21

*A?I?AAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? TH??ss OAAeUeEIAE*A

AEAEN??AAOeUe Ia??y Ieaenaiae??aia

OAeE 329.7(477)

AEIEIA?*IEE ?OO A OE?A?I?

(?NOI?E*IEE ANIAEO)

07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

*A?I?AOe? – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?iii?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aanthoa Na?a?e ?aaiiae/,

Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, eaoaae?a
oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aioooainueeee Aaneeue Iaoiae?eiae/,

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

No??oaiaoeue Ieeiea Ieoaeeiae/,

Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
?noi??? ? o?einio??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa -Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, eaoaae?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Euea?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny » 9 » eeiiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 76.051.03 a *a?i?aaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a (274000, i.
*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Eaoaae?aeueia, 2, 14-e ei?ion).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a (274000, i.
*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Ean? Oe?a?iee, 23).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 4 » /a?aiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ea?ii A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia caaino?aiiyi aeieia?/ii?
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, ui caa?iaeo? iaaeieeoiueiio i?e?iaeiiio
na?aaeiaeuo, caei?ia’th, aeeooth ethaeeie, ?nioaaiith iaoe??. Oe?a?ia
oniaaeeoaaea iaaecae/aeii noia?a/eeaee oa neeaaeiee eiiieaen aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai – caa?oaeiai? i?iieneiaeie a?aeoiaeaie, ianoeoeeaeaie e
?aae?iioee?aeaie iia?o?y, ??oioe, aiaeieie, cia/iith i??ith ae/a?iai?
i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne, nei?i/o?oueny aeaeiaa ??ciiiai?oi?noue ?ineeiiiai ?
oaa?eiiiai na?oo, ?oeiothoueny oi?eaeuei? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?e?iaei?
eaiaeoaooe. Aio?iiiaaiiee aieea ia aeiae?eey ni?e/eith? ii?ooaiiy
e?oaiia?ao ?a/iaei ? aia?a?? a a?inoa??, iia??oo? noai caei?ia’y
ethaeae. E?eca aeina?aaeiaeua iiaeeaeeanue aeieiai-oaoiiaaiieie
eaoano?ioaie ia Aei?no??, o *a?i?aoeyo, o Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo oa
aeiaaeueiith – ia *i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN. Iei? Oe?a?ia ? iaei??th c
iaea?eueo iaaeaaiiieo/ieo a aeieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? e?a?i na?oo,
oa?eoi??y yei? a 1990 ?. Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith ?anioae?ee iaieioaia ciiith
aeieia?/iiai eeoa.

Caa?aaeaiiy aeiae?eey oa eiai a?aeiiaeaiiy ? iaiaei?iiith aeiiaith
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Caaaeaiiy ?icaoaeiae iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae ii?yae c ?ioeie ieoaiiyie iio?aaothoue ?ica’ycaiiy aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai. No/ani? oiiae iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
ni?eythoue ia’?eoeaiiio iaoeiaiio a?aeoai?aiith ?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai,
uia ia iniia? eiai e?eoe/iiai aea/aiiy, ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ni?eyoe
i?ecoieiaiith iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia i?e?iaeia
na?aaeiaeua.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny cia/iei ?noi?e/iei
aeina?aeii oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo uiaei i?ciaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aeiae?eey,
aaeaioaoe?? aei i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia, iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy iei
nioe?aeueii oe?iii? i?aeoeee aa?iii?eieo a?aeiinei c i?e?iaeith,
cae??ieaiiy oa ia?aaea/? aeina?aeo c iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy /a?ac nenoaio
ia?iaeieo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo o?aaeeoe?e, aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?.
Ia?iaiaioii c?inoath/a o na?o? ?ieue aeieia?/ieo ia?o?e ? a?iiaaenueeeo
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo i?aai?caoe?e iineeth? aeooaeuei?noue iaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?o aieea ia noni?eueio aeoieo oa aeaaei? no?oeoo?e
??ciiai ??aiy. ?ioa?an aei aeieia?/ieo i?aai?caoe?e ? ?oo?a a
Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? iei? aeooae?co?oueny iiaeaeueoei caaino?aiiyi
aeieia?/ieo noia?a/iinoae, ?o aieeaii ia iie?oe/ia aeeooy, aeei?enoaiiyi
oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee ??cieie noni?eueieie neeaie ? ?o a?aeiia?aeieie
?inoeoooe?yie, aioo??oi?ie iniaeeainoyie naiiai aeieia?/iiai ?ooo, eiai
ye?niith a?aei?ii?noth a?ae ?ioeo iai?yi?a a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, ui iieyaa? o iiooeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo oeyo?a ?icaeoeo, ae?ae
aaaeeeaeo aeey iia?oiueiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

O no/aniee iiiaio ia aeieth oe?a?ioe?a-iao??io?a aeiaea aaaeea e
a?aeiia?aeaeueia ?ieue a?aeiiaeaiiy aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, eiai
oi?ioaaiiy, i???ioaoe?y ia ia?aoai?aiiy aeieia?/ii? ?aea? a
?ioaa?oth/ee, iaoe??oai?/ee /eiiee, o ?aaeueii eiinie?aeoth/ee oaeoi?
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. Noaiiaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ye
oeea?e?ciaaii?, aeieia?/ii ci???ioiaaii? ? iaeiei ?c oeyo?a aeoiaeo c ??
???aoe?iiaeueiiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? iie?oe/iiai noaio, ui
coiiaea ua ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a aeeaeio ? aino?ioo oi?ioaaiiy e?eciaeo
aeieia?/ieo yaeu ? i?ioean?a. Oaea ?icoi?iiy ia eeoa ni?acao/ia c
oe?a?inueeith iaioaeuei?noth, c iiia?aaei?i aei?aaeyinueeei
aeieiai-?noi?e/iei ?icaeoeii, a e a?aeiia?aea? na?oiaei oaiaeaioe?yi
nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ieo iiooe?a. Oaea na?oiaa/aiiy, ia iaoo aeoieo, a
no/anieo oiiaao, ye i?eiee ?ai?oa, iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai iaoeiaiai ?
iie?oe/iiai cia/aiiy. Aaeaea eaa?oeii?noue aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o OO?
noie?oo? cia/iith i??ith aecia/aoeiaoueny ?? aeieia?/iei /eiieeii. Iei?
ethaenoai aeeaa a eiioaeno? ci?ie ia?aaeeai ?icaeoeo, eiee /?eueio ?ieue
o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?ao a?ae?a?athoue oaeoi?e ?o
aeieia?caoe??.

O oeueiio ca’yceo iaoeiao oe?ii?noue, i?ciaaaeueia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
ia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, eiai ?ie? o
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeieia?/iiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
oi?ioaaii? aeieiai-aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino?, nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ii?
eoeueoo?e noni?euenoaa, iiaeaeueo?e ?icaoaeia? iacaeaaeii?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
iiaeiii iaiaei?iii nie?aoeny ia iaea?/iee aeieiai-?noi?e/iee aeina?ae
ia?iaeo, aac yeiai iaieneei? aeooiai?noue, caei?ia’y, iaeaooi?
eiie?aoii? ethaeeie ? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? a oe?eiio. Oaeei /eiii,
iaoeiaee aiae?c aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? ? iaaaeueii aaaeeeaei,
aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi ?noi?e/ii? iaoee.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeai? eiai
oaiaoe/iith ni?yiiaai?noth, caaaeaiiyie ? ioiieththoue ia??iae e?ioey
O?O – 90-o ?ie?a OO no. – a?ae /ano noai?aiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
oiaa?enoa ? ii/aoe?a i?aai?caoe?? ianiaiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?iiaaenueeiai ?ooo ca ioi?iio i?e?iaee. Naia ia ceai? O?O-OO no. aoee
iaa?iiaaeaeai? iaoa??aee c iaoeiaeo iniia ioi?iie i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua, ye? aeaee iiaeeea?noue a ?iaeono??aeueio aeiao ?ic?iaeoe e
ai?iaaaeeoe i?e?iaeiioi?iii? caoiaee, ia?aeoe aei aeieia?/iiai aoaio,
aaea oa?aeoa?iiai aeey OO no. Ii/eiath/e c eiai ae?oai? iieiaeie 80-o
??. aeieia?/iee ?oo a Oe?a?i? iaaoa ye?nii iiaiai noaio ?icaeoeo a
eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Oaeee o?iiieia?/iee
i?aeo?ae aeicaieea aaoi?o noai?eoe oe?e?nio ?noi?e/io ea?oeio i?ioean?a
? oaiaeaioe?e aeieia?/iiai ?ooo, iieacaoe eiai ia?niaeoeae a Oe?a?i?,
?ic?iaeoe iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
a?iiaaenueeiai aeieia?/iiai ?ooo, iineeaiiy eiai ?ie? caaaeii o
i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ni?aa?. Aeey ia’?eoeaiiai e anaa?/iiai c’ynoaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ieo ? iaoeiaeo ia?aaeoiia aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i?, ye? ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie,
iiooea/ caeo/ea ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/iee aiae?c oiia i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy
oa ioi?iie aeiae?eey a aeaai?e ? na?aaeiueia?/i?e Oe?a?i?,
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ye caeiiii??iiai
i?ioeano noai?aiiy oeeo oiia, ia yeeo o naith /a?ao aeiee ? ?icaeioany
a?o/eciyiee a?iiaaenueeee ?oo ca ?aoe?iiaeueia i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy oa
ioi?iio iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aeoiaey/e c aeooaeueiino? oaie, nie?ath/enue ia aeinyaiaiiy oe?a?inueei?
? ca?oa?aeii? ?noi??ia?ao?? a aeine?aeaeaii? aeieia?/iiai ?ooo, eiai
?ie? o caa?aaeaii? i?e?iaee oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaii? i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a, aeine?aeiee iinoaaea ca iaoo: i?iaiae?coaaoe aeoiee
aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, eiai ?icaeoie aei iino/i?iiaeeuenueeeo
aei?a, iieacaoe ?noi?e/i? ci?ie i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? i?ae
aieeaii aio?iiiaaiieo /eiiee?a, aecia/eoe oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo
a?iiaaenueeeo aeieia?/ieo ia’?aeiaiue-oiaa?enoa, inieneeoe oaiiiai
aca?iiaieeao ethaenueei? aeooiaiino? oa aeiae?eey, aeine?aeeoe aaaaoee
aeooiaiee aeina?ae ? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo o
i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ni?aa?, ?icaeyiooe iaea?eueo oe?ii? aniaeoe oe???
niaaeueie ye nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/iiai i?ae??oioy no/aniiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? e aea?aeaae.

