OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Aea?iiieo Aaiiaae?e TH??eiae/

OAeE 338.242: 338.124.4

Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.01.01 — aeiiii?/ia oai??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie (i. Oa?e?a)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iaiaeoe Ieaen?e
Ieaenaiae?iae/, Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i. ss?ineaaa
Ioae?iai I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith aeiiii?/ii?
oai???

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ss?aiaiei Ieaa Eaii?aeiae/,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ? aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aeooia Aieiaeeie? ?ai?iae/,
Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, i.
Oa?e?a, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai???.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, i. Aeiiaoeuee, a?aeae?e aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 5 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 15-15 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.01 a Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith 310077, i. Oa?e?a, iaeaeai
Naiaiaee, 4, aoae. V–67.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 310077, i. Oa?e?a,
iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 21 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A. i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y

niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee A. A. Caaei?iaeiee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/aia i?iaeai?
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee, yea ?nio? c iiiaioo ca?iaeaeaiiy ethaeeie,
noni?euenoaa oa aea?aeaae. ?noi?e/ii iaei??th ?c ia?aeiieo aeiiii?/ieo
iio?aa aenooia? iio?aaa o caoeno? aeeoo?caeaoiino? on?o neeaaeiaeo
/anoei noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa naii? aea?aeaae, ui iio?aao?
i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai iaoeiaiai aiae?co aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee ye
eaoaai??? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? oa i?aeoeee ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
aea?aeaae, ?? ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy.

Aeey aeiiii?/ii? iaoee ? i?aeoeee ?nioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ye naiino?eii?
iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae aeiiii?/ia aaciaea ? iiaith i?iaeaiith,
aeooaeuei?noue yei? a inoaii?e /an iaaoea iniaeeai? aino?ioe a
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio ? iie?oe/iiio ieai?. A oiiaao
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie aeiiii?/ia aaciaea ia
iaea naiino?eiiai i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy, oiio ui ?? a?aeiia?aeii aei
nai?o caaaeaiue iiai?noth iiaeeiaea nenoaia aea?aeaaii? aaciaee.

E?iaoeue OO noie?ooy, eiai i?ioe??//y oa ?ioaa?aoe?ei? oaiaeaioe??
i?eaeathoue iniaeeaa i?noea i?iaeai? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae ye
iniiae caaacia/aiiy ?? noaa?ai?oaoo, eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?,
iai?iiicaeaoiino?, i?aeo?eiaiiy nioe?aeueii? ceaaiaee a noni?euenoa?,
i?aai?/iiai aoiaeaeaiiy e?a?ie a nenoaio na?oiai? aeiiii?ee.

O a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? iaeaea a?aenooi? ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee. Ieoaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aaciaee aaciina?aaeiuei ia iae?i??ai? ?ic?iaeai? iiee ui aeineoue
iiaa?oiai. Ie?ai? aniaeoe oe??? i?iaeaie a inoaii?e /an ii/aee
?icaeyaeaoeny a noaooyo oa ia??iaee/ieo ioae?eaoe?yo caeaa?eueoiai a
ieai? iinoaiiaee ieoaiiy.

Caaaeuei? iio?aae ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue o oe?e
noa?? aeiaaathoue iioe?aiiy oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?? a?aeiia?aeieo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. I?e oeueiio caneoaiao? oaaae aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo
aei?iaie oa aeina?aeo a/aieo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i ? ioe?iee iiaeeeaino? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy aeey Oe?a?ie.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee
Oe?a?ie coiiaeaia oaeiae oe?eei ?yaeii ia’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a:

? nenoaiiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th aeiiii?ee e?a?ie ? aecia/aiiyi ?ie? ?
i?noey Oe?a?ie a no/ani?e na?oia?e aeiiii?oe?;

? ?aaeueieie caeoeaie, ui caaaeathoueny aeiiii?oe? e?a?ie a?aenooi?noth
aaeaeaaoi?e ia?ao?aeiiio ia??iaeo aea?aeaaii-i?aaiai? ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aace aeey i?aeoe/iiai ia?aaiaeo oe?a?inueei?
aeiiii?ee ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie;

? iaiao?aei?noth iiooeo iioeiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae a?aee?eo?noth
aeiiii?ee ? caoenoii iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, ?ioa?an?a ainiiaea?/eo
noa’?eo?a ? a?iiaaeyi aeey caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee;

? c?inoaiiyi aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o caa?ic aeiiii?/i?e aaciaoe?,
aeeth/ath/e niaae ianya?a ? oaoi?/iiai ??aiy ae?iaieoeoaa, ao?aoo
o?aaeeoe?eieo ?eie?a, aea?iaeono??ae?caoe?th aeiiii?ee, c?oeioaaiiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo, cai?oaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?,
?icaeoie o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee oa ?? e?ei?iae?caoe?th.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Ieoaiiy caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aaciaee o a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? a inoaii?e /an io?eiaee
aeineoue aeeaieo ?ic?iaeo ia?aaaaeii ia ??ai? i?e?iaeiiii?ee a ?iaioao
aeiiii?no?a C. Aa?iae?y, A. Aeooiaa, A. Ii?ica, A. E?eeoiiaa,
A. Ii/?ioeiaa, I. *a?iyanueeiai oa ?i.

Aeineoue aeoeaii aaaeaoueny ?ic?iaea i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee o i?aoeyo oaeeo
a?o/eciyieo aeiiii?no?a, ye A. Aa?aiianueeee, A. Ai?iaethe,
A. Aieeinueeee, ?. Ai?iaeia, N. Aaeoca, A. Aa?oeue, A. A?eoeaiei, I.
Ao?aa?/ia, A. Caa?iaenueeee, A. Caaei?iaeiee, I. E?i, I. Eecei,
O. Eiaaeue/oe, ?. Eoe?iia, I. Iaiaeoe, N. Ii/a?iee, A. Iai?iaei?e,
I. Iaaeianueeee, A. ?aaaiei, A. Niaie?a, I. Ooia?, N. Oo?/eiia, N.
Othothiieeiaa, A. *ooii, I. ss?aiaiei oa ?i., a oaeiae ?in?enueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a, oaeeo ye E. Aaaee?i, N. Aeacue?a, N. Aieiai?i,
A. Ai?iaeaoeueeee, A. ?ni?aai?eia, ?. Eaca??a, A. I?aea?ae?a,
?. Ie?ei?eia, ?. Iicaeiyeia, A. Ii?ioianueeee, A. N?i/aaia oa ?i.
Cia/iee ?ioa?an i?e ?ic?iaoe? ie?aieo ieoaiue aeena?oaoe?? aeeeeeaee
i?aoe? oaeeo cao?aeieo oao?aoe?a, ye A. Aocai, A. Aaeia?, A. A????,
E. A??io, *. E?iaeeueaa?aa?, O. Ii?ai, A. Ii?aaioao, N. Ia?aeie,
E. Ii??, Aeae. Naen, ss. O?iaa?aai, Ae. O?oa? oa ?i.

Inoaii?i /anii i?iaeaia aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie ciaeoea /anoeiaa
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iioae?eiaaieo ie?aieo iiiia?ao?yo, iaa/aeueieo
iin?aieeao, cie?aia: Eiioeaioe?y aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie / ?i-o
aeii. i?iaiicoaaiiy; ea?. i?iaeoo A. I. Aa?oeue.— E.: Eiain, 1999.—
56 n.; Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea Oe?a?ie: nooi?noue ? iai?yiee caaacia/aiiy /
A. O. Oeaiei, ?. O. A?iueei: Iiiia?ao?y.— E.: I?NAe, 1997.— 144 n.;
Ein?aoeia A. I., A?iueei ?. O. Iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie
oa oeyoe ?aae?caoe?? i??i?eoaoieo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a: Iiiia?ao?y.—
E.: I?NAe, 1996.— 61 n.; ?icaeoie ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? Oe?a?ie oa ??
aeiiii?/ia aaciaea / A. A. Aiae??e/oe, I. N. Aeanthe, A. ?. Iie?e,
A. I. Oeoa?aiei; Ca ?aae. A. A. Aiae??e/oea: Iiiia?ao?y.— E.: I?NAe,
1996.— 148 n.; A. A. Ianoa?iae-Oa?aiooaiei. Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea
aea?aeaae. I?ae?o/iee aeey in?a, ui iaa/athoueny ca oaoii “Neoaeaiaaoeue
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy” / I?ae ?aae. i?io. A. E?aa/aiea.— E.: ?AeON i?e
Eaai?i? Oe?a?ie, 1994.— 140 n., oa aeaye? ?io?.

