Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»

Ae?ioeia Ieaia Aanee?aia

OAeE 338.008.668.26:8

Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea oa ?iaanooaaiiy

?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a

(ia i?eeeaae? a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.02.02 – Aeiiii?ea oi?aae?iiy

iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii, ?iaanoeoe?ei?

oa ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?ee aia?aaoe/ieo ? o?i?/ieo
i?aei?e?inoa oa ia?eaoeiao Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea» I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio E?EEAANUeEEE
?AAAI AANEEUeIAE*, Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee aia?aaoe/ieo ? o?i?/ieo i?aei?e?inoa oa
ia?eaoeiao.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aeiiii?ee ? i?aai?caoe?? i?iieneiaeo oaoiieia?e oa aia?aaoeee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo» IAAe?I ?AI? AAEAIOEIIAE*

– eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee
i?aei?e?inoaa ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
iaooe ? aaco AeAIEETHE IEEIEA IEAEN?EIAE*

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee ? iaiaaeaeiaioo, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «26» eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 15-00
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 35.052.03 a
Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» ca aae?anith:
290646, i. Euea?a-13, aoe. No. Aaiaea?e, 12, IV ei?ion, aoae. 406.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» ca aae?anith: 290646, i.
Euea?a-13, aoe. I?ioani?nueea, 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «25» aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Iauaiei ?.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Aaaeeeaei iai?yieii aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie ? iaeneiaeueia ?aae?caoe?y ia?aaaa ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ia iniia?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano. I?enei?aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo e?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a? ia?aaoaeiao ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee oeyoii
ia?a?iciiae?eo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue ia ei?enoue ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo
ia’?eo?a.

Aoaeoeaiee ?icaeoie iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno e?a?ie aeiaaa?
i?iaaaeaiiy o an?o aaeocyo aeiiii?ee e?a?ie aeoeaii? oa oe?eani?yiiaaii?
?iaioe c aeiiii?? iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a oa oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy
a?aeiiaethaaeueieo aeaea?ae aia?a??. Aeeiiaiith aeaiiai caaaeaiiy ni?ey?
i?enei?aia noai?aiiy iaiaa?aieo iiooaeiinoae, yea ia?aaeaa/aii
aia?aaoe/iith iie?oeeith O?yaeo. O ca’yceo c oeei ?icoe?ththoueny
ianooaae aaaaeaiiy iaiaa?aiiai aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

A?ae?aae?/i? oa a?ae?iaeoioethth/? aeaeo?inoaioe?? ? iaea?eueo ae??aeie
aeaea?aeaie i?eiai? oa ?aca?aii? iiooaeiino? o aia?aaoe/ieo nenoaiao. O
e?a?iao aeeaeiueiai oa aeaeueiueiai ca?oa?aeaey ye ia?niaeoeaiee
iai?/aiee iai?yi, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? ?icoe?aiiy ae?th/eo
a?ae?iaeaeo?inoaioe?e oa ?o iiaea?i?caoe?th c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
aoaeoeaiino?. ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy aeiaeaoeiai? iiooaeiino?
a?ae?aae?/ieo (AAN) oa a?ae?iaeoioethth/eo (AAAN) aeaeo?inoaioe?e o
iie?eoo? aeiaiaiai a?ao?ea aeaeo?e/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia’?aeiaii?
aia?aaoe/ii? nenoaie (IAN) aeicaiey? aeeo/eoe c? neeaaeo iniiaiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy oaieiaeo aeaeo?inoaioe?e iaeiaio aeiiii?/i? aa?aaaoe, ye?
iathoue iaea?eueoo ieoiio aeo?aoo oiiaiiai iaeeaa, ui iaoiiaeth?
io?eiaiiy iaeeaiiai aoaeoo AAN – AAAN.

Aaaeeea?noue caaacia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae a eiioaeno?
caaacia/aiiy ?? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee oeyoii iaeaaeiiai ?icaeoeo
aia?aaoe/ii? aaeoc?, iaaeinoaoi?e iaoeiaee ? i?eeeaaeiee ??aaiue
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aaoeee a ua a?eueo?e i???
aeooae?cothoue aeena?oaoe?eio i?iaeaio.

Ieoaiiyi ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aaoeee, aeiiii?ee oa aenieoaoaoe?? AAN oa
AAAN, aecia/aiiy ?o iaeeaiiai aoaeoo, ?ie? o caaacia/aii? iaae?eii? ?
noaei? ?iaioe aia?aaoe/ieo nenoai oa ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
?icaeoeo aia?aiia’?eo?a i?enay/ai? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?aoe? a?aeiieo
a/aieo A.A.Aieioiaa, A.E.Aaao??ia, ?.A.Aeaiea, O.O.Aoa?ia,
A.ss.Aoiaithea, I.I.Aeaieethea, I.A.Aea?aeei, A.?.Aeai?niaa,
N.A.Ae?eia?iaa, I.I.Aeieaiaa, O.E.Aeioeaiei, A.E. A?e?oiaia,
A.A.Caai?iaeiueiai, E.A.Ea?iey, ?.A.E?eeaanueeiai, I.?.Eocuei?ia,
A.Eoioea, A.A.Iaea?iaa, E.A.I?e?ioue?aa, ?.A.Iaae?ia, A.?.Iei?ieiaa,
N.I’Aeiiiaea, E.I.Iao?iae/a, ss.Ae. Ieioe?ia, ?.?.N?e?ia, A.Oa?nna,
?.Oioa?iaia, Aeae.?.O?ena, I.I.Oeoiaa, E.N.Uaa?e?aa, oa ?ioeo.

Aiaeii/an aiae?c iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e na?ae/eoue, ui i?iaeaiai
aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee oa ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo
aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a i?eae?eaia iaaeinoaoiy oaaaa, ia iiai?noth
ae??oaii ieoaiiy ioe?iee aieeao ?icoe?aiiy eaneaae?a
a?ae?iaeaeo?inoaioe?e oeyoii aeiaeaoeiai? onoaiiaee iai?ioieo
a?ae?iaa?aaao?a (IAA) ia aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe oaieiaeo aeaeo?inoaioe?e
ia’?aeiaieo aia?aaoe/ieo nenoai, iaaeinoaoiuei ?aae?ciaaiee nenoaiiee
i?aeo?ae aei oi?ioaaiiy aia?aicaaacia/aiiy aea?aeaae, ia iiai?noth
aeine?aeaeai? ?aca?ae ? aeaea?aea ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo
aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a a oiiaao aino?iai aeao?oeeoo ?iaanoeoe?eieo
?ano?n?a.

Iei? iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iee eiiieaen Oe?a?ie ciaoiaeeoueny o e?eciaiio
noai?, yeee iaoiiaeaiee iaaeinoaoi?i ?iaanoeoe?eiei caaacia/aiiyi a
ianooaaao, iaiao?aeieo aeey cae?eniaiiy iaae?eiiai ? aeiiii?/ii
i?eeiyoiiai iinoa/aiiy aia?aiiin?yie ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo.

E??i iiaeieaiiy ia?aiii uiaei noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey
?iaanooaaiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo o aia?aaoe/iee naeoi? aea?aeaae,
aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi ? iaieiae?iiy a?o/eciyieie ia?oia?aie iaoiaeeeith
i?aeaioiaee i?iiiceoe?e uiaei o?iainoaaiiy i?iaeo?a, i?eeiyoith o
i?iieneiai ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao ? i?aeia?iaeieo o?iainiaeo ?inoeoooao.

Iaaeinoaoi?e iaoeiaee oa i?eeeaaeiee ??aaiue ae??oaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
i?iaeai ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a, eiai ioe?iee oa ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy coiiaeee aeooaeuei?noue ? aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Iaeiei ?c eeth/iaeo iiiaio?a a ii?iaoeaii-caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao Oe?a?ie
(Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aia?aaoe/i?e i?ia?ai? Oe?a?ie, Caeii? Oe?a?ie «I?i
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy», Caeii? Oe?a?ie «I?i aeaeo?iaia?aaoeeo»), ui
noino?oueny caaacia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee, aecia/athoueny i?iaeaie
?aae?caoe?? i??i?eoaoiino? ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a, ui aeiaaa?
eiinaeaaioii? aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee aeioe?eueiino? aia?aaoe/ieo i?iaeo?a,
iiaeeeaino? ?o ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy. Oae? ??oaiiy ia no/aniiio
aoai? oneeaaeiai? i?iaaaeaiith ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??th oa oi?ioaaiiyi
aia?ai?eieo, ui aacoiiaii, iineaaeei ?ieue oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai aieeao ia
?icaeoie aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a. Oaeee i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaee iaoai?ci
oiai/ith? iayai?noue ca’yceo aeine?aeaeaiiy ?c aea?aeaaieie i?ia?aiaie a
aaeoc? aia?aaoeee.