Aieiaia iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? i?aoe? aecia/eea iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie, ye?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iieyaathoue o
iaiao?aeiino?:

– aena?oeeoe ?noi?e/i? oiiae i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy oa ioi?iie aeiae?eey o
?icaeyaeoaaiee o?iiieia?/iee ia??iae, i?e?iaeiioi?iii? aeina?ae ?
o?aaeeoe?? ia?iaeo ye iniiao aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aeieia?/iiai ?ooo;

– ?ice?eoe i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeieiai-iaoo?ae?noe/ii?
aeoiee oa ?? aieea ia ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie aeieia?/iiai ?ooo;

– aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? aeieeiaiiy ia?oeo a?iiaaenueeeo aeieia?/ieo
i?aai?caoe?e, ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?o i?noea oa ?ieue o i?ioeanao caoenoo
i?e?iaee, aeei?enoaiiy ?? ?ano?n?a;

– iieacaoe oaiaeaioe?? aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao ia i?e?iaeia aeiae?eey a
oiiaao aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio, noia?a/iino? ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiie?oeee a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae oa i?noea o oeeo
i?ioeanao a?iiaaenueeeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo ia’?aeiaiue;

– i?iaiae?coaaoe ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a eiioaeno?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, oi?ie oa iaoiaee ae?yeueiino?
iaaea?aeaaieo aeieia?/ieo ia’?aeiaiue o iiaeo ?noi?e/ieo oiiaao.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?noi??y aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeaino?
aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, noai?aiiy a?iiaaenueeeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
i?aai?caoe?e, ?o i?noea oa cia/aiiy o caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e ni?aa?
caoenoo iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua a?ae aio?iiiaaiiiai
aieeao.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? ?noi?eei-o?iiieia?/iee,
i?iaeaiiee, ii??aiyeueiee oa noaoenoe/iee iaoiaee ?icaeyaeo
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo, i?eioeeie iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy:
ia’?eoeaiino?, ?noi?ecio, aca?iica’yceo aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a
o ?icaeoeo iaoee. Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie ?
oai??y ?noi?e/iiai i?ciaiiy na?oo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny
oei, ui ia iniia? e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?ioeo
aeaea?ae aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? eiiieaenii i?iaiae?ciaai?
i?ioeane aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?,
noi?ioeueiaai? iaoeia? aeniiaee e i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
ia?niaeoea aei?ooo, iineeaiiy eiai ?ie? o caaaeueiiia?iaei?e
i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ni?aa?. Aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaaaeaii cia/io
e?euee?noue iiaeo a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, oaeoe/ieo ? noaoenoe/ieo
iaoa??ae?a, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeine?aeeoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? oa
iniaeeaino? i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? c
iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei no/aniiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iieyaa? o iiaeeaeaii?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, aeyaeaii? eiai
caeiiii??iinoae oa iniaeeainoae ia iniia? nenoaiieo i?aeoiae?a ? ioe?iie
c oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiyi a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a e iioae?eiaaieo aeieoiaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
eiai iaoa??aee oa aeniiaee iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a ocaaaeueithth/eo
iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo c a?o/eciyii? ?noi???, ioi?iie i?e?iaee a Oe?a?i?, a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? caaaeueii?noi?e/ieo ?
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a c i?iaeai aei?ooo e iineeaii? eiai ?ie? o
i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ni?aa?. Iia? iaoa??aee, aaaaeai? a iaoeiaee ia?a
aeena?oaioii, iiaeooue a?aoiaoaaoeny aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie o ae?iaeaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee ia no/aniiio aoai? oa ia
ia?niaeoeao, a oaeiae ianiaeie a?iiaaenueeeie i?e?iaeiioi?iiieie
i?aai?caoe?yie, noaoe aeaea?aeii i?e noai?aii? aeniiceoe?e
e?a?ciaa/i-i?e?iaeie/eo ioca?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? iieiaeaiue aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeanue ia ui??/ieo ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea (1993-1999??.). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, iiai? oa
iia?oiuei? ?noi??? ? iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy ?noi??? Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, ia
eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o
iiiia?ao?? “Aeieia?/iee ?oo a Oe?a?i?” (Oa?iii?eue: E?eay, 1999. – 276
n.) oa 12 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia oaia “Aeieia?/iee
?oo a Oe?a?i? (?noi?e/iee aniaeo)” ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo, iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iiaoaeiaaia ca i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei
i?eioeeiii, coiiaeth?oueny iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
??oioo?oueny ia iniia? aieiaieo iai?yi?a aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?.
Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a (167
noi??iie), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (35 noi??iie, 278 iaca),
aeiaeaoeo, yeee i?noeoue ia?ae?e aeieia?/ieo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
i?aai?caoe?e, ye? ae?yee a Oe?a?i? ai?iaeiaae 1987-1998 ??.(7 noi??iie).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaai? aeooaeuei?noue oaie, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao,
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa, iaoeiaa iiaecia, aecia/aii ca’ycie c
iaoeiaeie ieaiaie ? iaa/aeueieie i?ia?aiaie, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae oa aeaea?aeueia aaca
aeine?aeaeaiiy” cae?eniaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c ia?aii? i?iaeaie,
i?iaiae?ciaaii aeaea?aeueio aaco. Iaoeiaa aeoiea i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano
iaa?iiaaeaeoaaea iioaioe?ae aea/aiiy eiiieaenieo i?iaeai aca?iiae??
noni?euenoaa e i?e?iaee a ??cieo aniaeoao iecee aeenoeeie?i. ?noi?e/ia
iaoea ua e aein? ia?aaoaa? o ai?ao ia?aae noni?euenoaii uiaei aea/aiiy
aeieia?/ii? e?ece a Oe?a?i?. Aeooaeueieie ? nueiaiaei? ? neiaa
A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai, yeee cacia/aa: “Aeioaia? ?noi?eee, acaaae? a/ai?
aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe … na?aeiii ia ?aoothoueny ?c caeiiaie i?e?iaee
a?inoa?e – o??? caiii? iaieiiee, aea o?eueee e iiaea ?nioaaoe aeeooy.
Noeo?eii ethaeeia a?ae ia? iaa?aeae?eueia. ? oeth ia?ic?eai?noue eeoa
oaia? ie ii/eia?ii oi/ii c’yniaoaaoe.”

A oiiaao oioae?oa?ii? aea?aeaae aeieia?/ia i?iaeaiaoeea aeo?niyeany
i??i?eoaoaie oaoiie?aoe/iiai aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiiai ieneaiiy.
I?aaey/ee iie?oe/iee ?aaeei ?aii?oaaa ni?aaaei? aeieia?/ia noaiiaeua
e?a?ie, aaiaeea a iiaio ye aeanio, oae ? na?oiao a?iiaaenuee?noue. Ia
i?aeiaaeath/e i?ae noni?eueii-?aeaieia?/i? i??i?eoaoe, i?e?iaeiioi?iiia
iie?oeea aeaiaeeeanue c-i?ae ia’?eoeaiiai aiae?co.

Eeoa o na?aaeei? 70-o ??. a Oe?a?i? ii/aeenue o?aaiaioa?i? ?ic?iaee
i?iaeai ?noi??? ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua. I?ioa
i?aoe? c oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee aoee ia/eneaiieie ? iaee iaia’?eoeaiee
oa?aeoa?, ianeoaiaoth/e ia?aaaaeii ?aeaieia?th oa ?ioa?ane aeaaeieo
no?oeoo?. Iai?ee?ioe? 70-o – ia ii/aoeo 80-o ??. ?icii/eia?oueny a?eueo
?aaeueia aea/aiiy ?noi??? ioi?iie i?e?iaee oa i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy a
Oe?a?i?, iaeiae ia iniia? iaiaaeaiiai ia oie /an eiea ?noi?e/ieo
aeaea?ae. Aia?oa aena?oeaiith caoiae?a ioi?iie i?e?iaee, o/ano?
o?oaeyueo o i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ?iaio? aoee i?enay/ai? i?aoe?
A.Aeaaeee?ia, A.Eai?ia, I.Iiai?aeiaa, ?.Ooaeye, TH.Oaioo/aiea. Iaeiae,
aeii?ioth/a nioe?aeueia caiiaeaiiy ia aeeeth/ii iiceoeaiee iieac oeeo
ieoaiue ia aeaaaei ciiae ia’?eoeaii aiae?coaaoe aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie. O
iiaeaeueoee ia??iae cae?enithaaeeny ie?ai? ni?iae aeaoe aeieia?/i?e
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? iiai?oo oa?aeoa?enoeeo, aea e?eoe/iee i?aeo?ae aoa
ua a?aenooi?e. Ia?oo a oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?e/ieo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo
?aaeueio ni?iao i?iaiae?coaaoe iaoiaeeeo ? caaaeaiiy eiie?aoieo
?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aca?iiae?? noni?euenoaa e i?e?iaee
c?iaeea ?.?noii?ia. Oe?eaaeie, aea aeaeaeeie a?ae ?aaeueiiai noaio
?a/ae, ia?aiiaiaieie ?aeaieia?/ieie ooaiiaie aeyaeeenue iioae?eiaai? a
?noi?e/ieo aeaeaiiyo noaoo? eieeoiuei? aieiae Aea?aeeii?oaoo O?N? c
ioi?iie i?e?iaee Ae.I?ioeaiei.

