IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO CIIEIA?? ?I. ?.?. OIAEUeAAOCAIA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 597.15 597.19

AeAI’ssIAIEI EINOssIOEI AIEIAeEIE?IAE*

AEIEIAI-A?IEIA?*I? INIAEEAINO? INAO?A

(Acipenser gueldenstaedti colchicus V.Marti) OA NAA-

?THAE (Acipenser stellatus donensis Lovetzky) A

I?AI?*I?E ? I?AI?*II-CAO?AeI?E *ANOEIAO

ACIANUeEIAI II?ss

03.00.08 — ciieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Acianueeiio a?aeae?eaii? I?aaeaiiiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo ii?nueeiai ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
ieaaiia?ao?? oa ?inoeooo? ciieia?? ?i. ?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Naaiaeao A?eoi? Iaoiae?eiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii
aeieia??, a?aeoai?aiiy oa ioi-

?iie aiaeieo o?aaaoieo
?inoeoooo ciieia?? ?i.

?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?nai I?ano Ieoaeeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii
aeioieneeieia?? oa a?ae?io?i??

?inoeoooo a?ae?ia?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie

— eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo
iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Ic?iueeianueea Na?oeaia
Iao??aia,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii
Aei?i?ianueeeo aiaeinoiaeu

Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo

?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — a?ieia?/iee oaeoeueoao Ee?anueeiai
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, I?i?noa?no-

ai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 27 ”_ea?oiy____ 1999 ?. i _10 aiae. __ ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.153.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
ciieia?? ?i. ?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

252601, i. Ee?a-30, aoe.
Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai, 15

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ciieia??
?i. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 23 ”_aa?aciy______1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe _______________ A.A. Cieioia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue. O no/aniee ia??iae Acianueea ii?a —
iaeia c iaei?iaeoeoeai?oeo ii?nueeeo aiaeiei ieaiaoe — ia?aaeeaa? cia/i?
ci?ie aeaeiaiai neeaaeo ?oo?ioaoie, a oiio /ene? ? inao?iaeo ?ea, ui
iia’ycaia c aeeaieeie aeieia?/ieie ia?aoai?aiiyie aiane?aeie
?ioaineaii? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie.

Caeaaia inao?ia? ?eae ? iaeoe?ii?oeie i?iieneiaeie aeaeaie Acianueeiai
ii?y. A?aeiia?aeii iaeaea on? caoiaee a aanaei? c ioi?iie ?eaieo caian?a
oa ?o a?aeoai?aiiy aoee ni?yiiaai? ia caa??aaiiy oa ca?eueoaiiy
/enaeueiino? inao?iaeo.

Eiee Oe?a?ia noaea iacaeaaeiei noa’?eoii ?eaiainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?, oi aeey ia? aeieeei ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? i?iieneo,
a?aeoai?aiiy oa ioi?iie inao?iaeo. Oea iio?aao? ianooaaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?o aeieia?? oa a?ieia?? a oe?a?inuee?e /anoei? aeaaoi???
ii?y.

Oi/a aea/aiith acianueeeo inao?iaeo o?aaeeoe?eii i?eae?eyeinue aaeeeo
oaaao (Aieei, 1963; *oaoiia, *oaoiiaa, 1964; Iia/ai, 1966; Ieeueooaei,
1971; Aaaaeeeiaa, ?aeia, 1980; *eoa/aa, Oeaaoiaiei, 1984; Iiaeooea,
1986; Nieieia, Oeaieei, 1996 oa ?i.), ieioei a?eueoa 25 ?ie?a c /ano
iaienaiiy inoaiiuei? aaeeei? aaaeeeai? iaoeiai? i?aoe?, a ye?e c?iaeaii
eiiieaeniee iien iiioeyoe?e inao?iaeo ?ea Acianueeiai ii?y (Iaea?ia,
1970).

Niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei oe?a?inueei? /anoeie ii?y, yea cia/ii
a?ae??ciy?oueny ca a?ae?ieia?/ieie iieacieeaie, no?oeoo?ith aa?aaiai?
nioae oa ia? aeanio nenoaio iaeeo ??/ie, ia i?iaiaeeeiny. A?aoiaoth/e,
ui I?ai?/ia I?eacia’y ? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiith ciiith aeey ?icaeoeo
inao??aieoeoaa, aea/aiiy no/aniiai noaio aeieia?? oa a?ieia?? oeeo
oe?iieo i?iieneiaeo aeae?a ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeiaaino?ieiaiai
ieaioaaiiy ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa ?aa?iio.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiue. Aea/eoe aeieiai-a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? oa aeaye?
ii?oieia?/i? iieacieee inao?iaeo — /i?iiii?nueei-acianueeiai inao?a
(Acipenser gueldenstaedti colchicus V.Marti) oa acianueei? naa?thae
(Acipenser stellatus donensis Lovetzky)- o no/aniee ia??iae a i?ai?/iiio
oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio ?aeiiao aeaaoi??? ii?y oa aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino?
i?ieeaino? oeeo iieaciee?a o ca’yceo c oiiaaie aeeooy ?ea.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue:

— ioe?iea /enaeueiino? inao?a oa naa?thae o ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue;

— aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae ?iciiae?eo ?ea o ??cieo a
aeieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? ae?eyieao i?ai?/ii? oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii?
/anoei ii?y;

— aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?e oa iniiaieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee inao?a oa naa?thae o ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue;

— aea/aiiy ?ie? i?ai?/ii? ? i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoei Acianueeiai ii?y
o ??/iiio oa aeeoo?aiio oeeeeao inao?iaeo ?ea.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa o iiaiiio ianyc? aea/aii aeeiai?eo a?eiaiai oa
noaoaaiai neeaaeo, aeieiai-a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? iiioeyoe?e inao?a oa
naa?thae eieaeueii aeey i?ai?/ii? oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoei
Acianueeiai ii?y.

Aia?oa ca inoaii? e?eueea aeanyoe??/, ye? ieioee i?ney aeiaaeueieo ci?i
aiaeiiai ?aaeeio Acianueeiai aanaeio aiane?aeie ca?aaoethaaiiy iniiaieo
??/ie, aea/aii ci?ie a?ieia?? inao?iaeo o ca’yceo c i?enoinoaaiiyi aei
aeeooy a o?ainoi?iiaaieo a?ioiiao. I?iaaaeaii ?iaaioa?ecaoe?th
oa?eoi??e, ui iathoue cia/aiiy aeey caa?aaeaiiy inao?iaeo. Aeyaeaii oa
iienaii ?aeiie eiioeaio?aoe?e oeeo aeae?a. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c inao?a oa naa?thae aeey i?ai?/ii? oa
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoei Acianueeiai ii?y.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Aia?oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii
caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy a?eiai? oa noaoaai? no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?e
inao?a oa naa?thae a Acianueeiio ii?? ia aeaiiio aoai?. O iaoiaee/iiio
ieai? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee a?aeiiniee iieaciee ?ie? iieie?iue o
oi?ioaaii? aei?inei? /anoeie iiioeyoe?e.

Iaa?oioiaaii oa aeei?enoaii iaoiaee oi?o?eaoe?? iaoa??ae?a, iaea?aeaieo
ca aeae?eueea ?ie?a cia?yaeaeyie eiao c ??cieie cia/aiiyie iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa iniiai? iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie, canoiniaai?
i?e ia?iaoe? iaoa??ae?a, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii?
iii?oi??iaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ii inao?iaei o oe?eiio.

Anoaiiaeaii ca’ycee i?ae /enaeuei?noth oa iniiaieie aeieiai-a?ieia?/ieie
iieacieeaie inao?iaeo, ye? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe o i?aeoeoe?
?eaiainiiaea?nueeiai i?iieneiaiai i?iaiicoaaiiy, o oiio /ene? aeey
noai?aiiy aenia?oieo nenoai iiaeaeueieo ioe?iie aeinenoai.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno. Iaea?eueo ianiaei aeaeii
inao?iaeo o i?ai?/i?e oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoeiao Acianueeiai ii?y o
1992-1996 ??. aoa inaoa?, na?aaeiy /enaeuei?noue yeiai aei??aithaaea
0.85 iei.aec. O aei?ineeo /anoeiao iiioeyoe?e ia?aaaaeaee iieie?iiy
inao?a 1985-1981 ??. oa naa?thae 1988-1986 ??. Aeiey naiie na?aae
aei?ineeo ?ea aoea cia/ii aeuith (aeey inao?a oa naa?thae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy “naiee/naioe?” noaiiaeei i?eaeecii “2/1”).

O ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue ciaoiaeyoueny oeyoe ia?anoiaiai oiaeo,
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaoe inao?a oa naa?thae. Ii/aoie oa cae?i/aiiy naciiieo
i?a?aoe?e iia’ycai? ia?aaaaeii c oaiia?aoo?iei ?aaeeiii aiaeieie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? aoei c?iaeaii aeiiia?ae? ia
a/aieo ?aaeao I?aaeaiiiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo ii?nueeiai
?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa oa ieaaiia?ao?? — I?aaeaiI??I (1995-1996) oa ia
can?aeaiiyo a/aii? ?aaee Acianueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy I?aaeaiI??I
(1993-1997), nan?yo, ?iai/eo a?oiao oa nai?ia?ao Oe?a?inueei-?in?enueei?
eii?n?? c ieoaiue ?eaaeuenoaa a Acianueeiio ii?? (1994-1997), ae?oaiio
c’?cae? a?ae?iaeieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1997), ia?oiio
eiia?an? ?oo?ieia?a ?in?? (Ano?aoaiue, 1997) oa ia eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani?
iai?yiee oa i?iaeaie aeaaeoeueoo?e” (Oa?nii, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, o
oiio /ene? 4 noaoo? — o niaoe?aeueieo aeaeaiiyo.