Ia?aiee iai?yi aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee aia?aaoe/ieo ? o?i?/ieo
i?aei?e?inoa oa ia?eaoeiao Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea»: «I?iaeaie ia?aoiaeo aaciaeo aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie», «I?iaeaie ?ano?ni- oa
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie», caoaa?aeaeaieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ?aaeith AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» (i?ioieie ? 11
a?ae 17.11.95 ?.), ? a?aeiia?aea? iaoeiaiio iai?yio Eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai
ieaio ? 68 «Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaoaeiae aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie:
aaaeae? oa noeioee ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?/eo nenoai», caoaa?aeaeaiiai
iaeacii I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie a?ae 13 ethoiai 1997 ?. ? 37.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?iaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee oa
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee noiniaii ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo
ia’?eo?a a?ae?iaia?aaoe/ieo eiiiai?e a iai?yi? a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy a
eiioaeno? oi?ioaaiiy aeinoaoiuei? aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe o ?iaio? ?ica’ycoaaeenue oae?
caaaeaiiy:

cae?eniaiiy ia?niaeoeaii? ioe?iee aeiiii?/iiai noaio aia?aaoe/ii? aaeoc?
c iaeyaeo ia caaacia/aiiy a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?yie aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee
aea?aeaae oa aoaeoeaieo iai?yi?a ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aaoeee;

aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ia?aaeoiia oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
?icoe?aiiy a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e oa ia?niaeoeae ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy oaeiai ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a;

aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?icaeoeo
a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e ?icoe?aiiyi IAA;

aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? iiooaeiino? aeiaeaoeiai anoaiiaeaieo ia AAN
eaneaaeo IAA oa aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ?icoe?aiiy AAN Aei?i?ianueeiai
eaneaaeo ??/ie oeyoii aeiaeaoeiai? onoaiiaee IAA;

iioei?caoe?y ?aaeei?a ?iaioe AAN-AAAN ni?eueii c AAN oa OAN o IAN oa
aaeaioaoe?y eiio?aeoeiaiai? iiaeae? ?iaanooaaiiy ?icoe?aiiy AAN
a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e;

cae?eniaiiy aeieia?/ii? ioe?iee aieeao ?aaeei?a ?iaioe AAN-AAAN ia noai
aiaeinoiaeu.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee
aeioe?eueiino? ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e oeyoii ?o iiaea?i?caoe?? ca
?aooiie anoaiiaeaiiy IAA oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy oaeiai ?o ?icaeoeo. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?? Oe?a?ie oa a?ae?iaeaeo?inoaioe??, ui aoiaeyoue aei
?o neeaaeo.

Oai?aoe/iith oa iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoee i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, caeiie Oe?a?ie, oeace
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, iinoaiiae ? ii?iaoeai? iaoa??aee Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie, Eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa.

Aeo?aeiith ?ioi?iaoe??th o cae?eniaii? aeine?aeaeaiue aoee aeai?
noaoenoe/ii? oa iia?aoeaii? ca?oiino? aeaeo?inoaioe?e, ui aoiaeyoue a
ia’?aeiaio aia?ainenoaio, ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui io?eiai? aaoi?ii i?e aeeiiaii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe «Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey AYN eaneaaea ?ae» (? ae/?
76065887) ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?ee aia?aaoe/ieo ? o?i?/ieo i?aei?e?inoa oa
ia?eaoeiao Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea».

O ?iaio? aeei?enoai? no/ani? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, a naia: nenoaiiee,
oaeoi?iee ? ii??aiyeueiee aiae?ce, aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai i?ioeano, ?ic?iaeaii a?aeiia?aeia i?ia?aiia
caaacia/aiiy aeey AII.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oaeiio:

ia iniia? ia?niaeoeaii? no?oeoo?iaaii? ioe?iee aeiiii?/iiai noaio
aia?aaoe/ii? aaeoc? a eiioaeno? oi?ioaaiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie
aia?oa iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo
a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e – neeaaeiai? aoaeoeaii? no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo
aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/ii? aaeoc? aea?aeaae. Aecia/ai? iniiai? oaiaeaioe??
?icaeoeo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno oa iniiai? oaiaeaioe??
aeaeo?iniiaeeaaiiy, ye? eiiieaenii oa?aeoa?ecothoue no/aniee noai
aia?aaoeee ? aeooaeuei?noue caaacia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee ? aeathoue
ciiao iaa?oioiaaii oi?ioethaaoe ia?niaeoeaio iie?oeeo aaeoc?;

aia?oa aeyaeaii oa nenoaiaoeciaaii aia?aiaeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae
aeioe?eueiino? ? i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e a iai?yi?
?icoe?aiiy AAN IAA, ui ni?eyoeia aoaeoeaiiio aeei?enoaiith aiaeieo
?ano?n?a, iiooaeiino? oaieiaeo aeaeo?e/ieo noaioe?e (OAN), iioei?caoe??
?aaeei?a ? caaacia/aiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a.
Aecia/ai? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? i?eioeeie oa iacaai? i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie
?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aaoeee aaia?othoue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ae?th/eo eaneaae?a AAN ?icoe?aiiyi ?o IAA c aeei?enoaiiyi
?o aiaeinoiaeu aeey a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy;

iiaeeaeaia iaoiaeeea aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy, ui
a?aoiao? neia?a?/iee aoaeo ye ?acoeueoao iioei?caoe?? aia?aaoe/ieo
?aaeei?a oa ?acoeueoao iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a. C ??
aeiiiiiaith aeiaaaeaii aoaeoeai?noue ?icoe?aiiy AAN IAA oa aeei?enoaiiy
?o ye iaiaa?aieo i?eiaeo aa?aaao?a. Iacaaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey?
cae?enieoe oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?icoe?aiiy ie?aieo AAN oa
eaneaae?a AAN IAA oa aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioo ?iaioe AAN oa
AAAN o IAN;

aia?oa aecia/aia iioeiaeueia iiooaei?noue IAA, ye? aeiaeaoeiai
anoaiiaeththoueny ia AAN eaneaaeo, oa iaa?oioiaaii oiiae ?o noi?nii?
iioei?caoe?? c OAN ? AAN o ia’?aeiai?e aia?ainenoai?. ?aae?caoe?y
iaoiaeeee aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? iiooaeiino? IAA oa iaoiaeeee
iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe AAN-AAAN noi?nii c AAN oa OAN o IAN aea?
iiaeeea?noue iie?aueoe no?oeoo?o iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino e?a?ie ?
cieceoe iio?aao IAE a aeao?oeeoiiio i?aai?/iiio iaeea?, a ?acoeueoao?
?aae?caoe?? iaoiaeeee aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? iiooaeiino? IAA ye?
aeiaeaoeiai anoaiiaeththoueny ia AAN eaneaaeo; ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe AAN-AAAN noi?nii c AAN oa OAN o ia’?aeiai?e
aia?ainenoai?;

?icaeiooi oa iiaeeaeaii oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oi?ioaaiiy
eiiieaenii? aeieiai-aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ia?niaeoeaieo iane?aee?a
iiaea?i?caoe?? AAN eaneaaeo, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue caa?aaoe ?iaeth/?
caie? ye? i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae caoiieaiiy i?ae /an nii?oaeaeaiiy iiaeo
AAN oa AAAN;

aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii oiiae aaeaioaoe?? eiio?aeoeiaiai? iiaeae?
?iaanooaaiiy ?icoe?aiiy AAN a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e ye iaea?eueo
a??ia?aeiiai iai?yio noai?aiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?o ?icaeoeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o iiaeeaeaii?
ciaiue i?i iaoai?ci cae?eniaiiy ?icoe?aiiy AAN, ui i?aoeththoue o
eaneaae? oeyoii aeiaeaoeiaiai anoaiiaeaiiy ia ieo iai?ioieo aa?aaao?a c
iiaeaeueoei aeei?enoaiiyi ?o ye iaiaa?aieo i?eiaeo iiooaeiinoae o IAN a
iioeiaeueiiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
uiaei ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e o iai?yieo i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iiiiaethaaeueieo aeaea?ae aia?a?? oa
?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy oeueiai ?icaeoeo, ui ni?eyoeia ?ica’ycaiith
aieiaiiai caaaeaiiy na?aaeiueino?ieiaiai i?iaiico aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, a naia: aeinyaiaiith aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?nioth/iai ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo, aaeaioaoe??
i?aei?e?inoa aei ?eieiaeo oiia oa iinooiiaiio ia?iuoaaiith
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a. I?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue iineeththoue iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?icoe?aiiy ie?aieo AAN oa
eaneaae?a AAN IAA c aecia/aiiyi ?o iioeiaeueii? iiooaeiino? ? noai?aiiyi
iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio ?o ?iaioe o IAN. ?ic?iaeaia aaeaioiaaia
eiio?aeoeiaiaa iiaeaeue ?iaanooaaiiy ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e, yea
aea? iiaeeea?noue ?ica’ycaoe i?iaeaio ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
oeyoii caeo/aiiy no?aoaa?/ieo ?iaanoi??a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? AAN aeeiiai? o
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiio oa i?eeeaaeiiio ieaiao aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo
AAN, i?e i?iaeooaaii? eaneaae?a AAN oa i?e aenieoaoaoe?? AAN Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? o
iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e ?iaio?, yea aeeiiaia aeey OeAeOA?N, ia?aaeai? aeey
?icaeyaeo o I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie.

Aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
Iaoe?iiaeueiith eii?n??th c ieoaiue ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee,
I?iaia?ai oa ?ioeie eiiiaoaioieie i?aai?caoe?yie aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaeaooiuei? no?oeoo?e aaeoc?, i?eioeei?a ae?yeueiino? aia?aieiiiai??
«Aei?i?ia?ae?iaia?ai» oa aeey ae?iaeaiiy aoaeoeaii? ?iaanoeoe?eii? ?
?iiiaaoe?eii? no?aoaa?? oi?aae?iiy aeaeo?iaia?aaoeeith c iaoith
caaacia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae.

