I?i?noa?noai aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno oe?a?ie

Ieeiea?anueea aea?aeaaia aa?a?ia aeaaeai?y

Eo?iinaiei Ea?ena Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 631.16:658.155

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea oa oeyoe ??

i?aeaeuaiiy a ainiiaea?noaao ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?

a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo ( ia i?eeeaae?

neioa?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa i?ei?nueei? ciie i. Iaeane)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.02 – Aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ieeiea?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio
?inoeooo?

I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?aae/aiei Iao?i Ieoaeeiae/

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeui? iaoaiaoeee ? noaoenoeee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ia?ioeue Ea?ena Ieaenaiae??aia,

Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iae?eo ? aoaeeoo

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ino?ianueeee Iao?i ?aaiiae/

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee, i?aai?caoe?? ? iae?eo a AIE, aeaeai
iae?eiai-aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI, (a?aeae?e
oe?iiooai?aiiy oa eii’thieoo?e ?eieo)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 24 » /a?aiy 1999?. i 13-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.38.806.01 Ieeiea?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: i. Ieeiea?a, aoe.
Ia?ecueei? Eiioie, 9, eiioa?aioe-caea

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ieeiea?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: i. Ieeiea?a, aoe. Ea?iaiei,
73.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 21 » o?aaiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio
Ioaie/aiei A.N.

2

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??
iaiiaeeeaa aac aecia/aiiy naii? noo? iiiyooy «aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue»
oa e?eoa???a ? iieaciee?a, ye? ?? iaoiiaeththoue. Aaaaoi oaaae oeei
ieoaiiyi a ??ciee /an i?eae?eyee a/ai?-aeiiii?noe Aeaenaiae?ia A.A.,
Aeaaeoi A.?., Aeia?ei?i A.A., Eae?i/ee I., Eioia A.A., Ee/ A.I.,
Iaieainueeee E.I., Naaeoe I.O., Naiaiae?i A.A., Oa?anaiei A.N., *ayiia
I.A. oa ?io?. A?eueo?noue c ieo ?icaeyaeaee i?iaeaio aecia/aiiy
e?eoa???a ? iieaciee?a aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee.

Ia?ao?ae ia ?eieia? canaaee ainiiaea?thaaiiy aeiaaa? aeei?enoaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo eaoaai??e, i?eoaiaiieo ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?. E??i oiai, a
i?aoeyo iacaaieo a/aieo, ia’?eoii iaoeiaiai aiae?co aenooiaea aeiiii?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a oe?eiio ? aeoaea
iaei iaoeiaeo i?aoeue i?enay/aii aeiiii?/i?e aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa
iieiea. Aaaeeea?noue oe??? i?iaeaie caaino?th?oueny a ca’yceo c
iaiao?aei?noth oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio aca?iia?aeiinei
i?ae an?ia eaieaie aa?oeeaeueii? ia?eaoeiaiai? nenoaie aca?iiiia’ycaiiai
iieieii?iaeoeoiaiai eiiieaeno.

Aeooaeuei?noue iinoaiiaee i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno a
i?ei?nuee?e i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ii? cii? a eiioeaiooaeueiiio ieai?
iaoiiaeaia a?aenooi?noth iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeieo ?ic?iaie aeey aaeoc?
?aa?iio, ia?niaeoeai?noue yei? i?e iayaiino? i?noeino? niiaeea/iai
?eieo, ia aeeeeea? noii?ao. Iaaeinoaoiy aea/ai?noue ? aaeeea i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea ?
aecia/eee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii, aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c oaiaoeeith
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo, cie?aia c aea?aeathaeaeaoiith
oaiith eaoaae?e aeui? iaoaiaoeee ? noaoenoeee “Aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee /ia i?eeeaae?
i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a Iaeanuee?e iaeano?/”, iiia?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0186.0123283.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue ? iiooe
? iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa
iieiea a i?ei?nuee?e i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i?e cii?. Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii?
iaoe iaoiiaeei iinoaiiaeo ? ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— aecia/eoe nooi?noue, e?eoa??? ? iieacieee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
iiei/iiai neioa?noaa a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei;

— aeeiiaoe ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iee aiae?c ? aeaoe
ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo no/aniiai noaio aaeoc? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa a
i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? i?ei?nueei? i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ii?
ciie;

— aeeiiaoe aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iee aiae?c aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea a ainiiaea?noaao noni?eueiiai naeoi?o i?ei?nueei?
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ii? ciie, oa aecia/eoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe oeyoe ??
i?aeaeuaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaioe?th ?icaeoeo i?ei?nueeiai iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno
?eieiai? i???ioaoe?? c aenieith aeiiii?/iith aoaeoeai?noth ae?iaieoeoaa;

— ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a oa iiaeaeae
?ic?aooaaoe iioeiaeuei? ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/i? ia?aiao?e
i?eaaoii-i?aiaeieo iiei/ieo oa?i;

— aecia/eoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
?ioaa?aoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee iieiea.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea a
ainiiaea?noaao ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? a ?eieiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueiiai
naeoi?o, naeyinuee? (oa?ia?nuee?) ainiiaea?noaa i?ei?nueei?
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ii? ciie i. Iaeane (A?ey?anueeee, Eii?ioa?i?anueeee ?
Ia?ae?iiieuenueeee aaei?i?no?aoeai? ?aeiie) oa AAO “Iaeanaiieiei”, a
yea aoiaeyoue 18 iieieiia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa Iaeanueei? iaeano?.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith ? iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiue ? iieiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, caeiiiaeaa/? oa
ii?iaoeai? aeoe, iinoaiiae o?yaeo e?a?ie noiniaii ?aoi?ioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ? iieieiia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa a
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? no?oeoo?e ?eieiaiai oeio.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aoiaoaaeeny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a?o/eciyieo oa
ca?oa?aeieo oao?aoe?a a?aeiinii i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea noa’?eoaie i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.
Iinoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? caaaeaiiy ae??ooaaeeny ca
aeiiiiiaith oaeeo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy: iiiia?ao?/iiai,
aano?aeoii-eia?/iiai, ?ic?aooieiai-eiino?oeoeaiiai,
aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iiai, ei?aeyoe?eiiai, aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai,
a?ao?/iiai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aei iaea?eueo nooo?aeo, iiaeo
?acoeueoao?a, ye? iaea?aeai? a aeena?oaoe?? ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno
a?aeiinyoueny:

— ocaaaeueithth/ei (neioaoe/iei) iieacieeii aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea a ?eieiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? i?eaooie a
?ic?aooieo ia 1 oo?aaeio ei?iao;

— eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo i?ei?nueeiai iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno ?eieiai?
i???ioaoe??, c aenieith aeiiii?/iith aoaeoeai?noth ae?iaieoeoaa. A i?e
aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci noai?aiiy i?eaaoii-i?aiaeii? n?iaeii?
iiei/ii? oa?ie ia 25 ei??a c caieiooei oeeeeii ? aeaniei
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaii ? ?o iiaeaeueoa ia’?aeiaiiy a ae?iaie/? ?
?aa?iiaeuei? iiei/i? eiiia?aoeae;

— ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/i? ia?aiao?e n?iaeieo i?eaaoii-i?aiaeieo iiei/ieo
oa?i. Aia?oa ?ic?aoiaai? ?ici??e caiaeueii? ae?eyiee, iaiao?aeii? aeey
iioeiaeueiiai ei?iicaaacia/aiiy iiaie?a’y oaa?ei n?iaeii?
i?eaaoii-i?aiaeii? iiei/ii? oa?ie;

— oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei i?aei?e?inoa c
ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee iieiea. Ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co aieeao iniiaieo oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa
ia nia?aa?o?noue iieiea a i?aei?e?inoaao noni?eueiiai naeoi?o
i?ei?nueei? ciie ?ic?aoiaai? ii?iaoeai? nia?aa?o?noue ? oe?ia
?aae?caoe?? 1oe iieiea.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue iathoue i?eeeaaeia cia/aiiy. Aiie
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ai?aai?caoe?? no/anieo eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ? iiooeo a?eueo i?ia?aneaieo
aa?ioi?ioaaiue, caeaoieo caaacia/eoe aenieo aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa. Noai?aiiy n?iaeieo i?eaaoii-i?aiaeieo iiei/ieo oa?i
iaiao?aeii aaaaeaoe ye iaeei ?c ?aaeueii iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a aeoiaeo ?c
aeeaiei? e?ece iiei/ii? aaeoc? AIE ? i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa.