Ia’?i oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
6 aeaa, aeniiae?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, nienea e?oa?aoo?e oa
aeiaeaoe?a. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 153 iacae. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia
ia 216 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 36 oaaeeoeue, 13
?ethno?aoe?e oa 66 aeiaeaoe?a ia 66 noi??ieao.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai iniaenoiai aianeo. ?iaioa ? naiino?eiei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi aaoi?a. Ca??, aiae?c ? ia?iaea ?oo?ieia?/ieo i?ia,
ocaaaeueiaiiy io?eiaieo oaeoe/ieo aeaieo aeeiiaii aeena?oaioii iniaenoi.

IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Iaoa??ae aeey ?iaioe aoei c?a?aii o 1992-1996 ?ieao o ?aeii? aeaaoi???
Acianueeiai ii?y, iaiaaeaiiio c i?aaeiy ia?aeaeeth 46.00 i.o. oa c?
noiaeo e?i??th, yea c’?aeio? ioieo 46.00 i.o., 37.00 n.ae. oa e?ioeaao
/anoeio eine E?eai? o Oaaai?icuee?e caoioe? (?en. 1).

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoee iiioeyoe?? inao?a oa naa?thae. Eia ?eae
i?iaiaeeany, aieiaiei /eiii, aeoeaiei cia?yaeaeyi — aeiiiei o?aeii
(aeiaaeeiith aa?oiuei? i?aeai?e aei 37 i c ?ici??ii a?/ea o eoooe? 6.5
ii oa oaeoe/iei aa?oeeaeueiei ?ice?eooyi aei 5 i). Ca?? iaoa??aeo
cae?enithaaany ia noaeiao o ?aieao ni?eueieo oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo
aeniaaeeoe?e c iae?eo oa ioe?iee noaio iiioeyoe?e aeiieo aeae?a ?ea (c
o/anoth I?aaeaiiiai IAe? ii?nueeiai ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
ieaiia?ao?? — I?aaeaiI??I, Acianueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy I?aaeaiI??I oa
Acianueeiai IAe? ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa — AcIAe??A, ?in?enueea
Oaaea?aoe?y). Oaeiae i?iaiaeeany ca?? iaoa??aeo c oeia?a n?oie c
aaeeeeie a?/eaie — 120-200 ii (aoai?a) ia noaeiao I?aaeaiI??I oa
AcI?aaeaiI??I.

Aiae?c i?a?aoe?e oa neeaaeo inao?iaeo o i?eaa?aaei?e nioc? ii?y
cae?enithaaany ca iaoa??aeaie eiio?ieueii-niinoa?aaeieo ioieo?a (ENI)
Acianueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy I?aaeaiI??I (oeiae noaaieo iaaiae?a c a?/eaie
a?ae 6.5 aei 60 ii oa cya?iaeo n?oie c ?ici??ii a?/ea 26 — 200 ii). O
??ci? ia??iaee aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeai? eiio?ieueii-niinoa?aaeieo
ioieo?a “Aaeie” (?aeii nae. Aaeie, ?icoaoiaaiiai ia ein? A?aaaonuee?e
no??eoe?), “Aa?aeyinueea eina”, “A?eina?aenueea eina”, “Oe?ie?ii”
(Oaaai?icueea caoiea), “Aac?iaiia” (Oaaai?icueea caoiea), “E?eaa eina”
(Oaaai?icueea caoiea).

Onueiai c?a?aii ia a?ieia?/iee aiae?c oa aei??e iaoa??ae o ia’?i?: 2840
aec. inao?a, 1730 aec. naa?thae (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

E?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiiai iaoa??aeo ii inao?o oa naa?thc?, aec.

AeaeE?euee?niee

aiae?c

( n )C ieo aei??aii,

( n )C?iaeaii iiaiee a?ieia?/iee aiae?c

( n )Inaoa?28401920415Naa?thaa1730890350Onueiai45702810765*enaeuei?noue
inao?iaeo o ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aeanue iaoiaeii i?yiiai iae?eo.
Iae?eia? ceiiee a?aeaoaaeeny ae?oeo (eeiaiue — na?iaiue) oa ainaie
(aa?anaiue — aeiaoaiue) c 2 — 4 i?iieneiaeo noaeai oeio ?N, IO?, I?NO
aai N*N.

Ieiuo iaeiao o?aeo aoei ia/eneaii ca oi?ioeith:

S = R * V * t,

aea: S — ieiua iaeiao o?aea,

R — oaeoe/ia ai?eciioaeueia ?ice?eooy o?aea ii

oiaeo noaeia, ye i?aaeei, aecia/aeiny ca

?acoeueoaoaie oa?e?oaaiiy aeaio noaeai,

V — oaeaee?noue noaeia c o?aeii (o na?aaeiueio

aei??aithaaea 1.5 i/n),

t — /an iaeiiai iae?eiaiai o?ae?iiy (caaaeaee

noaiiaea 30 oaeeei).

I?e iiaeaeueoeo ?ic?aooieao aoa aeei?enoaiee eiao?oe??io oeiaenoino?
o?aeo 0.5, aai 50 % (Iaea?ia, 1970; Iaaeia, 1974).

Aecia/aeanue aaee/eia oeia?a inao?iaeo ia eiaei?e o?aeia?e noaioe??. O
iiaeaeueoiio, c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo “aeaaaeaieo ieiu”, aoea
ia?aoiaaia /enaeuei?noue aeae?a (Iaenueeee, 1940; ssiianueeee, 1971). C
1996 ?ieo aeey aecia/aiiy /enaeueiino? inao?iaeo, oi?ioaaiiy ea?o
?iciiae?eo canoiniaaii i?eeeaaeiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iaeao “?oo?iaiae?oee”
(Naaiaeao, Ao?’yiia, Aaeioaiea oa ?i., 1998).

I?iaiaeeany ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee iiaiee a?ieia?/iee aiae?c oa aei??e inao?a
oa naa?thae ??cieo ?ici??ieo a?oi (a?ae iieiae? aei noaoaaic??eeo
iniaei), aecia/aeany aaiaeiaai?noue ?ea ca Ooeueoiiii (I?aaaeei, 1966) .

O iaaii? e?eueeino? i?iaiae?ciaaieo aei?ineeo iniaei inao?a oa naa?thae
aoei ocyoi ia?oee (oaa?aeee) i?ii?iue a?oaeiiai ieaaoey, ca c??caie
yeiai aecia/aany a?e ?ea (*oaoiiaa, 1963; I?aaaeei, 1966).

Aoei i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ei?aeyoe?eii? caeaaeiino? i?ae a?eii,
aeiaaeeiith oa aaaith ?ea.

A?coaeueii aea/aeeny noaoaa? caeice ?ea ia i?aaeiao iayaiino? aiiiae?e
o ?icaeoeo. Nooi?iue a?ia?ai?? aecia/aeanue ca oeaeith TH.?. ?aeiaa oa
N.?. Oaaei?iaa (1995).

Nooi?iue iaiiaiaiiy oeoieiai-eeoeiaeo o?aeo?a ?ea (IOEO) aecia/aeinue ca
4-o aaeueiith oeaeith (0 — 3).

Io?eiai? aeai? iiaiiai a?ieia?/iiai aiae?co aoei ia?iaeaii ia
ia?niiaeuei?e AII c aeei?enoaiiyi iaeaoo “IAA” (?ic?iaeaiiai a
AcI?aaeaiI??I). Caniaaie iaeaoo aoei i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee oa a?oioaaiiy
na?aaei?o iieaciee?a ca noaoaaith iciaeith oa a?eii, aeeiiaii
noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo.

Aeey iia?aoe?e c aacaie aeaieo aeei?enoaii iaeao FOXPRO. Naiino?eii
noai?aii o BASIC oa aeei?enoaii e?eueea ?ic?aooieiaeo i?ia?ai.

I?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? iiioeyoe?e inao?a oa naa?thae ie?aii aiae?coaaeeny
a?oie “aei?inea /anoeia iiioeyoe??” (aai, ca A.A. Iaea?iaei (1970),
“i?iieneiaa /anoeia”, yea neeaaea?oueny c “ia?anoiai? iiioeyoe??” oa
“?aca?ao”) — ?eae, ye? aeinyaee i?iieneiaiai ?ici??o, oa “iieiaeue”.