?acoeueoaoe eiie?aoieo ?ic?aooie?a iiaeooue iioeaoaaoe i?eaaaeea?noue o
iioaioe?eieo ?iaanoi??a a i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? eiio?aeoeiaiai? iiaeae?
o?iainoaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a.

Ca aeniiaeii iino?eii ae?th/iai iaoeiaiai nai?ia?o «Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie
caaacia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee» iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
?iaioe ? iaaecae/aeii ei?enieie a oiiaao no/aniiai noaio
aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie. ?aae?caoe?y i?iiiceoe?e aaoi?a ?iaioe iiaea
?icaeyaeaoenue, ye aaaeeeaee ?iaanoeoe?eiee ?ano?n, aeei?enoaiiy yeiai a
oiiaao aino?iai aeao?oeeoo ?iaanoeoe?eiiai eai?oaeo aeicaieeoue
i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy aia?aiia’?aeiaiiy Oe?a?ie
oaeaeoa, i?ae a ?ac? ?aae?caoe?? ?ioeo a?aeiieo i?iaeo?a.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ocaaaeueiai? a aeena?oaoe??,
aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeueiiio eo?n? «Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue iiai?
oaoi?ee» aeey nooaeaio?a niaoe?aeueiino? «Iaiaaeaeiaio i?aai?caoe?e
(ae?iaie/a noa?a)» Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea».

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

On? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, io?eiai?
aaoi?ii iniaenoi. C iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iioae?eiaaieo a ni?aaaoi?noa?, a
aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? eeoa o? ?aea? ? iieiaeaiiy, ye? ? ?acoeueoaoii
iniaenoi? ?iaioe caeiaoaa/a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iaoa??aee i?aaenoaaeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? o aeiiia?ae?
oa iaaiai?ai? o oaoi?/iiio oi?aae?ii? I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie ia ia?aae? c
iiaea?i?caoe?? iaeaaeiaiiy aeaeo?inoaioe?e, ia iaeani?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a o aaeocyo ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa iaeano? – aaaeeeaee oaeoi? oni?oiiai ?ica’yceo caaaeaiiy
Aia?aaoe/ii? i?ia?aie», i. Euea?a, 17 aeiaoiy 1985 ?., oa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» (1970-1997?.?.), ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia a io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ONN?»,
i. Ee?a, 27-29 o?aaiy 1986 ?., ananithci?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu iioeiecaoeee ?aaeeiia
yeaeo?iiio?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee», i. I?ann, 8-11 aa?aniy,
1987 ?., ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann e eioaineoeeaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa», i.
Aeiiaoee, aeiaoaiue 1988?., ananithciiio nai?ia?? «Iaoiaeu i?yiiai
i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee», i. Ee?a, 4-6 eeiiy, 1989?., ananithci?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Yooaeoeaiinoue iiauo oi?i e iaoiaeia
oicyenoaiaaiey», i. ?aeaanuee, 17-18 aeiaoiy, 1989?., iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei» (AI?
I?aeia?iaeiee ?inoeooo aoiai?caoe?? oa ?icaeoeo ina?oe. A?iieoeueea
iaeania a?aeae?eaiiy Ni?eee aeiiii?no?a Oe?a?ie), i. A?iieoey, /a?aaiue
1993?., i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie ? oeyoe
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy Oe?a?ie», i. ?a.-O?aie?anuee,7-10 a?oaeiy 1993?.,
ananithci?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iniiaiua iooe ?aoaiey
aii?inia i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia a
?aieao ?aaeecaoeee yia?aaoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu», i. Ee?a, 22-24 o?aaiy
1994?., i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeiiii?/i?
i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa», i. Iaeana, aeiaoaiue
1995?., ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy
ia?eaoeiao ? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iiai eiiieaeno a ia?ao?aeieo oiiaao», i.
Euea?a, 1996?., i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Ia?eaoeia
oa eia?noeea a nenoai? iaiaaeaeiaioo», i. Euea?a, 24-25 aeiaoiy 1996?.,
can?aeaii? iino?eii ae?th/iai iaoeiaiai nai?ia?o «Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie
caaacia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee» ia oaio: «Eiieo?aioe?y a aia?aaoeoe?:
iiaeeeaino? ? i?iaeaie» ca i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth, nio. Neaanueei,
Euea?anueea iae., 9-12 /a?aiy 1998?., ?? i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Ia?eaoeia oa eia?noeea a nenoai?
iaiaaeaeiaioo», i. Euea?a, 22-24 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a 30 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo
(iiiia?ao?y, iaoeia? noaoo?, iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, iaoiaeeea, oace
aeiiia?aeae) caaaeueiei ianyaii 18,7 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a, c ieo iniaenoi
aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue – 7,27 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ?
i?iiiceoe?e, ianya aeena?oaoe?? 169 noi?. ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, e??i oiai
iaaaaeai? nienie e?oa?aoo?e c 225 iaca ? 18 aeiaeaoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa i?noeoue 22 oaaeeoe?, 11 ?enoie?a (a?ao?e?a, noai). No?oeoo?a
aeena?oaoe?? ia? aeaeyae:

TOC \o «1-2» ANOOI

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe iaiao?aeiino?
?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a.

1.1. Iia? oiiae ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy ?icaeoeo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

1.2. Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? i?eioeeie oa iai?yie ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aaoeee.

1.3. Oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
?icoe?aiiy a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e.

1.4. Ia?niaeoeae ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo aia?aiia’?eo?a.

Aeniiaee ii ?icae?eo 1.

?icae?e 2. Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aaoe/ieo eiiiai?e ye
nenoaiiee (neia?a?/iee) aoaeo aia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie.

2.1. Iaoiaee ? iiaeae? iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a aia?aaoe/ieo nenoai.

2.2. Aiae?c eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a ae?th/eo
eaneaae?a AAN.

2.3. Iaoiaee/i? iniiae aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?icaeoeo ?icoe?aiiy
a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e iai?ioieie a?ae?iaa?aaaoaie.

2.4. Aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe iiaea?i?caoe?? a?ae?iaeaeo?inoaioe?e a AAN-AAAN.

Aeniiaee ii ?icae?eo 2.

?icae?e 3. Iaoiaee/ia oa ?iaanoeoe?eia caaacia/aiiy ?icoe?aiiy AAN
iai?ioieie a?ae?iaa?aaaoaie.

3.1. Aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? iiooaeiino? aeiaeaoeiai anoaiiaethaaieo ia
AAN eaneaaeo iai?ioieo a?ae?iaa?aaao?a.

3.2. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ?icoe?aiiy AAN Aei?i?ianueeiai eaneaaeo
??/ie oeyoii aeiaeaoeiai? onoaiiaee iai?ioieo a?ae?iaa?aaao?a.

3.3. Iioei?caoe?y ?aaeei?a ?iaioe AAN-AAAN ni?eueii ?c AAN oa OAN o
ia’?aeiai?e aia?aaoe/i?e nenoai?.

3.4. Aieea ?aaeei?a ?iaioe AAN-AAAN ia iie?auaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio
aiaeinoiaeu.

3.5. Eiio?aeoeiaiaa iiaeaeue ?iaanooaaiiy ?icoe?aiiy AAN
a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai??.

Aeniiaee ii ?icae?eo 3.

Aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae

Aeiaeaoee

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Oai?aoe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a» ?icaeyiooi iia? oiiae ?
iniiai? caaaeaiiy ?icaeoeo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie,
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? i?eioeeie oa iai?yie ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aaoeee,
oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy oa ia?niaeoeae ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo
aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a.

Aeeaiea aeiiii?/ia e?eca, ui ioiieea aeiiii?eo Oe?a?ie iaaaoeaii
a?aeaeeanue ia noai? iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno (IAE) aea?aeaae. Ia
?en.1 iaaaaeaii oe?oiiai? oaeoi?e e?eciaiai noaio aia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie ?
?o aca?iica’ycie c aieiaieie oaeoi?aie aieeao ia ??aaiue caoeuaiino?
a?ae caa?ic aia?aaoe/i?e aaciaoe? aea?aeaae.

Aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ia OAN aeaeo?iaia?a?? a ia?a?aooaaii? ia
?yaeiaa aoa?eey o 2005 ?ioe? aoaea iio??aii 55,9 iei.o iaeeaa. I?e
iayaiino? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue ia ?icaeoie oaoo ca iii??eiaaiei (a?eueo
?aaeueiei) aa??aioii, ?ano?ne aeey I?iaia?ai iiaeooue ca?eueoeoenue eeoa
aei 39 iei.o, oaeei /eiii aeao?oeeo neeaaeaoeia 17 iei.o. I/?eoaaiee
??aaiue ae?iaieoeoaa 146 ie?ae. eAo SYMBOL 215 \f «Symbol» \s 12 * aiae
a 2005 ia OAN, ia?aaeaa/aiee IAIO, iiaeeeai aeinyaoe eeoa o 2015?.
ine?eueee aeey aoae?aieoeoaa oaoo c o?aooaaiiyi i?iaeooaaiiy ?
a?aeiiaeaiiy oaooiaoae?aii? aace iio??aii ia iaioa, i?ae 15 ?ie?a. Oaeei
/eiii, a?aecia/aiee ??aaiue iiaeeeai aeinyaoe eeoa o 2015 ?ioe?. Aei
oiai ae ? iiieo ia i?e?iaeiee aac i?e oeueiio ia ciaioeoueny.

