IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AAPAPIEE OI?AAPNEOAO

IOAePAE Ieaenaiaep Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 574:631.145

AEIEIAI*IA IOeIIEA IIIIAAOeIEIEO I?IOeANIA A AIE IIAeIEEss. —

03.00.16 — Aeieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaeapnueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iinoeooo? aa?iaeieiai? oa aiioaoiieiai? OAAI.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe A?eyanueeee
Aai?a?e Ieaen?eiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aapapiee oi?aapneoao, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e aa?iaeieia??, aeaaeai?e OAAI.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaeapnueeeo iaoe Aoaeee
Ethaeieea ?aai?aia, ?inoeooo caoenoo ?ineei OAAI, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???
aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? ianoeoeeae?a.Eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe Ieanooi ?aai
Ieeieaeiae/, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ? i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo “Aa?i?ano?ne”.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aea?aeaaia aa?iaeieia?/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie,
I?i?noa?noai AIE Oe?a?ie, i.AEeoiie?.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 8 aeiaoiy 1999?. i 10 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.02 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, i.EE?A-41, aoe.Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 15,
iaa/aeueiee ei?ion ?3, aoae.65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo? ca aae?anith: 252041, i.EE?A-41, aoe.Aa?i?a
Iai?iie, 11, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion ?10

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 6 aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Iaiaeaeoe A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?nioth/a oaoiie?aoe/ia eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai

AIE, ye iaaeoi ?ano?nii?noea, aenoaineaia, iai?eionoeii aia?aicao?aoia

ia caaacia/o? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ?
aeieiai-aeiiii?/iiai

caaeainiaaiiai ?icaeoeo aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a, i?iaeiaaeo? ni?e/eiyoe iaae?iiy

i?iaeoeoeaiino? aa?inoa?e ? iiaeeaeaiiy aeieia?/ii? e?ece. Ia?ao?ae

a?ae oe??? eiioeaioe?? aei aaeaioeaieo ?ioaa?iaaieo nenoai aaaeaiiy
n?euenueeiai

ainiiaea?noaa, /?oei ci???ioiaaieo ia aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy i?noeaaeo

i?e?iaeieo aa?iiii?/ieo ?ano?n?a, iio?aao? ii?aoethaaiiy e
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy

iaoiae?a eiiieaenii? aa?iaeieia?/ii? ioe?iee ye noaio aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a,

oae ? ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo iiaeaeae ?o aenieoaoaoe??.

Aeieia?/ia ioe?iea ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a AIE Iiae?eey ? aaaeeeaeie,

aeooaeueieie iaoeiaeie iai?yiaie aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? iaoiiaeai? /anii

? iio?aaaie noaeiai ?icaeoeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eii?

?iaioe iia’ycaia c iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?iaeaiaoeeith ? iniiaieie

caaaeaiiyie ?inoeoooo aa?iaeieia?? oa a?ioaoiieia?? OAAI. Aeine?aeaeaiiy

i?iaiaeeeenue a 1995-1998??. a ?aieao iaoeiai? oaie: «Oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oiooaaoe

oa ?ic?iaeoe iiaeae? noaeiai ?icaeoeo aa?iaeieia?/ieo nenoai ia canaaeao

a?aeiiaethaaiiai caieaei?enooaaiiy oa aacia/iiai aeei?enoaiiy cania?a

o?i?caoe??» (¦ aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? — 01 0196V 012979).

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei aea/aiiy ? ioe?iea

?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a AIE Iiae?eey, ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy

aieeao ??cieo oaoiiaaiieo oaeoi??a ia a?ii?iaeoeoeai?noue
aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a,

aecia/aiiy oeyo?a iie?auaiiy noaio aeiae?eey ca ?aooiie aeieia?/ieo

?iiiaaoe?e a aa?inoa??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??ooaaee oae? caaaeaiiy:

— eeaneo?eoaaoe ?iiiaaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/iiai

noaio aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a;

— aecia/eoe iniiai? e?eoa??? oa ioe?ieoe aeieia?/iee noai AIE Iiae?eey;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo aa?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao Iiae?eey;

— i?iaanoe aa?iaeieia?/iee iii?oi?eia A?iie//eie;

— aecia/eoe i??i?eoaoi? ?iiiaaoe?? aeey iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio

AIE A?iie//eie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aea/aii

aieea ??cieo oaoiiaaiieo oaeoi??a ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue AIE, ?ic?iaeaii

oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao noaio

aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a, yeee aeeth/a? aeiiii?/io, aeioieneeieia?/io,
nioe?aeueio

oa ?iiiaaoe?eio neeaaeia?. ?ic?iaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th ?iiiaaoe?e
Iiae?eey,

ni?yiiaaieo ia noai?aiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo aeieia?/ii no?eeeo

aa?iaeinenoai ? aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a. Aeae?eaii 8 a?oi, a eiaei?e c yeeo

aecia/aii iaei??i?eoaoi?o?, i??i?eoaoi?, aea neeaaei? aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa ?iiiaaoe?e ia

a?aeaeaeaio ia?niaeoeao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. I?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio AIE

Iiae?eey, cie?aia A?iie//eie. Neeaaeaii 14 aa?iaeieia?/ieo ea?o
A?iieoeueei?

iaeano?: caa?oaeiaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue aaaeeeie
iaoaeaie,

i?o?aoaie, ?aae?iaeoeaiiai, ianoeoeeaeiiai oa oaoiiaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy,

iaaaoeaiiai aieeao a?enueeiai-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno oa iiaooiaeo

a?aeoiae?a. Aeae?eaii ciie aeieia?/iiai ?eceeo, ui ni?aiaaeathoue c
ciiaie

iaeneiaeueiiai caoai?thaaiiy ianaeaiiy ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oaa?ei

oa aeieia?/ii aacia/i? ciie aeey ae?iuoaaiiy ye?nieo i?iaeoeo?a
aeeoy/iai

? ae??oe/iiai oa?/oaaiiy oa e?ea?nueei? ne?iaeie. Cai?iiiiiaaii aei

aeei?enoaiiy aeueoa?iaoeai? aeaea?aea aia?a?? (a?iaacia?-,
a?o?iaia?aaoe/i?-,

a?ae?iaia?aaoe/i?-, aae?ionoaiiaee, ae?iuoaaiiy ?aino) a
?aeiiaiaeiaaieo

i?noeyo, ca?eueoeaoe ?o /anoeo aei 10% oa aeae?eaii ?aeiiaiaeiaai?
caiia?aei?

ia’?eoe aeey ca?eueoaiiy i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo A?iie//eie.

Io?eiai? aeai? iiaeia aeei?enoaoe: i?e ?icai?oaii? ? aaeineiiaeaii?

nenoaie aa?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao; i?e i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie
aeieia?/iiai

aoaeeoo c iaoith eiio?ieth ?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy a
aa?a?iiio

ae?iaieoeoa?; i?e ?ic?iaeaii? oa ?aae?caoe?? ei?ioeino?ieiaeo ?
aeiaaino?ieiaeo

eieaeueieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai aeey a?ae?iaeaeaiiy n?eueainioa?aeue,

e?n?a, iaeeo ??/ie, cae?eniaiiy aeieia?/ii aacia/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa

AIE; i?e oi?ioaaii? iioeiaeueieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae aeaiaioaie
aa?ieaiaeoaooo

(i?ieie, e?niaeie, eo/ieie, aiaeieie oa?aeaeyie oa i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiei
oiiaeii);

— i?e aeae?eaii? cii aeey ae?iuoaaiiy ye?nieo i?iaeoeo?a aeeoy/iai e

ae??oe/iiai oa?/oaaiiy oa e?ea?nueei? ne?iaeie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. ?ic?iaeaii noaio eeaneo?eaoe?? aeieia?/ieo

?iiiaaoe?e aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Iiae?eey, cai?iiiiiaaii iniiai?

e?eoa??? ioe?iee no/aniiai aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio oa?eoi??? iaeano?,

(?ic?iaeaii aa?iaeieia?/i? ea?oe, aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii — 14 ea?o)

, aecia/aii iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeai? ?iiiaaoe?? aeey aa?a?iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa,

aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yie ? oeyoe aeey noaeiai ?icaeoeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao oa
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo

eiioa?aioe?yo aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.

O.Oaa/aiea (Ee?a, 1996,1997); A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai

?inoeoooo (A?iieoey, 1997,1998); A?iieoeueeiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai
a?aeae?eaiiy

Aea?ae?iiioiiaeo Oe?a?ie (1997, 1998); ?inoeoooo aa?iaeieia?? oa
a?ioaoiieia??

