee i?aeoe/ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeiiii?/i?
ciaiiy o aeoiai?e ae?yeueiino? c iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie.

4. C’yniaaii, ui ci?no, iaoiaee/iee aia?ao oa aeeaeaeoe/ia caaacia/aiiy
ae?th/eo i?ae?o/iee?a ? i?ia?ai c aaciaeo aeenoeeie?i caeeoathoueny
iaaeineiiaeeie, a a?aeoae ia iiaeooue iiaiith i??ith ?aae?coaaoe
i?eioeei nenoaiaoe/iino? oa iine?aeiaiino? o i?ioean? iaoiaee/ii?
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aeey aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a a?aeiia?aeii
aei iiaeo nioe?aeueieo aeiia noni?euenoaa. ?iaioa c nenoaiaoecaoe??
iaaooeo aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue aoaea aoaeoeaiith, yeui aiia iaoeia
aacia?a?aiee, oe?eani?yiiaaiee oa?aeoa? ? cae?enithaaoeiaoueny i?e
iayaiino? eiiieaeno a?aeiia?aeieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, ui iiaeii? aooe
noai?ai? ia an?o aoaiao iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

5. Iaoiaeeea aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu
cia/ii iie?aueoueny, yeui:

— i?aai?ciao?oueny ??ciiiai?oia oai?/a aeoiaia ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a,
aeaee yei? nenoaiaoe/ii /a?aothoueny;

 ?aae?ciaothoueny ia?niaeoeai? i?aei?aaeiaoi? ca’ycee, ui caaacia/othoue
ianooii?noue, iine?aeiai?noue, oe?e?ni?noue o oi?ioaaii? aeiiii?/ieo
ciaiue;

 a i?aeoeeo aeoiaii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeothoueny aeoeai? iaoiaee
oi?ioaaiiy na?aeiiino? iniaenoino? oa noeioethaaiiy iiceoeaii?
iiaaae?iee.

6. Aeyaeaiiy iaoai?cio oa caeiiii??iinoae ?ooo iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? (a?ae iaciaiiy aei ciaiiy) aenooia? aaaeeeaei iioeaii
aecia/aiiy iiaeeeainoae oe?eani?yiiaaiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy
o iieiaeoeo iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a i?e ?aae?caoe?? aea/aiiy iniia iaoe,
o i?ioean? i?ioiaeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee oa oai?/i? iicao?i/ii?
?iaioe. Iniaeeaino? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ?ice?eaathoueny i?e
aeae?eaii? o oeueiio ?aeeiiio i?ioean? aeaio ??cieo noi??i aeiiii?/iiai
ieneaiiy (i?aeoe/ia oa i?ciaaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue), ye? ni?yiiaai? ia
canai?iiy aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, ?icaeoie aca?iia?aeiinei o a?oi?,
caa?aaeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae iaaeaaia?/iiai o/eeeua.

7.  Ona?aeiieaiiy nooaeaioaie aca?iica’yceo aeoiaaiiy c aeiiii?/ieie
caeiiii??iinoyie, i?i ye? aiie ae?ciathoueny c iaoeiai? aeoiee oa ??
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy, noaiiaeoue iaeei ?c nooiai?a o ?icaeoeo iniia
aeiiii?/ii? eoeueoo?e. Cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?icoe?th?
noa?o ciaiiy, a?aieoe? canoinoaaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo aeiiii?/ieo yaeu,
iiiyoue, caeiiii??iinoae, caeii?a, aeiiiiaaa? iniaenoino? iiaa/eoe ?o o
?icaeoeo, ?on?, aeeaoa i?iieeiooe o ?o nooi?noue.

8. I?iaiaey/e aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie ia?aaeaa/eee, ui iaieiae?iiy
aeiiii?/ieie ciaiiyie, oi?iiyie oa iaae/eaie i?ioiaeeoue o i?aaeiaoi?e
ae?yeueiino?, yea nenoaiaoe/ii ?aae?ciao?oueny o iicaiaa/aeueiee /an.
Ioaea, iaa?oiooaaiiy ia’?eoeaii? no?oeoo?e ci?noo aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
aeey nooaeaio?a ia?aaeaa/a? ?aae?caoe?th iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, oai?aoe/io
oa i?aeoe/io iaa?oioiaai?noue ? iiaeeea?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a,
oi?i oa cania?a iaa/aiiy, ui ni?eyoeiooue a?eueo aoaeoeaiiio aieeao ia
aeiiii?/io na?aeii?noue o/i?a ii/aoeiai? oeiee.

9. Ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaii? ? aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii? iaoiaeeee
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

10. Aeiaaaeaii ? ia?aa??aii aenia?eiaioaeueiith i?aeoeeith, ui
ca iniiaieie iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieie e?eoa??yie aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii?
iaie iaoiaeeee aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu ?
cia/ii aeuith o?aaeeoe?eii?.

?iaioa ia ae/a?io? an?o noi??i neeaaeii? oa aaaaoianiaeoii? i?iaeaie,
yea iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O aeiaeaoeao iaaaaeai? ieoaiiy, ye? aoee aeei?enoai? aeey aieao, oano?a,
?ioa?a’th.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Aie/oe I.I. Nenoaia aeiiii?/ii? i?aeaioiaee o/i?a (nooaeaio?a)
iaaeaaia?/iiai o/eeeua // Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee. – Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1998. – ? 2. –
N. 77-78.

Aie/oe I.I. Oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy a nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeua //
Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee. – Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1999. – ? 1. – N. 60-62.

Aie/oe I.I. Oaoiieia?y aeiiii?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo
o/eeeu // Iaaeaaia?/iee iiooe (Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee a?niee Aieeinueeiai
iaeaniiai iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiai ?inoeoooo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a). – Eooeuee, 1999. – Aei. ?1 (21). – N. 71-72.

Aie/oe I.I. Oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino? nooaeaioa iaaeaaia?/iiai
o/eeeua // Iaoea ? no/ani?noue (Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa). – E.: Eiain, 1999.
– *. IV. – N. 301-311.

Aie/oe I.I. Aeiiae aei aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe oeiey??a // Iaoeiaee a?niee
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee – Eooeuee:
Aaaea, 1999. – ? 1. – N. 76-77. (o ni?aaaoi?noa? I. Nia/oe).

Aie/oe I.I. Iaaeaaia?/ia oaoiieia?y aeei?enoaiiy iniia ?ioi?iaoeee
(Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? nooaeaioai oa o/eoaeyi). – Eooeuee, 1993. –
26 n. (o ni?aaaoi?noa? I. Nia/oe).

Aie/oe I.I. Oaoiieia?y iniia ?ioi?iaoeee ? ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee
(Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? nooaeaioai oa o/eoaeyi). – Eooeuee, 1993. –
21 n. (o ni?aaaoi?noa? I. Nia/oe).

AIIOAOe??

Aie/oe I.I. Aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. –
?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu. Oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii oaoiieia?th aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a, oi?ioaaiiy o ieo aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o
i?ioean? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? oa iicaiaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

A?aoiaioiaaii ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy, aecia/aii
??ai? noi?iiaaiino? canai?iiy aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue nooaeaioaie
iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey
aeeeaaea/?a iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a ?-?? ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe?? c i?iaeai
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?no aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye nenoaio aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, iaaeaaia?/ieo ai?iue oa
iaae/ie, ni?yiiaaieo ia ae?iaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino?
niaoe?ae?no?a, ?o na?oiaeyaeo, iiaeyae?a oa ia?aeiiaiue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy, aeiiii?/ia ieneaiiy, aeiiii?/ia
i?aeaioiaea, i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea, aeiiii?/ia ina?oa, aeiiii?/ia
na?aeii?noue.

Boichuk P.M. Economic Education of the Students of Pedagogical
Colleges. – Manuscript.

Thesis for getting the Candidate’s Degree in speciality 13.00.01 –
Theory and History of Pedagogics. – The Institute of Pedagogics of the
Academy of Pedagogical Studies of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The vitality of the investigated problem has been proved; the aim,
tasks, methodological basis have been identified; scientific novelty,
practical value of the work have been formulated; the content of the
main principles has been suggested.

The first part of the thesis, “Theoretical Principles of Economic
Education of a Personality”, based on the analysis of philosophical and
psycho-pedagogical literature, deals with the investigation of
historical aspects of the problem in the theory and practice of
pedagogical science; systemic analysis of the scientific researches in
the problems of economic education has been made; the methodology of
experimental work has been proved in the following succession:

— to reveal psycho-pedagogical peculiarities of economic education of
the college students of the first, second years of study;

— to provide creative and economic orientation of the academic-cognitive
training of the college students in their third and fourth years of
study, taking into consideration the real material provision of the
technology of economic education of the personality;

— to develop valuable orientation and skills to assess one’s own work
and the work of junior students.