Neooaoe?y aeiaeaoeiai iia??oo?oueny iaaei??iei ciioaiiyi aaia?oth/iai
iaeaaeiaiiy OAN (82% aia?aiaeie?a a?aei?aoethaaee ?ic?aooieiaee ?ano?n,
a 48% — a?aie/iee ?ano?n), ui i?ecaaei aei c?inoaiiy ieoiieo aeo?ao
iaeeaa (c 1993 ii 1995 ??e ia 9,3 a/eAo SYMBOL 215 \f «Symbol» \s 12 *
aiae), iaiiaeeeaino? iaeiie/aiiy a aeaeo?iaia?aaoeoe? aeaniiai
?iaanoeoe?eiiai eai?oaeo oa caaino?aiith oaoiiaaiieo caa?ic aia?aaoe/i?e
aaciaoe? e?a?ie. Iniaeeai? oaaae iio?aao? i?iaeaia iie?eooy i?eiai?
/anoeie aeiaiaeo a?ao?e?a aeaeo?e/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy IAN.

?en. SEQ ?en. \* ARABIC 1 . No?oeoo?ecaoe?y /eiiee?a aia?aaoe/ii?
aaciaee.

?ica’ycaiith i?iaeaie ia a noai? ni?eyoe ie?ai? ?aeiino?oeoe?ei? aai
ai?n?ei? ??oaiiy.

Aei aeeaa?neo?eaoe?eieo ??oaiue, ye? iineaaeee a aeao?oeeo aia?aiiin??a
? noai?eee a ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey iaeiie/aiiy aeanieo o?iainiaeo eioo?a
ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy a?aeioneo aia?aaoe/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? oa ciaioaiiy
?? nia?aa?oino?, ne?ae a?aeianoe i?aeaeuaiiy oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue a ?nioth/? eaneaaee
a?ae?iaeaeo?inoaioe?e oeyoii ?o ?aeiino?oeoe?? ca ?aooiie aeiaeaoeiai?
onoaiiaee iioeiaeueii? iiooaeiino? IAA ? ia?aoai?aiiy ?o oaeei /eiii a
eaneaaee AAN-AAAN, c iiaeaeueoith iioei?caoe??th ?aaeei?a ?iaioe
AAN-AAAN a IAN ia?aeaeueii c OAN ? AAN.

Cae?eniaia ia?niaeoeaia no?oeoo?iaaia ioe?iea aeiiii?/iiai noaio
aia?aaoe/ii? aaeoc? a eiioaeno? oi?ioaaiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie
iieacaea ia aeioe?euei?noue i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ia?aaeoiia oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
?icoe?aiiy a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e aeyaeei a?aenooi?noue nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ?ic?iaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?icaeoeo
ia’?eo?a a?ae?iaia?aaoe/ieo eiiiai?e c a?aooaaiiyi neia?a?/iiai aoaeoo.

Aiae?c ia?niaeoea ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo
ia’?eo?a iieacaa, ui aaeocue aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee ? i?eaaaeeaith aeey
iioaioe?eiiai ?iaanoi?a. Iaaaeueiith ? iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo
aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaa?oioiaaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aaoe/ieo
eiiiai?e ye nenoaiiee (neia?a?/iee) aoaeo aia?ainenoai Oe?a?ie»
aeine?aeaeaii iaoiaee ? iiaeae? iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a aia?aaoe/ieo
nenoai, iioei?caoe?y aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e
IAA oa aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe iiaea?i?caoe?? a?ae?iaeaeo?inoaioe?e o
AAN-AAAN.

A iniiao canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a iioei?caoe?? a aia?aaoeoe? iieeaaeaiee
nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? a?aooaaiiy ?ioa?an?a aaia?oth/eo,
iinoa/aeueieo ? niiaeeaath/eo nenoai aia?a?? ca oiiae iaia’yceiaiai
aeio?eiaiiy yeino? aia?a?? ? iaae?eiino? a ?iaio?.

Aiae?c iaoiae?a iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a aia?aaoe/ieo nenoai iieacaa, ui
?niothoue iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeey ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e caaea/
iaeaea?aei?oiai ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy. Ca ieie ?ic?iaeai? aeai?eoie ?
i?ia?aie ?ic?aooie?a ia AII, iaeiae caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiei ieoaiiy ?o
?aae?caoe??.

Ioe?iea ?icoe?aiiy a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e IAA c? noai?aiiyi eaneaaeo
AAN-AAAN, ui i?aoeth? a IAN, aeeeeeaea iaiao?aei?noue aiae?co
eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a.

Eaneaaei? noaie, a yeeo ie?ai? nooiai? eaneaaeo ca’ycai? i?ae niaith
a?ae?ieia?/ii, a?ae?aae?/ii, aiaeiainiiaea?/i ? aeaeo?e/ii,
aeicaieythoue cae?enieoe iiaio iioei?caoe?th aiaeieo ?ano?n?a.

Aeeiiaiee aiae?c iieaco?, ui iayai?noue aiaeinoiaeu, ye? ?aaoeththoue ia
eaneaae? Aei?i?ianueeeo AAN, ?icoaooaaiiy oa iiaiee ia’?i aeicaieythoue
?o aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy i?e
?icoe?aii? ae?th/eo AAN eaneaaeo IAA (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey SEQ Oaaeeoey \* ARABIC 1 – Oa?aeoa?enoeea Aei?i?ianueeeo
aiaeinoiaeu

Iaeiaioaaiiy iieaciee?a Iaeeieoe? aei??thaaiiy Aiaeinoiaeua

Ee?anueea Eai?anueea E?aiai/ooeueea Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueea Aei?i?ianueea
?i. Eai?ia Eaoianueea

Na?aaeiy aaaaoi??/ia iiaooiaa aeo?aoa i3/n 1050 1390 1510 1640 1650 1650

Na?aaeiuei??/iee iiaooiaee no?e ei3 33,1 43,9 47,8 52,0 52,2 52,2

Iiaia i?iioneia ni?iiiaei?noue a?ae?iaocea i?e IIA i3/n 11200 18600
22000 20200 40000 25200

Iiaiee ia’?i aiaeinoiaeua i?e IIA ei3 3,73 2,62 13,5 2,45 3,3 18,2

Aaeocaaa niaoeeo?ea aia?aaoeee a oe?eiio ? a?ae?iaeoioethth/eo
aeaeo?inoaioe?e cie?aia aecia/a? cia/i? iniaeeaino? oa oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a c iaa?oiooaaiiy a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy.

I?iaeoi? oa aeine?aeieoeuee? ?iaioe c a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy, ye?
i?iaiaeeeenue aei oaia??oiueiai /ano, ni?yiiaai? ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
aoae?aieoeoaa e?oiieo AAAN ?c iiaeeeai a?eueoith iiooaei?noth aa?aaao?a,
ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ieoiieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue o aeai?
noaioe?? ? i?aeaeuo? ?o eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue ?c cai?ithaaieie
iiooaeiinoyie. Iaeiae, iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy ia
a?ae?aae?/ieo ? ianinieo noaioe?yo oeyoii aeiaeaoeiaiai anoaiiaeaiiy
IAA, oi/a ? ii??aiyii iaaaeeei? iiooaeiino? i?e iecueeeo iaii?ao,
aeiaaa? cia/ii iaioeo ?iaanoeoe?e, i?ae ia AAAN ianoi?niiai
aeoioethaaiiy.

Iaoiaeeea aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?icoe?aiiy AAN IAA, yeo cai?iiiiiaaii a
aeai?e aeena?oaoe??, iniiaaia ia aecia/ai? aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo AAN-AAAN
i?e ?iaio? o ia’?aeiai?e aia?ainenoai? i?e c?noaaeaii? c ?yaeii
cai?ithaaieo aeaeo?inoaioe?e ??cieo oei?a, ine?eueee iniaeeai aaaeeeaa
?ieue iaeaaeeoue AAN-AAAN o ?aaoethaaii? aeiaiaeo a?ao?e?a aeaeo?e/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy IAN, yea iieyaa? o caiiaiaii? ?o i?iaaeue ca ?aooiie
cae?eniaiiy a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy o i?/i? aiaeeie aeiae oa iie?eoo?
aino?ii?eiai? /anoeie noia?iith anoaiiaeaiith iiooaei?noth ?nioth/eo AAN
? aeiaeaoeiai anoaiiaeaieo IAA.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – «Iaoiaeeea oa ?iaanoeoe?eia caaacia/aiiy
?icoe?aiiy AAN IAA» – iaaaaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii?
iiooaeiino? IAA, ui anoaiiaeaii aeiaeaoeiai ia AAN eaneaaeo, oa
iaoiaeeeo iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe AAN-AAAN noi?nii ?c AAN oa OAN o
IAN. Aecia/aii aoaeoeai?noue ?icoe?aiiy AAN eaneaaeo ca ?aooiie
aeiaeaoeiai? onoaiiaee IAA. ?ic?iaeaia eiio?aeoeiaiaa iiaeaeue
?iaanooaaiiy ?icoe?aiiy AAN a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e.

Ia ?en. 2 iiaeaia aeie-noaia aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?icaeoeo
a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e.