Iaeiae i?iaeaia aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae ? aeineoue neeaaeiith, a
i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a oe?e noa??, i?io?eathoue iano?eueee
iaia?aaeaa/aii, ui iio??ai? a?eueo aeeaie? aeine?aeaeaiiy anueiai
eiiieaeno iia’ycaieo c oeei ieoaiue c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy a?eueo nooo?aeo
caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ia? ca iaoo eiiieaeniee aiae?c eeth/iaeo i?iaeai
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee, iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? oi?ioaaiiy eiioeaioe??
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie oe?e?nii? no?aoaa??
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei ? i?aai?/ii? ?ioaa?aoe?? Oe?a?ie o na?oiaa ainiiaea?noai, a
oaeiae aecia/aiiy noaio, ia?niaeoea, iiaeo oi?i ? oeyo?a ?aaoethaaiiy
iaeaieiai?oeo /eiiee?a aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae ia an?o ?? ??aiyo;
iaa?oioiaai?noue eaoaai??? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae ye ia’?eoo
aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? oai???.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
ia?aaeaa/aeiny ae??oeoe ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

a) i?iaanoe aiae?c ?nioth/eo ? iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei noai?aiiy
eaoaai??aeueii-iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie;

a) iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaee/i? canaaee oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? eiioeaioe??
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee;

a) ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio ioe?iee aieiaieo ia?aiao??a aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee;

a) c?iaeoe oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eoa???a eeaneo?eaoe?? aieiaieo
/eiiee?a, caa?ic ? ia’?eo?a aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae;

ae) c’ynoaaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o caa?ic aeiiii?/i?e
aaciaoe? aea?aeaae;

a) aecia/eoe iniiai? i???ioe?e ?ic?iaee iie?oeee caoenoo aieiaieo
aaeocae ? noa? aeiiii?ee a?ae iaaaoeaiiai aieeao aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o
caa?ic;

ae) c’ynoaaoe iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i a
caaacia/aii? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee
Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee caeiiii??iino?, /eiieee ? ia?aiao?e
iniiaieo i?ioean?a, iia’ycaieo ?c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee
aea?aeaae.

I?aaeiaoii i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaia
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ui aeieea? o noa?? caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aaciaee aea?aeaae, iniiai? iai?yiee ae?? caa?ic oa oeyoe ?o iiaeieaiiy.

Oai?aoe/iith oa i?aeoe/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee i?aoe?
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, oao?aoe?a c caaaeueieo i?iaeai oa
eiie?aoieo ieoaiue ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii? oai???, aeinyaiaiiy no/anii?
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee a aaeoc? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ? oaiaeaioe?e
aioo??oi?o ? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, aca?iiae??
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai oeio ?
na?oiaiai ?eieo.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? neeaee no/ani? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy: nenoaiiiai aiae?co, eia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy,
?inoeoooe?iiaeueii-aaiethoe?eiee, ii??aiyeueiee ? oaeoi?iee,
aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iee.

?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeiaith aacith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iineoaeeee
Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, caeiie ? ii?iaoeai? aeoe aea?aeaae c ieoaiue
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, io?oe?ei? noaoenoe/i? aeai?, ioae?eaoe?? ?
aeieoiaioe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aeoiaey/e ?c ci?noo aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? a?aoiaoth/e, ui a
e?oa?aoo?? ua ia a?aeia?aaeai? ieoaiiy, ye? aeicaieyee a, ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, io?eiaoe oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy ? aeniiaee c i?iaeaie, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny, caea?oueny iiaeeeaei noi?ioethaaoe ianooii?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno ? ? iaoeiaith iiaeciith
aeena?oaoe??:

 ?ice?eoi ci?no eaoaai??? “aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae”, aeyaeaia
noeoii?noue aca?iiiia’ycaieo nooo?aeo ?? aeaiaio?a oa ?ieue a
o?ainoi?iaoe?ei?e aeiiii?oe?;

 cai?iiiiiaaia aeania eeaneo?eaoe?y /eiiee?a ? caa?ic aeiiii?/i?e
aaciaoe? aea?aeaae a no/anieo oiiaao;

 aeyaeai? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene noaio aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie a ia??iae
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei;

 aia?oa aeiaaaeaii, ui iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? i?ioeano caaacia/aiiy
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee neeaaea?oueny c aeaio /anoei: ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio
naii?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee noa’?eo?a i?e?iaeiiii?ee
oa aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy an??? nenoaie nooo?aeo aeaiaio?a
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae;

 ciaeaeai? aeena?oaioii a?aoiaioe ooai?ththoue niaith nenoaio aeieac?a
oiai, ui no/aniee ??aaiue o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee aenooia? ye nenoaiia
caa?ica aeiiii?/i?e aaciaoe? aea?aeaae;

 iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue ? iai?/ai? iaoiaee/i? canaaee ?ic?iaee
eiiieaenii? no?aoaa?/ii? i?ia?aie — eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie ye aea?aeaaii? no?aoaa??.

Iaea?eueo nooo?a? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o
ianooiiiio:

? ii-iiaiio eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii ?yae eeth/iaeo i?iaeai, a?ae
ae??oaiiy yeeo caeaaeeoue noai?aiiy iioeiaeueiiai iaoai?cio caaacia/aiiy
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae;

? canoiniaaii nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co eaoaai???
“aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae” oa ?? aeiiii?/ii? ?ie?, ui aeicaieeei
a?eueo anaa?/ii ?ice?eoe ?? ci?no ? iniaeeaino?;

? aecia/ai? ? ii-iiaiio no?oeoo?iaai? caa?ice, /eiieee ? ??ai?
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae;

? aecia/ai? na?oia? oaiaeaioe?? oi?aae?iiy noa?ith aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee
aea?aeaae ? iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?ic?iaee aea?aeaaii?
eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee;

? aeyaeai? ca’ycee ? i?e/eie ii?ooaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae o
cai?iiiiiaai?e iiaeae? “iio?aae — ?ioa?ane — caa?ice — caoeno”;

? iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaeeeo iiaoaeiae ? aacia? iai?yiee aea?aeaaii?
no?aoaa?? caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee a?aeiia?aeii
aei ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie aeicaieythoue a?eueo na?aeiii
aecia/eoe no?aoaa?/i? i??i?eoaoe oa iaoai?cie caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie, ye? iaoe?eai? ia a?aeaoaeiao aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy ia
canaaeao ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aeiiii?ee, noai?aiiy eiieo?aioiiai
na?aaeiaeua, ?icoe?aiiy niiaeea/iai oa ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iiieoo, noai?aiiy
aeanoe/ii? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieiaiai oeio. I?aeoe/io
oe?ii?noue iiaeooue iaoe aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ?
?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee ?
iaoai?cio ?? caaacia/aiiy.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e ? i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? caoe?eaaeaieo
onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e, a oaeiae i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eaeoe?e, nai?ia?nueeeo
caiyoue ? niaoeeo?n?a c i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aianoe a i?ia?aio eo?no “Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???”, yeee
aeeeaaea?oueny aeey nooaeaio?a-th?eno?a, ie?ai? oaie: “Aeiiii?/ia
aaciaea aea?aeaae” a ?icae?e “Iae?iaeiiii?ea” ? “Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea
o??ie (i?aei?e?inoaa)” a ?icae?e “I?e?iaeiiii?ea”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. I?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ie?ai?
oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “O?iueiaa aeiiii?ea.
I?iaeaie ai?ioueae c i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth oa ei?oioe??th a noa??
aeiiii?ee” (1997 ?., i. Eoaainuee); i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee ?aa?ii?a ?
o??i” (1997 ?., i. Oa?e?a); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a oiiaao
o?aiceoe?? (1998 ?., i. Oa?e?a); 2-e Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea: i?iaeaie ? no?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo” (1998
?., i. Oa?e?a); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 50-?e
??/ieoe? Caaaeueii? aeaeea?aoe?? i?aa ethaeeie (1998 ?., i. Oa?e?a);
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Nioe?aeuei? i??i?eoaoe a
o?aiceoeai?e aeiiii?oe?” (1999 ?., i. Oa?e?a).