Ioe?ieo a?aeiinii? ?ie? iieie?iue o oi?ioaaii? aei?inei? /anoeie
iiioeyoe?e inao?a oa naa?thae aoei aeaii c canoinoaaiiyi iiaiai
iieacieea “J”, yeee ia/enethaaany, ye a?eoiaoe/ia noia aeieae iieie?iue
(%) o aei?ine?e /anoei? iiioeyoe?e o ??ci? ?iee.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

O?ceei-aaia?ao?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aeiio aeine?aeaeaiue

I?ai?/ia oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aeia /anoeie Acianueeiai ii?y
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny neeaaei?noth aa?aaiai? e?i??. I?eaa?aaeio aeaaoi??th
i?ai?/ii? ciie i?uaieie einaie (Oaaeioiaa eina — 42 ei, Ia?oi/ia eina-
30 ei, Aa?aeyinueea eina — 23 ei, A?eina?aenueea eina — 14 ei)
?iciiae?eaii ia caoiee — Ia?oi/io, Aa?aeyinueeo oa A?eina?aenueeo. O
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio ?aeii? aei ii?y i?eeyaathoue eeiaie — Neaao,
Ooethenueeee oa Iiei/iee. Aaeeeeo ??/ie o I?ai?/iiio I?eacia’? iaia?,
a?aeiinii aaaaoi — iaeeo noaiiaeo ??/ie (Iiei/ia, Ia?oi/ia, Ei?nae,
Aa?aea oa ?i.), aea aiie ia a?ae?a?athoue ?noioii? ?ie? o oi?ioaaii?
aiaeiiai aaeaino Acianueeiai aanaeio.

Aeii ii?y ??aia, a?oioe i’ye?. A?ey aa?aa?a, aei aeeaeie 2-3 i,
?icoaoiaothoueny i?uai? a?oioe c aeii?oeaie /a?aiaoieeo, a c aeeaeie 4 i
oa aei 8-9 i caeyaa? ioeiaee /a?aiaoiee. Aeii oeaio?aeueieo ?aeii?a ii?y
ae?eoa i’yeeie aeeienoeie ioeaie. Iaeneiaeueia aeeaeia — ia i?aaei?
?aeiio (o oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? ii?y) — aei 12 i. 10-iao?iaa ?ciaaoa
i?ieyaa? ia a?aenoai? 5-15 ieeue a?ae aa?aao.

Aioo??oiueieiioeiaioaeueia ?icoaooaaiiy Acianueeiai ii?y aecia/a? eiai
oa?i?/iee oa eueiaeiaee ?aaeeie. Na?aaeiuei??/ia oaiia?aoo?a iiaa?oiaaeo
aiae noaiiaeoue 11.4 — 11.7 0N. Iaea?eueo iecueea oaiia?aoo?a
niinoa??aa?oueny o n?/i? — ethoiio. O oeae ia??iae, ye i?aaeei,
a?eueo?noue aeaaoi??? ii?y ae?eoi eueiaeii, oaiia?aoo?a aiaee ia
iiaa?oi? — 0 0N, aai aeaui ieae/a; a?ey aeia caa??aa?oueny iethniaa
oaiia?aoo?a — a?ey +1.7 0N. Ae?oeo, o ca’yceo c i?eeiaiaei?noth ii?y,
aiaea cia/ii i?ia??aa?oueny, iniaeeai o i?eaa?aaeae?. A?aei?/a?oueny
oaiia?aoo?ia no?aoeo?eaoe?y. ??cieoey oaiia?aoo? iiaa?oiaaeo oa
aeeaeiieo aiae iiaea aeinyaaoe 3-4 0N.

Acianueea ii?a a?aeiineoueny aei nieiioaaoeo iaciaaeeiieo aiaeiei, c
nieii?noth 5-18 0/00. Na?aaeiuei??/ia nieii?noue ii?y aei ca?aaoethaaiiy
iniiaieo ??/ie aanaeio Aeiio oa Eoaai? (o 50-70-? ?iee) noaiiaeea 10.6
0/00. C ca?aaoethaaiiyi nieii?noue i?aeaeueeanue ? eieeaa?oueny o iaaeao
11 — 13.8 0/00. ?iciiae?e nieiiino? ia aeaaoi??? ii?y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aaeeeith i?ieea?noth, ui iia’ycaia ia?aaaaeii c aieeaii a?o?o.

Aaciaee ?aaeei oaeiae, ye i?aaeei, ianoaa?eueiee. Oa?aeoa?iith
iniaeea?noth ? caii?e, ye? niinoa??aathoueny o ??cieo ianooaaao
i?aeoe/ii ui??/ii. Aiie aeieeathoue ae?oeo i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao
aiaee o ooeeaa? aei? oa o aeaye? ?iee niinoa??aathoueny ia a?eueoino?
(aei 65 %) aeaaoi??? ii?y. Aceieo i?e/eiith caii??a iiaea noaoe
nooe?eueia eueiaeiaa iie?eooy, yea aeeeeea? aeao?oeeo eenith.

A?iaaii? ?a/iaeie i?enooi? a ii?? o aaeee?e e?eueeino? (Oaeiiia,
Nieieiaa, ?a/aiei, 1963). Aei ca?aaoethaaiiy ??/ie o ii?a iinooiaei
ui??/ii 13 oen.o niieoe oinoi?o oa 77 oen.o niieoe acioo. Aeniea
i?ia??aaiiy aiaee, aeia?a ina?oeai?noue, i?eeiaiaei?noue ii?y
coiiaeththoue aaeeeo oaeaee?noue (aei 8-12 e?ao) e?oaiia?ao a?iaai?a, ui
?iaeoue Acianueea ii?a iaeiei c iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieo ii?nueeeo
aiaeiei ieaiaoe (A?ae?iiaoaeia?aeiee, 1952; Ea?iaae/, 1955; Oaeiiia oa
?i., 1963; Ni?/ae, 1963; A?iioiai, Oeaaieeia, 1975; Aaaeaiei oa ?i.,
1986; Iae?aniaa oa ?i., 1986; Aa?aiia oa ?i., 1997).

O ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue 1992-1996 ??. a?ae?iiaoaioiiae a Acianueeiio
ii?? a oe?eiio aoee caaeia?eueieie aeey iiioeyoe?e inao?a oa naa?thae.
I?ae /an iaaoeo (e?oi — in?iue) niinoa??aaeanue cia/ia a?o?iaa
aeoeai?noue, ui caiia?aaei aeieeaiith caii?ieo neooaoe?e. Eeoa ae?oeo
1993 ?. (a oiiaao aenieeo e?oi?o oaiia?aoo? oa iecueei? a?o?iai?
aeoeaiino?) niinoa??aaeenue caii?e.

Aeieiai — a?ieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea inao?a

*enaeuei?noue inao?a o ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue aea/aeanue, o?aaeeoe?eii,
ae?oeo oa ainaie, a o 1993 ?ioe? — oaeiae o aaniyiee ia??iae.

Ca aeaieie o?aeiaiai iae?eo iaea?eueoith e?euee?noue inao?a o ?aeii?
aeine?aeaeaiue aoea ae?oeo 1993 ?ieo — 2.29 iei.aec. O oaaeeoe? 2
i?eaaaeaii /enaeuei?noue inao?a a ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue o ca’yceo c
iniiaieie iieacieeaie na?aaeiaeua (oaiia?aoo?a oa eenaiue, iaaeai? A.A.
Aaoiaiaiei, AcI?aaeaiI??I).

C e?oa aei inai? aeiey iieiae? a oeiaao c?inoaea. Oea aoei iia’ycaii,
iaaii, c oei, ui aei?ine? ?eae (o ia?oo /a?ao ie?aeieee) ii/eiathoue
i?a?aoe?th c i?noeue cei?ae? ?ai?oa, i?ae iieiaeue. C?inoaiiy aeie?
iieiae? inao?a a oeiaao a?aeaoaaeiny c i?ia??aaiiyi aiaee. A
na?aaeiueiio aiia neeaaeaea 61 %.

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui na?aaeiy /enaeuei?noue inao?a o ?aeii?
aeine?aeaeaiue aei??aithaaea 0.85 iei.aec.

Iniiao aei?inei? /anoeie iiioeyoe?? inao?a o 1992-1996 ??. neeaaeaee
?eae o a?oe? 9+ — 13+. Iieiaeue aoea i?aaenoaaeaia iniaeiaie o a?oe?
aei 7+ aeeth/ii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aei?inea /anoeia iiioeyoe?? inao?a o
1992-1996 ??. oi?ioaaeany, aieiaiei /eiii, iieie?iiyie 1986-1978 ??. c
aeayeith ia?aaaaith (J > 50) iieie?iue 1985-1981 ??.

Aoei aecia/aii, ui ia?anoiao /anoeio iiioeyoe?? neeaaeathoue naiee
inao?a o a?oe? 11-24 ?iee oa naioe? o a?oe? 6-17 ?ie?a. Aiae?c a?eiai?
no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?? inao?a na?ae/eoue, ui iniiaia ao?aoa aei?ineeo ?ea
o i?e a?aeaoaa?oueny c ii/aoeii ia??iaeo ia?anoo, i?ney yeiai o ii?a
iiaa?oathoueny iiiaeeiie? iniaeie.

Naioe? inao?a aeic??aathoue a Acianueeiio ii?? o a?oe? c 6 ?ie?a, naiee
— c 11 ?ie?a.

Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe, ui aoaeue ye? ci?ie noaio a?aeoai?aiiy inao?a a
Acianueeiio aanaei? (iiyaa aenieio?iaeaeieo aai iecueeio?iaeaeieo
iieie?iue) a?aeaeaathoueny o ia?oo /a?ao ia naioeyo, ye? anooiathoue aei
ia?anoo oa aeaoaathoue c iiioeyoe?? ?ai?oa, i?ae naiee.

Oaaeeoey 2

*enaeuei?noue inao?a o ca’yceo c na?aaeiueith oaiia?aoo?ith oa

ai?noii eenith o ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue a i?ai?/i?e oa i?ai?/-

ii-cao?aei?e /anoeiao Acianueeiai ii?y o 1992-1996 ??.