Ii/eiath/e c 90-o ?ie?a, ?noi?eei-aeieia?/iee iaoeiaee iai?yi iiiiaieany
ieceith i?aoeue. I?i ??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe ?noi??? ioi?iie i?e?iaee oa
i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? eaeaoueny o i?aoeyo TH.I?uaiea,
A.Oeaea, ?.Eyoa, E.Aeia?iaia, E.Oa?ei, A.Eaaaaeeioey, I.Aieoaoey oa ?i.
Ooiaeaiaioaeueiei iaoiaeieia?/iei i?iaeaiai aca?iiae?? noni?euenoaa oa
i?e?iaee i?enay/ai? i?aoe? I.Eenaeueiaa, A.E?ena/aiea, E.Iaeeoea,
I.Aii/a?aiea. Aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ??ciia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o aena?oeai? o
i?aoeyo A.Aa/einueeiai, N.Noieea, E.Neoieea, A.Iaai?ii?, TH.Ooieoe?,
I.Aaeaoeueeiai oa ?i. Oe?eaaee iaoa??ae aeey eiiieaeniiai ?icoi?iiy
niaoeeo?ee aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao ia i?e?iaeo ??cieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie
i?noeoueny o aeine?aeaeaiiyo I.Ia?eie/a, I.Iaeaia?/oea, A.Aaeeoeueeiai,
?.Caiieuenueeiai, ?.Ai?eaiei, A.Oaia?, I.Aeeiiaa, N.Aei?iaoioeiaa,
TH.Eaaaaeeinueeiai oa ?i. A eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie cia/iee
?ioa?an iathoue i?aoe? A.Ai?aeea, A.Aaaaee, N.Oii?/iaa, N.Caaae?ia,
A.E??thoeia, aeaioiiia iiiia?ao?y I.Aanthoe, N.Aanthoe, A.O?e?i/oea, a
ye?e oia?oa a oe?a?iiciaanoa? nenoaiii aeine?aeaeaii ae??oaeueio ?ieue
iie?oe/ieo /eiiee?a ?noi?e/ii? aaiace oa no/aniiai noaio iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeieia?/ii? e?ece a ??/eu? aeiaaeueieo iie?oeei-aeieia?/ieo oaiaeaioe?e
? ia?niaeoea. Caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao ioae?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo ?
a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a Oe?a?ie: I.Aii/a?a, Ae.A?iaec?inueeiai,
TH.Einoaiea, A.Ie?eieea, A.Iaoiia, N.Iea/eiaee, TH.Ua?aaea oa ?i. c
i?eaiaeo aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e cana?ae/ea, ui aeine?aeaeoaaia aaoi?ii i?iaeaia ua ia
ciaeoea niaoe?aeueiiai aena?oeaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi?e/i?e iaooe?.
A?aenooi? i?aoe?, o yeeo ae oe?e?nii aena?oethaaeenue ?noi?e/i?
ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy aei?ooo a Oe?a?i?, oaiaeaioe?? eiai ?icaeoeo ia
??cieo aoaiao oe?a?inueei? ?noi???, no/aniee noai oa ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa aeooaeuei?noue, i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue oa iaaeinoaoi?noue
aea/aiiy i?iaeai aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? aeeeoothoue iei?
iaiao?aei?noue ?o niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaaaoia?aiia
ae?yeuei?noue a?iiaaenueeeo aeii?aai?caoe?e ? oiaa?enoa, cia/aiiy
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo caneoaiaothoue
iniaeeai? aeine?aeieoeueei? oaaae, aeaoaeueiiai ? anaa?/iiai aiae?co
aeey noai?aiiy eiiieaenii? ?noi?e/ii? oyae i?i oe? i?ioeane. Aaaeeeai
oea c?iaeoe o no/anieo oiiaao iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiiai ? aea?aeaaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, eiee aeieia?/iee /eiiee iinooiiai iaae?a? ana
a?eueoi? aaae ye ia’?aeioth/ee ? iaoe??oai?/ee oaeoi?.

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noeoii?noue
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a a?o?a?a Oe?a?ie ??ciiai aea?aeaaiiai ??aiy oa
a?aeii/iai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie aaoi?
aea/ea 37 oiiae?a 8 a?o?a?a Oe?a?ie. Aaaii? iaoa??aee ii/a?iiooi c
oiiae?a Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o i.Ee?a?
(274, 313, 359, 442, 574, 575, 692, 707, 1680), c oiiae?a Oeaio?aeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie(1, 2, 7,
14, 337, 5111, 5115) oiui.

Aaaaoee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeine?aeiee a?aeiaeoia o oiiaeao a?o?ao
I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa yaea?ii?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie (aei a?oaeiy 1994 ?. – I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua), Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a
?aaii-O?aie?anueei?, Aieeinueei?, Euea?anueei?, ??aiainueei? oa
Oa?iii?euenueei? iaeanoae.

Aaaeeeaeie aeaea?aeaie aeey aea/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie neoaoaaee
caeiiiaeaa/i-ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe c ieoaiue ioi?iie i?e?iaee oa
aeei?enoaiiy ?? ?ano?n?a, iinoaiiae ? ??oaiiy Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie,
?? I?aceae??, Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie. Iaea?eueo ocaaaeueithth/?
a?aeiiino? i?i no/aniee noai aio?iiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey
i?noyoueny o Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeiiia?ae? i?i noai iaaeieeoiueiai
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua Oe?a?ie oa o a?aeiia?aeieo iaoa??aeao, ye?,
ii/eiath/e c 1991 ?., ui??/ii aioothoueny aei ia? ii an?o iaeanoyo
Oe?a?ie.

Cia/ia i?noea na?aae aeaea?ae c ?noi??? i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy oa ioi?iie
aeiae?eey a Oe?a?i? iaeaaeeoue noaoenoe/iei aeaiei, ??ciiai oeio
?ioi?iaoeaiei ? aeia?aeieeiaei aeaeaiiyi, ia??iaee/i?e i?an?. A i?ioean?
aea/aiiy oaie aaoi?ii i?iaiae?ciaaii cia/iee ianya iaoa??ae?a
?anioae?eainueeeo oa iaeanieo aacao 60 — 90-o ??., ??ciiiai?oieo
aeaeaiue aeieia?/ieo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e oa anioe?aoe?e.

Aeiiii?aeiei iaoa??aeii iineoaeeee i?aoe? caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o oa
aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, niiaaaee, eenoe e uiaeaiieee a?aeiieo
ae?y/?a oa o/aniee?a i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, niaoe?aeuei?
i?aoe? ?noi?ee?a, a?ieia?a, aaia?ao?a, nioe?ieia?a, iaaeee?a, e?n?aiee?a
oiui, a yeeo aiae?co?oueny aieea caa?oaeiaiiy ia ie?ai? noa?e i?e?iaee,
a oaeiae ??ci? aniaeoe aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?.

Ia iao iiaeyae, noeoii?noue aeuaiacaaieo aeaea?ae ? iaoa??ae?a o
ii?aeiaii? c ie?aneaiith aeua oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith
aeena?oaoe?? aeicaieea ia’?eoeaii ? a iiaiiio ianyc? i?ae?eoe aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? aaoi?ii oaie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ? i?e?iaeiioi?iii?
o?aaeeoe?? aeieeiaiiy aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?” i?iaiae?ciaaii
?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/i? i?aeaaeeie oi?ioaaiiy a?o/eciyiiai aeieia?/iiai
?ooo, aieiai? aoaie aca?iiae?? noni?euenoaa e i?e?iaee, ?ice?eoi nooue ?
iniiai? oeie i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ye
aaaeeeai? oiiae, ia ye?e aeiee ? ?icai?oaany a?iiaaenueeee ?oo ca
?aoe?iiaeueia i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? ioi?iio i?e?iaeiiai aeiae?eey.

O i?aoe? ia oe?ieiio oe? ?noi?e/ieo iaoa??ae?a ?ice?eoi eiioeaiooaeuei?
iniiae eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai noaiiaeaiiy ia?iaeieo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
o?aaeeoe?e. I?ae o?aaeeoe?yie ioi?iie i?e?iaee ?icoi??oueny oaanue
i?aeoe/iee aeoiaiee aeina?ae iaoiai ia?iaeo, ui aeeth/a? iaoe?iiaeuei?
aeieia?/i? oe?iiino?, oeyoe, caniae, oi?ie, iaoiaee ? i?eeiie
aa?aaeeeaiai, a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai noaaeaiiy aei i?e?iaee, ye? neeaeeny
?noi?e/ii ? ia?aaeaaaeeny c iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy /a?ac cae/a?, ia?yaee,
nayoa, neiaiee, ?eooaee, ia?iaeiee eaeaiaea?, onio ia?iaeio oai?/?noue.
Aiie i?noyoue ?ioi?iaoeai?, oe?ii?ni?, ii?iaoeai?, ae?yeuei?ni?
eiiiiiaioe aieeao i?e?iaeii-?noi?e/ieo ? noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a
ia ethaeeio ? ?icaeyaeaeenue aaoi?ii ye ia’?eoeaia nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ia
yaeua. ?nio? aeae?eueea oei?a i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo o?aaeeoe?e: ii-ia?oa,
ieneeanuee?, ?eaaeuenuee?, e?niainiiaea?nuee?, iia’ycai? c e?ea?nueeeie
o?aaaie /e aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioeo i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a, nooi i?aaiaoe/i?
caai?iie; ii-ae?oaa, o?aaeeoe??, iia’ycai? c? caei?ia’yi ethaeeie oa ??
ainiiaea?noaii; ii-o?ao?, o?aaeeoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia caa?aaeaiiy ie?aieo
i?e?iaeieo ia’?eo?a /e eiiieaen?a, ui ??oioothoueny ia ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo
i?eioeeiao; ?, ii-/aoaa?oa, o?aaeeoe??, a iniiao yeeo iieeaaeaia
iaii??aeueia iiaaae?iea ethaeeie. I?e?iaeiioi?iii? o?aaeeoe?? ?noi?e/ii
oi?iothoueny ye ia’?eoeaia yaeua aca?iiae?? ethaeeie c i?e?iaeith,
aeanoeaa ia eeoa iaoa??aeuei?e, a e aeooiai?e eoeueoo??. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
aoaeo/e i?iaeoeoii aeoioeyoe?? noni?eueiiai aeina?aeo aa?iii?eieo
a?aeiinei c aeiae?eeyi, i?e?iaeiioi?iii? o?aaeeoe?? aenooiaee ia ??cieo
aoaiao ?noi??? noeoii?noth nioe?aeueieo onoaiiaie ? oe?ii?nieo
aeieia?/ieo i???ioaoe?e aeey ethaeeie.

I?aeoe/ia iciaeiieaiiy ?c caeiiaie i?e?iaee, cia/aiiyi ie?aieo ??
eiiiiiaio?a o aeeoo? ethaeae, eiinoaoaoe?y iaaaoeaiiai aieeao aeayeeo
aeae?a ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino? ia aeiae?eey aeeeeeaee ia an?o aoaiao
noni?eueii-?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo i?eeiyooy eieaeoeaieo caoiae?a caoenoo
i?e?iaee. O nai?e aaiethoe?? i?aeoeea ioi?iie i?e?iaee i?ieoea ?yae
caeiiii??ieo ?noi?e/ieo aoai?a. Iaeiei c iaea?eueo aeaai?o aoai?a
i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino? ne?ae aaaaeaoe aeaeiao ioi?iio – oo?aioo
i?i caa?aaeaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a oaa?ei ? ?ineei, ?o a?aeiiaeaiiy,
?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy iiioeyoe?e oiui.