OAAI (Ee?a, 1999); ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?

i?iaeaie ?iaanoeoe?eii? oa ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae» (Ee?a,
1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 12 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia

ia 154 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio

?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? 3 aeiaeaoe?a.
?iaioa

?ethno?iaaia 10 oaaeeoeyie, 8 ?enoieaie oa 14 ea?oaie. Ia?ae?e
e?oa?aoo?ieo

aeaea?ae ioiieth? 211 iaeiaioaaiue, a oiio /ene? 24 ?iicaiieo aaoi?e.

Aeneiaethth ue?o iiaeyeo aeieoi?o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
aeaaeai?eo

IAIO ? OAAI Nic?iiao Ieaen?th Ieaen?eiae/o, aeieoi?o aaia?ao?/ieo

iaoe, aeioeaioo Aeaieneeo A?eai??th ?aaiiae/o ca eiinoeueoaoe?? e
aeiiiiiao

a caaa?oaii? ?iaioe oa i?aeaioiaoe? ?? aei caoenoo.

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith
aeine?aeaeaiue

iineoaeeee a?ae?a?ai? ? ii?aoeueiaai? iaoa??aee oa ca?oe Aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aae?iiy aeieia?/ii? aaciaee o A?iieoeuee?e iaeano?, iaeaniiai
noaoenoe/iiai

oi?aae?iiy; iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
i?iaeiaieuenoaa;

caiaeueiiai oiiaeo o A?iieoeuee?e iaeano?; A?iieoeueeiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai

a?aeae?eaiiy Aea?ae?iiioiiaeo Oe?a?ie; iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy aaoa?eia?ii?

iaaeeoeeie oa aea?aeaaii? aaoa?eia?ii? ?iniaeoe??, AO «A?iieoeyi’yni»,

AAO «A?iieoeyiieiei», AO «A?iieoeyoe?a», AI «A?iieoeyioaoii?ii»,
A?iieoeueeiai

oeaio?o a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?? oa ee?iaoieia??. Oai?aoe/iith aacith
aeine?aeaeaiue

iineoaeeee iaoeia? iaoa??aee ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI,
?inoeoooo aa?iaeieia?? oa a?ioaoiieia?? OAAI, A?iieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai

?inoeoooo, Oeaaeiai-Etheeiaoeueei? aeine?aeii? naeaeoe?eii? noaioe??
?inoeoooo

oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a OAAI, iaeanii? e?ea?i? ?i. I.Ie?iaiaa oa ?io?.

E??i oiai aaoi?ii ianoaaeaii 25 oi/ie, iia’ycaieo ?c caieaei?enooaaiiyi,

i?iaiae?ciaaii aeecueei 80 ea?o, noai ? oaaeeoeue aeieia?/iiai ci?noo,

i?iaaaeaii aeieia?/iee iii?oi?eia aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a A?iie//eie (cie?aia,

a 1991 ?ioe? aaoi? a?aa o/anoue o aeine?aeaeaii? aa?inoa?e, iia’ycaii?

c ?aae?aoe?eiei caa?oaeiaiiyi), aaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea ae?aaiinoeee
ooaa?eoeueico

aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae. Aeey aecia/aiiy noaio aeiae?eey a ?iaio?
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue

iaoiaee: niinoa?aaeaiue, ianoaaeaiue, ia?iaee, nenoaiaoecaoe??, aiae?co

ii/eiath/e a?ae eiioaeoieo (iieueiaeo, iaoai?/ieo, o?i?/ieo, o?ce/ieo,

a?ieia?/ieo) ? cae?i/oth/e aaceiioaeoieie (aeenoaioe?eia aa?i-,
oioiceiiea)

. Oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeieia?/i?: ??aaiue caa?oaeiaiiy
?aae?iioee?aeaie,

aaaeeeie iaoaeaie, ianoeoeeaeaie, i?o?aoaie, iaooii?iaeoeoaie,
aeei?enoaiiy

aai?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai; nioe?aeuei?: noaoenoe/i?, iaoiaee iieooaaiiy,

aieaooaaiiy, aiae?co noaio o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, oiia ?o i?iaeeaaiiy,

i?aoeacaeaoiino?; oaoiieia?/i?: e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae, aiae?c oaoi?/ii?

aeieoiaioaoe??, ianii?o?a, a?ao?e?a ? ieai?a aeei?enoaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?

oaoi?ee, ?? ye?nii? ? e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee oiui. Aiae?c io?eiaii?