IA??IAe ?IEENa?aaei?199219931994199519961992-1996 Aania

(aa?acaiue-

ea?oaiue)/enaeuei?noue, iei.aec-1.76—1.76% iieiae?-28—28E?oi

(eeiaiue-

na?iaiue)/enaeuei?noue, iei.aec.0.302.290.311.040.460.88 %
iieiae?722991618249Na?aaei. oai-

ia?aoo?a, iN23.921.724.223.624.023.5Eenaiue,
ia/e11.71.26.56.87.36.7In?iue (aeiaoaiue)

/enaeuei?noue, iei.aec.1.021.790.170.850.270.82 %
iieiae?806981748674Na?aaei. oai-

ia?aoo?a, iN15.316.612.613.77.613.2Eenaiue, ia/e6.36.47.47.1-6.8Ca
e?oiuei-in?ii?e

ia??iae /enaeuei?noue, iei.aec.0.662.040.240.950.370.85 acaaae? %
iieiae?784787668361

Oaaeeoey 3

Noaoaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o aei?ine?e /anoei? iiioeyoe??

inao?a o i?ai?/iiio oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio ?aeiiao

Acianueeiai ii?y o 1992-1996 ??., %

?IEENaieeNaioe?1992673319938020199470301995613919967624Na?aaei?7129

Noaoaaa no?oeoo?a aoea aeaoaeueii aea/aia aeey aei?inei? (o oiio /ene?
ia?anoiai?) /anoeie iiioeyoe?? o ca’yceo c iaiaaeaieie iiaeeeainoyie
a?ieia?/iiai aiae?co iieiae?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui c 1992 ii 1996 ??. cia/ieo eieeaaiue o noaoaa?e
no?oeoo?? aei?inei? /anoeie iiioeyoe?? inao?a ia aoei. Aeiey naiie
?noioii ia?aaeuoaaea naioe?a (71% / 29%, oaaeeoey 3).

?acii c oei, iacaaaeath/e ia caaaeueio ia?aaaao naiie iaae naioeyie o
aei?ine?e /anoei? iiioeyoe?? inao?a, aeey iieiaeoeo a?eiaeo a?oi (aei
9+) noaoaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aoei aeecueei 50% / 50%. O noa?oeo a?eiaeo
a?oiao (c 16-17 ?ie?a) aoei a?aei?/aii iiaia aeii?ioaaiiy naiie, oiio ui
naioe?a oeueiai a?eo iaeaea ia caeeoeeiny. Aiie aeic??ee ?ai?oa ca
naiie ? aaea aeaoee c iiioeyoe??. I?e oeueiio o ia?anoia?e /anoei?
iiioeyoe?? c 1992 aei 1995 ??. niinoa??aaeanue e?euee?nia ia?aaaaa
naioe?a. Eeoa o 1996 ?ioe? noaoaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aoei aeecueea 1 / 1.
O oe?eiio ca ia??iae 1992-1996 ??. na?aaei? noaoaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aei??aithaaei: naioe? / naiee — 34% / 66%. Aeniea aeiey naioe?a o
1992-1995 ??. i?aeo?eioaaeanue ca ?aooiie anooio o ia?ano naioe?a
o?iaeaeieo iieie?iue 1986-1978 ??. Aea a inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aaeinue
cieaeaiiy /enaeueiino? iiioeyoe?? inao?a. Noaoaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a ??
ia?anoia?e /anoei? “ci?noeeiny” o a?e c?inoaiiy aeie? naiie, ye?
aeic??aaee oa aeaoaaee c iiioeyoe?? i?ci?oa. Aei 11 ?ie?a ia?anoiaa
/anoeia iiioeyoe?? i?aaenoaaeaia iaeaea aeeeth/ii naioeyie, a c
18-??/iiai a?eo naioe?a o ia?anoia?e /anoei? i?aeoe/ii ia caeeoa?oueny.

A?aei?/a?oueny, ui na?aaei? aeiaaeeia oa iana naiie inao?a aei?inei?
/anoeie iiioeyoe?? cia/ii aeu?, i?ae naioe?a (oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4

Na?aaei? aeiaaeeia oa iana inao?a o 1992-1996 ??.

Aei?inea

/anoeia iiioeyoe??Ia?anoiaa

/anoeia

iiioeyoe??IieiaeueAeiaaeeia

naiie, ni110 + 1.1129 + 2.5-Aeiaaeeia

naioe?a, ni98 + 0.8113 + 1.5-Iana naiie, a13590 + 52019930 +
1044-Iana naioe?a,a10210 + 29411330 + 406-Aeiaaeeia, ni—64 + 0.8 Iana,
a—3250 + 148

I?e oeueiio ii??aiyiiy aeiaaeeie oa iane naioe?a oa naiie ie?aii ca
a?eiaeie a?oiaie iieaco?, ui o iieiaeoeo a?eiaeo a?oiao (aei 10+)
na?aaei? ?ici??e naioe?a a ie?ai? ?iee iaa?oue o?ioe aeu?, i?ae naiie.
Ii/eiath/e c a?eo 11+ — 12+ — a?eueo? ca ?ici??aie naiee. Aea ??cieoey
o na?aaei?o ?ici??ao naioe?a oa naiie iacia/ia, a “aeiaaeath/?”
aaee/eie, iaaii, iiaeia a?aeianoe aei aeiaaeeiaeo.

Anoaiiaeaii cia/io ei?aeyoe?th i?ae a?eii oa aeiaaeeiith ?ea
(eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? — 0.945).

Na?aaei?e eiao?oe??io aaiaeiaaiino? (ca Ooeueoiiii) aeey ?ea aei?inei?
/anoeie iiioeyoe?? neeaaeaa 1.03 + 0.02, iieiae? — 1.02 + 0.03.
Eiao?oe??io aaiaeiaaiino? naiie oa naioe?a ia a?ae??ciyany.

Ia aeine?aeaeai?e aeaaoi??? inaoa? iaa aiiaaee, a iniiaiiio, o II,
II-III noaae?yo c??eino? (aei 95 %). O aaniyii-e?oi?e ia??iae aeiey
c??eeo ?ea c?inoaea ca ?aooiie ie?aeiee?a, ye? eoee a?ey i?aaeaiiiai
aa?aaa o Aeii ia ia?ano. ?ea c aiiaaeaie o noaae?? c??eino? VI-II ca
aanue ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue ia niinoa??aaeinue.

Aiiiae?? o ?icaeoeo ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? nenoaie aeey inao?a, ye? aoei
iienaii a inoaii? ?iee, a?aei?/aeeny, aea o iaaaeeeeo ianooaaao. *ano?oa
(aei 10 %) cono??/aeenue ?eae c a?ia?aiiaaieie o ??ciiio nooiai?
aiiaaeaie o II, II-III noaae?yo c??eino?. A?eueo?noue c ieo (70-90 %) —
naioe?, aeey yeeo i?eionea?oueny iiaeeeaith i?e?iaeiy a?ia?ai?caoe?y,
eio?a ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaoieia?? aiiaae.

?io? aiiiae?? (?aci?aoe?y aiiaae, e?noiooai?aiiy) niinoa??aaeenue ia
a?eueoa, i?ae o 5 % i?iaiae?ciaaieo ?ea. Iiiaeeiiei cono??/aeenue
?eae-aa?iao?iaeeoe.

A on? ?iee, eiee aaeeny niinoa?aaeaiiy, ia?anoiaee o?ae (yeee aecia/aany
ca c?inoaiiyi oeia?a c??eeo iniaei eiio?ieueieie cia?yaeaeyie eiao o
i?eaa?aaeae?) a?aei?/aany o aaniyii-e?oi?e ia??iae. In?ii?e o?ae o
oaia??oi?e /an i?aeoe/ii ia niinoa??aa?oueny.

Ii/aoie aaniyiiai ia?anoiaiai oiaeo o i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao Acianueeiai ii?y
niinoa??aaany o e?ioe? ethoiai — ia ii/aoeo aa?aciy. I?e oiaeo
a?aei?/aany a iniiaiiio o ia?o?e iieiaei? ea?oiy. O 1992-1996 ??.
aaniyiee ia?anoiaee o?ae inao?a oa?aeoa?ecoaaany aaeeeith
aa??aaaeuei?noth iieaciee?a — oeia?a ia coneeey o ??cieo ?aeiiao
i?eaa?aaeaey, ui aoei iia’ycaii c iaiaeii??aeieie iaoaioiiaaie.
?ioaineai?noue ia?anoiaiai oiaeo o ia??iae c 1992 ii 1996 ??. iii?oii
cieceeany, ui iia’yco?oueny ?c caaaeueiei cieaeaiiyi /enaeueiino?
iiioeyoe?? inao?a (a?aeiia?aeii aei?inei? oa ia?anoiai? /anoei). Oaeiae,
iiaeeeai, iaei i?noea ci?uaiiy ia?anoiaiai oiaeo ia aeeaeie o a?eueo?e
a?aenoai? a?ae i?ai?/iiai ocaa?aaeaey.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii/aoie oa cae?i/aiiy naciiieo i?a?aoe?e inao?a aieiaiei
/eiii coiiaeththoueny oaiia?aoo?ith aiaee. Oaiaeaioe?y aei ii/aoeo
ia?anoiaeo i?a?aoe?e o i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao Acianueeiai ii?y aeey inao?a
i?iyaey?oueny c oayiiyi eueiaeo (oaiia?aoo?a aiaee +1 — +2 iN),
oaiaeaioe?y aei oi?ioaaiiy ceioaaeueieo eiioeaio?aoe?e — c? cieaeaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e aiaee ieae/a +18 iN.