Aiane?aeie aaaaoia?eiaiai, iino?eii c?inoath/iai aeei?enoaiiy aaaaonoa
aeiae?eey o no?oeoo?? i?e?iaeieo eaiaeoaoo?a Oe?a?ie a?aeaoeeny ?noioi?
e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? ci?ie, ye? iaaaoeaii aieeaaee ia aeieia?/io
noaa?euei?noue na?aaeiaeua. Oiio ia?o? ni?iae noai?aiiy
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo aeo?a a?aeiinyoueny aaea aei /ano Ee?anueei? ?on?.
Aoiai?noe/i? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueei? aeieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e ciaeoee
iiaeaeueoee aeya o eicaoeuee?e aeia?. I?iaeaia “ethaeeia-aeiae?eey” a
iaoe?iiaeuei?e ?noi??? noa? iane??ciith. C?inoa? e?euee?noue
i?ina?oeoae?a, aeine?aeiee?a i?e?iaee. Iii?oia ?ieue o oeeo i?ioeanao
aeeeaaea/?a ? aeoiaaioe?a Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? aeaaeai??. Ae?acieeaie
?aeae ioi?iie i?e?iaee, caa?aaeaiiy oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a noathoue aea?aeaai? ? a?iiaaenuee? ae?y/?, a/ai?,
aaoueiaie ? iieeiaieee, ?yaeia? eicaee. O XVII-XVIII no.no. a Oe?a?i?
aaeineiiaeth?oueny i?e?iaeiioi?iiia caeiiiaeaanoai c a?aooaaiiyi
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo o?aaeeoe?e, i?aaa eiyaei? aeiae ? Iaaaeaao?cueeiai
i?aaa.

Iai?ee?ioe? XVIII no. a?aenooi?noue iaoeiai? eiioeaioe??
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? ioi?iie i?e?iaee coiiaeea cia/iith i??ith
i?iaeiaaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? noeo?eieo i?aeoiae?a aei aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a. ?ici?thaaiiy noai?a, ae?oaoaaiiy oa aeiaethaaiiy e?n?a aeey
iea, nii?oaeaeaiiy a iinooeeaeo ?aeiiao ia ??/eao ??eaaoe?eieo nenoai
aeiei??iii ci?ithaaee oa?aeoa? eaiaeoaoo?a o i?noeyo iaoeaiiy ethaeae.
Oea i?ecaaei aei nei?i/aiiy aiaeiiiniino? ??/ie, ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a
a?ic?? ??oio?a, iicia/eeinue ia oaa?eiiiio na?o?. Iniaeeai aaeee? ci?ie
a i?e?iaeo aianaii ethaeueie a aiioo oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia iniia? c?inoaiiy i?iieneiai? oaoi?ee
? oaoiieia?e.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?icaeoie aeieiai-iaoo?ae?noe/ii? aeoiee a
?iaeono??aeueio aeiao oa ?? aieea ia noaiiaeaiiy aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i?” iieacaii ?icaeoie iaoeiaeo ciaiue i?i ioi?iio aeiae?eey ?
?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a, i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeieiai-iaoo?ae?noe/ii? iaoee a O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.,
?ice?eoi ?? ?ieue o noaiiaeaii? no/aniiai aeieia?/iiai ?ooo, aena?oeaii
i?ioean noai?aiiy ia?oeo ianiaeo a?iiaaenueeeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
oiaa?enoa ? i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i?, ?o ci?no ? oi?ie ae?yeueiino?.

Aaeeea caneoaa a iaoeiaiio ia??oiooaaii? iniia ioi?iie i?e?iaee ye
iaeiiai c aaaeeeaeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo caaaeaiue iaeaaeeoue a?o/eciyiei
o/aiei A.Aenioeueeiio, A.Oae??ao, I.Iia?aaiyeo, I.Oooeianueeiio,
N.?oaeieoeueeiio oa aaaaoueii ?ioei. Ooiaeaiaioaeueiee aianie o oai??th
ioi?iie i?e?iaee c?iaea aeaeaoiee oe?a?inueeee o/aiee A.?.Aa?iaaenueeee
(1863-1945), ia?oee i?aceaeaio Anaoe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe.
Anana?oith neaao a/aiiio i?eianee noai?ai? iei a/aiiy i?i a?inoa?o ?
iiinoa?o, aeeao ?a/iaeio oa ?? ?ieue a aaiethoe?? a?inoa?e ? aaio?i?/ieo
i?ioeanao. Iaioe?iaiiei ? aianie A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai o noaiiaeaiiy
no/anii? a?inoa?ii? i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? eiioeaioe?? oa oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo iaoe, ia??oiooaaiiy caaaeaiue aeiaaeueiiai
aeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao oiui, /ei aoei e i?aeaioiaeaii
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iee ??oio aeey aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeai aca?iiaieeao
ethaeeie ? a?inoa?e.

Aeoiaey/e ?c a/aiiy A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai, a yeino? oai?aoe/ii? iniiae
iaoeiai? no?aoaa?? aca?iiae?? i?e?iaee ? noni?euenoaa aaoi? aeae?ey?
ianooii? iniiaiiieiaei? i?eioeeie, a naia: ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino?
noni?euenoaa e iaaeieeoiuei? i?e?iaee ? noae?noue ?o aca?iiae?? a
aaiethoe?eii noi?iiaai?e aeaieiiieaeni?e aeiaaeuei?e nioe?iaeinenoai?;
oe?e?niiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai e aeieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei
aea/aiiy aca?iiae?? noni?euenoaa ? i?e?iaee ia ??cieo ??aiyo
iaoa??aeueiiai ? aeooiaiiai aoooy ethaeeie; aaaeeeaino? oe?eueiai?
ni?yiiaaiino? iaoeiai? aeoiee e oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ia iioei?caoe?th
aca?iiae?? i?ae i?e?iaeith ? noni?euenoaii, aac yei? oaoi?/i?
aeinyaiaiiy ao?a/athoue nain; aaaaoioe?eueiaiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo
aeinenoai ? aeieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy iino?eiino? i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy
ye aeieia?/ii? iniiae ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa; ?aaeueiino? onoiaiiy
iioaioe?eieo noia?a/iinoae i?ae iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii ?
iaiao?aei?noth caa?aaeaiiy aeieia?/ii? ??aiiaaae. Aeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae
ia? aooe iaia’yceiaith oiiaith i?e ieaioaaii? ao?o/aiiy a i?e?iaeo, o
oiio /ene? e oeyoii i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo caoiae?a. Ca?aene aeieeaa?, ui
iniiaiee iai?yi ioi?iie i?e?iaee – a i?ioean? ?? aeei?enoaiiy.

O e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. aoee iaa?iiaaeaeai? cia/i?
aeine?aeieoeuee? iaoa??aee c iaoeiaeo iniia ioi?iie i?e?iaee, ui aeaei
iiaeeea?noue ia iiaiio aoai? ?ic?iaeyoe ? ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe
i?e?iaeiioi?iii? caoiaee. I?aoeyie a?o/eciyieo o/aieo aoee iaoeiai
ia??oioiaai? i?eioeeie iiaiai aoaio ioi?iie i?e?iaee – aoaio
aeieia?/iiai, oa?aeoa?iiai aaea aeey nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia
?icaeoeo a OO no. Ia ceai? noie?oue ?icii/aany a?iiaaenueeee ?oo ca
ioi?iio i?e?iaee. Aeieia?/iee ?oo ia ia?oiio aoai? iaa aeaui iaiaaeaiee,
aeeeth/ii i?e?iaeiioi?iiiee oa?aeoa?. Caiaeii o eiai ?aieao ana a?eueoi?
aaae iaae?a? a?aooaaiiy ae?aeaeoeee aca?iica’yce?a
nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ieo i?ioean?a c nenoaiith i??i?eoao?a iia?oiuei?
oeea?e?caoe??.

Iiiyooy ? caaaeaiiy ioi?iie i?e?iaee ii/eiathoue aeae?eyoeny a
niaoeeo?/io i?iaeaio, yea iinooiiai iaaoaa? naiai ia?a?niiai
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai ia??oiooaaiiy, ia aac? yeiai aea?aeaai? e
i?aeia?iaei? ?inoeoooe?? ioi?iie i?e?iaee ii/eiathoue aoaeoaaoenue,
i?aai?caoe?eii ioi?ieyoeny oa ooieoe?iioaaoe o oi?i? ocaiaeaeaii?
ae?yeueiino? nenoai iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo caeeaae?a, aeeiiaa/eo no?oeoo?
oiui. Iaeiae iiiyooy ioi?iie i?e?iaee i?iaeiaaeoaaei ?icoi?oeny oiae?
eeoa ye iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a ioi?iie ii a?aeiioaiith aei
??aee?nieo aeae?a oaa?ei, ?ineei oa ie?aieo ae?eyiie iacaeiaii? aeeei?
i?e?iaee a?ae ?oei?aiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao. Iniiaiith oi?iith
caoiae?a onoaiia oa i?aai?caoe?e ii ioi?ii? i?e?iaee nia?oo aoee iaoeia?
c?a?aiiy, c’?caee, eiioa?aioe?? oiui. Ianooiiei e?ieii aoee caa?iaiiy
aei o?yaeiaeo ?inoaioe?e, ia?aaea/a ae?iaeaieo ia oeeo c?a?aiiyo
th?eaee/ieo, iaoeiaeo ? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo i?iaeo?a c ioi?iie
i?e?iaee ia i?aaeiao ?o naieoe?iioaaiiy oa i?aeo?eiee aea?aeaaieie
no?oeoo?aie. C ia?aa?aii /ano ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue caoiae?a c ioi?iie
i?e?iaee noaea eiioeaio?oaaoeny ia i?iaeaiao noai?aiiy ia?oeo
caiia?aeiee?a, caai?iie iiethaaiiy ia ??aee?nieo oa cieeath/eo aeae?a
oaa?ei, ioi?iie oi?eaeueieo iai’yoie i?e?iaee oiui. Oaeei /eiii
a?aeaoaaany iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae aei aoaio oa?eoi??aeueii? ioi?iie
i?e?iaee, yeee oa?a?aa o naaa aeaeiaee oa ?ano?niee i?aeoiaee. Naia oiio
ua ia ceai? O?O – OO no. ii/aee aeieeaoe iia? ia oie /an oi?ie
aeieia?/iiai ?ooo ? ae?yeueiino?, ?icii/aany i?ioean noai?aiiy
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ca caa?aaeaiiy i?e?iaee. Aei 1917 ?. a
Oe?a?i? (aeeth/ath/e E?ei) oaea ae?yei 20-30 a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e,
ui caeiaeeny i?e?iaeiioi?iiiith ?iaioith ?c e?euee?noth aeoea?no?a o
aeae?eueea oeny/ /ieia?e. Aeoiaeeei aeecueei aeaio aeanyoe?a ??cieo
iaoeiaeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue c i?iaeai i?e?iaeiciaanoaa. Iaea?eueo
aeoeaieie c ieo aoee Iiai?in?enueea oiaa?enoai aeine?aeiee?a i?e?iaee,
Ee?anueea oiaa?enoai i?e?iaeiaeine?aeiee?a ? ethaeoae?a i?e?iaee,
Ieeiea?anueea oiaa?enoai ethaeoae?a i?e?iaee, N?ioa?ii?euenueea
oiaa?enoai ethaeoae?a i?e?iaeiciaanoaa oiui. Ia?oith a Oe?a?i?
a?iiaaenueeith i?e?iaeiioi?iiiith i?aai?caoe??th noaei Oi?oeoeueea
oiaa?enoai ioi?iie i?e?iaee (OOII), caniiaaia aaeeeei aiooc?anoii,
oe?eueiei o/eoaeai i?e?iaeiciaanoaa I.I.Aocoeii o n. Aa?oiy Oi?oeoey
Eaoa?eiineaanueei? aoaa?i?? 21 o?aaiy 1910 ?. Aei aa?aniy 1911 ?. o oe?e
i?aai?caoe?? ia?aaoaaei 190 /ieia?e, a ia e?iaoeue 1913 ?. iae?/oaaeinue
oaea 245 ae?enieo, 5 ii/anieo ? 1 aeia?/iee /eai oiaa?enoaa. Ae?yei 17
oiiaiiaaaeaieo eiio?iea??a ii iaaeyaeo ca i?aaeeueiei aaaeaiiyi
iiethaaiiy ? ?eaaeuenoaa. Oi?oeoeueea oiaa?enoai oni?oii caeiaeinue
e?ni?icaaaeaiiyi, ioi?iiith oaa?ei oa ioao?a, caoenoii
?noi?eei-i?e?iaeieo iai’yoie.