?ic?aoiaai? ca aeiiiiiaith no/anieo aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a ?
iiaeaeae ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/i? ia?aiao?e n?iaeii? iiei/ii? oa?ie iiaeooue
neoaeeoe ac??oeai i?e iiaoaeia? iiae?aieo i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo
oi?ioaaiue.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaa?oioiaaii? caeoi?aaeueii? oe?ie ia iieiei, iaea?aeaii?
aiae?oe/iei oeyoii i?eaaaea aei cia/iiai c?inoaiiy ia’?i?a
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iieiea ia ia?a?iaeo, a?eueo iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae iieieiia?a?iaieo caaiae?a ?, ca ?aooiie oeueiai,
cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? ? i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ia?a?iaee
iieiea.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiio i?ioean? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo i?e aeeeaaeaii? aeenoeeie?i:
“I?e?iaeiiii?ea”, “Eiiia?aoe?y ? ?ioaa?aoe?y a aa?ia?cian?”,
“N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea noaoenoeea”.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. An? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee, ye? aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno, aeeiiai? aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? naiino?eii. Iaoeia? noaoo?,
iioae?eiaai? a oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao, iiai?noth a?aeia?aaeathoue ci?no
aeena?oaoe?? ? iaienai? caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo, iaoeiaeo
i?aoe?aiee?a oa ani??aio?a Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo (1996-1999?.?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai?
o 6 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,8 ae?oe. a?e., a oiio /ene?: a
i?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai-ae?iaie/iio aeo?iae? “Aeiiii?ea AIE” (?3, 1997?.
? ?1, 1998?.); a iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio aeo?iae? Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai??
aa?a?ieo iaoe “A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee” (?9, 1998?.) a ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo
“Aa?a?iee a?niee I?e/i?iiii?’y” (?1, 1998?., ?2, 1999?.).

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y iaienaia oe?a?inueeith
iiaith ia 158 noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo 233 aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. ?iaioa
i?noeoue 35 oaaeeoeue, 5 ?enoie?a, 2 aeiaeaoee.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe

ANOOI

?icae?e 1.Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. 1.1.Iiiyooy ? nooi?noue
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
1.2.E?eoa??? ? iieacieee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 1.

?ICAe?E 2. No/aniee noai iiei/iiai neioa?noaa oa aeiiii?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea a Iaeanuee?e i?ei?nuee?e
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i?e cii?. 2.1.Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo iiei/iiai
neioa?noaa a i?ei?nuee?e i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i?e cii?. 2.2.Aeeiai?ea
/enaeueiino? iiaie?a’y ei??a ? ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea.
2.3.??aaiue caaacia/aiiy iiei/iiai neioa?noaa ei?iaie oa aoaeoeai?noue
?o caiaeiaoaaiiy. 2.4.I?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? a aaeoc? iiei/iiai
neioa?noaa i?ei?nueei? ciie. 2.5.Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa
iieiea a ainiiaea?noaao noni?eueiiai naeoi?o i?ei?nueei? ciie. Aeniiaee
aei ?icae?eo 2.

?ICAe?E 3. Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa
iieiea ? oi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno ?eieiai?
i???ioaoe??. 3.1.Oi?ioaaiiy i?ei?nueeiai iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno
?eieiai? i???ioaoe??. 3.2.Iioei?caoe?y aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea. 3.3.Oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
?ioaa?aoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee iieiea Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 3.

AENIIAEE

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Aeiaeaoee.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie a oiiaao
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacaii iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa” i?aeaeaii e?eoe/iiio aiae?co
i?aeoiaee a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a aei aecia/aiiy nooiino? eaoaai???
“aoaeoeai?noue” oa “aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue”, ?icaeyiooi e?eoa??? ?
iieacieee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa i?e
ooieoe?iioaaii? a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aea/aiiy iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e c
aeaiiai ieoaiiy iieacaei, ui ie?ai? noi?iie i?iaeaie aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa caeeoathoueny aeeneon?eieie.

Iaea?eueoiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaaoea “oi?ioea aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino?”, eiee “/enaeueieeii” aenooia? ?acoeueoao (aoaeo)
ae?iaieoeoaa, a “ciaiaiieeii” — ?ano?ne (cao?aoe), aeei?enoai? aeey
iaea?aeaiiy aeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo. Ia nueiaiaei? iaia? ?aeiino? a
iiaeyaeao a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a o a?aeiioaii? oiai, ui i?eeiyoe ca
“/enaeueiee”, oiaoi yeee iieaciee, /e nenoaia iieaciee?a iiaea a iiai?e
i??? oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?acoeueoao ae?iaieoeoaa oa yeo iaoiaeeeo
ia/eneaiiy cao?ao e?aua anueiai aeei?enoaoe.

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia?
?yae iniaeeainoae, ye? a?ae??ciythoue ?? a?ae aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
anueiai noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. I?e ?icaeyae? oeeo iniaeeainoae ne?ae
a?aoiaoaaoe oa, ui aiie iaoiiaeai? nooo?aeie iniaeeainoyie naiiai
aa?a?iiai naeoi?o ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oneeaaeiththoue i?aai?caoe?th oi?aae?iiy iei
? aeiaaathoue ca?eueoaiiy cao?ao ia eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy. E??i oiai,
aiie iaoiiaeththoue ii??aiyii aaeee? cao?aoe ia ooai?aiiy ? ?icaeoie
ae?iaie/i? ? nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e aaeoc?, ye? ia ciaoiaeyoue
i?yiiai ae?aaeaiiy a i?e?inoo aaaaoueio iniiaieo iieaciee?a ae?iaie/iai
aoaeoo. Ana oea iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e aecia/aii? ? ioe?ioe?
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

A oai??? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aieiaiei ? ieoaiiy i?i e?eoa??e ?
noai?aiiy ia eiai iniia? ocaaaeueithth/iai (neioaoe/iiai) iieacieea
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa.

A oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aea iaio? caeii aa?oino?, a aoaeoeai?noue
aecia/a?oueny a?aeiioaiiyi i?eaooeo aei eai?oaeo, aeiiii?noe aaaeooue
iiooee iiaeo iieaciee?a, ye? a a?eueo iiaii a?aeia?aaeaee ?acoeueoaoe
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aaeeeee aieea ia ?acoeueoaoe aoaeoeaiino? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa
cae?eniththoue eiai niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?. Ia?o ca ana, iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe, ui iiei/ia neioa?noai aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? o?ueio
a?oi iniiaieo cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa: caie?; ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue, iaoei
? iaoai?ci?a; naieo oaa?ei. Ia’?eoii iniiaii? /anoeie cao?ao ooo
aenooia? oaa?eia, yea o?ainoi?io? ei?ie a i?iaeoeoe?th. A oeueiio
caeeth/a?oueny niaoeeo?/ia iniaeea?noue oaa?eiieoeoaa.

A yeino? iniiaieo iieaciee?a ?acoeueoaoo ae?iaieoeoaa a iiei/iiio
neioa?noa? aenooiathoue iaae?e iieiea, i?eie?ae, i?e??no, e?euee?noue
iiaie?a’y ?aiiioiiai aai ieai?iiiai iieiaeiyeo ? oaea ?i. Iacaai?
iieacieee a?aeiinyoueny aei oaeoi??aeueieo ? nai? ii nia? i?/iai ia
eaaeooue i?i aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa a iiei/iiio neioa?noa?. O?eueee
a ni?anoaaeaii? c /aniaei e?eoa???i (aiaeeia, aeiaa, iaae?ey, i?nyoeue,
eaa?oae, ??e) c aaee/eiith aeei?enoaieo ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a ie
iaea?aeo?ii ?acoeueoaoeai? iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa –
i?iaeoeoeai?noueoaa?ei; ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai?, oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe??,
/enoiai aeioiaeo a ?ic?aooieo ia iaeiiai na?aaeiuei??/iiai i?aoe?aieea,
caeiyoiai a iiei/iiio neioa?noa?, aai ae ia iaeio aieiao neioa. A yeino?
ocaaaeueithth/iai iieacieea aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? iiei/iiai
neioa?noaa ie ?aeiiaiaeo?ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?eaooie a ?ic?aooieo ia 1
oo?aaeio ei?iao.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “No/aniee noai iiei/iiai neioa?noaa oa aeiiii?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoai iieiea a Iaeanuee?e i?ei?nuee?e
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i?e cii?”, cae?eniaii aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iee aiae?c
iniiaieo iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea a ainiiaea?thth/eo
noa’?eoao ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? ca ia??iae c 1966?ieo aei 1998?ieo.

A aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ia??iae? /?oei aeae?eythoueny aeaa ye?nii ??ci?
i?aeia??iaee: c 1966?. aei 1986?. – eiee a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa
ia?iuoaaiiy aaeiaeo iaaei?a iieiea, ? c 1986?. aei 1997?. – eiee oeae
iieaciee c ?ieo a ??e nei?i/o?oueny.

Oaaeeoey 1

Oaiie ?inoo (cieaeaiiy) aaeiaeo iaaei?a iieiea, /enaeueiino? ei??a ? ?o
i?iaeoeoeaiino? a

ainiiaea?noaao noni?eueiiai naeoi?o i?ei?nueei? ciie

Iiaie?a’y ei??aNa?aaeiuei??/iee iaae?e iieiea a?ae 1 ei?iaeAaeiaee
iaae?e iieiea?ieeoeny/o % aei eao % aei oiio % aei
aie?a1966?1986?.1966?1986?.1966?1986?.IOI196639,4100-2240100-88256100-19
7140,6103,2-2657118,6-107875122,2-197648,9124,1-2366105,6-115697131,1-19
8156,8144,2-2318103,5-131657149,2-198653,6136,01002610116,5100139896158,
5100199140,6103,075,72607116,499,9105852119,975,5199626,166,248,7173977,
666,64539651,432,4199724,060,944,8144964,755,53478439,424,9199820,451,83
8,1182881,670,03729142,326,7A 1986 ?ioe? aaeia? iaaei? iieiea ii??aiyii
c 1966 ?ieii ae?inee ia 51640o, aai ia 58,5%. Na?aaeiuei??/iee i?e??no
neeaaeaa 2582 oiie. I?ney 1986 ?ieo na?aaeiuei??/i? aaeia? iaaei? iieiea
ciaiooaaeeny ia 8550 oii, oiaoi oaiie niaaeo ia?aaeuoaaee oaiie ?inoo a
3,3?ace. A oe?eiio aaeiaa ae?iaieoeoai iieiea ii a?aeiioaiith aei 1986
?ieo ciaioeeiny ia 102605 oii, aai ia 73,3%. Oea aea? iai i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iiei/ia aaeocue a i?ei?nuee?e cii? ciaoiaeeoueny a
e?eciaiio noai? ? iio?aao? na?eiciiai icaei?iaeaiiy.

Aiae?c i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a ca oeae aea ia??iae iieaco?, ui a ia??iae
?inoo oae?e iieiea a?ae ei?iae c??n ia 16,5%, a a ia??iae niaaeo
nei?ioeany ia 30%, oiaoi c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiiai oaeoi?o a?aeaoaaeiny
iaaaaaoi iia?euei?oa, i?ae eiai niaae, c /iai aeo?ea?, ui ao?aoeoe
i?iaeoeoeai? yeino? ei??a cia/ii eaaoa, i?ae ?o ia?inoeoe.

Iecueea i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a, yea iaa?oue a e?au? ?iee ca ia??iae
aiae?co ia aeinyaaea 2700ea iaoiiaeaia aaaaoueia /eiieeaie. A aaeee?e
i??? aiia caeaaeeoue a?ae aeinyaiooiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa.
C 1971 aei 1996?. a na?aaeiueiio ca ??e ainiiaea?noaa i?ei?nueei? ciie a
?ic?aooieo ia 1 oiiaio ei?iao ae?iaeyee 19,0-24,3oe ei?i. iae.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aaniethoi? ? a?aeiini? iieacieee ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a

a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao i?ei?nueei? ciie

A na?aaeiueiio ca
??eIieacieee1971-19751976-19801981-19851986-19901991-1996Anueiai
ae?iaeaii ei?i?a, oen. oe ei?i. iae.

2325,6

2419,4

2524,6

2435,8

1852,1??aaiue ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a,

oe ei?i. iae.:-ia 1 aa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue8,79,19,69,47,7-ia 1 aa ei?iiai? ieiu?27,932,531,030,122,7-ia 1
oiiaio ei?iao19,219,019,821,024,3??/ia iio?aaa ei?iae a ei?iao i?e
i?iaeoeoeaiino? 2500-3000ea ? aeea?e ian? 350-400ea aei??aith? 32-34oe
ei?i. iae. Iaaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui iiei/ia neioa?noai a
i?ei?nueeeo ainiiaea?noaao eeoa ia aea? o?aoeie caaacia/oaaeinue
ei?iaie aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa. I?e oaeiio ??ai? aiae?ae? ia iiaeia
?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a ? iecueeo nia?aa?o?noue
iieiea.

Cia/iee aieea ia iecueeo i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a ni?e/eieee oaeiae
caiaiaae naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe a aaeoc?, ianai?/ania aea?aeiaea ?
cai?ia ei??a, ye? cia/ii ao?aoeee nai? i?iaeoeoeai? ? a?aeoai?thaaeuei?
yeino?, aeniea yeia?noue ei??a.

Aea /e ia iaea?eueoee aieea ia iecueeo i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a ni?e/eieea
iaaeineiiae?noue a?aeiinei aeaniino?. Ae?iaieee iieiea i?aoeththoue ia
oa?iao, ye? ?i ia iaeaaeaoue, ei?enoothoueny ia nai?ie caniaaie
ae?iaieoeoaa, ia ?icii?yaeaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoaie nai?? i?aoe?,
io?eiothoue ca oea iecueeo ca?ia?oio ieaoith, yea ia noeioeth?
i?aoethaaoe i?iaeoeoeaii, oaeineiiaethaaoe ae?iaieoeoai. Ia iao iiaeyae
oea iaeia ?c iniiaieo i?e/ei oiai, ui i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a ca an?
?iee, i?aeaeai? aiae?co, i?eiee ia aeinyaaea 2700ea. C e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae ie cia?ii, ui a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, NOA,
Eaiaae?, i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a a oe?eiio ii e?a?i? oaea aaaaoi ?ie?a
ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 5000-7000ea.

Aaeeeee iaaaoeaiee aieea ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a ni?e/eieee
i?i?aooiee o oi?ioaaii? nenoaie oe?i, a?oaa ii?ooaiiy aea?aaeaioiino?
iai?io ana?aaeai? aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, oe?iiaee aeenia?eoao i?ae
eiai i?ae?icae?eaie. A ?acoeueoao? aaaaoi?aciaiai c?inoaiiy oe?i ia
aia?aiiin?? oa iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/i? ?ano?ne nooo?ai i?aeaeueeanue
nia?aa?o?noue an?o aeae?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, a oiio
/ene? ? iieiea.I?i ne?ooia noaiiaeua aaeoc? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa
aiai?youe ianooii? aeai?:

Oaaeeoey 3

Iieacieee i?eaooeiaino? (caeoeiaino?) iiei/ii? aaeoc? a ainiiaea?noaao

noni?eueiiai naeoi?o i?ei?nueei? ciie a 1997 ?ioe?

IieacieeeA?ey?anueeee

?aeiiEii?ioa?i?anueeee ?aeiiIa?ae?iiieuenueeee ?aeii?acii

ii i?ei?nuee?e cii?E?euee?noue ainiiaea?noa27251769Na?aaei?e iaae?e
iieiea a?ae ei?iae, ea1053151419941451Iiaia nia?aa?o?noue 1oe iieiea,
a?i.76.5947.6351.5559.06Na?aaeiy oe?ia ?aae?caoe?? 1oe iieiea,
a?i.31.3532.4538.9235.59I?eaooie (caeoie) a?ae ?aae?caoe?? 1oe iieiea,
a?i.