?iciiae?e inao?a ae?oeo 1992-1996 ??. o i?ai?/i?e oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e
/anoeiao ii?y, ca aeaieie iae?eiaeo o?aeiaeo ceiiie, aoa a?aeiinii
??aiii??iei. Eeoa ia noiae? ?aeiio, o Oaaai?icuee?e caoioe?, inao?a, ui
iaaoeth?oueny, iaeaea ia niinoa??aaeinue. Aei?ine? ?eae oa iieiaeue
oi?ioaaee ni?euei? eiioeaio?aoe??. Aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy ca a?eii ia
niinoa??aaeinue. Iaea?eueo? oeiae inao?a o e?oi?e ia??iae aoei
a?aei?/aii o eaaae?aoao 22-24 I-I.

Ainaie o 1992-1996 aa. niinoa??aaeanue iiae?aia ea?oeia, aea iniiai?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ea aoee ia a?eueo?e a?aenoai? a?ae aa?aaa, i?ae ae?oeo.
Oaeei /eiii naaa i?iyaeythoue ceioaaeuei? i?a?aoe?? (o oeaio?aeueio,
i?aaeaiio oa i?aaeaiii-cao?aeio /anoeie ii?y), ye? iaaoaathoue ianiaiai
oa?aeoa?o c? cieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aiaee aei + 14-12 iN. Ainaie, ye ?
ae?oeo, ia aecia/aii aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e ca a?eii ?ea.
Iaea?eueo? eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ea niinoa??aaeenue o eaaae?aoao 11-26 E-I.

Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ie??i oaiia?aoo?iiai, ye? coiiaethaaee ?aeiie
oi?ioaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e inao?a o ia??iae iaaoea, aoee ?iciiae?e
ei?iiaeo ia’?eo?a (a iniiaiiio iiethne?a), a oaeiae ?icoaooaaiiy
caii?ieo cii, ye? o 1992-1996 ??. ia aoee aaeeeeie, ? ?eae iaee
iiaeeea?noue aeeaeoeny i?aeoe/ii ia on?e aeaaoi??? ii?y.

O no/aniee ia??iae i?a?aoe?? inao?a c i?noeue iaaoeo ia cei?aeth
a?aeaoaathoueny iinooiiai. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ia?anoiaiai oiaeo, oeyoe
ceioaaeueieo i?a?aoe?e /?oei ia i?inoaaeothoueny.

Aeeiai?ea oiaeo inao?a ia cei?aeth oa i?ney ia? ia ia?ano oa iaaoe a
iniiaiiio coiiaeth?oueny a?aae??ioii oaiia?aoo?e aiaee. Oaiia?aoo?a
na?aaeiaeua aecia/aeueii aieeaa? ia ?ooiao aeoeai?noue ?ea, oiio
oi?ioaaiiy ceioaaeueieo eiioeaio?aoe?e inao?a aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia
c ?ioaineai?noth in?iiueiai cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aiaee. A iniiaiiio
oi?ioaaiiy ceioaaeueieo eiioeaio?aoe?e cae?i/o?oueny o eenoiiaae?, ?
aiie ?niothoue aei aa?aciy-ea?oiy ianooiiiai ?ieo.

Niaeo? aeeaeaiiy inao?a — o?aaeeoe?eiee. A iniiaiiio oea iiethnee (aei
90 %), c yeeo aeii?io? Abra. A cia/i?e e?eueeino? o oeoieiai-eeoeiaeo
o?aeoao aoee oaeiae i?enooi? Cerastoderma, Hydrobia, Polychaeta oa
Nematoda.

Iaiiaiaiiy oeoieiai-eeoeiaeo o?aeo?a inao?a ae?oeo oa ainaie aoei
i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaei, eeoa o 1993 ?ioe? ae?oeo a?i ei?ieany neaaoa. Oea,
iiaeeeai, aoei iia’ycaii c iaaeinoaoiuei ni?eyoeeaei oaiia?aoo?iei oa
eeniaaei ?aaeeiii, ui aeeeeeaei eieaeuei? caii?e. O oeae ia??iae a
ie?aieo eaaae?aoao a?aeaoaaeanue caaeaaeue aeiiieo i?aai?ci?a (iiethne?a
Abra, Cerastoderma, Hydrobia).

Aeieiai — a?ieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea naa?thae.

*enaeuei?noue naa?thae o ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aeanue ae?oeo ?
ainaie, a o 1993 ?ioe? — oaeiae ? o aaniyiee ia??iae.

Ca aeaieie o?aeiaiai iae?eo iaea?eueoith /enaeuei?noue naa?thae o ?aeii?
aeine?aeaeaiue aoea ae?oeo 1995 ?ieo — 0.71 iei. aec.

O oaaeeoe? 5 i?eaaaeaii /enaeuei?noue naa?thae a ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue o
ca’yceo c iniiaieie iieacieeaie na?aaeiaeua (oaiia?aoo?a oa eenaiue,
iaaeai? A.A. Aaoiaiaiei, AcI?aaeaiI??I).

C aanie aei inai? aeiey iieiae? a oeiaao c?inoaea. Oea aoei iia’ycaii,
iaaii, c oei, ui aei?ine? ?eae i?a?othoue c i?noeue cei?ae? ?ai?oa, i?ae
iieiaeue. C?inoaiiy aeie? iieiae? naa?thae a oeiaao a?aeaoaaeiny c
i?ia??aaiiyi aiaee, eiee ?eaa i?aeoiaeeea aei aa?aaa ia iaaoe. O
na?aaeiueiio aiia noaiiaeea 40 %.

Na?aaeiy /enaeuei?noue naa?thae o ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue ca ia??iae
iaaoeo aoea 0.31 iei.aec.

Iniiao aei?inei? /anoeie iiioeyoe?? naa?thae o 1992-1996 ??. neeaaeaee
?eae 6-11-??/iiai a?eo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aei?inea /anoeia iiioeyoe??
naa?thae oi?ioaaeany a iniiaiiio iieie?iiyie 1990-1982 ??. c aeayeith
ia?aaaaith (J > 40) iieie?iue 1988-1986 oa 1984 ??.

A?eiaa no?oeoo?a ia?anoiai? /anoeie iiioeyoe?? naa?thae aea/aeanue ca
oeiaaie aaeeeia?/eiaeo cya?iaeo n?oie (aoai?a) oa noaaieo iaaiae?a ENI.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?anoiaa /anoeia iiioeyoe?? naa?thae neeaaea?oueny c
naiie o a?oe? 8-20 ?ie?a oa naioe?a o a?oe? 5-12 ?ie?a. Oaeei /eiii,
naioe? aeic??aathoue ia o?e ?iee oaeaeoa ca naiie.

No?oeoo?a oa iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy iiioeyoe?e inao?a oa
naa?thae o ca’yceo c aaeeeith a?ieia?/iith noiae?noth aeae?a iathoue
aaaaoi ni?eueiiai. Iniiaia ao?aoa aei?ineeo ?ea o iiioeyoe??
a?aeaoaa?oueny c ianoaiiyi ia??iaeo ia?anoo, i?ney yeiai a ii?a
iiaa?oathoueny iiiaeeiie? aecaiiey?e. Naioe? naa?thae aeic??aathoue
cia/ii ?ai?oa ca naiie: a?e ?aiiueiai aeic??aaiiy naioe?a naa?thae — 5
?ie?a, naiie — 8 ?ie?a. A?aeiia?aeii aoaeue-ye? ci?ie noaio
?ai?iaeoeoaaiiy naa?thae (iiyaa aeniei- aai iecueeio?iaeaeieo
iieie?iue) a?aeaeaa?oueny o ia?oo /a?ao ia naioeyo, ye? anooiathoue o
ia?ano oa aeaoaathoue c iiioeyoe?? ?ai?oa ca naiie.

Oaaeeoey 5

*enaeuei?noue naa?thae o ca’yceo c na?aaeiueith oaiia?aoo?ith

oa ai?noii eenith o ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue a i?ai?/i?e oa i?ai?/-

ii-cao?aei?e /anoeiao Acianueeiai ii?y o 1992-1996 ??.

IA??IAe ?IEENa?aaei?199219931994199519961992-1996 Aania

(aa?acaiue-

ea?oaiue)/enaeuei?noue, iei. aec.0.800.80% iieiae?2525E?oi

(eeiaiue-

na?iaiue)/enaeuei?noue, iei. aec.0.120.690.200.710.190.38 %
iieiae?904823123633Na?aaei. oai-

ia?aoo?a, iN23.921.724.223.624.023.5Eenaiue,
ia/e11.71.26.56.87.36.7In?iue

(aeiaoaiue)/enaeuei?noue, iei. aec.0.300.390.090.230.120.23 %
iieiae?833757402250Na?aaei. oai-

ia?aoo?a, iN15.316.612.613.77.613.2Eenaiue, ia/e6.36.47.47.1-6.8Ca
e?oiuei-in?ii?e

ia??iae /enaeuei?noue, iei.aec.0.210.540.150.470.160.31acaaae? %
iieiae?854434193140

Oaaeeoey 6

Noaoaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o aei?ine?e /anoei? iiioeyoe??

naa?thae o i?ai?/iiio oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio ?aeiiao

Acianueeiai ii?y o 1992 — 1996 ??., %.