Iieacaii, ui aeoeaia ianiaa i?e?iaeiioi?iiia ae?yeuei?noue oi?oeoeueeeo
ioi?iioe?a ni?eyea aeoea?caoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? uiaei
ioi?iie aeiae?eey. Ca?iaeaeothoueny ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie na?aeiiiai
a?iiaaenueeiai ?ooo ca caa?aaeaiiy i?e?iaee, noai?ththoueny caiia?aeieee
?ineei ? oaa?ei. Ia?aaea ioi?iiieo ia’?eo?a ? iai’yoie i?e?iaee
iinooiiai iaaoaa? iioe?aiiy a ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie. O ?iaio?
aeiaaaeaii, ui ?icoi?iiy iano?eii? iio?aae ioi?iie i?e?iaee ?
caa?aaeaiiy ?? ?ano?n?a ye iniiae aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie ?
i?aeaeuaiiy ?? aeia?iaooo, ?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caoiae?a ii
caaaa/aiith oaoie ? oei?e iinooiiai noa? iaaeaaiiyi iaoeiai?
a?iiaaenueeino?, ??ciiiai?oieo a?iiaaenueeeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
i?aai?caoe?e ? oiaa?enoa, aaaaoueio aiooc?ano?a,
iaoo?ae?no?a-ethaeoae?a.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i? oa eiai i?ioe??//y a 20-o – ia?o?e iieiaei? 80-o ?ie?a OO no.”
ia iniia? /eneaiieo a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, iaoa??ae?a c a?o?a?a
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean
noaiiaeaiiy aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a 20 — 40-o ??., i?ioe??//y eiai ?icaeoeo
oa iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? a 50-o – ia?o?e iieiaei? 80-o ?ie?a, i?inoaaeaii
?ieue oa eiie?aoio o/anoue aaaaoueio a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ?
ia’?aeiaiue o i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ?iaio?.

Iieacaii, ui i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? ioi?iie i?e?iaee a Oe?a?i?
a ia?o?e iieiaei? OO no. noi?iaiaeaeoaaany cia/ieie iie?oe/ieie ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie o?oaeiiuaie. I?eieiaiiy aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo
eai?oae?cio, ?aaiethoe?eiee ia?aai?io o aeiaoi? 1917 ?. oa
a?eueoiaeoeueea aa?an?y i?ioe OI? ni?e/eieee ao?aoo iiaeeeainoae
iacaeaaeiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?icaeoeo, i?iaaaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? iie?oeee. ?oeioaaiiy niieiia?/ieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo o?aaeeoe?e i?ecaaei aei caeiiii??ii? e?ea?aeaoe??
?aoe?iiaeueieo canaae noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa aei iaaeieeoiueiai
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

O oeueiio ca’yceo a aeena?oaoe?? aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia ?ie? ? c’?caeo
i?e?iaeiaeine?aeiee?a Oe?a?ie, ui a?aeaoany 3-6 na?iiy 1918 ?. a Ee?a? c
?i?oe?aoeae A.?.Oae??aa, ia yeiio iaaiai?thaaeenue oeyoe ioi?iie
i?e?iaee oa ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeiciaanoaa a ?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? iie?oeee oa ?ooo a Oe?a?i?. C’?cae noaa
iiooiaoii aei i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo onoaiia ?
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. O ?icae?e? oaeiae anaa?/ii aiae?co?oueny
ae?yeuei?noue ia?oi? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? onoaiiae –
naeoe?? (c 1924 ?. – eii?n??) ioi?iie i?e?iaee
N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai eii?oaoo Ia?eiicaio ?anioae?ee, yea
i?i?nioaaea aei 1927 ?.

Ae??oaeueio ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? iniia i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? iie?oeee a
Oe?a?i? a oeae ia??iae a?ae?a?aea iinoaiiaa AOOeAE oa ?IE O?N? a?ae 16
/a?aiy 1926 ?. “I?i iai’yoee eoeueoo?e ? i?e?iaee”. A i?e aoei
caaeaeea?iaaii, ui iai’yoee eoeueoo?e oa i?e?iaee, ye? iathoue
iaoeiai-?noi?e/ia ? ienoaoeueea cia/aiiy, ia?aaoaathoue o a?aeaii?
Ia?iaeiiai Eii?na??aoo ina?oe O?N? oa eiai i?noeaaeo i?aai?a. Oeei aea
aeae?aoii aoei ooai?aii Oe?a?inueeee Eii?oao ioi?iie iai’yoie i?e?iaee
(OEIII).

O 20-30-o ??. c aaeeeeie o?oaeiiuaie i?iaeiaaeoaaee ae?yoe a?iiaaenuee?
i?aai?caoe?? – Anaoe?a?inueea oiaa?enoai caoenoo oaa?ei ? ?ineei c eiai
15 ie?oaeieie a?aeae?eaiiyie, o yeeo a 1929 ?. i?aoethaaei iiiaae 90
oen. /ie.; Anaoe?a?inueea ni?eea ieneeaoe?a oa ?eaaeie, yea caeiaeany
ioi?iiith aeeei? oaoie. Ioi?iia i?e?iaee a oeae ia??iae ia?aaoaaea a
oeaio?? oaaae aaaaoueio i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo i?aai?caoe?e ? e?a?ciaa/eo
ia’?aeiaiue. ?o a Oe?a?i? (O?N? ? a Cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii?) ?acii ?c E?eiii
o e?ioe? 20-o ??. iae?/oaaeinue aeecueei 70. Aeoeaio o/anoue o
i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ?iaio? oa noai?aii? caiia?aeiee?a a?aee Iieoaanueea
i?aai?caoe?y ethaeoae?a i?e?iaee, Ia??oiieuenueeee ? Iieoaanueeee
e?a?ciaa/? ioca?, Oa?e?anueea oiaa?enoai ethaeoae?a i?e?iaee, E?einueea
oiaa?enoai i?e?iaeiaeine?aeiee?a ? ethaeoae?a i?e?iaee oa ?i. Ioi?ii?
i?e?iaee i?eae?eyee cia/io oaaao oae? a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??, ye
Oe?a?inueea oiaa?enoai oo?ecio, Oe?a?inueeee eii?oao e?a?ciaanoaa,
Oe?a?inueea iaoeiaa oiaa?enoai, aaaaoi/enaeuei? e?a?ciaa/? ?
iaoo?ae?noe/i? i?aai?caoe?? ? oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie. O 20-o ??. aaaeeeao
?ieue o a?iiaaenuee?e ioi?ii? i?e?iaee a?ae?a?aaaa ?oo thieo
iaoo?ae?no?a. Ia oi?ioaaiiy iniia i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? iie?oeee o 20-30-o
??. aieeioa ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? aeieia?/ii? aeoiee, i?iiaaaiaea ciaiue
c i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? oaiaoeee. O oeae /an aeaeaaaeinue aeecueei 20
iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo aeo?iae?a ? aacao aeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

Iaeiae i?e?iaeiioi?iiia ?iaioa a Oe?a?i?, ye ? a oe?eiio o eieeoiueiio
N?N?, ai?iaeiaae 20-30-o ??. ia ?icaeioeanue aei oe?eani?yiiaaii?
iie?oeee a neeo ?aeaieia?/ieo aeiai, iane?aee?a ainiiaea?nueei?
?oeiaoe?? /an?a a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie, i?iaaaeaiiy ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? oa
eieaeoea?caoe??. ?aae?caoe?y i?eeiyoeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo ??oaiue
a?aeaoaaeany iaiine?aeiaii. Oaea? ii ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii?
i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? aeoiee ? iie?oeee ni?e/eieee eenaie?aueia, iania?
iie?oe/i? ?ai?an?? 30-o ??. Ca i?ae?aooieaie aeine?aeieea ?noi???
i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai ?ooo A.Ai?aeea, ?ai?an?yie aoei cieuaii 40%
ae?y/?a-i?e?iaeiioi?iioe?a ? ua 10% ai?a?oaaee a /ane a?iiaaeyinueei? oa
ae?oai? na?oiai? ai?i. Oaeei /eiii, aoei cieuaii i?aeoe/ii eiaeiiai
ae?oaiai. Eieinaeueii? oeiaee i?e?iaeiiio aeiae?eeth Oe?a?ie iaianee
ai?ii? eeoie?ooy.

O ia?o? i?neyai?ii? ?iee ?aae?? aeeooy aeiaaaee iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a a i?aai?caoe?th ioi?iie i?e?iaee, a?aeiiaeaiiy
e?niaeo ieiu, ?ineeiiiai ? oaa?eiiiai na?oo, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? noai?aiiy
iiaeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo ? e?a?ciaa/eo i?aai?caoe?e ? oiaa?enoa. 20
aa?aniy 1946 ?. ?icii/aei naith ae?yeuei?noue Oe?a?inueea oiaa?enoai
ioi?iie i?e?iaee (OOII). O 1949 ?. oaea iae?/oaaeiny 18 eiai iaeanieo
a?aeae?eaiue. I?aai?caoi?aie oiaa?enoaa noaee aeaaeai?ee AI O?N?
I.A?eoei, I.Aeooa/e?i, I.Iia?aaiye, Ae.O?aoueyeia, I.Oieiaeiee,
A.*a?ieoia. Ca ei?ioeee /an aiii noaei oeaio?ii ?i?oe?thaaiiy oa
?ic?iaee eiie?aoieo caoiae?a ioi?iie i?e?iaee oa i?iiaaaiaee
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo ciaiue. O 1950 ?. aiii ia’?aeiaeiny c oiaa?enoaii
icaeaiaiiy i?no ? ianaeaieo ioieo?a. O i?neyai?iiee /an a?aeiiaeei
?iaioo oaeiae Oe?a?inueea oiaa?enoai ieneeaoe?a ? ?eaaeie. C na?aaeeie
60-o ??. iaaoaa? ?iciaoo ?oo nooaeaionoaa ca ioi?iio i?e?iaee, yeee
ao?eeany o oi?i? ae?oaeei i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? ?iaioe.