?ioi?iaoe?? i?iaiaeeany noaoenoe/iei oa iaoaiaoe/iei iaoiaeaie, a oaeiae

iaoiaeii iiaeaethaaiiy. Ea?oe-noaie ?ic?iaeaii ia IAII a i?ia?ai?
«Photoshop»,

aeeipenoai? iaoiaee A?N.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

1. IAEssAe E?OA?AOO?IEO AeAEA?AE

Ia iniia? aiae?co ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e aena?oeai? iniaeeaino?

no/anieo ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a AIE na?oo, Oe?a?ie, aecia/ai? iniiai?

oeyoe ?o iioei?caoe?? oa iieacaia aeieiai-aeiiii?/ia ?ieue o ?icaeoeo

aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa. I?iaiae?ciaaii ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae
aa?a?ii?

iie?oeee aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiaieo e?a?i, e?a?i ?N oa i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie

eiai ?icaeoeo.

2. IAOIAeEEA AEIEIA?*II° IOe?IEE AIE IIAe?EEss

2.1. Eeaneo?eaoe?y ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a

?ic?iaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aeieia?/ieo ?iiiaaoe?e a AIE Iiae?eey, ye?

ni?yiiaai? ia ciaioaiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a aa?inoa??

e noai?aii? noaeeo aa?iaeinenoai. Aeae?eaii 8 oei?a: a nenoai?
i?aai?caoe??

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa(1); a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?

(ie?aii — a ?ineeiieoeoa? ? oaa?eiieoeoa?(2); a nenoai? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai

caaacia/aiiy(3); a aaeoc? caa?aaeaiiy, ia?a?iaee ? caooo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?

i?iaeoeoe??(4); a aaeoc? ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a aa?ii?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa(5)

; a nenoai? aeiiii?/ieo(6) e aia?aaoe/ieo(7) caoiae?a caa?aaeaiiy

aeiae?eey a aa?a?iiio ae?iaieoeoa? Iiae?eey oa a nioe?inoa??(8). Oe?

oeie ?iiiaaoe?e ?icae?eai? ia iaei??i?eoai?o?, i??i?eoaoi?, aea neeaaei?

aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa ia a?aeaeaeaio ia?niaeoeao. Aiie ioiieththoue
a?ey

noa iiaeo oi?i ? iaoiae?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy, iieeeeaieo aeey

noai?aiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo aeieia?/ii no?eeeo aa?iaeinenoai e

aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a oa caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy ye?nieie i?iaeoeoaie
oa?/oaaiiy.

Iaeia?niaeoeai?oeie (c oi/ee ci?o e e?eueeino? iiaiaaaaeaiue oa
iiaeeeainoae

?o ?aae?caoe?e) a iaeaeeae/ee /an aeey Iiae?eey iiaee a noaoe
?iiiaaoe??

a noa?? ?ineeiieoeoaa (?en.1), a naia: 1) anoaiiaeaiiy
iioeiaeueieo

ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae aeaiaioaie aa?ieaiaeoaooo: c iaeiiai aieo, i?ae oae

caaiith «aeeeith i?e?iaeith» (ui aeeiio? ?ieue aooa?o aeey no?eeiai
?icaeoeo

aa?inoa?e) oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oa?aeaeyie, c ae?oaiai — i?ae
??eeath,

i?e?iaeieie ei?iiaeie oa?aeaeyie e aaaaoi??/ieie ianaaeaeaiiyie, c

o?aoueiai — i?ae e?niaeie e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oa?aeaeyie; 2)
aeei?enoaiiy

?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e ia?ia?oeo a?oioo
(eiioo?ii-iae?i?aoeaii?

nenoaia caiea?ianoaa, oaoiieia?? «ioeueiaiai» oa aaca?aeaaeueiiai
ia?ia?oeo

a?oioo, eiai ioeue/oaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy n?aici?i, iieacaoenia
e?ni?icaaaeaiiy,

iaiaaeaiiy o aeei?enoaii? aaaeei? oaoi?ee oiui); 3) ca?eueoaiiy /anoee

a?ieia?/ieo iaoiae?a ai?ioueae c ao?’yiaie, oe?aeieeaie oa oai?iaaie

?ineei; 4) aeei?enoaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea, neaea?ao?a oa iin?a?a

aaaaoi??/ieo (cie?aia aiaiaeo) o?aa. A oaa?eiieoeoa? iaeia?niaeoeai?o?
?iiiaaoe?? yeeie ?: aea?? iioeiaeueieo o?aainoi?oie

aeey ianiaeu ??cieo a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo cii (i?e oeueiio
ca?eueoeaoe

ieiuo ianiaeu ia a?ic?eii iaaacia/ieo caieyo a 5-6 ?ac?a);
aeei?enoaiiy caa?iii-ii?oe?eii? oa

eiia?iiaaii? nenoaie aeianaiiy oaa?ei; anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueiiai

ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae oaa?eiieoeueeith ? ?ineeiieoeueeith aaeocyie;
aeei?enoaiiy

a ei?iiae?iaieoeoa? i?ai?en?a, aa?ieeoeueoo?e, a?oio?oo oiui; aea??

iioeiaeueieo ?aoe?ii?a aiae?ae? a ciiao ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy;

io?eiaiiy a?iaaco c i?aai?/ieo a?aeoiae?a. Iaei??i?eoaoi?oeie
?iiiaaoe?yie

a AIE Iiae?eey ? aeei?enoaiiy iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaea?ae aia?a?? (a?o?i-,

aae?i-, a?iaaciaeo onoaiiaie, ?icaeoie iaei? e i?e?ia?ae?iia?aaoeee,

oaoiieia?? ia?a?iaee iecueeiye?nii? aea?aaeie oa a?aeoiae?a,
ae?iuoaaiiy

??iaeo, a??/eoe?); a nenoai? i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai

ae?iaieoeoaa oea i?iaaaeaiiy aeieia?/ii? aenia?oece ? aoaeeoo aa?a?ieo

i?aei?e?inoa (noai?aiiy aa?iaeieia?/iiai ianii?oo), noai?aiiy iiaeo

oi?i aaaeaiiy aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa e i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? i?e
aeei?enoaii?

aeieiaiaacia/ieo ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e; a nioe?inoa?? — oea

aeieia?/ia aeoiaaiiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy (i?aai?caoe?y aeieia?/ieo

?aae?iia?aaea/, ia?anoaieo aeieia?/ieo aenoaaie, y?ia?ie, ae?cieo

aeieia?/ieo eaeoe?e), aaaaeaiiy i?aaeiaoo «iniiae aa?iaeieia??» o
n?euenueeeo

oeieao, ?aaoey?ia aeieia?/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?i

aeieia?/iee noai ?aa?iio.

2.2. Iaoiaeeea aa?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao

Iiia?aaei?e ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ui
a?aeaoaaany

ia iniia? oeaii? eiioeaioe??, eiee aeieia?/iee oaeoi? iaaeiioe?ithaaany,

i?eca?a aei aeaa?aaeaoe?? aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a. A?oioe /a?ac iaaei??io
?ici?ai?noue,

ia?aou?eueiaiiy, ciano?oeoo?aiiy, i?aeeeneaiiy, i?aeoiieaiiy,
canieaiiy,

caa?oaeiaiiy aeaoa?aaioaie, ii/aee a i?enei?aiiio oaii? ao?a/aoe

nai? iaeoe?ii?o? aa?iiii?/i? aeanoeaino?, iaaaoeaii aieeaaoe ia
caaaeueiiaeieia?/i

o neooaoe?th. Aiane?aeie oeueiai ??aaiue aoiono cieceany ia
1,eooaoe?th. Aiane?aeie oeueiai ??aaiue aoiono cieceany ia 1,8-2,0 %.
I?ae

aieeaii ?ici?aiino? a?oioe iii?oii ci?ieee nai? o?ceei-o?i?/i?
aeanoeaino?:

ciaioeeany aaee/eia a?ae?ie?oe/ii? eeneioiino?, ca?eueoeeany noia

oa?a?aieo iniia, i?aeaeueeany aaee/eia ?I. E?euee?noue ?ooeeaeo oi?i

acioo nei?ioeeanue a oaiii-n??eo a?oioao ia 6,5 ia, a n??eo — 3,9

ia, a na?oei-n??eo — 4,5 ia; oinoi?o a?aeiia?aeii ia 0,0-2,3-2,2 ia,

eae?th — 11,3-18,2-1,8 ia ia 100 a a?oioo; caiane aieiae ia 27,32

? 20 ii a iao?iaiio oa??.