The content of the students’ economic education can be regarded as the
system of economic knowledge, pedagogical skills directed at the
formation of economic consciousness of the specialists, their outlook,
views and beliefs. It depends on the following factors: on the objective
of education in general, on the economic policy of the state and also on
the tasks facing economy at present historical moment and in future,
i.e. the availability of the material resources in modern educational
establishments, consideration of the specifics of studies and
professional interests, inclinations, desire in acquisition of economic
knowledge by future specialists, mastery skills of the instructors.

The second part of the thesis, “The System of Economic Education of the
College Students”, discloses the ways of formation of economic
education, the basics of economic culture of the young specialists in
studying fundamental subjects in the process of extra-curricula
activities.

The formation of college students’ basics of economic culture is
regarded as the realization of economic education which develops the
sphere of cognition, the application limits of these or those economic
phenomena, ideas, regularities, rules, helps the individual to observe
them in their development, motion, to penetrate deeper in their essence.
And these things assist the development of economic culture fundamentals
of the future specialists, to develop skills and capabilities in the
definite economic problem solution, leads to the development of
master-economist qualities, assists the development of certain
pedagogical features for the economic education of junior students.

Economic education is based on the acquisition of scientific
information. The acquisition of economic information by the student
differs from that by the adult. The student’s acquisition is the
algorithm of emotions, emotionally coloured thinking which reflects
various qualities of the activity by means of corresponding organs of
senses, depending on the object itself, on the personal experience of
the future specialists, on the methods of economic education of the
students.

The third part, “Realization of the Technology of Economic Education of
Future Young Specialists” is devoted to the general conclusion of the
technology of economic education of the students in the process of study
and dynamics of the formation of college students’ professional
qualities.

In the process of the research it was discovered: though the needs of
the individual depend on the life conditions, as the result, they are
caused by manufacturing, common way of life, by the student’s place and
attitude in real life to the realization of such problems in
academic-cognitive activities, professional attitude.

The dynamics of the formation of students’ professional skills is based
on the acquisition of the appropriate economic information, mastering of
which by the students of the first-year of study differs from the
mobility of the generalization of certain economic information
algorithms by the students of the fourth-year of study.

By doing the formation experiment, realizing the tasks of research,
fulfilling the research work by means of tests, questionnaires, tasks,
investigation of students’ creative work, we have worked out the
effective methods of economic education of the young specialists for the
pedagogical institutions of the I-II standard of education.

So, the analysis of the above-mentioned material gives the possibility
to make generalization that pedagogical peculiarities of the formation
of individual’s professional features must be realized in the process of
academic- cognitive activity, beginning with the first year of study up
to the gaining of professional education.

Key words: economic education, economic training, economic thinking,
professional training.

Aie/oe I.I. Yeiiiie/aneia ainieoaiea nooaeaioia iaaeaaiae/aneeo o/eeeu.
– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. –
Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee Aeaaeaiee iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee aia?aua enneaaeothony nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/eneea
oneiaey yeiiiie/aneiai ainieoaiey nooaeaioia iaaeaaiae/aneeo o/eeeu.
Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaii e yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aii oaoiieiaeth
yeiiiie/aneiai ainieoaiey ieaaeoeo niaoeeaeenoia, oi?ie?iaaiey o ieo
yeiiiie/aneeo ciaiee a i?ioeanna o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie e aiao/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

A?aoiaioe?iaaiu ia?niaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai ainieoaiey,
ii?aaeaeaiu o?iaie noi?ie?iaaiiinoe onaiaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ciaiee
nooaeaioaie iaaeaaiae/aneeo o/eeeu. ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey i?aiiaeaaaoaeae iaaeaaiae/aneeo caaaaeaiee I-II
o?iaiy aee?aaeeoaoeee ii i?iaeaiai yeiiiie/aneiai ainieoaiey nooaeaioia.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi niaea?aeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ainieoaiey nooaeaioia
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae nenoaio yeiiiie/aneeo ciaiee, iaaeaaiae/aneeo
oiaiee e iaaueia, iai?aaeaiiuo ia oi?ie?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneiai niciaiey
niaoeeaeenoia, eo ie?iaicc?aiey, acaeyaeia e oaaaeaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeiiiie/aneia ainieoaiea, yeiiiie/aneia iuoeaiea,
yeiiiie/aneay iiaeaioiaea, i?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea, yeiiiie/aneia
ia?aciaaiea, yeiiiie/aneia niciaiea.

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