I?e?iaeiioi?iiiee ?oo a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii 1944-1980-o ??.
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany aaaaoueia ceaoaie ? iaae?iiyie, ye? a?aeiia?aeaee
ci?iai noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? o ?anioae?oe? ? a oe?eiio o
eieeoiueiio N?N?. C 1944 ?. aei e?ioey 40-o ??. niinoa??aaeiny iii?oia
i?aeianaiiy ?ooo a?iiaaenueeino? ca ioi?iio i?e?iaee. Ia’?eoeaii iinoaei
caaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? ioi?iie aeinenoai. Iaeiae a neeo caaaeaiue
a?aeaoaeiae c?oeiiaaiiai a?eiith ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa noni?euenoaii
? aeaaeith aei na?aaeeie 50-o ??. oae ? ia aoea ?aaeueii ona?aeiieaia
ia’?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy,
i?eieiaiiy caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, i?eeiyooy
a?aeiia?aeieo aeieia?/ieo ??oaiue. Oiio a ia?oo iieiaeio 50-o ??.
aeieia?/iee ?oo iinooiiai i?aeoe/ii i?ecoieieany. Ianooiiee iiooiao
aeaea “o?ouianueea a?aeeeaa”. I?aaia?, i?aai?caoe?ei?, iaoeia? ?
a?iiaaenuee? oaeoi?e oa oiiae i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? iie?oeee io?eiothoue ia
oeueiio aoai? nai? a?eueo iiaia, ii??aithth/e c iiia?aaei?ie,
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia ao?eaiiy. Ii/eia?oueny aoai ?noi?e/iiai
oi?ioaaiiy aeiiie?oeee a noni?euenoa?. I?ioa e?eca nioe?ae?noe/ii?
ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee, ui ?icii/aeanue ia ii/aoeo 80-o ??., oneeaaeieea
aeieia?/io neooaoe?th a Oe?a?i?. Ia caaaeueiiio iia??oaii?
aeieiai-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? iicia/aeiny ?aii?oaaiiy ieoaiue ioi?iie
i?e?iaee ia?o?eiei ea??aieoeoaii, ainiiaea?ieeaie, aiethioa?eci o
aeei?enoaii? i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. Ana oea i?ecaaei aei ia?ae?o/aiue
?aaeueieo i?ioean?a, oi?ioaaiiy iiieeeiaeo aeieia?/ieo oyaeaiue, ye?
eiioeaiooaeueii iaioaaee aae aei na?aaeeie 80-o ??.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “Iiaee aoai o ?icaeoeo aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a eiioaeno?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie” ?icaeyiooi
iniaeeaino? oa iciaee aei?ooo a no/anieo oiiaao aea?aeaaii? ?icaoaeiae,
?ice?eoi ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie ae?yeueiino? a?iiaaenueeeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
i?aai?caoe?e ? oiaa?enoa, ?o niaoeeo?eo e iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo a
oiiaao iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, aecia/aii ?ieue aeieia?/iiai ?ooo o
i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ni?aa?, i?iaiae?ciaaii oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
aeieia?/iiai ?ooo iaia?aaeiaei? oa i?ney caeiaoooy Oe?a?iith aea?aeaaii?
iacaeaaeiino?. Iieacaii, ui oa?aeoa? ? ianooaae iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeieia?/ii? e?ece, yea neeaeanue ia ii/aoie 90-o ??., noaee iane?aeeii
nioe?ae?noe/iiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ia?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
i?e?iaeieo aaaaonoa, ciaaaaeaiiy aeaaeith aeieia?/ieo i?aa a?iiaaeyi.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie noai?eei oiiae aeey
aeoea?caoe?? a?iiaaenueei? i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? aeoeaiino? ianaeaiiy,
?aae?caoe?? iiai? aea?aeaaii? aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee, yea ciaeoea aeya o
iinoaiia? ia?eaiaioo O?N? “I?i aeieia?/io ianoaiiaeo a ?anioae?oe? oa
caoiaee ii ?? aeiei??iiiio iie?ioaiith” (1990 ?.), caeii? O?N? “I?i
ioi?iio iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua” (1991 ?.) ?, aaciina?aaeiuei, o
Eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a Oe?a?ie
(1991 ?.). Ia?aaoaeiaa ci?noo oa no?oeoo?e aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee noaee
ia?ic?eaii iia’ycai? c ?aaeeeaeueieie ci?iaie ii/aoeo 90-o ??. o aeeoo?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aeoea?caoe??th a?iiaaenueei?
nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? o iino/i?iiaeeuenueeee ia??iae.

?ice?eoi oaeiae no?oeoo?o no/aniiai aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, a ye?e
?ic??ciythoueny oae? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie: Ia?o?y Caeaieo Oe?a?ie,
iniiaia ae?yeuei?noue yei? ni?yiiaaia ia ae??oaiiy iie?oeei-aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai; aeieia?/iee ?oo (anioe?aoe?y “Caeaiee na?o”), yeee ia’?aeio? ?
eii?aeeio? coneeey aeii?aai?caoe?e oa a?iiaaeyi o ?ica’ycaii?
aeieia?/ieo ieoaiue /a?ac aieea ia a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo oa na?aeii?noue;
noni?euei? ia’?aeiaiiy, a?oie, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo ni?yiiaaia ia
?ica’ycaiiy eieaeueieo, eiie?aoieo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo i?ia?ai ? ieoaiue;
aeieia?/i? naeoe?? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ?oo?a, ia’?aeiaiue, ia?o?e;
iao?yaeia?, iacaeaaei? aeieia?/i? i?aai?caoe?? oa oiiaee, ae?yeuei?noue
yeeo ni?yiiaaia ia i?aeaioiaeo i?iaeo?a ae??oaiiy iaaaeueieo aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai.

O ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aeeiai?ea aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo iia?oi?o
aeieia?/ieo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie, iniiai? aoaie ?o noaiiaeaiiy, oe?e?,
iai?yie oa oi?ie ?o ae?yeueiino?. Iieacaii, ui iniiaieie oi?iaie
ae?yeueiino? aeieia?/ieo ia’?aeiaiue ?: 1)“i?yi? ae??” – noeoii?noue
oi?i ? aeae?a ae?yeueiino?, iaea?eueo iioe?aieo ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai?,
i?aai?caoe?y nioe?aeueiiai naiicaoenoo a?iiaaeyi aeieia?/ii
iaaeaaiiieo/ieo ?aeii?a; 2)caa?iaiiy a i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee,
ia?eaiaio, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c ia?eaiaionueeeie eii?n?yie ? eii?oaoaie,
caeiiiaeaa/? ?i?oe?aoeae oa o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? caeiiii?iaeo?a; 3)
aenia?oii-iaoeiaa oi?ia ae?yeueiino?, yea ia?aaeaa/a? ?iaioo
aeioeaio??a, i?iaaaeaiiy eiioa?aioe?e, neiiic?oi?a, cono??/ae c i?iaeai
aeiae?eey; 4)i?ina?oieoeueei-i?iiaaaiaeenonueea ae?yeuei?noue, ui
ni?yiiaaia ia i?aai?caoe?th aei?ioi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaenueeino?, oi?ioaaiiy
aeina?aeiiino? oa aeieoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy.

Iniaeea?noth aeieia?/iiai ?ooo ? iayai?noue aaeeei? e?eueeino? ethaeae c
aeuith ina?oith na?aae eiai o/aniee?a oa i?eoeeueiee?a, i?aaenoaaiee?a
oai?/i? oa iaoeiai? ?ioae?aaioe??, a oaeiae ethaeae, ui iathoue
niaoe?aeueio ina?oo: aeieia?a, a?ieia?a, iaaeee?a oiui. A oeueiio ieai?
aei?oo a Oe?a?i? o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie ? iaea?eueo i?ioan?eiei. O ?iaio?
ia eiie?aoieo i?eeeaaeao iieacaia e ua iaeia iniaeea?noue oe?a?inueeiai
aeieia?/iiai ?ooo, a naia – eiai o?aai?noe/iee oa?aeoa?.

Niaoeeo?eith aeieia?/iiai ?ooo ? oa, ui a?i oi?ioaaany e ?icaeaa?oueny
iei? a oiiaao nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, noai?aiiy iiaeo aea?aeaaieo oa iie?oe/ieo
?inoeooo?a. Ianoaa?euei?noue ia?ao?aeiiai aoaio, aeiiii?/i? o?oaeiiu?
aieeioee ? ia ?icaeoie aei?ooo, ui i?ecaaei aei niaaeo eiai aeoeaiino?
oa e?ece a 1994-1995 ??. Iei? niinoa??aa?oueny “iiaa oaeey” a
aeieia?/iiio a?iiaaenueeiio ?on?. Aeieeee iaaea?aeaai? a?iiaaenuee?
i?aai?caoe?? (IAI), ye? i???ioiaai? ia eiie?aoio aeieia?/io iaoo ?
ae?thoue “i?ae aeaoii” “Caeaiiai ?ooo”, aai ? oe?eeii iacaeaaei? a?ae
iueiai, iathoue i?aeia?iaei? ca’ycee, no/ani? caniae eiioi?eaoe??,
aa?ooue aeoeaio o/anoue o i?aeia?iaeieo i?iaeoao, i?ia?aiao,
aeei?enoiaothoue cao?aeiee aeina?ae i?iaaaeaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
aeoe?e. Caeaiina?o?aoe? “iiai? oaee?” ni?eueieie coneeeyie aeiaeeeny
cae?eooy e?eueeio iaaacia/ieo i?aei?e?inoa, a?enueeiaeo ia’?eo?a, aeie?a
AAN, a?ae?a?aee aaaeeeao ?ieue o i?eeiyoo? ia?eaiaioii ii?aoi??th ia
nii?oaeaeaiiy iiaeo AAN oa aaaaeaiiy iiaeo aeie?a ae?th/eo aoiiieo
aeaeo?inoaioe?e. Oea aea? niiae?aaiiy ia i?aeianaiiy, a aieiaia, o
ia?niaeoea?, ia ae??aee oa?aeoa? aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?.