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 7 iaoeiaeo noaoae caaaeueiei ianyaii
2,6 ae. a., a oiio /ene? 3 noaoo? caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,5 ae. a. o
oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo ca ia?ae?eii AAE Oe?a?ie. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aoee
ii?eethaeiai? o aenooiao aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?? ia aeaio i?aeia?iaeieo ?
/ioe?ueio ?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, ye?
iioae?eiaai? o oacao caaaeueiei ianyaii 0,8 ae. a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. A?aeiia?aeii c iaoith, caaaeaiiyie,
eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aia no?oeoo?a ?iaioe, yea neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, 5 oaaeeoeue, 2 oi?ioe, 1 a?ao?ea, 1
ae?aa?aie, 4 aeiaeaoe?a, a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai nieneo c 252 iaeiaioaaiue.
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 200 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, o oiio /ene? iniiaiee ci?no (anooi, 2 ?icae?ee, aeniiaee) — 176
noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, ?ice?eoi nooi?iue ??
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/aii eiai ia’?eo, oai?aoe/io oa i?aeoe/io aaco, iaoiaeieia?/io
iniiao, iieacaia iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe, ?o
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aiae?co aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee” ia
iniia? aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoeiaeo eiioeaioe?e oa oi/ie ci?o
?ice?eoa nooi?noue aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae ye eaoaai???
aeiiii?/ii? oai???, ?? no?oeoo?a ? cia/aiiy aeey ioe?iee iioaioe?eiiai
noaio aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae, aeiiii?ee ? ethaeeie.
?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy eeaneo?eaoe?? nooo?aeo caa?ic aeiiii?/i?e
aaciaoe? oa ?? ia’?eoai. Aecia/athoueny iaoiaee/i? canaaee ?ic?iaee
aea?aeaaii? eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee e?a?ie ia
iniia? aiae?co nenoaie aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a ? no?aoaa?/ieo oe?eae.

O aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii, ui i?iaeaia aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee e?a?ie aeieea?
aiaeii/an ?c oi?ioaaiiyi aea?aeaaiino?, noaiiaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueieo ?
aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a. Oiio a ?noi??? aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie ?niothoue
ia??iaee, eiee oey i?iaeaia aai caaino?th?oueny, aai noa? iaio
iii?oiith. I?aee?aneth?oueny iayai?noue caaino?aiiy i?iaeaie
caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie, yea ciaoiaeeoueny o noai?
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo ? ia?aaeeaa? e?eco ?icaeoeo iaaieo noa?
noni?euenoaa. Naia o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane a aeiiii?oe? e?a?ie
caaino?ththoue iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee i?iaeai caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aaciaee aea?aeaae, aeyaeaiiy ae?th/i? noeoiiino? caa?ic ?? noaa?ai?oaoo,
aeiiii?/i?e iacaeaaeiino? ? ?nioaaiith ethaeeie. Iiaeeaeaiiy aiae?co
i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae aaciina?aaeiuei aeo?ea? ?c
oa?aeoa?o i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue, ye? ae??oo? e?a?ia a no/anieo oiiaao,
eiee oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi
aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o ?ecee?a, iaaaoeaiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th no?oeoo?e
aeiiii?ee, c?inoaiiyi aeanoaa?e?coth/eo /eiiee?a, ??ceiai, o?eaaeiai
niaaeo ianya?a ? oaoi?/iiai ??aiy ae?iaieoeoaa, aea?iaeono??ae?caoe??th
aeiiii?ee ? ?oeioaaiiyi iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo, cai?oaiiyi
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, iioe?aiiyi o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee oa ??
e?ei?iae?caoe??th. A?aeiia?aeii aei i?eeiyoiai i?aeoiaeo a aeena?oaoe??
?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy ci?noo aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee, aiae?co /eiiee?a,
e?eoa???a oa iieaciee?a aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o caa?ic, iiooeo ?aoe?iiaeueieo oa aoaeoeaieo
iaoiae?a ?o a?aeaaaeaiiy, ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee ye
iioi/iiai, oae ? aeiaaio?eaaeiai oa?aeoa?o.

A ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii, ui a iaeia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? aeiiii?/ia aaciaea
aea?aeaae icia/a? caoeuai?noue an?o ??ai?a aeiiii?ee e?a?ie a?ae
iaaacia/ieo ae?e, ye? iiaeooue aooe ye iane?aeeii na?aeiiiai aieeao
aoaeue-yeiai /eiieea, oae ? noeo?eiei iaieeaii ?eieiaeo nee.
Iaaacia/ieie iiaeooue aaaaeaoeny oae? ae??, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei
iia??oaiiy aeiiii?/iiai noaio e?a?ie a e?eoe/iee ??aaiue. Aeiiii?/io
aaciaeo aea?aeaae acaaae? o?aaa ?icaeyaeaoe ye iaeaaaeeea?oo ye?nio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, ui a?aeia?aaea? caeaoi?noue
i?aeo?eioaaoe iine?aeiaio ?aae?caoe?th iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieo
?ioa?an?a, no?eeo ae??caeaoi?noue ainiiaea?/eo noa’?eo?a, aaeaeaaoi?
oiiae aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie. A?aoiaoth/e an? iiceoeai? iiiaioe
?nioth/eo a aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oi/ie ci?o oa eiioeaioe?e aaoi?ii
anoaiiaeaii, ui eaoaai??y “aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae” iiaeiia
ao?ethaaoe oae? iniiai? neeaaeia?: iiaeeea?noue caaacia/oaaoe
aeiiii?/iee noaa?ai?oao; aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy; i?aeaeuaiiy aeia?iaooo
aai yeino? aeeooy; iayai?noue nenoaie i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?/ii?
aca?iicaeaaeiino?.

Oiio a aeena?oaoe?? aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae (AAAe) oi?ioeth?oueny
ye eaoaai??y, yea ao?eth? a nia? iaaio noeoii?noue a?aeiinei ?
iia’ycaieo c ieie caoiae?a, ui caaacia/othoue cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
noaa?ai?oaoo, aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy aeia?iaooo ianaeaiiy a
oiiaao iayaiino? nenoaie i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?/ii? aca?iicaeaaeiino?.
Aiia aenooia? ye noeoii?noue aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo,
aeieia?/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo, iaoeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eieo a?aeiinei. Niaoeeo?ea
AAAe ye eaoaai??? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia iino?eii a?aeia?aaea? ??aaiue
aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy an?o no?oeoo?ieo ?? aeaiaio?a, ui aeicaiey?
a/anii aeyaeoe caa?ice ? caiia?aoe iaaaciaoe? iaianaiiy caeoe?a
aea?aeaa?, aeiiii?/i?e nenoai? ? iaoe?iiaeueiei aeiiii?/iei ?ioa?anai c
iaoith caaacia/aiiy ?o noaa?eueiiai ?icaeoeo ? c?inoaiiy. Oaea
aecia/aiiy AAAe aeicaiey? c?iaeoe i?eiaeii? aeaa eiioeaiooaeuei?
aeniiaee: 1) aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae iiaeiia caaacia/oaaoeny ia?o
ca ana aoaeoeai?noth naii? aeiiii?ee, oiaoi, ii?o/ c aea?aeaaieie
caniaaie caoenoo, aiia iiaeiia caoeuaoe naaa naia ia aac? aeniei?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? noa’?eo?a i?e?iaeiiii?ee, yeino? i?iaeoeoe??,
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?; 2) caaacia/aiiy AAAe ia iiaea cae?enithaaoeny
nooi ?eieiaeie iaoai?ciaie naii?aaoeyoe??, ai aiie aoaeoeaii
i?aoeththoue ia iae?i??ai? o?eueee i?e iayaiino? ?aoe?iiaeueii?
no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee, yea naia niaith ia noai?th?oueny. Oiio AAAe iiaeiia
oi?ioaaoeny ? i?aeo?eioaaoeny an??th nenoaiith iaoai?ci?a
naii?aaoethaaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy, oiaoi, ca aeiiiiiaith aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a ? ?inoeooo?a ?eieo.