?en. SEQ ?en. \* ARABIC 2 . Aeie-noaia aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?icaeoeo
a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai??.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a, aeeiiaieo ca ?ic?iaeaieie iaoiaeeeaie
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? iiooaeiino?, aeiaeaoeiai ia?iuoaaii? ia AAN
eaneaaeo, iiooaeiino?, aeiaeaoeiai ia?iuoaaii? ia ie?aieo AAN oa
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ?aae?caoe?? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e iiaeaii aaoi?ii o
aeiaeaoeao aei aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii aecia/eoe iioeiaeueio
iiooaei?noue IAA, ye? aeiaeaoeiai anoaiiaeaii ia eaneaae? AAN, ca
aeiiiiiaith caeaaeiinoae ieoiieo caaaeaieo aeo?ao aia?aaoe/iiai
eaioethaa, IAN i?e ?iaio? o neeaae? ?? iaeaaeiaiiy AAN-AAAN oa
cai?ithaaieo aeaeo?inoaioe?e.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooieo ??/ieo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo aaeain?a IAN,
ieoiieo oiiaii-iino?eieo aeo?ao, ieoiieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue o
aeaeo?iia?aaea/o, aeaeiaooie iaeeaa, o?ainii?o iaeeaa oa ?ioa,
?ic?aoiaothoueny aeo?aoe aia?aaoe/iiai eaioethaa, ye? caaaeaii aei
iaeiiai ?ieo aenieoaoaoe??.

O caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? caaaeai? aeo?aoe aia?aaoe/iiai eaioethaa IAN
aei??aiththoue:

,

aea – a?aeiia?aeii eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy o aeaeo?inoaioe?th,
aeaeo?iia?aaea/o, aeaeiaooie iaeeaa oa o?ainii?o iaeeaa; – ??/i?
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe aia?aaoe/iiai eaioethaa; – ?iaeaen ?ioeyoe?? ca
aiae?ciaaiee ia??iae; A – ii?ia aeeneiioo; t –iiia? e?ieo ?ic?aooieo (t=
0,1…O); O – ai?eciio ?ic?aooieo.

Ca io?eiaieie /eneiaeie cia/aiiyie aeey ?-oi? e?eueeino? i?e?ino?a
iiooaeiino? AAN-AAAN (aa??aio ?) oa ia aeueoa?iaoeai?e OAN (aa??aio ??)
aoaeothoueny caeaaeiino? = SYMBOL 166 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ¦ SYMBOL 40 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 ( SYMBOL 68 \f «Symbol» \s 12 D N SYMBOL 41 \f «Symbol»
\s 12 ) aeey ii??aithaaeueieo aa??aio?a. Oi/ea ia?aoeio e?eaeo
caeaaeiinoae ieoiieo caaaeaieo aeo?ao aia?aaoe/iiai eaioethaa, a?ae
i?e?inoo iiooaeiino? IAN, ui iiaoaeiaaii aeey aa??aio?a ? oa ??
aeicaiey? c oi/ee ci?o ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa aecia/eoe iioeiaeueio
iiooaei?noue IAA, ui aeiaeaoeiai anoaiiaeththoueny ia AAN eaneaaeo
(?en.3).

?en. SEQ ?en. \* ARABIC 3 . Caeaaei?noue

?ic?iaea aiaeiaia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino AAN-AAAN i?iaiaeeoueny ?c iaoith
iioeiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a aiaeinoiaeu AAN-AAAN.

Aiaeiee aaeain AAN-AAAN caiaeeoueny ca aeiiiiiaith ianooiiiai ??aiyiiy:

Qii+ Qai+ Qiiae.+ Qa i.?.+ Qa-ua= Qa+ Qcaa+ Que+ Qao?. SYMBOL 177 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 ± Qa-ua ,

aea Qii – iniiaiee i?eieea aiaee o aiaeinoiaeua; Qai – a?/ia
i?eieeai?noue; Qao?– aeo?aoe aiaee c aiaeinoiaeua; Qiiae– iiaaee, ui
aiaee ia aeca?eaei aiaeinoiaeua; Qa i.?– aeo?aoa aiaee, ui
ia?aea/o?oueny IAA o ianiniiio ?aaeei? c ieaeiueiai aiaeinoiaeua o
aa?oi?; Qa-ua– aeo?aoe ni?aoethaaiiy oa iaeiie/aiiy aiaeinoiaeua (iethn
a?aeiineoueny aei ia??iaeo ni?aoethaaiiy, i?ion – aei ia??iaeo
iaeiie/aiiy); Qa– aeo?aoa aiaee, /a?ac a?ae?ioo?a?ie ia IAA, ui
i?aoeththoue o oo?a?iiiio ?aaeei?; Qcaa– aaccai?ioi?e caa?? aiaee c
aa?oiueiai a’?oo aeey caaacia/aiiy ??cieo aiaeiniiaeeaa/?a; Que– aeo?aoe
aiaee ia oethcoaaiiy.

Canoinoaaiiy eaneaaeii? noaie aeei?enoaiiy ??/ee aeiaaa? ?ic?aooieo
aiaeiaia?aaoe/ieo aaeain?a aeey eiaeii? AAN-AAAN eaneaaeo c ianooiiei
ocaiaeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a ii an?e ??/oe? a?ae aeoieo aei
ae?ea.

Iioei?caoe?y ?aaeeio ?iaioe AAN-AAAN o no?oeoo?? iaeaaeiaiiy IAN
cae?enith?oueny aeey /ioe?ueio aeno?aiaeueieo aa??aio?a aeei?enoaiiy
iiooaeiino? IAA.

Ioe?iea aa??aio?a ?iaioe AAN-AAAN, ye? ii??aiththoueny, o aia?aaoe/i?e
nenoai? cae?enith?oueny ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooieo ??/iiai
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino IAN, ui aeeiiaii ia iniia? aeiaiaeo oa
naciiieo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo aaeain?a. Iioeiaeueiei aoaea aa??aio yeee
ia? iaeiaioo ??/io aeo?aoo oiiaiiai iaeeaa ia ei?eniee a?aeione
aeaeo?iaia?a??.

A aeaiiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeaia eiio?aeoeiaiaa iiaeaeue ?iaanooaaiiy
?icoe?aiiy AAN a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e (?en.4), ca?aeii yei? iiaaoaiiy
e?aaeeoo, iaaeaiiai ?iicaiiei eiio?aeo?iaiaei ia?oa?ii, a?aeaoaa?oueny
ca ?aooiie i?eaooeo.

?en. SEQ ?en. \* ARABIC 4 . Eiio?aeoeiaiaa iiaeaeue ?iaanooaaiiy.

Ca ?ic?aooieii oa?i?i ieoiiino? aeiaeaoeiaeo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue a
?icoe?thaaio /anoeio eaneaaeo AAN a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?? aei??aith? 4,5
?ieo.

aeniiaee

Ia?niaeoeaia ioe?iea aeiiii?/iiai noaio aia?aaoe/ii? aaeoc? c iaeyaeo ia
caaacia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae iieacaea, ui aia?aaoeea
Oe?a?ie ciaoiaeeoueny a e?eciaiio noai?, iaoiiaeaiiio aieeaii e?eciaeo
oaeoi??a (niaae ae?iaieoeoaa o an?o aaeocyo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai
eiiieaeno (ca 10 ?ie?a iaeneiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia’?aeiaii?
aia?ainenoaie Oe?a?ie cieceeiny c 60 iei. eAo aei 27 iei. eAo); cia/ia ?
oaeaeei c?inoath/a ciioaiiy iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a aia?aaoeee;
??ceee niaae ?iaanoeoe?eii? aeoeaiino? oiui.

?nioth/ee noai aia?aaoeee ? iaaacia/iei, ine?eueee a?i oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
a?aenooi?noth no?eeino? aei caa?ic aia?aaoe/i?e aaciaoe? ? iaeaea
iiaiith a?aenooi?noth «?ioi?oaoo» aei iaaaoeaieo aieea?a, iioaioe?eii
ni?iiiaeieo ao?ooeoeny a i?ioean ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ae?iaie/eo
nee ? nioe?aeueieo nenoai, a oaeiae noai?eoe caa?ico aeinyaiooiio ??aith
aeeooy ianaeaiiy.

Iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo aeeaa?neo?eaoe?eieo ??oaiue uiaei
iiaeieaiiy e?eciaiai noaio aia?aaoe/ii? aaeoc? ? caaacia/aiiy
i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e o iai?yi? ?icoe?aiiy ?o IAA.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?aiaeiiii?/ieo ia?aaeoiia oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
aeioe?eueiino? ? i??i?eoaoiino? a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy a ?iaanoeoe?eiiio
?icaeoeo a?ae?iaiaaieiiiai?e aeyaeee, ui ?nioth/a ? iniaeeai
ia?niaeoeaia aeaeo?iniiaeeaaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ana c?inoath/ith
aeiaiaith ia??aiii??i?noth, o no?oeoo?? aeaeo?iaia?aiaaia?oth/eo
iiooaeiinoae aia?ainenoai ca?eueoeeanue ieoiia aaaa aia?aiaeie?a
500-1000 c iaiaaeaiei ae?aiaciiii ?aaoethaaiiy. C’yaeany aeao?oeeo
iaiaa?aieo iiooaeiinoae aia?aionoaiiaie, ui ae?iaeythoue aeaeo?iaia?a?th
aeey i?eiaeo cii aeiaiaeo a?ao?e?a aeaeo?e/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
aia?ainenoai.