Aino?ith i?iaeaiith aeey ?aa?iio ? a?ae/oaeaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo

caiaeue (iniaeeai ??ee?) i?ae aoae?aieoeoai caaiae?a, i?no, aei??a,
a?aee?eoeo

a??ie/eo ?ic?iaie. Oae, ieiua caiaeue, ii?ooaieo a??ie/iaeiaoaiith

i?iieneia?noth, neeaaea? a ?aa?ii? 65 oen. aa, yea ui?ieo ca?eueoo?oueny

ia 300-400 aa. A?aee?eo? ?ic?iaee aaaeooueny iaeaea ia 1,8 oen.
ea?’???a.

Eeoa i?e ?ic?iaoe? oi?oo ii?ooaii 26 oen. aa i?iaeoeoeaieo caiaeue,

a i?e noai?ai? aiaeinoiaeu (anueiai 56) ia Aei?no??, I?aaeaiiiio

Aoc?, Ai?ei?, Neo/? ?c n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ia?ao aoei aeeo/aii

a?eueoa 3 oen. aa ?iaeth/eo caiaeue. Caaacia/ai?noue neeaaeaie aeey
caa??aaiiy

i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea a ia’?aeiaiiyo «N?eueainio?i?y» noaiiaeoue anueiai

27 %, a ianoeoeeae?a 58 %. Oae, a Oiaeueieoeuee?e iaeano? i?e iio?aa?

673 neeaaee ? 583, c ieo 197 ciaoiaeyoueny a i?enoiniaaieo i?ei?uaiiyo

(ia i?ieoee aeieia?/ii? aenia?oece).

Iaaoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?

?aa?iio, ia?aoe?iiaeueia ae?oaea e?n?a, ?ici?thaaiiy i?eaa?aaeieo nioa,

caa?oaeiaiiy oa?eoi??? ?aae?iioee?aeaie, inooaiiy aie?o, iaoeiai
iaiaa?oioiaaia

aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo, i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea, ianoeoeeae?a i?ecaaee aei

caa?oaeiaiiy aiaeiei (aao?io?eaoe??) oa aeao?oeeoo /enoi? i??nii? aiaee.

Eeoa /aoaa?oa /anoeia n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy Iiae?eey ia? aa?aioiaaia

caaacia/aiiy ieoiith aiaeith, a iaaeia?iye?nio ieoio aiaeo nueiaiaei?
io?eio?

aeecueei 17 % i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy. Cia/io oeiaeo iiaa?oiaaei ?
i?aecaiiei

aiaeai caaaeathoue a?aeoiaee oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa?i oa eiiieaen?a, ui
neeaaeooueny

a caieyieo aii?noiaeuao. Caaacia/ai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa

oeiiaeie aii?noiaeuaie noaiiaeoue anueiai 30 %. Caa?oaeiai?, caioeai?,

ao?aoeee aiaei?noue a?eueo?noue ?c iaeeo ??/ie (/a?ac caaaeai? aeua

i?e/eie), a aanaeiao yeeo oi?io?oueny 60 % caian?a aiaee. Iei? aeey

caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy ieoiith aiaeith oa aeinyaiaiiy iioeiaeueii?
e?nenoino?,

ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaiao?aeii ia oa?eoi??? ?aa?iio ianaaeeoe a?eueoa

383 oen. aa e?no (iniaeeai a aiaeiioi?iiieo ciiao) oa i/enoeoe a?eueoa

3 oen. ei ?onae ??/ie. Aino?ith caeeoa?oueny ia Iiae?ee? i?iaeaia
ioi?iie

iia?o?yiiai aanaeio, aea aaaiiei caa?oaeithaa/ai ? o?aina?aie/iee
ia?aiin

oe?aeeeaeo ?a/iaei. Eiiieaenia ioe?iea aa?iaeieia?/ii? neooaoe??
oa?eoi???

Iiae?eey na?ae/eoue, ui aeaia oa?eoi??y ia? neeueii iia??oaiee
aeieia?/iee

noai c iaaeeaeaiiyi aei eaoano?io?/iiai — 4,6 aaee (ii 5-oe aaeuei?e

oeae?, ca aeaieie ?inoeoooo caieaaii?yaeeoaaiiy OAAI). Nueiaiaei?
aa?inoa?a

Iiae?eey ia a?ai? aeieia?/ii? eaoano?ioe: a?aeaoeiny cieaeaiiy
i?e?iaeiiai

iioaioe?aeo iaeaea 70% oe?iieo i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a ? eaiaeoaoo?a
?aa?iio.