— 45.24

— 15.18

— 12.63

— 23.47?aioaaaeuei?noue, %- 59.10- 31.9- 24.5- 39.7E?euee?noue
ainiiaea?noa c na?aaeiueith nia?aa?o?noth 1oe iieiea:- aei 30 a?i.1315-
a?ae 30.1 a?i. aei 50 a?i.411823- 50 a?i.2211841E?euee?noue
ainiiaea?noa c na?aaeiueith oe?iith ?aae?caoe?? 1 oe iieiea- aei 30
a?i.1411328- a?ae 30.1 a?i. aei 50 a?i.10141337- 50 a?i.3-14O an?o
?aeiiao i?ei?nueei? ciie a 1997?. nia?aa?o?noue 1oe iieiea cia/ii
ia?aaeuoaaea oe?io ?aae?caoe??. A na?aaeiueiio ae?iaieoeoai iieiea
i?eianei caeoie ainiiaea?noaai ia eiaeiiio oeaioia?? 23a?i. 47eii.
Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue ainiiaea?noa – 41– cao?aoeee ia ae?iaieoeoai 1oe
iieiea a?eueoa 50 a?eaaiue, a oie /an, ye eeoa 4 ainiiaea?noaa ciaeoee
eaiaee ?aae?caoe?? iieiea ca oe?iaie, ye? ia?aaeuothoue 50 a?eaaiue. ?c
69 ainiiaea?noa i?ei?nueei? ciie eeoa 11 cae?i/eee ??e c i?eaooeii a
iiei/i?e aaeoc?. sse iieacaa aiae?c, iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
ae?iaieoeoaa aeinyaee eeoa o? ainiiaea?noaa, a yeeo nia?aa?o?noue, oe?ia
?aae?caoe??, i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a, i?eaooie ciaoiaeyoueny a iaee?auiio
ni?aa?aeiioaii?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea ? oi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno
?eieiai? i???ioaoe??» iaa?oioiaaii eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe??, iai?aaeai? ia
oi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno ?eieiai? i???ioaoe??,
yeee ia?aaeaa/a? aenieo aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea.

A iaoiio ?icoi?ii?, ia aeaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ?
ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei, ?aoi?ioaaiiy aaeoc? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa
iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe oeyoii noai?aiiy iaeeo n?iaeieo oa?i ? ?o
eiiia?oaaiiy c oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiyi i?aiaeieo a?aeiinei. Ia i?aeoeoe?
oea iiaea iaoe oaeee aeaeyae. *eaie n?i’? ia’?aeiothoue nai? iaeiia? ia?
? i?ae /an ?ai?aai?caoe?? ENI aeeoiiaothoue a iniaenoo aeani?noue
i?iaeoeoeaieo ei??a, noai?thth/e oaeei /eiii i?eaaoio n?iaeio oa?io.
I?i?iaeueia e?euee?noue oo?aaeieo ei??a ia oae?e n?iaei?e oa?i? iiaeiia
neeaaeaoe 25 aie?a. sseui ?ici?? iaeiiaiai iath /eai?a n?i’? iaioa
aa?oino? 25 ei??a, oi ??cieoeth n?i’y aa?a a i?aiaeo a oeo /eai?a ENI,
ye? ia iiaeooue i?aoethaaoe. Eiee ae noeoiiee iaeiiaee iae n?i’?
ia?aaeuo? aa?o?noue 25 ei??a, oi ?aooo iath aeei?enoiaothoue aeey
eoi?ae? ei??aieea aai ae o??? eiai /anoeie, ia ye?e aoaeooue
oo?eioaaoeny 25 ei??a. Iaeei ei??aiee iiaeooue i?aiaeoaaoe 4-8 ? a?eueoa
n?iaeieo oa?ie, a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiai ?ici???a.

N?iaeia oa?ia iiaea aooe aocueei niaoe?ae?ciaaiith iiei/iith ? eoioaaoe
?aiiioiee iieiaeiye ia noi?ii?, iiaea aooe iiei/iith c aeaniei
ae?iuoaaiiyi ?aiiioiiai iieiaeiyeo, a iiaea aooe iiei/iith ? ae?iuoaaoe
aanue iaea?aeaiee i?eie?ae c aeiaaaeaiiyi eiai aei oiaa?ieo eiiaeeoe?e.
I?iaeoeoe?y, yea ae?iuo?oueny ia n?iaei?e oa?i?, ? aeani?noth oa?ia?a,
yeith a?i ?icii?yaeaea?oueny ia aeaniee ?icnoae.

Nai? caiaeuei? ia? /eaie n?iaeii? iiei/ii? oa?ie iiaeooue caeaaaoe a
i?aiaeo ?ineeiieoeueeei eiiia?aoeaai ? eoioaaoe a ieo iaiao?aei? ei?ie,
a iiaeooue ia’?aeiaoe ?o aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a nai?ie neeaie. sseui
aeey caaacia/aiiy ei?iaie nai?o ei??a caiaeueieo ia?a /eai?a n?iaeiiai
eiiia?aoeao iaaeinoaoiuei, oi iaiao?aeio e?euee?noue caie? ? oaoi?eo
aeey ?? ia?ia?oeo aa?ooue a i?aiaeo.

An? n?iaei? oa?ie a ?aieao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa
ia’?aeiothoueny a iiei/iee eiiia?aoea, yeee a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici???a
noai?th? naith aeanio ae?iaie/o ?io?ano?oeoo?o. Iiei/i? eiiia?aoeae a
?aieao aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?aeiio ia’?aeiothoueny a ?aa?iiaeueiee
iiei/iee eiiia?aoea (?en.1), ye?, a naith /a?ao, iiaeooue ia’?aeioaaoeny
a ?aa?iiaeuei? eiiia?aoeae aeey noai?aiiy aeanieo iiooaeiinoae c
ia?a?iaee iieiea. A iaoiio aeiaaeeo oaeee i?ae?aa?iiaeueiee eiiia?aoea
iiaeooue noai?eoe A?ey?anueeee, Eii?ioa?i?anueeee oa Ia?ae?iiieuenueeee
?aa?iiaeuei? iiei/i? eiiia?aoeae. ?aa?iiaeuei? iiei/i? eiiia?aoeae
noai?ththoue iaeanio anioe?aoe?th iiei/ieo eiiia?aoea?a. Ae?iaie/?
iiei/i? eiiia?aoeae aeoioeththoue /anoeio nai?o i?eaooe?a ia noai?aiiy
aeanii? aace aeey aeaioiaeaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy iieieiia?a?iaieo caaiae?a,
n?iaeieo iiei/ieo oa?i, eiia?ei?iiaeo caaiae?a, ae?oaeo i?aei?e?inoa ii
na?a?niiio ianeoaiaoaaiith ae?iaie/eo iiei/ieo eiiia?aoea?a.

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????±V???m?en.1 I?aai?caoe?eia noaia Iaeanueei? iaeanii?
anioe?aoe?? iiei/ieo eiiia?aoea?a (ni?iuaia)

Aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? iaeania anioe?aoe?y a iaoeiaiio caaacia/aii?
ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee iieiea, a i?aeaioiaoe?, ia?ai?aeaioiaoe? oa
i?aeaeuaii? eaae?o?eaoe?? eaae??a.

Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ?aa?iiaeueieo ? i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo iiei/ieo
eiiia?aoea?a oa iaeanii? anioe?aoe?? iiei/ieo eiiia?aoea?a ? oa, ui aiie
noai?ththoueny ye aaci?eaooeia? i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e. Oea icia/a?,
ui i?eaooie, noai?thaaiee a ?acoeueoao? eiiia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?,
?iciiae?eyoeiaoueny i?ae eiai /eaiaie i?iii?oe?eii nooiaith aeei?enoaiiy
iineoa a?aeiia?aeiiai eiiia?aoeao /e iaeanii? anioe?aoe??
eiiia?aoea?a(ianyao ?aae?caoe?? iieiea, aa?oino? io?eiaieo iineoa ? oaea
?i.), ui ? i?eioeeiiaith iciaeith aoaeue-yei? eiia?oe?eii? eiiia?aoeaii?
i?aai?caoe??.

A oiae? i?iaaaeaiiy o?aoueiai aoaio aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie, a ?acoeueoao?
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ia ?o aac?
aeieeei aaaaoi ae?iaie/eo eiiia?aoea?a. ??ci? ca nai?ie ooieoe?yie
eiiia?aoeae ia’?aeiothoueny a anioe?aoe?th ca oa?eoi??aeueiith iciaeith.