Aecia/aii, ui aeiiii?/ia aaciaea o?nii iia’ycaia c iiiyooyi iaaaciaee ye
iaaiiai iaaaoeaiiai aieeao, ui a o?e /e ?io?e i??? ii?ooo?
aeeoo?caeaoi?noue ? aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae. Iaaaciaea aenooia? a
yeino? iiaeeeaino? caaaeaiiy oeiaee, caa?ice c?oeioaaiiy, iiyae
iaaaaeaieo iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a aeey noaio ?icaeoeo yaeua /e i?ioeano.
Aiia iana a nia? caa?ico aeey cae?eniaiiy aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aai
oe?e?niino? aoaeue-yeiai ia’?eoa ? nai?i ??aiai neaiae?co? i?i
iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee i?ioeae?e, caoiae?a caoenoo.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaoai?ci caaacia/aiiy AAAe iia’ycaiee ?c oaeeie
no?oeoo?ieie ?? iiiyooyie, ye ia’?eoe, noa’?eoe, caa?ice, aeaea?aea
caa?ic, ia?aiao?e (iieacieee), caeoee, ?ecee ? ??aaiue. ??aaiue AAAe ?
?ioaa?aeueiei iieacieeii aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee, yeee a?aeia?aaea?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noeoiiino? an?o caa?ic ? iioaioe?aeo caoenoo a?ae ieo.
Caa?ice caeiathoue oeaio?aeueia i?noea, ?o iiaeia aecia/eoe ye
noeoii?noue ae?yiue (ae?e aai aacae?yeueiino?), a oaeiae oiia ?
/eiiee?a, ui ii?iaeaeothoue aeiiii?/io iaaaciaeo aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaei
?ioa?anai e?a?ie. Cai?iiiiiaaii neeaae i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e caa?ice
a oaeiio aeaeyae?: ia’?eoe ? noa’?eoe aca?iia?aeiinei c i?eaiaeo
caa?ice; aeaea?aei caa?ice; neeaae caa?iceeaiai ni?yioaaiiy; iaoa,
niin?a ? caniae cae?eniaiiy caa?iceeaiai ni?yioaaiiy; oiiae, a yeeo
a?aeaoaa?oueny caa?ica; ni?eeiyooy noa’?eoii (ia’?eoii) aieeao caa?ice.
Aeey noai?aiiy aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio caoenoo aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie o?aaa
/?oei c’ynoaaoe, ui naia caa?iaeo? aeiiii?/i?e aaciaoe?, aea
ciaoiaeeoueny aeaea?aei aeieeiaiiy iaaaciaee, yeei /eiii eiie?aoi?
caa?ice aieeaathoue ia noai aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei.

Nie?ath/enue ia aeai? aeniiaee, aeena?oaio aecia/a? ? aiae?co? iaai?
ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi? i?ioe??//y a noa?? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee, ye?
ii?iaeaeothoue aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie naii? caa?ice ? iaaaciaee. Caa?ica
ye iiaeeeaa iaaaciaea caaaeaee ooeiaeaeo?, ?oeio? eiie?aoiee na?e
ia’?eo. Nai? caa?ice AAAe a ?iaio? eeaneo?eiaai? ii aeaeai ca oaeeie
iciaeaie: ca iioiaeaeaiiyi (aioo??oi? oa ciai?oi?); ca ia?aaaaeath/eie
yeinoyie caa?ice (o?ce/i?, iie?oe/i?, aeieia?/i?, ?ioi?iaoe?ei?,
oaoiieia?/i?, ineoieia?/i?, a?enueeia?); ca niaoeeo?eith aieeao ia
ie?ai? ia’?eoe aai ?o nenoaie; ca ni?yiiaai?noth ia ie?ai? aaeoc? oa
aeaee ae?yeueiino? (i?iaeiaieue/ee, ?iaanoeoe?eiee, aia?aaoe/iee,
o?ainii?oiee oa ?io? eiiieaene ainiiaea?noaa); ca ianooaaaie iiaeeeaeo
caeoe?a (ca neeith caa?ice); ca iiaeeea?noth ?aae?caoe?? caa?ic; ca
/aniaeie oa i?inoi?iaeie eii?aeeiaoaie ae?e (ei?ioeino?ieia? oa
aeiaaino?ieia?, iayai? oa iioaioe?ei?); ca nooiaiai “i?iyao” (i?yi? oa
iai?yi?); ca nooiaiai eiiieaeniino? (iiiaeeii/i? oa nenoaii?); ca
aeaea?aeaie aeieeiaiiy (ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? caa?ice c aieo ie?aieo
in?a, o??i, niaoeneoaea, e?a?i, ?aa?ii?a ? o. ?i.); ca yeinoyie
iaoa??aeueieo iin??a caa?ic; ca oi?iith ae?aco caa?ice. Aea?oueny ?o
oa?aeoa?enoeea.

I?eioeeiiai iiaa aeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y, ui neeaeany a Oe?a?i?, iio?aao?
i?eeiyooy aea?aeaaiiai io?oe?eiiai aeieoiaioa — Eiioeaioe??
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie, a yeiio o?aaa aecia/eoe
iaoe?iiaeuei? aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane oa oe?e?, a oaeiae i?eioeeie, iaoiaee
oa iaoai?ci ?o aeinyaiaiiy ? caoenoo a?ae caa?ic. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui
aac ooai?aiiy oaei? aoaeoeaii? iniiae aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee aaaeei
?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia oni?oia iiaeieaiiy aeeaieeo e?eciaeo i?ioean?a, ye?
oa?aeoa?i? aeey no/aniiai noaio ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Iniaeeaino? caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie a
oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee” i?noeoue a nia? ye caaaeuei?, oae ?
aeaye? niaoe?aeuei? ieoaiiy caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee. ?icaeyiooa
i?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?? /eiiee?a ? ??ai?a aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie a
oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee. A aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny ye
aioo??oi?, oae ? ciai?oi?, ye aaciina?aaeiuei aeiiii?/i? /eiieee
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee, oae ? iio?aei? a?ae ieo, i?e/iio iaea?eueo
aaaeeeaeie iinoathoue ieoaiiy ?o e?euee?nii? oa ye?nii? ioe?iee ?
iii?oi?eiao.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae oe?eae oa iai?yie?a aiae?co i?iaeai AAAe
canoiniaothoueny a?aeiia?aei? aa??aioe aea??ee /eiiee?a. Aeey
ocaaaeueithth/eo ??ai?a aeine?aeaeaiiy /eiieee ii?aeiothoueny a
caaaeuei? ianeae ca oaeeie iciaeaie:

 ii-ia?oa, ca ianooaaieie aeieaie i?iaeai aaciaee: a?aeoai?aiiy ?
aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy oa ?iai/i? neee; i?aeo?eiea ? ?icaeoie
iniiaieo oiiae?a aeiiii?ee; caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e
aeiiii?ee;

 ii-ae?oaa, ca a?eueo aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieie a?oiaie: aia?aaoe/ia oa
ne?iaeiia; oaoiieia?/ia; o?iainiai-e?aaeeoia; aeieia?/ia; ?ioi?iaoe?eia;
aaciaea ?io?ano?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee; nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ? i?aaiaiai
caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?ee; i?aeia?iaeia oa ?aa?iiaeueia aeiiii?/ia aaciaea.