?IEENaieeNaioe?1992505019938416199464361995623819966733Na?aaei?6535

Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui oae? ci?ie aeey naa?thae, ye aeey a?eueo
oaeaeeic?inoath/iai oa oaeaeeiaeic??aath/iai, ii??aiyii c inao?ii,
aeaeo, a?aeaoaathoueny o a?eueo noeneee /an.

C 1992 aei 1994 ?. o noaoaa?e no?oeoo?? aei?inei? /anoeie iiioeyoe??
naa?thae niinoa??aaeenue cia/i? eieeaaiiy. C 1994 ?. noaoaaa
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeinyaei a?aeiinii? ??aiiaaae. O oe?eiio, ca ia??iae
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiey naiie aoea cia/ii a?eueoith (65 %, oaae. 6).

Aei a?eo 6+ aeeth/ii aeiey naioe?a aoea o?ioe a?eueoith, c 7+
a?aei?/aeany ia?aaaaa naiie, a o a?oe? 14+ oa aeua naioe?a iaeaea
acaaae? ia niinoa??aaeinue. Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe aaeeeo iiae?ai?noue
a?eiai? no?oeoo?e aei?ineeo /anoei iiioeyoe?e naa?thae oa inao?a. O
naa?thae ia?aaaaa naiie o noa?oeo a?eiaeo a?oiao oaeiae iia’ycaia c
i?ci?oei, ii??aiyii c naioeyie, a?eii ?o aeic??aaiiy.

O ia?anoia?e /anoei? iiioeyoe?? naa?thae aoei a?aei?/aii ia?aaaao
naioe?a. Iaeaeuith ?o aeiey aoea o 1992-1994 ??. O 1995-1996 ??.
a?aeaoeiny “ci?uaiiy” o a?e naiie. Na?aaei? noaoaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ca
ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue aei??aithaaei: naiee / naioe? = 36% / 64%.

Iniiai? ci?ie noaoaai? no?oeoo?e ia?anoiai? /anoeie iiioeyoe?? naa?thae,
iaaii, aoei coiiaeaii aieeaii o?iaeaeieo iieie?iue ia??iaeo 1990-1982
??. C aeaoaaiiyi o ia??iae ia?anoo naioe?a o?iaeaeieo iieie?iue
a?aeaoaa?oueny c?inoaiiy a?aeiinii? aeie? naiie, ye o oe?eiio aeey
aei?inei?, oae, a?aeiia?aeii, ? aeey ia?anoiai? /anoei iiioeyoe??.

O ia?anoia?e /anoei? iiioeyoe?? aei 7-e?oiueiai a?eo aeeth/ii
aeii?ioaaee naioe?, a c 12 ?ie?a ia?anoiaa /anoeia aoea i?aaenoaaeaia
iaeaea aeeeth/ii naieaie.

Aea/aiiy iaie iniiaieo ?ici??ii-aaaiaeo iieaciee?a ?ea aei?inei? /anoeie
iiioeyoe?? iieacaei, ui na?aaei? aeiaaeeia ? iana naiie ?noioii
ia?aaeuothoue oae? ae iieacieee naioe?a (oaae. 7).

Oaaeeoey 7

Na?aaei? aeiaaeeia oa iana naa?thae o 1992-1996 ??.

Aei?inea

/anoeia iiioeyoe??Ia?anoiaa

/anoeia

iiioeyoe??IieiaeueAeiaaeeia

naiie, ni107 + 1.3122 + 2.6-Aeiaaeeia

naioe?a, ni95 + 1.1107 + 2.5-Iana naiie, a6950 + 2709710 + 982-Iana
naioe?a,a4910 + 2236250 + 510-Aeiaaeeia, ni—62 + 1.3 Iana, a—1470 +
161

Ii??aiyiiy ?ici??ii-aaaiaeo iieaciee?a naiie oa naioe?a ie?aii ca
a?eiaeie a?oiaie iieaco?, ui aeey iieiaeoeo a?eiaeo a?oi (aei 6+
aeeth/ii) na?aaei? ?ici??e naiie oa naioe?a i?eaeecii iaeiaeia?, a c 7+
— ?ici??e naiie a?eueo?.

Anoaiiaeaii cia/io ei?aeyoe?th i?ae a?eii oa aeiaaeeiith ?ea
(eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? — 0.911).

Na?aaei?e eiao?oe??io aaiaeiaaiino? (ca Ooeueoiiii) aeey ?ea aei?inei?
/anoeie iiioeyoe?? neeaaeaa 0.57 + 0.01, iieiae? — 0.54 + 0.02.
Eiao?oe??io aaiaeiaaiino? naiie oa naioe?a aeinoia??ii ia a?ae??ciyany.

Naa?thaa iaea aiiaaee, a iniiaiiio, o II, II-III noaae?yo c??eino? (aei
90 %). O aaniyii-e?oi?e ia??iae aeiey c??eeo ?ea iacia/ii c?inoaea ca
?aooiie ie?aeiee?a, ye? eoee a?ey i?ai?/iiai aa?aaa o Aeii ia ia?ano.
?ea c aiiaaeaie o noaae?? VI-II ia aoei a?aei?/aii.

Aiiiae?? o ?icaeoeo ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? nenoaie aeey naa?thae, ye? aoei
iienaii a inoaii? ?iee, a?aei?/aeeny, aea o iaaaeeei? e?eueeino?.
*ano?oa (aei 15 %) cono??/aeenue ?eae c a?ia?aiiaaieie o ??ciiio nooiai?
aiiaaeaie o II, II-III noaae?yo c??eino?. A?eueo?noue c ieo (aei 80 %) —
naioe?, aeey yeeo i?eionea?oueny iiaeeeaith i?e?iaeiy a?ia?ai?caoe?y,
eio?a ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaoieia?? aiiaae. ?io? aiiiae?? (?aci?aoe?y
aiiaae, e?noiooai?aiiy) niinoa??aaeenue ia a?eueoa, i?ae o 5 %
i?iaiae?ciaaieo ?ea.

A on? ?iee, eiee aaeeny niinoa?aaeaiiy, ia?anoiaee o?ae aoei a?aei?/aii
eeoa o aaniyii-e?oi?e ia??iae. In?ii?e o?ae naa?thae i?aeoe/ii ia
niinoa??aaany.

Ii/aoie aaniyiiai ia?anoiaiai oiaeo naa?thae a i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao
Acianueeiai ii?y o oaia??oi?e /an niinoa??aa?oueny o e?ioe? aa?aciy —
ea?oi?. A?i oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?aeiiniith iinooiia?noth, ?iiae? ia?
a?eueoa iaeiiai ae?aaeaiiai i?eo.

O 1992-1996 ??. aaniyiee ia?anoiaee o?ae naa?thae, ye ? aeey inao?a,
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany aaeeeith aa??aaaeuei?noth iieaciee?a — oeia?a ia
coneeey o ??cieo ?aeiiao i?eaa?aaeaey, ui aoei iia’ycaii c
iaiaeii??aeieie iaoaioiiaaie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii/aoie oa cae?i/aiiy naciiieo i?a?aoe?e naa?thae, ye
aeey inao?a, aieiaiei /eiii coiiaeththoueny oaiia?aoo?ith aiaee.
Oaiaeaioe?y aei ii/aoeo ia?anoiaeo i?a?aoe?e a i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao
Acianueeiai ii?y i?iyaey?oueny c iianthaeiei ianoaaaiiyi a?ae?ieia?/ii?
aanie (oaiia?aoo?a aiaee c +3 — +5 iN). Oaiaeaioe?y aei oi?ioaaiiy
ceioaaeueieo eiioeaio?aoe?e i?iyaey?oueny c? cieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e
aiaee ieae/a +18 iN.

?iciiae?e naa?thae o iaaoeueiee ia??iae (ae?oeo oa ainaie) i?eaiaeeoueny
ca aeaieie iae?eiaeo o?aeiaeo ceiiie.

Ae?oeo 1992-1996 ??. naa?thaa cono??/aeanue o ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue
aeinoaoiuei /anoi. Iaea?eueo? eiioeaio?aoe?? (a?eueoa 5 aec. ca
o?ae?iiy) niinoa??aaeenue o no?aei?e iieiaei? ?aeiio aeine?aeaeaiue.
Aiie aoee i?aaenoaaeai?, aieiaiei /eiii, aaeeeeie aei?ineeie ?eaaie.
Iieiaeue cono??/aeanue o iaio?e e?eueeino?, ?? ?iciiae?e aoa
“ieyienoei”, iniiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? aoei a?aei?/aii o i?eaa?aaeae?, aeua
10-iao?iai? ?ciaaoe. ?aeiie, aea niinoa??aaeenue iaea?eueo? o?aeia?
oeiae ae?oeo — eaaae?aoe 15 — 17 E, 26 — 30 C-E.

Ainaie 1992-1996 ??. eiioeaio?aoe?e naa?thae o ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue
iaeaea ia a?aei?/aeiny. Aea iiiaeeiiei naa?thaa cono??/aeanue i?aeoe/ii
onthaee, ca aeeeth/aiiyi i?eaa?aaeii? nioae o cao?aei?e iieiaei?
aeine?aeaeaii? aeaaoi???. Iaioa ?? aoei o no?aei?e iieiaei?, a o
A?eina?aenuee?e, Oaaai?icuee?e caoieao oeae aeae ia cono??/aany.
Aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiino? ?iciiae?eo ca a?eii ia niinoa??aaeinue. A?aei?ie
a?ae ?iciiae?eo ae?oeo, iaaii, aoee coiiaeai? in?ii?i cieaeaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e aiaee oa ii/aoeii i?a?aoe?e ?ea ia cei?aeth o oeaio?aeueio,
i?aaeaiio oa i?aaeaiii-cao?aeio /anoeie ii?y.