Ie aaaaea?ii, ui ia’?aeiaiiy iiei/ieo eiiia?aoea?a ca aaeocaaith
iciaeith a?eueo ia?niaeoeaia ? ia? aeaye? ia?aaaae, iniaeeai i?e
cae?eniaii? aa?oeeaeueii? ?ioaa?aoe??. Ae?iaieee iieiea iaea?aeothoue
i?e oeueiio iiaeeea?noue ia’?aeioaaoe nai? eiooe aeey noai?aiiy aeanieo
i?aei?e?inoa ii caaio?ae?, ia?a?iaoe?, o?ainii?ooaaiith ? ?aae?caoe??
iieiea, oiaoi, iinooiiai aiie ciiaeooue eiio?iethaaoe an? neeaaeia?
ia?eaioeiaiaiai eaioethaeea ?ooo aeanii? i?iaeoeoe??. I?eaooie,
io?eia-iee a?ae ?aae?caoe?? e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo, ae?noaiaoueny ia
iina?aaeieoeueeei no?oeoo?ai, a oiaa?iae?iaieeai ? aoaea aeei?enoaiee
aeey ?iaanoeoe?e a iiei/io aaeocue, ui i?eaaaea aei a?eueoiai iane/aiiy
?eieo ? cieaeaiiy oe?i ia iieiei ? iiei/io i?iaeoeoe?th.

A eiiia?aoeai? oi?ioaaiiy, caniiaieeaie yeeo aenooiathoue n?iaei?
i?eaaoii-i?aiaei? iiei/i? oa?ie, iiaeooue ia’?aeioaaoeny ? ?io?
ae?iaieee iieiea, th?eaee/iee noaoon yeeo i?e oeueiio ia ci?ith?oueny.

Noai?aiiy n?iaeieo i?eaaoii-i?aiaeieo iiei/ieo oa?i iaoiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aiao??a, ye? a
caaacia/eee iioeiaeueia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia’?eo?a. C
oe??th iaoith iaie ?ica’ycaia aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia caaea/a, a
?acoeueoao? /iai io?eiaii o?noue aa??aio?a iioeiaeueiiai ieaio, ca?aeii
aeaieo ?ici???a n?iaeii? iiei/ii? oa?ie c iiaiei iai?ioii noaaea, aeey
o?ueio ??ai?a iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ca aeaiia e?eoa??yie
iioeiaeueiino?.

Iaei??th c iniiaieo i?aenenoai aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii? caaea/? ? oiiae ii
aecia/aiith ?ic?aooieiai? ieiu? ??ee?, iaiao?aeii? aeey i?aai?caoe??
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa, ca?aeii aa??aio?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? aea?aieo
e?eoa???a. sse iieacothoue ?ic?aooiee, aeey n?iaeii? i?eaaoii-i?aiaeii?
iiei/ii? oa?ie ia 25 ei??a c iiaiei iai?ioii noaaea ? na?aaeiueith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth 3000ea iaiao?aeii 46-48aa ??ee? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
e?eoa??th iioeiaeueiino?. I?e ca?eueoaii? iaaei?a aei 5000ea
?ic?aooieiaa ieiua ??ee? c?inoa? aei 1,19-1,23aa ia oiiaio ei?iao.

?ic?aooieia? iieacieee aeiiii?/ieo ia?aiao??a iieacothoue aenieo
aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea, yea iinooiiai c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
??/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a (oaae 4).

Iaa?oue i?e nai?e iecuee?e i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a a 3000ea oa?ia? ciiaea
io?eioaaoe i?eaooie, yeee caaacia/eoue eiio ?icoe?aia a?aeoai?aiiy ?
aeanoue ciiao ainiiaea?thaaoe ia i?eioeeiao naiio?iainoaaiiy. Ii i???
c?inoaiiy ??/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a aei 5000ea i?eaooie oa?ia?a
ca?eueoeoueny a 1,8?ace. I?e/iio a?eueoee i?eaooie oa?ia? io?eia?, yeui
aoaea aiaeoaaoe oaa?ei ia?aaaaeii ei?iaie aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

E??i oeueiai, oa?ia? ui??/ii ?aae?ciaoaaoeia 73-83 oeaioia?e i’yna
iieiaeiyeo aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ? aea?aeiaaieo ei??a, ca ui ciiaea
io?eioaaoe aeiaeaoeiai a?ey 3000a?i. /enoiai i?eaooeo. Caaaeueiee
??/iee i?eaooie, a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a, iiaea
noaiiaeoe a?ae 9580a?i. ?ic?aooieia? iieacieee ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aiao??a, iaea?aeaieo i?e ?ica’ycaii? aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii? caaea/?,
iiaeooue neoaeeoe i???ioe?ii i?e noai?aii? iiae?aieo i?aai?caoe?eieo
oi?ioaaiue.

Na?oiaa i?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui iaeaeui? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieee iieiea
aeinyaathoue, eiee aiie ia’?aeiothoueny c ia?a?iaieeaie ? noai?ththoue
?aeeiee iieieii?iaeoeoiaee i?aeeiiieaen, yeee aeeth/a? aaeoc? c
ae?iaieoeoaa, caaio?ae?, ia?a?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? iieiea. Iniiaiei
no?oeoo?iei i?ae?icae?eii a oaeiio eiiieaen? aenooiathoue ae?iaieee
ne?iaeie.

Oaaeeoey 4

?ic?aooieia? iieacieee aeiiii?/ieo ia?aiao??a

ca iioeiaeueiei ieaiii

Na?aaeiuei??/iee iaae?e iieiea a?ae 1 ei?iae,
ea300040005000IieacieeeE?eoa??? iioeiaeueiino?i?i?ioi ieiu? ??ee?i?i?ioi
aa?oino? ei?i?ai?i?ioi ieiu? ??ee?i?i?ioi aa?oino? ei?i?ai?i?ioi ieiu?
??ee?i?i?ioi aa?oino? ei?i?aNia?aa?o?noue1oe ei?i. iae.,
a?i.13,712,914,013,314,213,4Iiaia nia?aa?o?noue 1oe iieiea,
a?i.30,930,130,729,830,429,5Na?aaeiuei?eieiaa oe?ia ?aae?caoe?? 1oe
iieiea, a?i.40,040,040,040,040,040,0Ia’?i ?aae?ciaaiiai
iieiea, oe72372397097012171217Aa?o?noue oiaa?iiai iieiea,
a?i.289202892038800388004868048680Iiaia nia?aa?o?noue oiaa?iiai iieiea,
a?i.223402176229779289063699735902I?eaooie a?ae ?aae?caoe?? iieiea,
a?i.65807158902198941168312778??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iaieoeoaa
iieiea, %29,432,930,334,231,635,6A iao?e e?a?i? ae?iaieoeoai iieiea,
eiai ia?a?iaea ? ?aae?caoe?y cae?eniththoueny a?aeie?aieaii. Eiaeia ?c
noaae?e ?aeeiiai ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano ieaio? naith ?iaioo naiino?eii, ia
a?aoiaoth/e iiaeeeaino? ? ?ioa?ane ?ioeo.

Aaeee? ia?a?iai? i?aei?e?inoaa oa ?o ia’?aeiaiiy caeiathoue iiiiiieueia
noaiiaeua ia ?eieo iieiea ? aeeeoothoue nai? oiiae oiaa?iae?iaieeai.
Aiie ianai?/anii ?ic?aoiaothoueny ca iaea?aeaio ne?iaeio,
onoaiiaeththoue caeoi?aaeuei? oe?ie ia iieiei, ye? ia iie?eaathoue
iaa?oue nai? iecuee? ae?iaie/? aeo?aoe. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaino?aiiy
a?aeiinei c n?euenueeeie oiaa?iae?iaieeaie. O a?aeiia?aeue ia oaea
aaca?aeiia?aeaeueia a?aeiioaiiy aei nai?o ia?oia??a, n?euenuee?
oiaa?iae?iaieee cia/ii nei?ioeee iinoaaee iieiea ia ia?a?iai?
i?aei?e?inoaa, ui i?ecaaei aei ??ceiai ciaioaiiy caaacia/aiino?
ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa ne?iaeiieie ?ano?naie.

Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a noaa?e?caoe?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iieieii?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno aaaaea?ii ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie oe?iiooai?aiiy ia an?o
eaieao aa?oeeaeueii? ia?eaoeiaiai? nenoaie, /a?ac yeo i?ioiaeeoue iieiei
? iiei/i? i?iaeoeoe a?ae oiaa?iae?iaieea aei niiaeeaa/a. Nenoaia oe?i
ooo iio?aao? ea?aeeiaeueiiai iie?ioaiiy.

Ia iao iiaeyae, a iniiao aecia/aiiy oe?ie a on?o no?oeoo?ieo
i?ae?icae?eao iieieii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno iaiao?aeii iieeanoe
ii?iaoeaio nia?aa?o?noue ? ii?iaoeaio ?aioaaaeuei?noue.

Ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee oaeoe/iiai
noaoenoe/iiai iaoa??aeo 68 ainiiaea?noa, iaie iaea?aeaia ii?iaoeaia
nia?aa?o?noue 1oe iieiea a 29a?i. 44eii. Aiia aeoaea aeecueea aei
iieacieea nia?aa?oino? 1oe iieiea a 30 a?i. 10 eii. -30 a?i. 90 eii.,
iaea?aeaiiai i?e ?ica’ycaii? aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii? caaea/? c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaeaoo e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy. Oea aea? iai i?aenoaao
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?e iaaeiyo a 3000ea iieiea a?ae iaei??? ei?iae ?
cao?aoao ia ae?iaieoeoai 1oe iieiea 4,5 ethaeeii-aiaeeie aeeai? i?aoe? ?
1,2oe ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue nia?aa?o?noue 1oe iieiea a iaaeao 30-31 a?eai?
oe?eeii ?aaeueia.

sseui i?eeiyoe ca ii?iaoeai? nia?aa?o?noue 1oe iieiea a 31 a?eaith ?
??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? a 30% (i?i?iaeueiee, ui aeicaiey? aanoe
?icoe?aia a?aeoai?aiiy), oi iaea?aeeii oe?io ?aae?caoe?? 1oe iieiea
??aio 40 a?eaiyi, oiaoi oaeo, ye ? i?e ?ica’ycaii?
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii? caaea/?.

Iieieiia?a?iai? caaiaee, ye? anoaiiaeyoue caeoi?aaeueio oe?io 1oe iieiea
40 a?eaaiue ciiaeooue nooo?ai ca?eueoeoe ia’?ie caeoiie iieiea, ui
i?ecaaaea aei a?eueo iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iayaieo ae?iaie/eo
iiooaeiinoae ? cia/iiai cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? ia?a?iaee iieiea.
Noai?youeny oiiae aeey caaeiaieaiiy ?ioa?an?a ae?iaiee?a iieiea ?
ia?a?iaiee?a. Aea iaee?auiai ?acoeueoaoo iiaeia aeinyaoe, eiee
ae?iaieee iieiea ? o?, ooi eiai ia?a?iaey?, o?ainii?oo? ? ?aae?co?,
ia’?aeiathoueny a ?aeeiee ae?iaie/ee eiiieaen.

aeniiaee

1. Ii nai?io ?iaeiao i?eciaeo aoaeoeai?noue ? ?acoeueoao ae?yeueiino?
(aoaeo), iaea?aeaiee noni?euenoaii, aai ie?aiith ethaeeiith, ia
iaeeieoeth aeei?enoaieo (aai aeo?a/aieo) ?ano?n?a. Aoaeoeaieie iiaeooue
aooe ae?? ethaeeie a etha?e noa?? ae?yeueiino?. I?e oeueiio, iaea?aeaiee
?acoeueoao (aoaeo) iiaea iaoe ??cia ae?aaeaiiy, ??aii ye ??cieie
iiaeooue aooe ? aeei?enoai? aeey aeinyaiaiiy aoaeoo ?ano?ne. sseui
iaea?aeaiee ?acoeueoao (aoaeo) ia? aa?o?niee aei??, oi oaeo
aoaeoeai?noue iaceaathoue “aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue”. Aea, uia ie ia
a?aee a yeino? ?acoeueoao?a ? ?ano?no, aoaeoeai?noue caaaeaee
a?aeia?aaea? ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. ?? nooi?noue a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo
i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac aeeiai?eo oeueiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy.

2. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue iiei/iiai neioa?noaa ia? ?yae
iniaeeainoae, ye? iaoiiaeai?, ia?o ca ana niaoeeo?eith naiiai aa?a?iiai
naeoi?o aeiiii?ee.

Niaoeeo?/ia iniaeea?noue iiei/iiai neioa?noaa caeeth/a?oueny a oiio, ui
ia’?eoii iniiaii? /anoeie cao?ao aenooia? ei?iaa, ye aeeaa a?ieia?/ia
oaa?eea, ui o?ainoi?io? ei?ie a iieiei. I?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a ? ?o
a?aeoai?thaaeuei? ooieoe?? a aaeee?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae e?eueeino? ?
yeino? caiaeiaoaaieo ei?i?a, iia’ycaieo c i?aeaeuaiiyi ?iaeth/ino?
caie?. Iiei/ia neioa?noai, a naith /a?ao, /a?ac i?aai?/i? aeia?eaa
aieeaa? ia i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ?iaeth/ino? caie?. *ei e?aua
?icaeiooa iiei/ia neioa?noai, oei ?ioaineai?oa aaaeaoueny ana
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai.

3. A oai??? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aieiaiei ? ieoaiiy i?i e?eoa??? ?
iieacieee, ye? ?o iaoiiaeththoue. Iaea?eueoiai aeciaiiy ca inoaii? ?iee
iaea?aeaea “oi?ioea aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?”, a ye?e “/enaeueieeii”
aenooia? ?acoeueoao ae?iaieoeoaa, a “ciaiaiieeii” – ?ano?ne (cao?aoe)
aeey iaea?aeaiiy aeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo. sseui aeei?enoiaothoueny ?ano?ne,
oi e?eoa??e iaceaa?oueny ?ano?niei, yeui cao?aoe, oi cao?aoiei.

Aaeeeei iaaeie?eii i?e aeei?enoaii? ?ano?niiai e?eoa??th aaaaea?ii
a?aenooi?noue oe?ie ia caieth, ui nooo?ai aieeaa? ia aeiiii?/io
aoaeoeai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

4. Aiae?c iniiaieo iieaciee?a aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa a
i?eaooeiaeo ainiiaea?noaao i?ei?nueei? ciie aea? iai i?aenoaae
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe a yeino? ocaaaeueithth/iai iieacieea aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea i?eaooie a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 oo?aaeio
ei?iao.

5. A aeeiai?oe? ?ooo iiaie?a’y ei??a, ?o i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? aaeiaeo
iaaei?a iieiea a ainiiaea?noaao noni?eueiiai naeoi?o i?ei?nueei? ciie
iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa ia??iaee: c 1966 ?. aei 1986 ?., eiee a?aeaoaaeiny
iinooiiaa ia?iuoaaiiy aaeiaeo iaaei?a iieiea, ? c 1986 ?. aei 1998 ?.,
yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ??ceei ciaioaiiyi oeeo iieaciee?a. A i?eaaoiiio
naeoi??, iaaiaee, nii/aoeo a?aeaoaa?oueny niaae oeeo iieaciee?a, a iio?i
c?inoaiiy.

6. ??ceee niaae ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea ni?e/eiea nooo?aa ca?eueoaiiy cao?ao
i?aoe? ? ei?i?a a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 oe iieiea, a ??cea iiaei?iae/aiiy
?ano?n?a ? ?ioeyoe?ei? i?ioeane i?eaaee aei cia/iiai ?inoo nia?aa?oino?
iieiea ? cieaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? eiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Oae, a
1997 ?ioe? a ainiiaea?noaao noni?eueiiai naeoi?o i?ei?nueei? ciie,
caeoie a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 ei?iao neeaaeaa 340a?i. 55 eii., a ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? cieceany aei -39,7%.

7. A i?ei?nuee?e i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i?e cii? ae?iaieoeoai iieiea, eiai
ia?a?iaea ? ?aae?caoe?y ia aca?iiiia’ycai? a ?aeeiee ae?iaie/ee
eiiieaen. Eiaeia ?c noaae?e ?aeeiiai ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano ieaio? naith
?iaioo naiino?eii, ia a?aoiaoth/e iiaeeeaino? ? ?ioa?ane ?ioeo. A?ae
oeueiai ao?a/a? eiaeia aaeocue iieieii?iaeoeoiaiai eiiieaeno.