O aeniiaeao aecia/aii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa ocaaaeueithth/? iieiaeaiiy
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aaoi? ae?eoia oaeeo aeniiae?a:

1. O?eaaeee ?noi?e/iee ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai aoiino
noi?iaiaeaeoaaany i?ciaiiyi iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua,
aaeaioaoe??th aei aaia?ao?/ii-i?e?iaeieo oiia, iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi
iaioe?iaiiiai ca ?noi?e/iith cia/ei?noth noni?eueiiai ?noi?e/iiai
aeina?aeo aa?iii?eieo a?aeiinei c ieeoiaiith, cae??ieaiiyi ? ia?aaea/ath
oeueiai aeina?aeo c iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy /a?ac nenoaio
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo o?aaeeoe?e. ?o aeieeiaiiy oa caaaa/aiiy a?aeaoaaeinue
i?ioyaii oeny/ie?oiuei? ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo i?ae aieeaii
i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a i?e
aecia/aeuei?e ae?? inoaii?o.

2. Aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? aoee ia’?eoeaii
coiiaeai? ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/ieie ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie
ia?aaeoiiaaie, ye? neeaeeny a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? ia ceai? O?O-OO
no. Iiceoeaio ?ieue a?ae?a?aee iayai?noue aaaaoeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?ioe?a, i?eoaiaiieo ?i o aeaaith ? na?aaeiueia?/io aeiao,
a oaeiae aenieee ??aaiue aeieiai-iaoo?ae?noe/ii? aeoiee a
?iaeono??aeueio aiioo. Iaioe?iaiiee aeeaae o oai??th ioi?iie i?e?iaee
c?iaea aeaeaoiee oe?a?inueeee a/aiee, caniiaiee Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai??
Iaoe, ?? ia?oee i?aceaeaio, aeaaeai?e A.?.Aa?iaaenueeee.

3. Ia ?oaaae? O?O-OO no. ii/eiathoue aeieeaoe iia? oi?ie aeieia?/iiai
?ooo ? ae?yeueiino?, ?icii/eia?oueny i?ioean noai?aiiy a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e ca caa?aaeaiiy i?e?iaee ? ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ??
?ano?n?a. Iaea?eueo aeoeaieie ? aecia/ieie na?aae ieo noaee:
Iiai?in?enueea oiaa?enoai aeine?aeiee?a i?e?iaee, Ee?anueea oiaa?enoai
i?e?iaeiaeine?aeiee?a ? ethaeoae?a i?e?iaee, Ieeiea?anueea oiaa?enoai
ethaeoae?a i?e?iaee, N?ioa?ii?euenueea oiaa?enoai ethaeoae?a
i?e?iaeiciaanoaa. Ia?oith a Oe?a?i? a?iiaaenueeith i?e?iaeiioi?iiiith
i?aai?caoe??th noaei Oi?oeoeueea oiaa?enoai ioi?iie i?e?iaee. Ia?aaea
ioi?iiieo ia’?eo?a ? iai’yoie i?e?iaee iinooiiai ?icoe?thaaeanue a
??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie.

4. Noaiiaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? iie?oeee ? ?icaeoie aei?ooo
a Oe?a?i? a ia?o?e iieiaei? OO no. noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny cia/ieie
iie?oe/ieie ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie o?oaeiiuaie. Ianeeueieoeueea
i?ecoieiaiiy aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo ?eieiai-eai?oae?noe/iiai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ?aaiethoe?eiee ia?aai?io o aeiaoi? 1917 ?. oa
a?eueoiaeoeueea aa?an?y i?ioe OI? coiiaeee ao?aoo iiaeeeainoae
iacaeaaeiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?icaeoeo, i?iaaaeaiiy oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
aeieia?/iiai ?ooo. ?oeiaoe?y iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e i?ecaaea aei
e?ea?aeaoe?? ?aoe?iiaeueieo, aeiiii?/ii aea??aieo ? iaoe?iiaeueii noaeeo
canaae noaaeaiiy aei aeiae?eey. Noae?inuee? iie?oe/i? ?ai?an?? e oa?i?
iaa?ioeenue canoi?i i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? aeoiee, o?ce/iei aeieuaiiyi
aaaaoueio a?aeiieo a/aieo-aeieia?a, cia/ieie caeoeaie i?e?iaeiiio
aeiae?eeth aiane?aeie ?aae?caoe?? oe?ieiianooaaieo noae?inueeeo ieai?a
?? “nioe?ae?noe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy oa ?aeiino?oeoe??”. Eieinaeueii
aaeeei? oeiaee i?e?iae? Oe?a?ie iaianee ai?ii? eeoie?ooy.

5. Aeieia?/iee ?oo a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii 1944-1980 ??. oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
ceaoaie ? iaae?iiyie, ui a?aeiia?aeaee noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e neooaoe?? o
?anioae?oe? ?, a oe?eiio, o eieeoiueiio N?N?. C 1944 ?. aei e?ioey 40-o
?ie?a niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeianaiiy a?iiaaenueeiai ?ooo ca ioi?iio
i?e?iaee, aea o ia?o?e iieiaei? 50-o ??. a?i i?aeoe/ii i?ecoieieany.
Ianooiiee iiooiao aeaea “o?ouianueea a?aeeeaa”. I?aaia?, i?aai?caoe?ei?,
iaoeia? ? a?iiaaenuee? oaeoi?e oa oiiae i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? iie?oeee
io?eioaaee ia oeueiio aoai? nai? a?eueo iiaia, ii??aithth/e c
iiia?aaei?i, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia ao?eaiiy.

6. Ia?aaoaeiaa ci?noo aeieia?/iiai ?ooo oa no?oeoo?
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy iiai? aeiiie?oeee noaee iiaeeeaeie a
oiiaao iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Ia?oa oaeey ?icaeoeo aei?ooo a Oe?a?i?
i?eiaea ia iino/i?iiaeeuenueeee ia??iae (1988-1991 ??.), yea iaaaeiac?
i?ecoieieeany /a?ac noa’?eoeai? e ia’?eoeai? i?e/eie. C 1995 ?. iinoaa
iiaee aoai a aeieia?/iiio a?iiaaenueeiio ?on?. Oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie
no/aniiai aei?ooo a Oe?a?i? ? eiai oe?iea nioe?aeueia aaca, aenieee
i?ioan?iiae?ci, i?aeo?eiea ai?ioueae ca aeinyaiaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
noaa?ai?oaoo ? iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie ye aa?aio?? oi?ioaaiiy oa
i?iaaaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiie?oeee, ??ciiiai?oi?noue oi?i
ae?yeueiino? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ? oiaa?enoa. Iioe?aiiy iaaoee
aeieia?/i? noaioieee, “caeai?” oieiee, caoiaee ii i/euaiith ??e,
iinaaeoe? aea?aa, caa?aaeaiith oei?e ? oaoie, iacaeiaieo ae?eyiie aeeei?
i?e?iaee oa ?io? oi?ie noni?eueii ei?enii? ?iaioe. Aaaeeeaith oi?iith
ae?yeueiino? aeieia?/iiai ?ooo noaee aenia?oii-iaoeia?, a?iiaaenuee?
ioe?iee.

7. Iia?oi? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ?aae?? a Oe?a?i? ia’?eoeaii
aeiaaathoue ia?aaoaeiae anueiai noni?eueiiai aeeooy oaeei /eiii, aae
aiii ia noia?a/eei caeiiai ?icaeoeo i?e?iaee. Oea iio?aao? aeeaiei? ?
oe?eani?yiiaaii? ?iaioe o ??cieo iai?yiao aeieia?caoe?? noni?eueii?
na?aeiiino? oa oi?ioaaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiai? aeieoeueoo?e. Oi?ioaaiiy o
eiaeiiai a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie ?icoi?iiy iaiao?aeiino? aeoeaii? o/ano? o
?ica’ycaii? aeii?iaeai noa? iaeiei c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo caaaeaiue no/anii?
nenoaie ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy, ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ?icaeoeo
ianiaiai a?iiaaenueeiai aeieia?/iiai ?ooo noni?eueieo a?oi oa
ia’?aeiaiue. C oeueiai iiaeyaeo anaa?/ii? aeooae?caoe?? iaaoaathoue
a?o/eciyi? ia?iaei? i?e?iaeiioi?iii? o?aaeeoe??, iaa?iiaaeaeai?
oi?iaeiaae aaaaoia?eiai? ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, eiai eieaeoeaiee
?noi?eei-aeieia?/iee aeina?ae, nenoaia ciaiue i?i aeiae?eey, eiaeaen
ii?aeueieo ii?i ? aeineiaie?a, ye? ciaia’ycothoue noaaeoenue aei
i?e?iaee, ye aei nayoei?. Naia oaeith ? iaaaeueia iio?aaa ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa a no/anieo oiiaao iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Ana oea ia?aoai?th? ioi?iio i?e?iaee ia ae?ae aaaeeeao
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaio ni?aao.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aeaye? iai?yie i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy o/i?a i?e
i?iaaaeaii? e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe//I?iaeaie ioi?iie i?e?iaee ? a?aeoai?aiiy
i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo Cao?aeiiai Iiae?eey. Oace aeiiia?aeae
?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. – Oa?iii?eue, 1990. –
N.169-171.

2. ?ieue aaia?ao?/ii? aeniiceoe?? oe?eueiiai e?a?ciaa/iai iocath o
iiaeeaeaii? ciaiue c aaia?ao?? oa aeoiaaiiy a o/i?a iaoe?iiaeueii? oa
a?iiaaeyinueei? na?aeiiino?//I?e?iaea, ianaeaiiy oa ainiiaea?noai
Oa?iii?euenueei? iaeano?, ?o aea/aiiy a caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie?:
Iaoa??aee iaeanii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, o?aaaiue 1991?. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1991. – N. 169-173( o ni?aaaoi?noa? c E.Naeieii).

3. Aeoiaaiiy ethaia? ? i?aaeeueiiai a?aeiioaiiy aei i?e?iaee o
nooaeaionueei? iieiae?//Iaoeiaee ca??iee ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – Aei.?. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1994. – N.86-87.

4. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ina?oo o noa?? caoenoo ? iie?ioaiiy na?aaeiaeua
ethaeeie//Iaoeiaee ca??iee ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – Aei.??.– *ano. ??. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1995.– N.115-117.

5. Aeieia?/iee ?oo a Oe?a?i?: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue//Oe?a?ia ia oeyoo
aei iacaeaaeiino? ? aeaiie?ao??: Oaiaoe/iee ca??iee i?aoeue aeeeaaea/?a,
nooaeaio?a ? ani??aio?a ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. – Oa?iii?eue, 1996. –
N.267-269.