?aaeueia iaae?ei?noue aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie a ae??oaeueiiio
nooiai? caeaaeeoue a?ae iioi/iiai ? no?aoaa?/iiai aaeaino iiceoeaieo ?
iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a, a oaeiae a?ae caeaoiino? aea?aeaae caaacia/eoe
aeinoaoi?e nooi?iue aio/eino? oa iaiaa?iaino? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo neooaoe?y
?eceeo ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeea?noue ye caeoeo, oae ? aea?aoo. Noa’?eo
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee iiaeiai iioei?coaaoe oiiae nai?? ae?yeueiino?, uia o
aeiaaeeo ?aae?caoe?? iaa?oue iaeiani?eyoeea?oeo noeaia???a ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a a cii? nai?? aeoeaiino? ? ?ioa?an?a iioaioe?ei?
caeoee ia ia?aaeuoaaee a?aie/ieo iaae. A oeueiio ieai? iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy ioe?iie aeiiii?/iiai
?eceeo ? oei naiei caaacia/eoe a?eueoo caaeainiaai?noue aeiiii?/ieo ?
iaaeieiaeiiii?/ieo aniaeo?a iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaiiciaaiino? neooaoe??.

Aiae?c i?iaeai AAAe iaia’yceiai iio?aao? ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i ye?nio oa
e?euee?nio ioe?ieo aieiaieo ?? /eiiee?a.

A yeino? iiaeeeaiai i?aeoiaeo aei ioe?iee /eiiee?a aaciaee iiaea
neoaeeoe oaea noaia ia?aiao??a AAAe:

 caaaeueia aaciaa ?ioi?iaoe?y aeiiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai,
oaoiieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o oiui;

 ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii aiae?oe/ii? oa aenia?oii? ae?yeueiino?
noiniaii ioe?iee ie?aieo /eiiee?a oa ?o a?oi;

 niaoe?aeuei? ?ic?aooieia? iieacieee, ui ioe?iththoue iioi/i? oa
a?aie/i? ia?aiao?e caa?ic;

 neioaoe/i? aai eiiieaeni? iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai AAAe
acaaae?.

O?niee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie c ieoaiiyie aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae
iathoue i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ii? aaciaee. A?eueoa oiai, a
no/anieo oiiaao iaeaooi? ia?aaaaeii aecia/a?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie
aeiaaeueii? aeoae ca oaoiieia?/iee ia?aae?e na?oo. Oa?aeoa?ia aeey
Oe?a?ie aeaa?aaeaoe?y iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo, noaaiaoe?y
?iaanoeoe?eii-?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a a?eueoino? aaeocae aeiiii?ee
aeeeeeathoue iaiao?aei?noue i?eeiyooy ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? aeno?aieo
caoiae?a ii caiia?aaiith iiae?aieo oaiaeaioe?e. A ?ioiio aeiaaeeo e?a?i?
i?ecia/aia ?ieue aeiaaino?ieiaiai aoonaeaea?a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo c
iicae?eoe/ieie ??aiyie aeiiii?/ii?, oaoiieia?/ii?, a c?aooith — ?
iie?oe/ii? a?aceeaino?.

A ?iaio? aeiaiaeeoueny iaiao?aei?noue iaa?aeeeaaeiiai eiiieaeno
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia oa, uia a oiiaao aoaeue-yeeo i?aeia?iaeieo
ianoaaei caa??aaany a?aie/ii aeiionoeiee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyiiai
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo. Iiaa eaea i?i ??aaiue,
yeee aa?aiooaaa ae aeaeeaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ca ?aooiie
aeanieo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo ? oaoi?/ieo ?ano?n?a, i?aeo?eioaaa ?? iai?iiio
aeinoaoi?noue ? aeiiii?/io iacaeaaei?noue. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaieo
caaaeaiue ne?ae iia?e?coaaoe an? aioo??oi? ?aca?ae ? aeaea?aea, ui
caaacia/othoue caa?aaeaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo ?
aeeoo?caeaoi?noue iaoee, ui iiaeiii ni?eyoe i?eaaaeaiith o
a?aeiia?aei?noue nenoaie ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei aei caaaeueiina?oiaeo
i?ia?aneaieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, no/aniiai noaio
IOI. O?eueee ia oe?e iniia? iiaeia oe?eeii cae?enieoe i?ia?aio ia?aoiaeo
aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ?ic?iaeoe eiie?aoi? iaoai?cie oeueiai ia?aoiaeo,
caaacia/eoe aeiiii?/io aaciaeo aea?aeaae.

O ca’yceo c oeei a ?iaio? ie?aii aeae?ey?oueny i?iaeaia noai?aiiy
aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy a oeeee? “iaoea — ae?iaieoeoai” ye
iniiae ia?aoiaeo a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa aei ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ia
aac? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo iiaiaaaaeaiue.

Aeae?eaiiy iniiaieo aioo??oi?o noaae?e (oac) oeeeeo “iaoea —
ae?iaieoeoai” ye ia’?eo?a noeioethaaiiy aaco?oueny ia caaaeueiiio
i?eioeei? eiai eiiieaeniino?. Oea ciaoiaeeoue na?e ae?ac a ?aeiino? e
aca?iica’yceo ooieoe?iiaeueieo, ainiiaea?nueeeo ? a?aeoai?thaaieo
aniaeo?a oeueiai oeeeeo. Ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie iia’ycai? a
iniiaiiio c i?aeaeuaiiyi iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ??aiy ae?iaieoeoaa ?
i?iaeoeoe?? i?e iaeii/aniiio c?inoaii? aaccaeoeiaino? ? ?aioaaaeueiino?,
ainiiaea?nuee? — c noa’?eoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino? (o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c oi?iaie aeaniino? oa oi?iaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy),
a?aeoai?thth/? — c a?aeiia?aeieie i?ioeanaie a ie?aieo oacao
a?aeoai?aiiy (ae?iaieoeoai iaoeiaeo ciaiue, oiaa?ii-a?ioiaee iai?i,
?iciiae?e aeioiae?a a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa ?i.).

Oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy oeeeeo “iaoea — ae?iaieoeoai”
icia/a? iaiao?aei?noue a?aooaaiiy aieeao ia iueiai ia o?eueee
aioo??oiuei-, aea ? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a. O no/anieo oiiaao
aeoeaii i?iyaey?oueny oaiaeaioe?y ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? i?ioeano
cae??ieaiiy iaoee ye i?ia?aeii? i?iaeoeoeaii? neee ? iioe?aiiy ??
aeinyaiaiue. Ioaea, a aeiiii?/i?e i?aeoeoe? c?inoa? ?ieue na?oiaiai
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
iniaeeaeo aeiiii?/ieo cii, ni?eueieo c ?iio??iaie i?aei?e?inoa ye oi?i ?
cania?a i?aeia?iaeiiai iai?io iia?oi?ie oaoiieia?yie, i?aeia?iaeieo
?iiaaoe?eieo aaie?a, ??cieo iao?yaeiaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo anioe?aoe?e oa
?i.

Noaaeoueny ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy eiioeaioe??
oaoiieia?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie c i??i?eoaoaie aeiiii?/ii? ?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. Iniaeeai? aaaeeeaino? iaaoaa? i?iaeaia
caa?aaeaiiy /anoeie iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaaaonoaa, cina?aaeaeaii? ia?aaaaeii
a nenoai? iaoee oa ina?oe.

A aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui caa?ice oaoiieia?/i?e ? aeiiii?/i?e
aaciaoe? iac??aiyiii c?inoathoue ?acii ?c neio?ii?caoe??th ?icaaeo
a?o/eciyiiai iioaioe?aeo ? caaaeueiina?oiaith oaeeath oaoiieia?/ieo
?iiiaaoe?e, ui ii/aeany iai?ee?ioe? 70-o ?ie?a ? i?ioyaiaoueny i?eiaeii?
aei 2000 ?ieo. Iaiiaeia ia a?aoiaoaaoe, ui aieiaiith iaoith
oaoiieia?/ii? iie?oeee a?eueoino? e?a?i caeeoa?oueny caoeno naia nai?o
iaoe?iiaeueieo aai a?oiiaeo ?ioa?an?a, ? ?aaeueiith noa? iaaaciaea
ia?ai?uaiiy Oe?a?ie a aeineoue ea?iaaia na?aaeiaeua e?a?i, ui
?icaeaathoueny. Aeina?ae i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo e?a?i iieaco?, ui
iineaaeaiiy oaaae o?yaeo aei ieoaiue eii?aeeiaoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
iie?oeee ? ?aaoethaaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai iai?io, iniaeeai i?ae /an e?ece,
??cei cieaeothoue ??aaiue aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee.

A oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a ??aaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? noa?e
ia?aoai?th?oueny ?c eaoae?caoi?a a aeoeaiee /eiiee aeanoaa?e?caoe??
aeiiii?ee, aaeueioaaiiy ?aoi?i ? ia?iaiaioia aeaea?aei caa?ic AAAe.
?aii?oaaiiy oeeo i?iaeai a a?aie/iiio aeiaaeeo iaa?oa?oueny ao?aoith
oaoiieia?/iiai noaa?ai?oaoo ? iaaaciaeith aeey e?a?ie noaoe ia’?eoii
naaa?eey c aieo i?ia?aeieo na?oiaeo aea?aeaa.

A ?iaio? a?aecia/a?oueny eiiieaeni?noue i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee
Oe?a?ie ia iae?i??ai?, iaiao?aei?noue nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?ic?iaee
eiie?aoieo oeyo?a, iaoiae?a oa cania?a caoenoo no?aoaa?/ieo ?ioa?an?a
e?a?ie, aeeth/ath/e a i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe
neeaaeiaeo oaeiai ??ciiiai?oiiai yaeua, ye o?iueiaa aeiiii?ea. Aeey
a?aooaaiiy an??? niaoeeo?ee i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c oeei oaiiiaiii, a
oaeiae aiae?co i?ioean?a eiai o?ainoi?iaoe??, aecia/aiiy ianya?a oa
?ic?iaee nenoai caoiae?a i?ioeae?? iaiao?aeia iaaia iaoiaeieia?/ia
iniiaa. A aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeththoueny no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? o o?iueiaiio
naeoi?? aeiiii?ee, ui ? ni?iaith iieeanoe aianie a ?ic?iaeo oaei?
iniiae. Aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui ?ic?inoaiiy ? aieea o?iueiaeo
e?ei?iiaaiieo i?ioean?a ia noni?eueii-aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie aeinyaee
oaeeo ianooaa?a, ui ?o ae?enii iiaeia ii??aiyoe c ia?aiao?aie
ae?yeueiino? eaaaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo? ia iae?i??ai?. Aiaeii/an,
aac a?aeiia?aeii? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oeeo i?iaeai an? /eneaii? o?yaeia? ?
a?aeii/? i?ia?aie ai?ioueae c o?i?caoe??th aeiiii?ee oa ei?oioe??th
aoaeooue iaaoaeoeaieie, ?, ye iieaco? i?aeoeea, /anoi i?eaiaeyoue aei
cai?ioiiai aoaeoo. O?iueiaee naeoi? ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie
caiaeeoue iai?aaoeue an? ni?iae aea?aeaae ia?aeoe aei nioe?aeueii
i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Caaaeueia aecia/aiiy ?ie? o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee ye caa?ice aeiiii?/i?e
aaciaoe? aea?aeaae ia?aaeaa/a? ?ice?eooy nenoaiiiai aieeao oeueiai yaeua
ia an? eaiee ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy. Aeey e?auiai oai?aoe/iiai
inieneaiiy i?noey ? ?ie? o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee a noa?? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee
aea?aeaae, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a ?? iiaeieaiiy a
oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? e?ece aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy
niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai yaeua.

AENIIAEE

O aeniiaeao a?aeia?aaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?o nooue
iieyaa? o oiio, ui:

1. Aecia/aii ci?no eaoaai??? aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae, yea ao?eth? a
nia? iaaio noeoii?noue a?aeiinei ? iia’ycaieo c ieie caoiae?a, ui
caaacia/othoue cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/iiai noaa?ai?oaoo, aeiiii?/ia
c?inoaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy aeia?iaooo a oiiaao iayaiino? nenoaie
i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?/ii? aca?iicaeaaeiino?. Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea
aea?aeaae — oea nenoaiia eaoaai??y aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aiia ao?eth? a nia? oae? aieiai? neeaaeia?:
“iaoe?iiaeueia aeiiii?/ia aaciaea”, “ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia aaciaea
aea?aeaae”, “iae?iaeiiii?/ia aaciaea”, “i?e?iaeiiii?/ia aaciaea”. I?e
oeueiio aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae, a naith /a?ao, ? aeaiaioii a?eueo
caaaeueiiai iiiyooy — “iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea aea?aeaae”, eio?a i?noeoue
o nia?, e??i aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?e AAAe, oaeiae iaoe?iiaeuei?,
iie?oeei-i?aaia?, a?enueeia? oa ?io? a?aeiineie.

2. C’yniaaii, ui a no/anieo oiiaao aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae ?
iaeaaaeeea?oith ye?niith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ? icia/a?
caeaoi?noue i?aeo?eioaaoe iine?aeiaio ?aae?caoe?th
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a, no?eeo ae??caeaoi?noue ainiiaea?/eo
noa’?eo?a, iioeiaeuei? oiiae aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy.

3. A na?aaeei? 90-o ?ie?a OO no. niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy ?aaeueieo ?
iioaioe?eieo caeoe?a aea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai Oe?a?ie, yea coiiaeaia ae?yie
ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo, aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o i?e/ei. Aeiaaaeaii,
ui /eneaii? nooo?a? ia?aiao?e aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae iaaeeceeenue
aei e?eoe/ieo ii?iaiaeo cia/aiue, ? a?eueo?noue aaeocae oa noa?
a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee aoiaeeoue a ciio caiaaeoi iaeiio?ieueiaaieo
?ecee?a.

4. Iniiaith aea?aeaaii? no?aoaa?? aeiiii?/ii? ? a oe?eiio iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee iiaeiia noaoe ?aeaieia?y ?icaeoeo, eio?a a?aoiao? iaoe?iiaeuei?
?ioa?ane, no?aoaa?/i? i??i?eoaoe, ? caaaeyee oeueiio caiaeeoue caa?ice
aaciaoe? aei i?i?ioio. Aac ?aeaieia?? ?icaeoeo, aac eoeueoeaaoe??
i??i?eoaoiiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ? i?iieneiaiai i?aeianaiiy iaiiaeeeai
ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue AAAe, ye aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, nei?i/aiiy
aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao oa athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo, i?eai?eaiiy ?ioeyoe??,
nei?i/aiiy aac?ia?ooy, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ? nioe?aeueii?
caoeuaiino? ianaeaiiy.

5. Iieacaii, ui a Oe?a?i? aino?i i?iyaeythoueny iciaee iineaaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? ? oaoiieia?/ii? aaciaee. I?i oea na?ae/eoue ?oeiaoe?y
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo c ia?niaeoeaith aea?iaeono??ae?caoe??
e?a?ie ? oi?ioaaiiy iaeiia?/ii? oaoiieia?/ii? caeaaeiino? a?ae
?icaeiooeo aea?aeaa. Aein? ia noi?iiaaia ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? caaa?oaia
eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ? ia
?ic?iaeaia no?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? iaoee ? oaoi?ee, aiane?aeie
/iai cinoa?oueny iacaae?yiei iaeei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ?ano?n?a iiaeieaiiy
o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? e?ece, oni?oiiai i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i ? ci?oeiaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo iiceoe?e aea?aeaae.