Aaaaeaiiy i?eiaiai ?aaeeio ?iaioe aacenieie aia?aiaeieaie aaaea aei
cieaeaiiy ?o aeiiii?/iino? (ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? aeo?aoe iaeeaa ia 2-3
%), aeieeiaiiy aaa??eieo neooaoe?e, aeoiaeo c ?iaioe, ia?aae/aniiio
ciino, ciaioaiith i?ae?aiiioieo ia??iae?a, ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ?aiiioieo
?ia?o, iineeaiith oaoiiaaiieo caa?ic aia?aaoe/i?e aaciaoe? aea?aeaae.

Eiieo?aioiei iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe aa??aio ?icoe?aiiy ae?th/eo AAN IAA,
yea ni?eyoeia ?ica’ycaiith i?iaeaie iie?eooy i?eiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue,
caa?aaeaiith aeao?oeeoieo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a, i?aeaeuaiith
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei ia?niaeoea ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a iieacaee, ui aaeocue aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee ?
i?eaaaeeaith aeey iioaioe?eieo ?iaanoi??a a e?a?iao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ?
Oe?a?ia ia ? aeeeth/aiiyi, aea a?aenooi?noue nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo ia
ni?ey? ia?aoai?aiith iioaioe?eiiai ?iaanoi?a a ?aia ?aaeueiiai. Aeieea?
iaaaeueia iio?aaa iiooeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaa?oioiaaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo
i?iaeo?a c iaoith noai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiai? i?eaaaeeaino? aeey ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a, ui iiaea ae a?oiooaaoenue ia ia?aeiieeaeo ?ic?aooieao
i?e??nii? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?e (iai?eeeaae, ia ??cieoe? ciiaeueieo
oa?eo?a oiui).

Aiae?c iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
aeioe?eueiino? ? i??i?eoaoiino? a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy aeacaa ia
iaiao?aei?noue aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy a eiioaeno?
oi?ioaaiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee e?a?ie.

Ca aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ye? i?iaaaeaii, anoaiiaeaii, ui ia no/aniiio aoai?
?icaeoeo a?ae?iaia?aaoeee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? AAN iiaeia aeinyaoe
ca ?aooiie:

?icoe?aiiy ae?th/eo AAN IAA;

iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe AAN, ui i?aoeththoue ni?eueii ?c OAN ? AAN
o aia?aaoe/ieo nenoaiao.

Eiieo?aioiei iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe aa??aio io?eiaiiy iaiaa?aii?
iiooaeiino? ia ae?th/eo eaneaaeao AAN oeyoii aeiaeaoeiaiai anoaiiaeaiiy
IAA, aiane?aeie /iai aiie ia?aoai?ththoueny a AAN-AAAN.

Iioeiaeueia iiooaei?noue IAA, yeo aecia/aii c oi/ee ci?o ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ui aeiaeaoeiai anoaiiaeth?oueny ia AAN Aei?i?ianueeiai
eaneaaeo , o ii??aiyii? c cai?ithaaieie AON neeaaea? 2350 IAo, EAN ?c
ni?iuaiiyi aia?aiaeieaie 500 IAo – 2314 IAo oa EAN c aia?aiaeieaie 800
IAo – 2274 IAo.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?icoe?aiiy AAN IAA.
Aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeiaaaeaii, ui ?icoe?aiiy AAN eaneaaeo IAA ia? aaeeea
cia/aiiy o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? – cie?aia i?e
na?aaeiueiaeanyoe??/iiio noieia? Aei?i?a IAN Oe?a?ie iiaea ui??/ii
caa??aaoe iiiaae 1,5 iei. o oiiaiiai iaeeaa, 34,4 iei. o.i. ??/ieo
aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao oa 47, 4 iei. o.i. caaaeaieo aeo?ao ii
caieeaeueiiio iaeeao.

Iioeiaeueiei ?aaeeiii ?iaioe AAN-AAAN o no?oeoo?? iaeaaeiaiiy IAN ?
oaeee, i?e yeiio a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy i?ioyaii ?ieo iiaeiii
cae?enithaaoenue o?eueee o ?iai/? aei? (a?aoi?ie, na?aaea, /aoaa?,
i’yoieoey), ui iaoiiaeaii aeao?oeeoii aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?e iie?eoo?
aino?ii?eiai? ciie aa/??iueiai iaeneioio aeiaiaiai a?ao?ea aeaeo?e/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy IAN. I?e oeueiio o ceiiaee ia??iae o ?iai/? aei? iai?ioi?
a?ae?iaa?aaaoe aa?ooue o/anoue o iie?eoo? aa/??iueiai iaeneioio
aeaeo?e/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy IAN an??th anoaiiaeaiith iiooaei?noth
AAN-AAAN, a o iia?iue oa ae?oeo – eeoa ?? /anoeiith.

Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee
a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy, ui a?aoiao? neia?a?/iee aoaeo ye ?acoeueoao
iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a.

Iniaeeai aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? ?icoe?aiiy AAN IAA a oiiaao
caaino?aii? aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??, yea iia’ycaia ?c caa?aaeaiiyi
?iaeth/eo caiaeue, ye? i?aeaeathoueny i?ae caoiieaiiy i?ae /an
nii?oaeaeaiiy iiaeo AAN oa AAAN.

Iaa?oioiaaii oiiae aaeaioaoe?? eiio?aeoeiaiai? iiaeae? ?iaanooaaiiy
?icoe?aiiy AAN aia?aieiiiai?e ye iaea?eueo eiia??iiai iai?yio noai?aiiy
?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?o ?icaeoeo.

Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea ?icoe?aiiy AAN IAA, ui aeeiiaia o iiaeai?e
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, iieacaea, ui aeaiee aeae ?aeiino?oeoe??
?nioth/eo AAN ia o?eueee ? aeioe?eueiei c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o, aea ?
aea? cia/io, a?eueo i?ae o 3 ?ace, aeiiii?th eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao o
ii??aiyii? ?c nii?oaeaeaiiyi iiaeo a?ae?iaia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a.

I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? AAN ca ?aooiie aeiaeaoeiaiai anoaiiaeaiiy
iioeiaeueii? iiooaeiino? IAA c ianooiiith iioei?caoe??th ?aaeei?a ?o
?iaioe a ia’?aeiai?e aia?ainenoai? Oe?a?ie iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee, iineethth/e ?ioi?oao uiaei caa?ic
aia?aaoe/i?e aaciaoe?, i?aeaeuo? ??aaiue caoeuaiino? a?ae oeeo caa?ic ?
iineeth? aia?aaoe/io aaciaeo aea?aeaae.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeo?ii
a?aooaaoe oae? i?iiiceoe??:

I?i?noa?noao aia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie – iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy,
ui a?aoiao? neia?a?/iee aoaeo ye ?acoeueoao iioei?caoe?? aia?aaoe/ieo
?aaeei?a, oae ? ?acoeueoao iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a,
oa iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? ? i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo
a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e a iai?yi? ?icoe?aiiy AAN IAA aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaeaooiuei? no?oeoo?e aaeoc?; aaeaioiaaio eiio?aeo?iaiao iiaeaeue
?iaanooaaiiy ?icoe?aiiy AAN a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e, ye iaea?eueo
eiia??iiai iai?yio noai?aiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo
aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a.

Eii?oaoo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee c ieoaiue iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno,
o?ainii?oo oa ca’yceo – ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
uiaei iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo
a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e a iai?yi? ?icoe?aiiy AAN IAA, ?acoeueoaoe
?ic?aooieo iioeiaeueii? iiooaeiino? IAA, ye? aeiaeaoeiai
anoaiiaeththoueny ia AAN Aei?i?ianueeiai eaneaaeo, aeieia?/io ioe?ieo
ia?niaeoeaieo iane?aee?a iiaea?i?caoe?? AAN eaneaaeo.

Iaoe?iiaeuei?e eii?n?? c ieoaiue ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee –
aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iioiaiai ?eieo aeaeo?iaia?a?? ? no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae
a aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/iiio eiiieaen?.

Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeeniao/a?nueeiio oeaio?o aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee – aeniiaee
uiaei iioei?caoe?? ?iaioe iaeaaeiaiiy ia’?aeiaii? aia?ainenoaie Oe?a?ie.

Aea?aeeii?oaoo ii aia?aicaa?aaeaiith – aaeaioiaaio eiio?aeo?iaiao
iiaeaeue ?iaanooaaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a aeey noai?aiiy
?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy caoiae?a c aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy.

I?i?noa?noao ina?oe i?e i?aeaioiaoe? nooaeaio?a o iai?yi? «Iaiaaeaeiaio»
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth «Iaiaaeaeiaio i?aai?caoe?e» – iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee c
aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee oa iaa?oiooaaiiy ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eo?a.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

I?aoe? o iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo:

Ae?ioeia I.A. Eiio?aeoeiaiaa iiaeaeue ?iaanooaaiiy ?icoe?aiiy AAN
a?ae?ieiiiai??. // Iaiaaeaeiaio oa i?aei?e?iieoeoai a Oe?a?i?: aoaie
noaiiaeaiiy ? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo. Ca. iaoe. – i?eee. i?. – Euea?a, AeO
«Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea». – 1999. – ?369. – N. 216-223.

Ae?ioeia I.A. I?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? a?ae?iaia?aaoeee. //
I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee oa oi?aae?iiy. A?niee AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea».
Ca. iaoe.– i?eee. i?.– Euea?a, AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea». – 1998. –
? 353. – N. 146-149.