Niaeo? aeeaeaiiy naa?thae, a iniiaiiio, aoa o?aaeeoe?eiei. O
oeoieiai-eeoeiaeo o?aeoao ia?aaaaeii aoee i?enooi? iie?oaoe (60 — 90 %),
oaeiae a?aei?/aeeny iiethnee (Hydrobia), e?aae, aaia?one, c ?ea — ae/ee.
Iaiiaiaiiy oeoieiai-eeoeiaeo o?aeo?a ae?oeo oa ainaie aoei i?eaeecii
iaeiaeiaei, eeoa o 1994 ?ioe? ae?oeo naa?thaa aeeaeeany neaaoa.

AENIIAEE

1. Iaea?eueo ianiaei aeaeii c inao?iaeo o i?ai?/iiio oa
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio ?aeiiao Acianueeiai ii?y o 1992-1996 ??. aoa inaoa?,
na?aaeiy /enaeuei?noue yeiai ca ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue aei??aithaaea
0.85 iei. aec., naa?thae — 0.31 iei. aec.

2. Iiioeyoe?? inao?a oa naa?thae iathoue neeaaeio no?oeoo?o.
Aei?inea /anoeia iiioeyoe?? inao?a o 1992-1996 ??. oi?ioaaeany
caeaa?eueoiai ?eaaie iieie?iue 1986-1978 ??. (c ia?aaaaith
iieie?iue 1985-1981 ??.), naa?thae — iieie?iiyie 1990-1982 ??. (c
ia?aaaaith iieie?iue 1988-1986 ??.).

3. Na?aaei? aeiaaeeia oa iana inao?a o 1992-1996 ??. noaiiaeee
a?aeiia?aeii:

— aei?inea /anoeia iiioeyoe??: naiee 110 + 1.1 ni / 13590 + 520a,
naioe? 98 + 0.8 ni / 10210 + 294 a;

— ia?anoiaa /anoeia iiioeyoe??: naiee 129 + 2.5 ni / 19930 + 1044 a,
naioe? 113 + 1.5 ni / 11330 + 406 a;

— iieiaeue: 64 + 0.8 ni / 3250 + 148 a.

Na?aaei? aeiaaeeia oa iana naa?thae o 1992-1996 ??. noaiiaeee
a?aeiia?aeii:

— aei?inea /anoeia iiioeyoe??: naiee 107 + 1.3 ni / 6950 + 270 a,
naioe? 95 + 1.1 ni / 4910 + 223 a;

— ia?anoiaa /anoeia iiioeyoe??: naiee 122 + 2.6 ni / 9710 + 982 a,
naioe? 107 + 2.5 ni / 6250 + 510 a;

— iieiaeue 62 + 1.3 ni / 1470 + 161 a.

4. Noaoaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o aei?ineeo /anoeiao iiioeyoe?e inao?a oa
naa?thae oa?aeoa?ecoaaeinue ia?aaaaith naiie, ui aoei iia’ycaii c
i?ci?oei (ia 2 — 5 ?ie?a) aeic??aaiiyi naiie ii??aiyii c naioeyie oeeo
aeae?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaia ao?aoa ?ea c iiioeyoe?e a?aeaoaa?oueny
i?ae /an ia?anoiaiai oiaeo oa ia?anoo, ? aaea aeic??e? naioe? inao?a oa
naa?thae o?iaeaeieo iieie?iue 80-o ?ie?a iaeaea aeaoee c iiioeyoe?e.

5. Ia?anoiaa i?a?aoe?y inao?a oa naa?thae o i?eaa?aaeae? i?ai?/ii? oa
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoei aeaaoi??? ii?y o 1992-1996 ??. aoea /?oei
ae?aaeaia eeoa iaaani? (c ineaaeaiiyi a inoaii? ?iee). In?iiueiai
ia?anoiaiai oiaeo i?aeoe/ii ia niinoa??aaeinue.

6. ?iciiae?e inao?a oa naa?thae o i?ai?/iiio oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio
?aeiiao i?ae /an iaaoeo ae?oeo oa ainaie aoa a?aeiinii
??aiii??iei. Cia/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?e ?ea ia ooai?thaaeinue.
Ceioaaiiy ?ea ia aeine?aeaeai?e aeaaoi??? i?aeoe/ii ia a?aeaoaa?oueny.

7. Ii/aoie oa cae?i/aiiy naciiieo i?a?aoe?e aieiaiei /eiii
coiiaeththoueny oaiia?aoo?ith aiaee. Oaiaeaioe?y aei ii/aoeo ia?anoiaeo
i?a?aoe?e o i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao Acianueeiai ii?y aeey inao?a i?iyaey?oueny
c oayiiyi eueiaeo (oaiia?aoo?a aiaee +1 — +2 iN), aeey naa?thae — c
iianthaeiei ianoaaaiiyi a?ae?ieia?/ii? aanie (oaiia?aoo?a aiaee c +3 —
+5 iN). Oaiaeaioe?y aei oi?ioaaiiy ceioaaeueieo eiioeaio?aoe?e iaio
aeae?a i?iyaey?oueny c? cieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aiaee iaioa +18 iN.

8. Ca iieacieeaie na?aaeiaeua (oaiia?aoo?a oa eenaiue) ia??iae
1992-1996 ??. aoa o oe?eiio ni?eyoeeaei aeey inao?a ? naa?thae.
Eieeaaiiy aaee/eie oeeo iieaciee?a a iniiaiiio ia i?ecaiaeeee aei
??ceiai iia??oaiiy oiia na?aaeiaeua ? oiio ia iaee ae??oaeueiiai aieeao
ia oi?ioaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e oeeo ?ea.

9. Iniiao aeeaeaiiy on?o aeine?aeaeaieo iniaei inao?a noaiiaeee
iiethnee (Abra, Cerastoderma, Hydrobia), naa?thae — a a?eueoino?
Polychaeta.

10. Inaoa? oa naa?thaa iathoue aenieo oiea?aioi?noue aei ??ceeo ci?i
eeniaaiai ?aaeeio o aiaeiei?. Iaa?oue i?e ei?ioei/aniiio cieaeaii?
ai?noo eenith o aiae? a ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue aei 1.2 ia/e caaeaae? ?ea
ia niinoa??aaeinue.

?AEIIAIAeAOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

1. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e ieaioaaii?,
i?iaiicoaaii? oa ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo eiioeaioe?e i?iieneo acianueeeo
inao?iaeo. Oaeiae ?o aeioe?eueii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e iaa?oiooaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? eaioe Oe?a?ie ii inao?iaei.

2. A oiiaao caaaeueiiai cieaeaiiy /enaeueiino? iiioeyoe?e inao?a oa
naa?thae a Acianueeiio ii?? iniaeeao oaaao o?aaa i?eae?eeoe ae??oaiith
i?iaeai ca?eueoaiiy oeeo aeae?a — /a?ac ?icaeoie oa ca?eueoaiiy
ianooaa?a ooo/iiai a?aeoai?aiiy ia inao?i?icie?aeieo i?aei?e?inoaao, a
oaeiae oeyoii caaacia/aiiy i?ioiaeo ie?aeiee?a aei ia?anoiaeu aeey
i?e?iaeiueai ia?anoo.

3. Aeioe?eueiei ? noai?aiiy ?aiiioii-iaoi/ieo noaae inao?a oa naa?thae
aeey caaacia/aiiy ie?aeieeaie ?eai?icie?aeiee?a c io?eiaiiy iieiae?, ye
aeey aeioneo o ii?a, oae ? aeey ni?yioaaiiy ia oiaa?ia inao??aieoeoai o
?eaiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao ia aioo??oi?o aiaeieiao.

4. Iaiao?aeiei ? i?iaaaeaiiy aeeaieeo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeeeainoae
noai?aiiy i?aei?e?inoa c? ooo/iiai a?aeoai?aiiy acianueeeo inao?iaeo a
oiiaao Oe?a?ie, aeey /iai ? aeioe?eueiei noai?aiiy ia iaeeo noaiiaeo
??/eao aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?eai?icaiaeieo ioieo?a.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii oae? ?iaioe:

1. Naaiaeao A.I., Aeaiueyiaiei E.A. Iaeioi?ua yeieiae/aneea
caeiiiia?iinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?onneiai inao?a Acipenser gueldenstaedti
e naa?thae Acipenser stellatus a Acianeii ii?a // Aeae?iaeie. aeo?i. —
1997. — O. 33, ? 1.- N. 14-24.

2. Naaiaeao A.I., Ao?ueyiia A.A., Aaeioaiea A.ss., ssiianeee Y.A.,
Aeaiueyiaiei E.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea /eneaiiinoe e ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ua a
Acianeii ii?a n eniieueciaaieai YAI // Aeae?iaeie. aeo?i. — 1998. — O.
34, ? 1. — N. 105-112.

3. ssiianueeee A.A., Aeai’yiaiei E.A. I?i eiioeaioe?th aaaeaiiy
inao?iaiai ainiiaea?noaa o aanaei? Acianueeiai ii?y // Oaa??enueeee
iaoeiaee a?niee. Aei. 7. — Oa?nii, 1998. — N. 410-413.