6. Iioe?aiiy ianooaa?a o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee noa? ?aaeueiith caa?icith ia
o?eueee aeiiii?/i?e, a e iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaciaoe? e?a?ie. A nenoai?
caoiae?a i?ioeae?? o?i?caoe?? ? e?ei?iae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee a?aei?aaiei
iiiaioii iiaeiia noaoe iioeiaeueia niieo/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo ? i?aaiaeo
cania?a caiia?aaiiy eaaae?caoe?? (a?aeieaaiith) aeioiae?a, ui io?eiai?
aiane?aeie iaeaaaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Ca nueiaiaei?oi?o oiia
iio??aiee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy aeie? o?iueiaeo
eai?oae?a.

7. I?ioean caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie a ia??iae
o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeeie iniaeeainoyie:

 o?niith aca?iiae??th AAAe c i?iaeaiaie iiaeieaiiy e?eciaeo yaeu, ui
iaaea? ?e iaaio ni?yiiaai?noue o ni?eyii? oaeaeeiio aoaeoeaiiio
iaeiie/aiith ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ? noaa?e?caoe?? ??ai?a ?icaeoeo
an?o e?ioeaaeo iieaciee?a iae?iaeiiii?ee, a oaeiae naiicaa?aaeaiith ?
?icaeoeo aea?aeaaieo oa noni?eueieo no?oeoo?;

 ii?ooaiiyi iae?iaeiiii?/ii? ??aiiaaae oa iineeaiiyi aeiiii?/ii?
ianoaa?eueiino?;

 c?inoaiiyi /anoee o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee o ae?iaieoeoa? AAI, AII Oe?a?ie
? i?ioean?a e?ei?iae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa;

 ao?aoith o?aaeeoe?eieo ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o ?eie?a, c?inoaiiyi
?iii?oo ? cieaeaiiyi eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiino? a?o/eciyieo oiaa??a oa
iineoa;

 ii?ooaiiyi ca’yce?a i?ae aeaiaioaie nenoaie “iio?aae — ?ioa?ane —
caa?ice — caoeno”, ui iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia ??aiyo aeiiii?/ii?
aaciaee “?iaeea?ae — i?aei?e?inoai (o??ia) — aea?aeaaa”.

8. Iaa?oioiaaii i?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy iniiaieo
i?ioean?a a noa?? AAAe c iaoith caaacia/aiiy oaeiai ?? ??aiy, yeee ae
a?aeiia?aeaa no/aniei aeiiaai o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aea?iiiuo A. TH. Eeanneoeeaoeey oaeoi?ia yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe
ainoaea?noaa a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee // Aecian-eioi?i.— 1999.—
? 9-10.— N. 55-57.

2. Aea?iiieo A. TH. Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae a nenoai?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee // ?aa?ii.— 1999.— ? 1.— N. 36-39.

3. Aea?iiieo A. TH. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? /eiieee aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee
aea?aeaae.— A ei.: Nioe?aeuei? i??i?eoaoe a o?aiceoeai?e aeiiii?oe?.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.— Oa?e?a: O?AI, 1999.— N. 72-78.

4. Aea?iiieo A. TH. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai iaoai?cio aeiiii?/iiai
noeioethaaiiy a oeeee? “iaoea — ae?iaieoeoai” // Ieoaiiy iie?oe/ii?
aeiiii??. I?aea?aeii/ee iaoeiaee ca??iee. Aei. 221.— E.: “Eea?aeue”,
1992.— N. 127-131.

5. Aea?iiieo A. TH. I?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai ? ainiiaea?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy
a noa?? caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae.— A ei.: Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo noni?eueii? aeoiee ? i?aeoeee oi?aae?ii?: Ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue / Caii??ae. ?i-o aea?ae. ? ioi?oeei. oi?-iy; ?aaeeie.: A. A.
Aeacoiia (aieiai. ?aae.) oa ?i.— Aei. 3.— Caii??aeaey: ?AI
“Aeaeaaaoeue”, 1997.— N. 110-113.

6. Aea?iiieo A. TH., Ia?/aiei I. N. Oaeineiiaeaiiy o?iainiaiai aiae?co
i?aei?e?inoa ye iaiao?aeiee can?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy o?i?caoe??
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.— A ei.: Oicyenoaaiii-i?aaiaua n?aaenoaa
aeaoaiecaoeee e aeae?eieiaeecaoeee yeiiiieee: Na. iao/. o?. / IAI
Oe?aeiu. Ei-o yeiiiieei-i?aaiauo enneaaeiaaiee; ?aaeeie.: A. E. Iaiooia
(ioa. ?aae.) e ae?.— Aeiiaoee, 1998.— N. 48-53. Iniaenoee aianie
aaoi?a: ?icaeyioo? i?iaeaie o?iainiaiai noaio i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao
o?i?caoe?? aeiiii?ee.

7. Aea?iiieo A. TH. Aeaiaioe nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee
aea?aeaae.— A ei.: Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea: i?iaeaie ? no?aoaa?y caaacia/aiiy
a Oe?a?i?.— Oa?e?a: O?AI, 1998.— n. 9-17.

8. Aea?iiiuo A. TH., Eeciaoa A. A., Oaeei A. I. I i?e?iaea oaiaaie
yeiiiieee.— A ei.: Oaiaaay yeiiiieea, i?iaeaiu ai?ueau n i?aaieciaaiiie
i?anooiiinoueth e ei??oioeeae a noa?a yeiiiieee. Nai?iee iaoa?eaeia
“e?oaeiai noiea”.— Eoaaine: ?EI EEAAe IAAe Oe?aeiu, 1997.— N. 50-52.
Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: aecia/a?oueny i?noea o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee a
nenoai? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ?? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c eaaaeueiith
aeiiii?eith.

9. Aea?iiiuo A. TH. Iooe oi?ie?iaaiey eiioeaioeee iaoeeiiaeueiie
yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe.— A ei.: I?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae aeiiii?/ii?
aaciaee ?aa?ii?a ? o??i. I?ae?aa?iiaeueia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y. 20.09.97. Oa?e?a: O?AI, 1997.— N. 23-26.

10. Aea?iiieo A. TH. Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae a oiiaao ?eieiaeo
?aoi?i.— A ei.: I?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a oiiaao
o?aiceoe??. I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y 21-22 o?aaiy
1998 ?.— Oa?e?a: O?AI, 1998.— N. 95-98.

11. Aea?iiieo A. TH. Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea ?iaeea?aea a nenoai?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee.— A ei.: I?aaa ethaeeie ? i?aaiaa
aea?aeaaa (Aei 50-? ??/ieoe? Caaaeueii? aeaeea?aoe?? i?aa ethaeeie):
Oace aeii. oa iaoe. iia?aeiieaiue iaoe. eiio. i?io.-aeee. neeaaeo. 10-11
a?oaeiy 1998 ?. / Ca ?aae. i?io. I. ?. Iaiiaa.— Oa?e?a: Iaoe. th?eae.
aeaae. Oe?a?ie.— 1998.— N. 126-128.

Aiioaoe?y

Aea?iiieo A. TH. Aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii?
aeiiii?ee.— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01 — aeiiii?/ia oai??y. Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae a oiiaao
?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. A ?iaio? ?ice?eoi nooi?noue ?
ci?no aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae ye eaoaai??? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ?
i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy, nenoaiaoeciaai? caa?ice aeiiii?/iei ?ioa?anai
aea?aeaae, aecia/ai? no/ani? i?iaeaie a noa?? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee ?
iiaeeea? oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy. Ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co eeaneo?eiaai? aieiai? /eiieee, ui
oi?iothoue noai aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae ia a?aeiia?aeieo ??aiyo.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee/i? canaaee iiaoaeiae eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie ye aea?aeaaii? no?aoaa?/ii? i?ia?aie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iio?aaa, ?ioa?an, caa?ica, caoeno, iaaaciaea, ?ecee,
aeiiii?/ia aaciaea aea?aeaae, iaoe?iiaeueia aeiiii?/ia aaciaea,
eiioeaioe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee, /eiiee aeiiii?/ii?
aaciaee aea?aeaae, ??aaiue aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee aea?aeaae.