Ae?ioeia I.A., O?aoyeiaa E.?. Iniaeeaino? ?ic?iaee a?cian-ieaio
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo aia?aaoe/iiai i?aei?e?inoaa. // Iaiaaeaeiaio oa
i?aei?e?iieoeoai a Oe?a?i?: aoaie noaiiaeaiiy ? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo. Ca.
iaoe-i?eee. i?. – Euea?a, AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea». – 1996.
N.22-23. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? ?ic?iaee a?cian-ieaio
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo aia?aaoe/iiai i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ae?ioeia I.A., O?aoyeiaa E.?., Ii/eiie I.E. Aia?aiiuaaei? caoiaee a
oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece.// I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee oa oi?aae?iiy. A?niee
Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» Ca. iaoe-i?eee. i?.–
Euea?a, AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea». – 1996. – ? 306 – N. 3-6.
Iniaenoi aaoi?ii ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii
?icaeiaieo e?a?i, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yeiai ia aeiaaa? aaeeeeo
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue oa cai?iiiiiaaii ?yae ia?oi/a?aiaeo caoiae?a aeey
iiaeieaiiy aeiiii?/ii? e?ece a Oe?a?i?.

E?eeaanueeee ?.A., Ae?ioeia I.A., Ii/eiie I.E. Aioe?ioeyoe?ei? caniae oa
i?eaaoecaoe?y. // I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee ? oi?aae?iiy. A?niee Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» Ca. iaoe-i?eee.i?. – Euea?a, AeO
«Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea». – 1995. – ? 293. – N. 92-94. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii
aecia/aia ?ieue aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy o ae??oaii? i?iaeaie
no?eiaiiy ?ioeyoe?? ? aeiaaaeaiiy ?? oaii?a c?inoaiiy aei ??aiy, ui ia?
i?noea a aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao, oa aeoea?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eieo
i?ioean?a.

Ae?ioeia I.A., Ia?eoiee I.A. Aeieia?/i? iane?aeee i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?e/ieo noaioe?e. // I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee ? oi?aae?iiy.
A?niee. Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» Ca.
iaoe-i?eee.i?. – Euea?a, AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea ». – 1994. – ?
284. – N. 52-54. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii aieea ?aeiino?oeoe??
eaneaaeo ?nioth/eo AAN oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy ia ieo iai?ioieo
a?ae?iaa?aaao?a ia ?aaeei ?iaioe ?o aiaeinoiaeu.

Ae?ioeia I.A., Ia?eoiee I.A., Cae?i/ae ?.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i
iiaea?i?caoe?th oaieiaeo aeaeo?inoaioe?e. // I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee ?
oi?aae?iiy. A?niee Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»
Ca. iaoe-i?eee.i?. – Euea?a, AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea ». –1993. –
? 274. – N. 76-78. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii nenoaiaoeciaai? iniiai? niiniae
iiaea?i?caoe?? ia?ioo?a?iieo aeaeo?inoaioe?e, noi?ioeueiaaiee i?aeo?ae
aei aeai?o aa??aioo iiaea?i?caoe??, aeine?aeaeaii ciai?oi? ? aioo??oi?
oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia aeiiii?/i?noue ?iaioe OAOe.

I?aoe?, ye? aeiaeaoeiai a?aeia?aaeathoue iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe??:

Ae?ioeia I.A. ?iaanooaaiiy a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy: aeiiii?ea,
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue, aia?aaoe/ia aaciaea. // A?niee OAAIOC. – 1998.
– ?5. – N.45-48.

A?iinueea I.N., A?eee I.A., Ae?ioeia I.A., Noa?ieiaeaa I.A. Ae?aaiinoeea
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? a aia?aaoeoe?. // I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee oa
oi?aae?iiy. A?niee AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea». Ca. iaoe. – i?eee. i?.
– Euea?a, AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea». – 1998. –? 353. – N.22-24.
Iniaenoi aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia noaia ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a ia’?aeiaii?
aia?ainenoaie.

Ae?ioeia I.A., ?aaieoei E.?. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy OAA – iia?e?caoe?y
aioo??oi?o ?aca?a?a i?aei?e?inoaa. // Iaiaaeaeiaio oa i?aei?e?iieoeoai a
Oe?a?i?: aoaie noaiiaeaiiy ? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo. Ca. iaoe-i?eee.i?. –
Euea?a, AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea». – 1996. –?306. – N.44-45.
Iniaenoi aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii aieea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy OAA ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Aeeeia?ia N.A., Naiaithe A.I., Naaeianeee A.A., Ao?aeue ?.E., Aeeioeia
A.A. Iiuo oaaee/aiey ieeiaie iiuiinoe oaieiaie yeaeo?inoaioeee. //
Yeaeo?e/aneea noaioeee. — 1974. – ?3. – N.5-7. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ? aeeiiai? ?ic?aooiee uiaei aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino?, ui io?eio?oueny a?ae iie?eooy i?eiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ca
?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ?iai/i? iiooaeiino? oo?aiaa?aaao?a.

Aeeeia?ia N.A., Aeeioeia A.A. Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeaeo?iiio?aaeaiey ieoaoaeueiuo ianinia yia?aiaeieia 200 IAo. //
Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1985. — ? 1. — N. 18-20 Iniaenoi aaoi?ii
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aaoethaaiiy
aeaeo?iniiaeeaaiiy aeeaeeueieo ianin?a aia?aiaeie?a 200 IAo ? aeeiiai?
a?aeiia?aei? ?ic?aooiee.

Aeeeia?ia N.A., Aeeioeia A.A., Ia?uoiee A.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie
iiuiinoe, aeiiieieoaeueii ia?aueaaaiie ia AYN Aeiai?ianeiai eaneaaea ?ae
ca n/ao onoaiiaee ia?aoeiuo aeae?iaa?aaaoia. // Aanoiee Eueaianeiai
iieeoaoie/aneiai ei-oa «Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey e
eiio?iey.» – 1985. – ? 195. – N. 46-48. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iioeiaeueii? iiooaeiino?, ui aeiaeaoeiai
ia?iuo?oueny ia AAN eaneaaeo ??/ie ca ?aooiie iiioaaeo IAA ? aeeiiai?
?ic?aooiee uiaei aecia/aiiy ieoiieo caaaeaieo cao?ao aia?aaoe/iiai
eaioethaa aeey aa??aioa c AAN-AAAN.

Aeeeia?ia N.A., Aeeioeia A.A. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe AYN ca n/ao
oaaee/aiey a? iaii?a. // Aanoiee Eueaianeiai iieeoaoie/aneiai ei-oa
«Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey.» – 1986. – ? 205.
– N. 63-64. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii aieea i?aeaeuaiiy
ii?iaeueiiai i?aeii?iiai ai?eciioo (IIO) ia aoaeoeai?noue AAN.

Aeeeia?ia N.A., Aeeioeia A.A. Yooaeoeaiinoue ?anoe?aiey Aeiai?iayn-? ca
n/ao Aeiai?iayn-??. // Aanoiee Eueaianeiai iieeoaoie/aneiai ei-oa
«Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey.» – 1988. – ? 225.
– N. 62-64. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii aeaea?aea ooai?aiiy
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? i?e ?icoe?aii? Aei?i?iaan-? ca ?aooiie
Aei?i?iaan-?? ? ca?aeii ?c ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith aeeiiai? ?ic
?aooiee.

Aiioaoe?y

Ae?ioeia I.A. Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea oa ?iaanooaaiiy ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/ieo
ia’?eo?a (ia i?eeeaae? a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e) – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.02.02 – Aeiiii?ea oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei
i?ia?anii, ?iaanoeoe?ei? oa ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane, – Aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea», Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee oa ?iaanooaaiiy
?icoe?aiiy AAN IAA.

Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee
a?ae?iaeoioethaaiiy. Aecia/aia iioeiaeueia iiooaei?noue IAA, ye?
aeiaeaoeiai anoaiiaeththoueny ia AAN eaneaaeo, oa iaa?oioiaaii oiiae ?o
noi?nii? iioei?caoe?? c OAN ? AAN o ia’?aeiai?e aia?ainenoai?,
cae?eniaia aeiiii?/ia oa aeieia?/ia ioe?iea iiaea?i?caoe?? AAN eaneaaeo.

Iaa?oioiaaii oiiae aaeaioaoe?? eiio?aeoeiaiai? iiaeae? ?iaanooaaiiy
?icoe?aiiy AAN a?ae?iaia?aieiiiai?e ye iaea?eueo eiia??iiai iai?yio
noai?aiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?o ?icaeoeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea, ia’?aeiaia aia?ainenoaia,
iioei?caoe?y aia?aaoe/ieo ?aaeei?a, iai?ioi? a?ae?iaa?aaaoe, AAN-AAAN,
aeieia?/i? iane?aeee, ?iaanooaaiiy, eiio?aeoeiaiaa iiaeaeue.

Summary

Akinshina E.V. The economic appraisement and investment for the
development of power engineering object (on the example of hydroelectric
power station). – Manuscript.

The dissertation for a degree of candidate in economical by specialty
08.02.02. – The Economic for Scientific and Technical Progress
Management, Investment and Innovation Processes. – State University
«Lviv Polytechnic», Lviv, 1999.

The dissertation contains the issues concerning economic appraisement
and investment providing for the hydroelectric power-station enlargement
by recircable hudroaggregates.

On the bases of system approach the method for the economic appraisement
of hydroaccumulation. The optimal power for recircable hudroaggregates
which additionally planted on HES cascades is defined and the conditions
for their joint optimization with TES and NES in frames of the
consolidate power engineering system are substantiated. The economic and
environmental appraisement of the result of HES cascade modernization is
carried out.