4. Aeai’yiaiei E.A. Aeaye? caeiiii??iino? ci?i noaoaai? no?oeoo?e
iiioeyoe?e inao?a Acipenser geuldenstaedti Brandt oa naa?thae Acipenser
stellatus Pallas a Acianueeiio ii?? // Oaa??enueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.
Aei. 7.- Oa?nii, 1998. — N. 139-143.

5. Aeaiueyiaiei E.A. Aic?anoiay e iieiaay no?oeoo?a i?iiuneiauo noaae
?onneiai inao?a Acipenser gueldenstaedti e naa?thae Acipenser stellatus
a Acianeii ii?a // Oace aeiiia?aeae 2 c’?caeo A?ae?iaeieia?/iiai
oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a. — 1997. — N. 17-18.

6. Aeaiueyiaiei E.A., ssiianeee Y.A. I i?iaeaia i?iiuneiaiai ecuyoey
iniaae ?onneiai inao?a Acipenser gueldenstaedti e naa?thae Acipenser
stellatus n ia?ooaieyie ?acaeoey aiiaae a Acianeii ii?a // Oace
aeiiia?aeae 2 c’?caeo A?ae?iaeieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a. —
1997. — N. 18-19.

AIIOAOe??

Aeai’yiaiei E.A. Aeieiai-a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? inao?a (Acipenser
gueldenstaedti colchicus) oa naa?thae (Acipenser stellatus donensis) a
i?ai?/i?e oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoeiao Acianueeiai ii?y. Aeena?oaoe?y
ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe.
Niaoe?aeuei?noue 03.00.08. — ciieia?y. ?inoeooo ciieia?? ?i.
?.?.Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. ?oeiien.

O ?iaio? iienaii ?ene aeieia?? oa a?ieia?? inao?a oa naa?thae o
i?ai?/i?e oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoeiao Acianueeiai ii?y. O
aca?iica’yceo c a?eiaith oa noaoaaith no?oeoo?ith iiioeyoe?e i?eaaaeaii
/enaeuei?noue inao?iaeo o ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue o 1992-1996 ??.,
iieacaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aei?inei? oa ia?anoiai?
/anoei iiioeyoe?e.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo ianiaei aeaeii inao?iaeo o ?aeii?
aeine?aeaeaiue o 1992-1996 ??. aoa inaoa?, na?aaeiy /enaeuei?noue yeiai
aei??aithaaea 0.85 iei. aec., naa?thae — 0.31 iei. aec. Ia?anoiaa
i?a?aoe?y inao?a oa naa?thae aoea /?oei ae?aaeaia eeoa iaaani? (c
ineaaeaiiyi a inoaii? ?iee). In?iiueiai ia?anoiaiai oiaeo i?aeoe/ii ia
niinoa??aaeinue. Iniiao aeeaeaiiy on?o aeine?aeaeaieo iniaei inao?a
noaiiaeee iieethnee (Abra, Cerastoderma, Hydrobia), naa?thae — a
a?eueoino? Polychaeta.

Cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeoe/ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue i?e
ieaioaaii?, i?iaiicoaaii? oa ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo eiioeaioe?e i?iieneo,
iaa?oiooaaii? iaoe?iiaeueieo eaio acianueeeo inao?iaeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: inaoa?, naa?thaa, iiioeyoe?y, a?e, noaoue, no?oeoo?a,
ia?ano, iaaoe, cei?aey, ?iciiae?e, /enaeuei?noue, aeeaeaiiy.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.A. Yeieiai-aeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe inao?a (Acipenser
gueldenstaedti colchicus) e naa?thae (Acipenser stelltus donensis) a
naaa?iie e naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoyo Acianeiai ii?y. Aeenna?oaoeey ia
nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe.
Niaoeeaeueiinoue 03.00.08 — ciieiaey. Einoeooo ciieiaee ei.
E.E.Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?aeiu, 1998. ?oeiienue.

A ?aaioa iienaiu /a?ou yeieiaee e aeieiaee inao?a e naa?thae a naaa?iie
e naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoyo Acianeiai ii?y. Ai acaeiinayce n aic?anoiie e
iieiaie no?oeoo?ie iiioeyoeee i?eaaaeaia /eneaiiinoue inao?iauo a ?aeiia
enneaaeiaaiee a 1992-1996 aa., iieacaiu iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe
oi?ie?iaaiey ac?ineie e ia?anoiaie /anoae iiioeyoeee.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeaieaa ianniaui aeaeii inao?iauo a ?aeiia
enneaaeiaaiee a 1992-1996 aa. aue inao?, n?aaeiyy /eneaiiinoue eioi?iai
ninoaaeea 0.85 iei. yec., naa?thae — 0.31 iei. yec.

Ia?anoiaay iea?aoeey inao?a e naa?thae auea /aoei au?aaeaia oieueei
aaniie (n ineaaeaieai a iineaaeiea aiaeu). Inaiiee ia?anoiaue oiae
i?aeoe/anee ia iaaethaeaeny.

Iniiao ieoaiey anao enneaaeiaaiiuo iniaae inao?a ninoaaeyee iieethnee
(Abra, Cerastoderma, Hydrobia), naa?thae — i?aeiouanoaaiii Polychaeta.

A ea/anoaa i?aeoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?aaeeiaeaii eniieueciaaoue
iaoa?eaeu enneaaeiaaiee i?e ieaie?iaaiee, i?iaiice?iaaiee e ?ac?aaioea
iiauo eiioeaioeee i?iiunea, iainiiaaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo eaio acianeeo
inao?iauo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: inao?, naa?thaa, iiioeyoeey, aic?ano, iie, no?oeoo?a,
ia?ano, iaaoe, ceiiaea, ?ani?aaeaeaiea, /eneaiiinoue, ieoaiea.

Konstantin V. Demjanenko

The ecology biological features of Acipenser gueldenstaedti colchicus
and Acipenser stellatus donensis populations in northern and
northwestern parts of the Azov sea. The dissertation for getting the
scientific degree of candidate of biological sciences. The speciality
03.00.08 — zoology. The institute of zoology of name I.I.Shmalgauzen of
Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, manuscript.

The work is devoted to study of ecological and biological features and
some morphological parameters of surgeons Acipenser gueldenstaedti
colchicus V.Marti and Acipenser stellatus donensis Lovetzky in northern
and north-western part of the Azov Sea during 1992-1996 years. The
dissertation consists of six chapters, contains 36 tables and 13
illustrations.

The material was collected in the region of the Azov Sea limited by the
parallel of 46 degrees and 00 minutes of northern latitude and in the
east by the line which connected the point of 46 degrees and 00 minutes
of the northern latitude, 37 degrees and 00 minutes of the east
longitude and the extremity of the Krivaja spit in the Taganrog Bay. To
the analysis the fish from trawl catches were subjected as well as the
data of the other kinds of catches of control points of the Azov Branch
of Southern Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fishery and
Oceanography.

On the basis of the received data the number of specimens of
A.gueldenstaedti and A.stellatus was defined in the region of the
researches. The dynamics and laws of changes of sexual and age structure
of populations of these species was determined in interrelation with the
main parameters of the environment.

The annual distribution, migrations and the structure of food were
described, the main morphological parameters of the investigated species
were adduced for the investigated parts of the Azov Sea.

It is installed that in the region of the researches the most by mass
species of surgeons was A.gueldenstaedti in 1992-1996 years, the average
number of which has made 0.85 million of specimens, and quantity of
A.stellatus was about 0.31 million of specimens.

The populations of these species have complex structure of many ages.
The adult part of the population of surgeon in 1992-1996 years was based
on the generations 1986-1978 years (with prevalence of the generations
1988-1986 years). The correlation of sexes in the adult part of the
populations of A.gueldenstaedti and A.stellatus was characterized by
prevalence of females what was connected with their later (up to 2-5
years) pubescence in comparison with males. It is established that the
main loss of fish from populations happens in period of their courses to
spawning, and already mature males of these species from the numerous
generations of 80’s are nearly gone from these populations.

The spawning migrations of A.gueldenstaedti and A.stellatus in the
coastal zone of northern and the north-western parts of the sea in
1992-1996 years was precisely expressed only in spring (with lowering
last years). The autumn spawning course practically was not observed.
The beginning and the end of seasonal migrations were mainly defined by
water temperature. The tendency for spawning migrations of
A.gueldenstaedti was displayed with melting of ice (at water temperature
+1 — +2 oC), and tendency for spawning migrations of A.stellatus was
displayed with coming of hydrological spring (at water temperature +3 —
+5 oC). The tendency for formation of hibernate concentrations for both
species was displayed with the reduction of water temperature below +18
oC.

In the summer and autumn the distribution of these species in northern
and north-western parts of the Azov Sea was evenly destributed.
Significant concentrations were not formed. The hibernate of sturgeons
does not happen on investigated region of the sea.

The food base of A.gueldenstaedti consisted of molluscs (Abra,
Cerastoderma, Hydrobia) and the one of A.stellatus based on warms
Polychaeta.

As practical recommendations there could be offered using the
materials of researches at planning, forecasting and development of new
concepts of craft and for substantation of national quotas of catch of
the Azov sturgeons.

It is necessary to pay specific attention to solving the problem of
reproduction of these species. It is especially expedient to create the
reserve sturgeons herds, and also to study opportunities of creation of
sturgeon fish-breeding enterprices within the Ukraine.

The key words: sturgeon, population, age, sex, strusture, distribution,
quontity, feeding.

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