Aiiioaoeey

Aea?iiiuo A. TH. Yeiiiie/aneay aaciianiinoue ainoaea?noaa a oneiaeyo
o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiie yeiiiieee.— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 — yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe ainoaea?noaa
a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie o?ainoi?iaoeee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu. Aeooaeueiinoue
i?iaeaiu iaania/aiey yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe Oe?aeiu iaoneiaeaia
oeaeui ?yaeii iauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia:

 nenoaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeeae yeiiiieee no?aiu e ii?aaeaeaieai ?iee e
ianoa Oe?aeiu a nia?aiaiiie ie?iaie yeiiiieea;

 ?aaeueiui oua?aii, eioi?ue iaiineony yeiiiieea no?aiu ionoonoaeai
aaeaeaaoiie ia?aoiaeiiio ia?eiaeo ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aacu aeey i?aeoe/aneiai ia?aaiaea oe?aeineie
yeiiiieee ia ?uii/iua ioiioaiey;

 iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iienea iioeiaeueiiai niioiioaiey iaaeaeo
ioe?uoinoueth yeiiiieee e caueoie iaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?ania, eioa?ania
oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia e a?aaeaeai aeey iaania/aiey yeiiiie/aneie
aaciianiinoe;

 aic?anoaieai aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo oa?ic yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe,
aeeth/ay niaae iauaiia e oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa, oo?aoo
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ?uieia, aeaeiaeono?eaeecaoeeth yeiiiieee, ?ac?ooaiea
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea, naa?ouaaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ?acaeoea oaiaaie yeiiiieee e aa e?eieiaeecaoeeth.

A ?aaioa ?ane?uou nouiinoue e niaea?aeaiea yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe
ainoaea?noaa eae eaoaai?ee yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey,
nenoaiaoece?iaaiu oa?icu yeiiiie/aneei eioa?anai no?aiu, iaicia/aiu
nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu a noa?a yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe e aiciiaeiua
iooe eo ?aoaiey.

A ?aaioa iainiiauaaaony, /oi yeiiiie/aneay aaciianiinoue ainoaea?noaa
icia/aao caueuaiiinoue anao o?iaiae yeiiiieee no?aiu io iianiuo
aicaeaenoaee. Yeiiiie/aneoth aaciianiinoue ainoaea?noaa aaoi?
?anniao?eaaao eae aaaeiaeooth ea/anoaaiioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo yeiiiie/aneie
nenoaiu, io?aaeathuoth niiniaiinoue iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueioth
?aaeecaoeeth iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiuo eioa?ania, onoie/eaoth
aeaaniiniaiinoue oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, aaeaeaaoiua oneiaey
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. Iia aunooiaao eae niaieoiiinoue
yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo, aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, yeieiae/aneeo,
oaoiieiae/aneeo, iao/ii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee. Niaoeeoeea
yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe eae eaoaai?ee ninoieo a oii, /oi iia
iinoiyiii io?aaeaao o?iaaiue yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey anao
no?oeoo?iuo aa yeaiaioia, /oi iicaieyao naiaa?aiaiii auyaeoue oa?icu e
i?aaeioa?aoeoue iianiinoue iaianaiey oua?aa ainoaea?noao, yeiiiie/aneie
nenoaia e iaoeeiiaeueiui yeiiiie/aneei eioa?anai n oeaeueth iaania/aiey
eo noaaeeueiiai ?acaeoey e ?inoa.

A ?aaioa aeieacuaaaony, /oi iniaaiiinoe o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiie yeiiiieee
Oe?aeiu iauaeoeaii o?aaotho i?eiyoey ainoaea?noaaiiiai ioeoeeaeueiiai
aeieoiaioa — Eiioeaioeee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe
Oe?aeiu, a eioi?ii iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue iaoeeiiaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea
eioa?anu e oeaee, a oaeaea i?eioeeiu, iaoiaeu e iaoaieciu eo
aeinoeaeaiey e caueou io oa?ic. I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiaee/aneea iniiau
iino?iaiey Eiioeaioeee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe Oe?aeiu
eae ainoaea?noaaiiie no?aoaae/aneie i?ia?aiiu.

Ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca eeanneoeoee?iaaiu
aeaaiua oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea ninoiyiea yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe
ainoaea?noaa ia niioaaonoaothueo o?iaiyo.

A enneaaeiaaiee aeieacuaaaony, /oi a oaniie ei??aeyoeeiiiie nayce n
aii?inaie yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe ainoaea?noaa noiyo i?iaeaiu
iaania/aiey oaoiieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe. A iioeiaeueiii aa?eaioa iia
aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue a oneiaeyo ethaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ianoaiiaee
nio?aiaiea i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey ioa/anoaaiiiai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea, eioi?ue
aa?aioe?iaae au auaeeaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo e oaoie/aneeo ?ano?nia. Noaaeony aii?in i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey eiioeaioeee oaoiieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe no?aiu
n i?ei?eoaoaie yeiiiie/aneie e iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe.

A ?aaioa ioia/aaony eiiieaeniinoue i?iaeai yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe
Oe?aeiu ia iae?io?iaia, iaiaoiaeeiinoue nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e
?ac?aaioea eiie?aoiuo iooae, iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa caueou no?aoaae/aneeo
eioa?ania no?aiu, aeeth/ay a i?aaeiao enneaaeiaaiey no?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou
oaeiai ?aciiieaiiaiai yaeaiey, eae oaiaaay yeiiiieea.

Iauaa ii?aaeaeaiea ?iee oaiaaie yeiiiieee eae nenoaiiie oa?icu
yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe ainoaea?noaa i?aaeoniao?eaaao ?ane?uoea
nouiinoe e aaiacena ninoaaeythueo yoiai yaeaiey. I?e anae
aeeneonneiiiinoe i?iaeaiu iaeioi?ua ea/anoaaiii-eiee/anoaaiiua
aiaeeoe/aneea iiaeoiaeu iicaieytho i?iaanoe ii?aaeaeaiioth
nenoaiaoecaoeeth e ioeaieo yoeo ninoaaeythueo n aeinoaoi/iie
i?aeoe/aneie cia/eiinoueth.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iio?aaiinoue, eioa?an, oa?ica, caueoa, iianiinoue,
?ene, yeiiiie/aneay aaciianiinoue ainoaea?noaa, iaoeeiiaeueiay
yeiiiie/aneay aaciianiinoue, eiioeaioeey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie
aaciianiinoe, oaeoi? yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe ainoaea?noaa, o?iaaiue
yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe ainoaea?noaa.

Annotation

G. Y. Darnopykh. Economical Security of the State under Transformation
Economic Circumstances.— Manuscript.

Dissertation for Ph.D. degree of economical science in speciality
08.01.01 — Theory of Economics. Kharkov State University, Kharkov 1999.

The dissertation views the questions of Economical Security of the state
under the circumstances of market transformation of Ukrainian economics.
The work describes the meaning and content of the economical security of
the State as a category of economics theory and practice of control, the
threats towards the economical interests of the state are systemized and
up to date problems in the sphere of economic security and possible ways
of their handling are described. The most important factors affecting
economical security of the state at the respective levels are classified
on the basis of the systematic and structural analyses.

Methodical fundamentals of the national security of Ukraine as a
strategic program are suggested.

The key words: need, interest, threat, defense, danger, risk, economical
security of the state, national economical security, the concept of
national economical security, the factor of economical security of the
state, the level of economical security of the state.

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