The condition for the contracting model of investment for HES
hydroenergetic companies enlargement as the most possible way for
creation of their investment development providing are substantiated.

Key words: economic appraisement, joint power engineering system, the
optimization of power engineering regime, recircable hydroaggregates,
HES-HNES, environmental consequences, investment providing, contracting
model.

Aiiioaoeey

Aeeioeia A.A. Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea e eiaanoe?iaaiea ?acaeoey
yia?aaoe/aneeo iauaeoia (ia i?eia?a aeae?iyia?aieiiiaiee) – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.02.02. – Yeiiiieea oi?aaeaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneei
i?ia?annii, eiaanoeoeeiiiua e eiiiaaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu. –
Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea», Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee e
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey ?anoe?aiey AYN ia?aoeiuie aeae?iaa?aaaoaie
(IAA). A ia?aii ?acaeaea «Oai?aoe/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiaanoeoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey ?acaeoey yia?aaoe/aneeo
iauaeoia» ?anniio?aiu iiaua oneiaey e iniiaiua caaea/e ?acaeoey
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena Oe?aeiu, iaicia/aiu
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea i?eioeeiu e iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey aeae?iyia?aaoeee,
oai?aoe/aneea i?aaeiinueee oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai iainiiaaiey ?anoe?aiey
aeae?iyia?aieiiiaiee e ia?niaeoeau eiaanoeoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey ?acaeoey
yia?aaoe/aneeo iauaeoia. Auyaeaiu e nenoaiaoece?iaaiu
yia?aiyeiiiie/aneea i?aaeiinueee oeaeaniia?aciinoe e i?ei?eoaoiinoe
?acaeoey aeae?iyia?aieiiiaiee a iai?aaeaiee ?anoe?aiey AYN IAA.
I?ei?eoaoiui iai?aaeaieai a no?ieoaeuenoaa aeae?ioceia yaeyaony eo
ia?aoiae ia eaneaaeiia e ?aaeiiaeueiia nii?oaeaiea. Iaeiie ec
aiciiaeiinoae eniieueciaaiey aeae?iyia?ai?ano?nia yaeyaony nii?oaeaiea
iaeuo AYN e iee?i AYN, /oi neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae iieaciia
aeiiieiaiea e aieueoie yia?aaoeea. Ia?niaeoeaiui yaeyaony ?acaeoea
yia?aaoe/aneeo iauaeoia aeae?iyia?aieiiiaiee a iai?aaeaiee
?aeiino?oeoeee eo a AYN–AAYN, o?aaothuaa n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoeo
eiaanoeoeee. Enneaaeiaaiu ia?niaeoeau eiaanoeoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey
?acaeoey yia?aaoe/aneeo iauaeoia.

Aoi?ie ?acaeae «Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea ?acaeoey aeae?iyia?aieiiiaiee eae
nenoaiiue (neia?ae/aneee) yooaeo yia?aaoeee Oe?aeiu» iinayuai aiaeeco
iaoiaeia e iiaeaeae iioeiecaoeee ?aaeeiia yia?aaoe/aneeo nenoai,
iioeiecaoeee eniieueciaaiey aiaeiuo ?ano?nia aeae?iyia?aieiiiaiee –
ninoaaeythuae neia?ae/aneiai yooaeoa, enneaaeiaaieth iaoiaee/aneeo iniia
yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee ?acaeoey ?anoe?aiey aeae?iaia?aieiiiaiee IAA e
yeiiiie/aneei aniaeoai iiaea?iecaoeee aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee a AYN-AAYN.
?ac?aaioai nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e iaoiaeeea yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee
aeae?iaeeoioee?iaaiey.

Iaee/ea ia Aeiai?a eaneaaea aiaeio?aieeeu iicaieyao aieaa yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue aai aiaeiua ?ano?nu iooai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aiaeu a
oa/aiea aiaea. Aii?inu ?aaiou eaneaaea Aeiai?ianeeo AYN ?anniao?eaathony
a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n iaia/aiiuie ia ia?niaeoeao cia/eoaeueiuie
ioai?aie aiaeu ec Aeiai?a.

Auiieiaiiue aiaeec iieacuaaao ia iaee/ea ?aaoee?othueo aiaeio?aieeeu ia
eaneaaea Aeiai?ianeeo AYN, ?aciauaiea e iieiue iauai eioi?uo iicaieytho
eniieueciaaoue eo aeey inouanoaeaiey aeae?iaeeoioee?iaaiey i?e
?anoe?aiee aeaenoaothueo AYN eaneaaea ia?aoeiuie aeae?iaa?aaaoaie.

Eniieueciaaiea nouanoaothueo aiaeio?aieeeu a ea/anoaa aannaeiia aeey
aeeoioee?iaaiey aiaeu iicaieyao ?ac?aoeoue yeieiae/aneoth i?iaeaio,
naycaiioth n caoiieaieai ia?iiiie ieiuaaee ieiaei?iaeiuo caiaeue.

Iaoiaeeea yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee ?anoe?aiey AYN IAA iniiaaia ia
ii?aaeaeaiee yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa AYN–AAYN, ?aaioathueo a
iauaaeeiaiiie yia?ainenoaia i?e niiinoaaeaiee n ?yaeii caiaiyaiuo
yeaeo?inoaioeee ?aciuo oeiia, iineieueeo iniai aaaeioth ?ieue auiieiytho
AYN–AAYN a ?aaoee?iaaiee nooi/iuo a?aoeeia yeaeo?e/aneie iaa?ocee
iauaaeeiaiiie yia?ainenoaiu, eioi?ay ninoieo a caiieiaiee eo i?iaaeia ca
n/ao aeae?iaeeoioee?iaaiey a ii/iua /anu nooie e iie?uoee ino?iieeiaie
/anoe noiia?iie onoaiiaeaiiie iiuiinoueth nouanoaothueo AYN e
aeiiieieoaeueiie onoaiiaeaiiie iiuiinoueth ia?aoeiuo aeae?iaa?aaaoia.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea «Iaoiaee/aneia iaania/aiea ?anoe?aiey AYN ia?aoeiuie
aeae?iaa?aaaoaie» ia iniiaa nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea
yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee aeae?iaeeoioee?iaaiey, o/eouaathuay neia?ae/aneee
yooaeo eae ?acoeueoao iioeiecaoeee yia?aaoe/aneeo ?aaeeiia e
iioeiecaoeee eniieueciaaiey aiaeiuo ?ano?nia. Ii?aaeaeaia iioeiaeueiay
iiuiinoue IAA, aeiiieieoaeueii onoaiaaeeaaaiuo ia AYN eaneaaea e
iainiiaaiu oneiaey eo niaianoiie iioeiecaoeee n OYN e AYN a
iauaaeeiaiiie yia?aaoe/aneie nenoaia. Inouanoaeaia yeiiiie/aneay e
yeieiae/aneay ioeaiea ia?niaeoeaiuo iineaaenoaee iiaea?iecaoeee AYN
eaneaaea. Ioeaiea n?aaieaaaiuo aa?eaioia ?aaiou AYN–AAYN a iauaaeeiaiiie
yia?aaoe/aneie nenoaia i?iecaaaeaia ii ?acoeueoaoai ?an/aoa aiaeiaiai
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai aaeaina, auiieiaiiiai ia iniiaa nooi/iuo e
naciiiuo oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo aaeainia iauaaeeiaiiie yia?ainenoaiu
Oe?aeiu, iioeiaeueiui yaeyaony aa?eaio, eiathuee iaeiaiueoee aiaeiaie
?anoiae oneiaiiai oiieeaa ia iieaciue ioione yeaeo?iyia?aee. Iaoneiaeaiu
oneiaey aaeaioaoeee eiio?aeoeiaiaie iiaeaee eiaanoe?iaaiey AYN
aeae?iyia?aieiiiaiee eae iaeaieaa aa?iyoiiai iai?aaeaiey nicaeaiey
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey eo ?acaeoey. I?aaeeiaeaia eiio?aeoeiaiaay
iiaeaeue eiaanoe?iaaiey ?anoe?aiey AYN aeae?iyia?aieiiiaiee.
Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea ?anoe?aiey AYN ia?aoeiuie aeae?iaa?aaaoaie
iieacaea, /oi aeaiiue aeae ?aeiino?oeoeee nouanoaothueo AYN aeaao
cia/eoaeueioth yeiiiieth eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao a n?aaiaiee n nii?oaeaieai
iiauo aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneeo iauaeoia.

Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe AYN ca n/ao aeiiieieoaeueiie onoaiiaee
iioeiaeueiie iiuiinoe ia?aoeiuo aeae?iaa?aaaoia n iineaaeothuae
iioeiecaoeeae ?aaeeiia eo ?aaiou a iauaaeeiaiiie yia?ainenoaia Oe?aeiu
niinianoaoao oneeaieth yia?aaoe/aneie aaciianiinoe no?aiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea, iauaaeeiaiiay yia?ainenoaia,
iioeiecaoeey yia?aaoe/aneeo ?aaeeiia, ia?aoeiua aeae?iaa?aaaou,
AYN-AAYN, yeieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey, eiaanoe?iaaiea, eiio?aeoeiaiaay
iiaeaeue.

PAGE 2

Euea?a -1999

SYMBOL 68 \f «Symbol» \s 11 D N, IAo

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