8. E?eciaa neooaoe?y a iiei/i?e aaeoc? iaoiiaeaia noeoiiei aieeaii
aaaaoueio /eiiee?a oaoiieia?/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai,
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai oa nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Na?aae ieo
aeae?eythoueny: caiaiaae naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe; iaaeinoaoi?e
??aaiue caaacia/aiino? ei?iaie ? iaaoaeoeaia ?o caiaeiaoaaiiy;
ianai?/ania aea?aeiaea ? cai?ia ei??a, ye? cia/ii cieceee nai?
i?iaeoeoeai? ? a?aeoai?thaaeuei? yeino?; c?inoaiiy naciiiino?
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iieiea ia ia?a?iaeo; iaaeineiiae?noue a?aeiinei
aeaniino?; i?i?aooiee o oi?ioaaii? nenoaie oe?i, a?oaa ii?ooaiiy
aea?aaeaioiino? iai?io ana?aaeei? aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, oe?iiaee
aeenia?eoao i?ae eiai i?ae?icae?eaie; i?i?aooiee i?e ?icaea?aeaaeaii? ?
i?eaaoecaoe?? iieieiia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Aeey iiaeieaiiy iaaaoeaiiai aieeao iacaaieo /eiiee?a ia aoaeoeai?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea iaiao?aeii cae?enieoe ianooii? caoiaee:

1. Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ? ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei
?aoi?ioaaiiy aaeoc? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa iiaeiii cae?enithaaoenue oeyoii
noai?aiiy iaeeo n?iaeieo oa?i ? ?o eiiia?oaaiiy c oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiyi
i?aiaeieo a?aeiinei.

N?iaei? i?eaaoii-i?aiaei? iiei/i? oa?ie a ?aieao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa ia’?aeiothoueny a ae?iaie/ee
iiei/iee eiiia?aoea, yeee, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici???a, noai?th? aeanio
ae?iaie/o ?io?ano?oeoo?o. Iiei/i? eiiia?aoeae a ?aieao
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?aeiio ia’?aeiothoueny a ?aa?iiaeueiee iiei/iee
eiiia?aoea. Inoaii?, a naith /a?ao, noai?ththoue iaeanio anioe?aoe?th
iiei/ieo eiiia?aoea?a.

2. A eiiia?aoeai? oi?ioaaiiy, caniiaieeaie yeeo aenooiathoue n?iaei?
i?eaaoii-i?aiaei? iiei/i? oa?ie, iiaeooue ia’?aeioaaoeny ? ?io?
ae?iaieee iieiea iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?ie aeaniino?, th?eaee/iee noaoon
yeeo i?e oeueiio ia ci?ith?oueny.

3. I?e noai?aii? n?iaeieo i?eaaoii-i?aiaeieo iiei/ieo oa?i aeey
?ic?aooie?a ?o oaoiieia?/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo ia?aiao??a iaiao?aeii
ea?oaaoeny ?acoeueoaoaie, iaea?aeaieie i?e ?ica’ycaii? aeiiii?ei-
iaoaiaoe/ii? caaea/? c aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a caiaeueieo
?ano?n?a n?iaeii? oa?ie aeey caaacia/aiiy caaeaii? no?oeoo?e
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa.

4. Naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iio ?iaioo iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe a iai?yieo
?ai?iaeoeoe?? niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iiei/ieo ii??ae oaa?ei oeyoii
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai aeinyaiaiue iaoee oa ia?aaeiai? i?aeoeee,
ia?o ca ana, iaoiaeo o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a a?ae ei??a-?aei?aeenoie,
oa i?aeii?iaeia no?auoaaiiy iiei/iiai iiaie?a’y /a?aiii-noaiiai?,
/i?ii-no?ieaoi? ? neiaioaeuenueei? ooaeiae c aeeaie -ie?aeieeaie
aieooeinueei? ii?iaee.

Aenieioaoiieia?/iee iaoiae o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a aeiiii?/ii
aei?aaaea? naaa eeoa ia ??ai? i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo iiei/ieo eiiia?aoea?a oa
iaeanii? anioe?aoe?? iiei/ieo eiiia?aoea?a.

5. Noai?eoe ?aeeiee iieieii?iaeoeoiaee i?aeeiiieaen, ia’?aeiaaoe aaeoc?
ae?iaieoeoaa, ia?a?iaee, o?ainii?ooaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? iieiea ?
iiei/ieo i?iaeoeo?a ia eiiia?aoeai?e iniia?. Iniiaiei no?oeoo?iei
i?ae?icae?eii a oaeiio eiiieaen? iiaeii? aenooiaoe ae?iaieee iieiea.

6. ?ica’ycaoe i?iaeaio oe?iiooai?aiiy ia an?o eaieao aa?oeeaeueii?
ia?eaoeiaiai? nenoaie, /a?ac yeo i?ioiaeeoue iieiei ? iiei/i? i?iaeoeoe,
a?ae oiaa?iae?iaieea aei niiaeeaa/a, iieeaaoe a iniiao aecia/aiiy oe?ie
a on?o no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?eao iieieii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno
ii?iaoeaio nia?aa?o?noue ? ii?iaoeaio ?aioaaaeuei?noue.

7. ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe a?aeiia?aeiei aeaaeiei no?oeoo?ai a?aei?ieoe
?acoeueoaoe i?eaaoecaoe?? iieiei–ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa a o?e oi?i?, a
ye?e oea c?iaeaii, ? i?iaanoe ?? o iiai?e a?aeiia?aeiino? c Caeiiii
Oe?a?ie «I?i iniaeeaino? i?eaaoecaoe?? iaeia a aa?ii?iieneiaiio
eiiieaen?».

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

1.Eo?iinaiei E.A.Aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea a i?ei?nuee?e cii? i.
Iaeane //Aeiiii?ea AIE. -1997.- ?3.-N.47-49.

2. Eo?iinaiei E.A. I?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? o ae?iaieoeoa? iieiea a
i?ei?nueeeo ainiiaea?noaao i. Iaeane //Aeiiii?ea AIE. -1998.-
?1.-N.83-85.

3. Eo?iinaiei E.A. Eiiia?aoe?y – iaeei ?c iaea??ia?aei?oeo oeyo?a
?aoi?ioaaiiy iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno Iaeanueei? iaeano?. //A?niee
aa?a?ii? iaoee. -1998.- ?9.-N.79-80.

4.Eo?iinaiei E.A. Oeyoe ca?eueoaiiy aaeiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea a
i?ei?nuee?e cii? i. Iaeane //Aa?a?iee a?niee I?e/i?iiii?’y. Ca. iaoe.
i?. IAeNA?. –1998.- ?1.-N.155-159.

5.Eo?iinaiei E.A. Oi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiei/ii-i?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno. //Aa?a?iee a?niee I?e/i?iiii?’y. Ca. iaoe. i?. IAeNA?.
–1999.- ?4(2).-N.149-157.

6.Eo?iinaiei E.A. Iioei?caoe?y ae?iaie/i-oaoiieia?/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aiao??a iaeeo n?iaeieo oa?i iiei/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??. //Aa?a?iee
a?niee I?e/i?iiii?’y. Ca. iaoe. i?. IAeNA?. –1999.- ?4(2).-N.234-240.

Aiioaoe?y

Eo?iinaiei E.A. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea oa oeyoe ??
i?aeaeuaiiy a ainiiaea?noaao ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo
aei ?eieo (ia i?eeeaae? neioa?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa i?ei?nueei? ciie i.
Iaeane). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.02. — aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
AIE. — Ieeiea?anueea aea?aeaaia aa?a?ia aeaaeai?y, Ieeiea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai iiooeo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea. O ?iaio? ?ice?eoi no/aniee noai oa
i?e/eie iaae?iiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea, cieaeaiiy eiai aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? a noa’?eoao i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? noni?eueiiai
naeoi?o.

Iaa?oioiaaii iaeei ?c iiaeeeaeo iai?yie?a i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea oeyoii noai?aiiy n?iaeieo
i?eaaoii-i?aiaeieo iiei/ieo oa?i ? ?o eiiia?oaaiiy a ae?iaie/?,
?aa?iiaeuei? ? i?ae?aa?iiaeuei? iiei/i? eiiia?aoeae, ye? caaacia/othoue
iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy aeaniino? ia caieth ? iaeii c i?aiaeieie
a?aeiineiaie.

C aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
?ic?aoiaai? ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/i? ia?aiao?e n?iaeieo oa?i.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue, i?eaaoia aeani?noue,
eiiia?aoe?y, i?aiaea.

Aiiioaoeey

Eo?iinaiei E.A. Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea e
iooe a? iiauoaiey a oicyenoaao ?acee/iuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe a oneiaeyo
ia?aoiaea e ?uieo (ia i?eia?a neioiaiae/aneeo oicyenoa i?eai?iaeiie ciiu
a. Iaeannu).- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.02. – yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e AIE. –
Ieeieaaaneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aa?a?iay aeaaeaiey, Ieeieaaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai iienea iooae iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea a Iaeanneii i?eai?iaeiii
i?e?iaeii-yeiiiie/aneii ?aaeiia.

Ananoi?iiia i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iiaeoiaeu ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo
yeiiiienoia e ii?aaeaeaieth iiiyoey e nouiinoe yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe naeuenueeieioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e a? iniiaiuo
iieacaoaeae e e?eoa?eaa. A ea/anoaa iaiauathuaai iieacaoaey
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaeoaa iieiea i?aaeeiaeaii
eniieueciaaoue i?eaueue a ?an/aoa ia 1 oo?aaeioth ei?iao.

I?iaaaeai aeoaieee yeiiiieei-noaoenoe/aneee aiaeec iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia,
eioi?ua ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea a iauanoaaiiii e /anoiii naeoi?ao Iaeanneie
i?eai?iaeiie ciiu, ii?aaeaeaiu i?e/eiu ?aceiai iaaeaiey iau?iia
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

N?aaee ieo auaeaeythony:

— oooaeoaiea naeaeoeeiiii-ieaiaiiie ?aaiou;

— iaaeinoaoi/iue o?iaaiue iaania/aiey ei?iaie e iayooaeoeaiia eo
nea?ieeaaiea;

— ianaiaa?aiaiiay aua?aeiaea e caiaia ei?ia, eio?ua nouanoaaiii nieceee
naie i?iaeoeoeaiua e aini?ieaiaenoaaiiua ea/anoaa;

— ianiaa?oainoai ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe. I?iecaiaeeoaee iieiea
?aaioatho ia oa?iao, eioi?ua ei ia i?eiaaeeaaeao, iieuecothony ia naieie
i?oaeeyie i?iecaiaenoaa, ia ?anii?yaeathony ?acoeueoaoaie naiaai o?oaea,
iieo/atho ieceoth ca?aaioioth ieaoo, eioi?ay ia noeioee?oao ?aaioaoue
i?iaeoeoeaii, oniaa?oainoaiaaoue i?iecaiaenoai;

— i?in/aou a oi?ie?iaaiee nenoaiu oeai, a?oaia ia?ooaiea yeaeaaeaioiinoe
iaiaia aioo?e aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena, oeaiiaie aeenia?eoao iaaeaeo
aai iiae?acaeaeaieyie;

— i?in/aou i?e ?icainoaea?noaeaiee e i?eaaoecaoeee
iieieiia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aae?eyoee, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai i?iecaiaeeoaee
iieiea ia iieo/eee eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aeoeee, eae i?aaeoniio?aii
Caeiiii Oe?aeiu «Ia iniaaiiinoe i?eaaoecaoeee eiouanoaa a
aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena», a iaiiai?io, ieacaeenue a caaeneiii
iieiaeaiee.

Ia?/eneaiiua i?e/eiu ?aceiai nieaeaiey iau?iia i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea
iicaieeee aaoi?o noi?ioee?iaaoue iniiaiua iooe auoiaea ec e?ecena,
oaaee/aiey iau?iia i?iecaiaenoaa e iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Eae iaeii ec aiciiaeiuo iai?aaeaiee iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aeie yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea aeenna?oaioea iainiiauaaao nicaeaiea naiaeiuo
/anoii-a?aiaeiuo iiei/iuo oa?i e eo eiiia?e?iaaiea a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua e iaae?aaeiiaeueiua iiei/iua
eiiia?aoeau, eioi?ua iaania/ao iioeiaeueiia niaaeeiaiea nianoaaiiinoe
ia caieth e eiouanoai n a?aiaeiuie ioiioaieyie. Iainiiaai iaoaieci
nicaeaiey naiaeiie /anoii-a?aiaeiie iiei/iie oa?iu ia 25 ei?ia n
caieiooui oeeeeii e nianoaaiiui ei?iii?iecaiaenoaii. N eniieueciaaieai
iaoiaeia yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey ?ann/eoaiu
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneea ia?aiao?u naiaeiuo /anoii-a?aiaeiuo
iiei/iuo oa?i. Aia?aua ii?aaeaeaiu ?acia?u caiaeueiiai o/anoea,
iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey iioeiaeueiiai iaania/aiey ei?iaie aeeaioiuo naiaeiie
oa?iu.

A eoiaa ?aoaiey yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aenie caaea/e iieo/aii oanoue
aa?eaioia iioeiaeueiiai ieaia, niaeanii aeaiiuo ?acia?ia naiaeiie
iiei/iie oa?iu n iieiui iai?ioii noaaea, aeey o??o o?iaiae iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ii aeaoi e?eoa?eyi iioeiaeueiinoe. A ea/anoaa e?eoa?eaa
iioeiaeueiinoe eniieueciaaiu oaeea iieacaoaee, eae ieieioi ?an/aoiie
ieiuaaee iaoie e ieieioi noieiinoe ei?iia.

Eniieueciaaiea, i?aaeeiaeaiiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa, ca?iioo?aaeiuo
eoeueoo? aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue aei oanoe aa?eaioia eiiaeei?iia,
naaeaine?iaaiiuo ii anai iaiaoiaeeiui eiiiiiaioai, a eoeueoo?u caeaiiai
eiiaaea?a – nauoa iyoeaeanyoe ia?eiaeia eniieueciaaiey caeaiie iannu.
Yoi cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yao iaeanoue iienea aa?eaioia iioeiecaoeee, /oi
i?eia?aoaao iniaia cia/aiea i?e iiauoaiee i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo.

I?aaeeiaeaiu iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo acaeiiioiioaiee
i?aaei?eyoee ii i?iecaiaenoao e ia?a?aaioea iieiea. Ia iniiaa
eniieueciaaiey ei??aeyoeeiiii-?aa?anneiiiiai aiaeeca aeeyiey iniiaiuo
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa ia naaanoieiinoue iieiea a i?aaei?eyoeyo
iauanoaaiiiai naeoi?a i?eai?iaeiie ciiu, ?ann/eoaiu ii?iaoeaiua
naaanoieiinoue e oeaia ?aaeecaoeee 1oe iieiea. Eo eniieueciaaiea
i?eaaaeao e cia/eoaeueiiio oaaee/aieth iau?iia iieiea e iiei/iuo
i?iaeoeoia e oeo/oaieth acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie ii
i?iecaiaenoao iieiea e aai ia?a?aaioee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue, /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue,
eiiia?aoeey, a?aiaea.

Summary

Kurnosenko L.V. Economic efficiency of production of milk and way of
its increase in facilities of various patterns of ownership in
conditions of transition to the market (on an example of cattle breeding
facilities of a suburban zone of Odessa). — Manuscript.

The dissertation is to be present for scientific degree of Candidate of
Economic Science in speciality 08.07.02 – Agricultural Economics and
Agroindustrial Complex.- Mykolaiv State Agrarian Academy, Mykolaiv,
1999.

The dissertation is devoted to problems of search of paths of
increasing economic production efficiency of milk. In this work is
opened modern state and reasons of fall of volumes of production of
milk, decrease of economic efficiency in the subjects of enterprise
activity of public sector.

One of possible directions of increase of an economic efficiency of
production of milk is reasonable by creation of family private-rent
dairy farms and their co-operation in industrial, regional and
interregional dairy co-operative societies, which will ensure optimum
connection of the property on ground and property with the rent
relations.

With use of methods of economical-mathematical-statistical modelling the
productive and economic parameters of family farms are designed.

Key words: an economic efficiency, private property, co-operation,
rent.

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