6. Aeieia?/iee ?oo a Oe?a?i?: ?noi?e/iee aniaeo ? no/aniee
?icaeoie//Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y: ?noi??y. – Aei.VI. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1997. – N.334-338.

7. ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie aeieia?/ieo o?aaeeoe?e e i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai ?ooo
a Oe?a?i?//Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y: ?noi??y. – Aei.V?I. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1998. – N.228-236.

8. ?noi??ia?ao?y ?noi??? nioe?aeueii-i?e?iaeii? aca?iiae?? a eiioaeno?
no/anieo i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a//Iaoeia? caienee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y: ?noi??y. – Aei.V?I. – Oa?iii?eue, 1998. –
N.349-372(o ni?aaaoi?noa? c N.Aanthoith).

9. ?icaeoie aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? (e?iaoeue O?O – ii/aoie OO
no.)//Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y: Aaia?ao?y. – Aei.?I. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1998. – N.174-179.

10. ?icaeoie aeieiai-iaoo?ae?noe/ii? aeoiee a aiioo ?iaeono??ae?caoe??
oa ?? aieea ia noaiiaeaiiy aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?//Iaoeia? caienee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y: Aaia?ao?y. – Aei.?I. – Oa?iii?eue, 1998. –
N.166-174.

11. Iiaee aoai o ?icaeoeo aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a eiioaeno?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?//Iaoeia? caienee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y: O?einio?y. Aeiiii?ea. Nioe?ieia?y. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1998. – N.171-184.

12. Aeieia?/iee ?oo a Oe?a?i?. – Oa?iii?eue: E?eay, 1999. – 276
n.(?aoe.: Canoaaaoeueea I.A. Aeieia?/iee ?oo a Oe?a?i?//?iaaniee. –
1999. – 27 aa?aciy).

13. C ?noi??? ioi?iie i?e?iaee a Oe?a?i?//Iaoeia? caienee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y: ?noi??y. – Aei.V??I. – Oa?iii?eue, 1999. –
N.75-90(o ni?aaaoi?noa? c I.Aanthoith).

Aeaen??aaoeue I.I. Aeieia?/iee ?oo a Oe?a?i? (?noi?e/iee aniaeo). –
Aeena?oaoe?y (?oeiien) ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. –
Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a
Aiaothea, Oa?iii?eue, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/ieo
ia?aaeoiia, iaoe?iiaeueieo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo o?aaeeoe?e aeieeiaiiy oa
?icaeoeo aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?. O i?aoe? aiae?cothoueny eiai
oaiaeaioe?? oa iniaeeaino? a eiioaeno? no/aniiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae ?icaeyaeathoueny
ia?niaeoeae aei?ooo oa iineeaiiy eiai ?ie? o i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ni?aa?.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aea/aii? ?noi???
Oe?a?ie, nioe?iaeieia??, o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? a/eoae?a
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e, aeeeaaea/?a, nooaeaio?a, i?e?iaeiciaaoe?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeieia?y, aeieia?/iee ?oo, aeieia?/ia iie?oeea,
i?e?iaeia aeiae?eey, aeieia?/ia e?eca, aeieia?/i? i?aai?caoe??,
iaoe?iiaeueia i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy, aio?iiiaaiiee aieea.

Aeaeneaaaoe I.A. Yeieiae/aneia aeaeaeaiea a Oe?aeia (Enoi?e/aneee
aniaeo). – Aeenna?oaoeey (?oeiienue) ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – enoi?ey
Oe?aeiu. – Oa?iiiieueneee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Aeaaeeie?a Aiaothea, Oa?iiiieue, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth enoi?e/aneeo i?aaeiinueie
iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo o?aaeeoeee, oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey
yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia ia i?ioyaeaiee eiioea O?O – 90-o
aiaeia OO a. A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaia iaeia ec ia?auo iiiuoie a oe?aeineie
enoi?eia?aoee ainnicaeaoue oeaeinoioth ea?oeio i?ioeannia e iniiaiuo
oaiaeaioeee ioa/anoaaiiiai iauanoaaiiiai yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey,
iieacaoue aai ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau a eiioaenoa
iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai aic?iaeaeaiey Oe?aeiu.

A ia?aie aeaaa “Enoi?eia?aoe/aneee iaci? e enoi/ieeiaaae/aneay aaca
enneaaeiaaiey” inouanoae?i iaci? eeoa?aoo?u ii oaia e i?iaiaeece?iaaia
enoi/ieeiaaae/aneay aaca. I?e yoii iiae/a?eiooi, /oi aiaeec yeii?iaeai e
yeiaeaeaeaiey a no?oeoo?a nia?aiaiiuo enoi?e/aneeo oe?aeiiaaae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee ionoaao io iauaai ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiie iaoee e
ia?aciaaiey, iieacaii, /oi enoi?e/aneay iaoea aua ia i?ioea yoaia
yeieiaecaoeee enneaaeiaaiee.

Ai aoi?ie aeaaa “Enoi?eei-aaia?aoe/aneea i?aaeiinueee e i?e?iaeiio?aiiua
o?aaeeoeee aicieeiiaaiey yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia”
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu enoi?eei-aaia?aoe/aneea oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey e
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiiai yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey,
enneaaeiaaiu aeaaiua yoaiu acaeiiaeaenoaey iauanoaa e i?e?iaeu. A yoii
eiioaenoa ?ane?uoa nouiinoue e iniiaiua oeiu i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo o?aaeeoeee
oe?aeineiai ia?iaea eae aaaeiaeoaai oneiaey, ia eioi?ii aicieeei e
?acaa?ioeinue iauanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea ii ?aoeeiiaeueiiio
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieth e io?aia ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. A ?aaioa
ia oe?ieii oiia enoi?e/aneeo iaoa?eaeia ?ane?uou eiioeaiooaeueiua iniiau
eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneiai oi?ie?iaaiey ia?iaeiuo i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo
o?aaeeoeee.

A o?aoueae aeaaa “?acaeoea yeieiai-iaoo?aeenoe/aneie iunee a
eiaeono?eaeueioth yiioo e a? aeeyiea ia noaiiaeaiea yeieiae/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia” iieacai i?ioeann ?acaeoey iao/iuo ciaiee ia io?aia
ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniiaiua iieiaeaiey
yeieiai-iaoo?aeenoe/aneie iaoee a O?O – ia/aea OO a., ?ane?uoa a? ?ieue
a noaiiaeaiee yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a yoi a?aiy, ii?aaeaeaiu
iniaaiiinoe aicieeiiaaiey ia?auo iauanoaaiiuo yeieiae/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee
e iauanoa a Oe?aeia, aeaia eo oa?aeoa?enoeea, auyniaiu eo ?ieue e ianoi
a caueoa i?e?iaeu e ?aoeeiiaeueiii eniieueciaaiee a? ?ano?nia.
Ii?aaeaeaiu niaea?aeaiea e oi?iu yeieiae/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee e
iauaaeeiaiee.

A /aoaa?oie aeaaa “Iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey yeieiae/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia e aai i?ioeai?a/ey a 20-o – ia?aie iieiaeia 80-o
aiaeia” ia iniiaa iiiai/eneaiiuo a?oeaiuo aeieoiaioia, iaoa?eaeia
a?oeaia iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee ananoi?iiia
i?ineaaeeaaaony i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey e oaeoaeaiey, aeaaiua oaiaeaioeee
yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a 20 — 40-o aa., aai i?ioeai?a/ey a 50-o –
ia?aie iieiaeia 80-o aa. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu oi?iu o/anoey e ?ieue a
i?e?iaeiio?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e iauaaeeiaiee
a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae.

A iyoie aeaaa “Iiaue yoai a ?acaeoee yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a
eiioaenoa iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai aic?iaeaeaiey Oe?aeiu” aeaia
iaiauaiiay enoi?e/aneay ea?oeia i?ioeannia e oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey
aio?iiioaoiiaaiiiai aeeyiey ia ie?oaeathuoth i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo,
aaiacena nia?aiaiiiai e?eceniiai ninoiyiey i?e?iaeu a Oe?aeia.

Iniiaiia aieiaiea neiioeaio?e?iaaii ia inaauaiee iniaaiiinoae e /a?o
yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. I?iaaaeai ananoi?iiiee
aiaeec oneiaee aic?iaeaeaiey yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey iaeaioia e iinea
i?eia?aoaiey Oe?aeiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iacaaeneiinoe aai no?oeoo?u, oi?i
e iai?aaeaiee. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu aeayoaeueiinoe
iauanoaaiiuo i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e iauanoa, eo niaoeeoeea ia
iiaii yoaia, iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey yeiaeaeaeaiey a oneiaeyo
iacaaeneiinoe Oe?aeiu, ii?aaeaeaiu aai ianoi e ?ieue a i?e?iaeiio?aiiii
aeaea. A aeenna?oaoeee iineaaeiaaoaeueii ionoaeaaaony iieiaeaiea i oii,
/oi aicieeiiaaiea e ?acaeoea ia i?ioyaeaiee eiioea O?O – 90-o aiaeia OO
aaeia iauanoaaiiiai yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia yaeyaony
caeiiiia?iui e oeaeinoiui i?ioeannii io?aiu i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu e
?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey a? aiaaonoa. ?ac?aaioaia e eceiaeaia
ia?eiaeecaoeey ?acaeoey yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia a
enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae.

Iaoa?eaeu aeenna?oaoeee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e eco/aiee enoi?ee
Oe?aeiu, nioeeiyeieiaee, a i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aiiaeaaaoaeae
aocia, o/eoaeae iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeie, nooaeaioia, iauanoaaiiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeieiaey, yeieiae/aneia aeaeaeaiea, yeieiae/aneay
iieeoeea, i?e?iaeiay n?aaea, yeieiae/aneee e?ecen, yeieiae/aneea
i?aaiecaoeee, iaoeeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea, aio?iiiaaiiia
aeeyiea.

Alexiyevets M.O. The Ecological Movement in Ukraine (The Historical
Aspect). – The dissertation (manuscript) for the Candidate Degree in
History, Speciality 07.00.01 – History of Ukraine. – Ternopil Volodymyr
Hnatyuk State Pedagogical University, Ternopil, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the investigation of the
historico-geographical preconditions, national nature protection
traditions of the origin and development of the ecological movement in
Ukraine. Its tendencies and peculiarities in the context of modern
national-and-state revival are analized in the work, and the
perspectives of the ecological movement and reinforcement of its role in
the nature protection are observed.

The materials of the investigation can be used in studying History of
Ukraine, socioecology, in teachers’ practical activity in secondary
schools, in professors’, students’ and natural historians’ activity.

Key words: ecology, ecological movement, ecological policy, environment,
ecological crisis, ecological organizations, national use of nature,
man’s influence.

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