Aeey ae??oaiiy oeeo i?iaeai iaiao?aeiei ? i?iaaaeaiiy aa?iaeieia?/iiai

iii?oi?eiao (AAI). Eiai caaaeaiiyi ? aeyaeaiiy oei?a, iiooaeiinoae

aeaea?ae caa?oaeiaiiy, ?o aca?iica’yce?a c ia’?eoaie, ia ye? aiie
ae?thoue;

aeyaeaiiy eaiae?a ? oaeaeeino? iioe?aiiy caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei o

aa?ieaiaeoaooao, aea?? ?iaeeeaoi??a, ye? iaee?aua iieacoaaee a noai

aeiae?eey, i?iaiic ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ieo neooaoe?e. Iniiaieie iieacieeaie

AAI iiaeii? aooe oae? /eiieee: 1) aa?io?i?/i? — ai?no a i?iiio oa??

aoiono, acioo (ui eaaei a?ae?ie?cothoueny), ?ooiiiai ?, iai?iiiai E

oa i?e?iaeaiaio?a (Mn, Mo, Zn, Cu, B, Co), a oaeiae eeneioi?noue a?oioo,

?ii?noue aae?aiiy, noia aa?a?aieo iniia, u?euei?noue a?oioo,
iaeneiaeueii

iiaeeea? caiane i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae a oa?? 0-100 ni; 2) aeieia?/i?:

— ??aaiue caa?oaeiaiiy ?aae?iioee?aeaie (Cs-137, Sr-90), aaaeeeie
iaoaeaie

(?ooii? oi?ie Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg), caeeoeaie AeAeO oa ?i.
aenieioiene/ieie

ianoeoeeaeaie. AAI i?iaiaeeoueny c o?aooaaiiyi aa?iee?iaoe/ieo oiia.

Iniiaiei aeieoiaioii, a yeiio cina?aaeaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i noai ?
ye?noue iiey /e caiaeueii? ae?eyiee, iiaeiai

aooe aeieiai-aa?io?i?/iee ianii?o. Aaaeeeaith iiaeciith a AAI ? ?ic?iaea

iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, ye? aeicaieythoue ia iniia? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e

?iaeoe ii??aiyiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy, ?ic?iaeyoe neooaoe?ei? iiaeae?

oa i?iaiice (o aeaeyae? aeieia?/ieo ea?o), ? iia?aoeaii aecia/eoe

e ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe caoiaee ii caiia?aaiith aeaa?aaeaoe?eiei i?ioeanai, ui
iai?oeeeny.

2.3. Neeaaeia? aa?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao (AAI)

Aeae?eaii 4 neeaaeia? AAI Iiae?eey.

Aeiiii?/ia neeaaeiaa iiaeiia aeeth/aoe: aea?aeaaia o?iainoaaiiy caoiae?a

c ioi?iie i?e?iaee; e?oeaicoaaiiy; ii?ioaaiiy; noai?aiiy aeieia?/ieo

oiiae?a; nenoaio ieaoe ca ei?enooaaiiy i?e?iaeieie ?ano?naie oa
aeiaeaoeiai

ca ?ano?ne, ui aeeo/athoueny; aeiiii?/i? naieoe?? (ieaoaae? oa oo?aoe)

ca caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey; aeiiii?/ia noeioethaaiiy cieaeaiiy
caa?oaeiaiiy,

i?eueaia? oa aeiaaino?ieia? e?aaeeoe aeey ?aae?caoe?? aeieia?/ieo
?ia?o,

ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e oa aeeiiaiiy
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo

caoiae?a; i?eueaiaa iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa, ui ai?iaaaeaeothoue
aaca?aeo?aei?

oaoiieia?? oa io?eiothoue /enoo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th;
i?aai

ia i?iaeaae aeieia?/ii /enoi? i?iaeoeoe?? ca i?aeaeuaieie oe?iaie. A
/ene?

aeiiii?/ieo cania?a caaacia/aiiy ioi?iie aeiae?eey — eiiiainaoe??

? i?eueae, ye? aa?aioothoueny a?iiaaeyiai i?e ?o iino?eiiio /e
oei/aniaiio

ia?aaoaaii? a ciiao aeieia?/ii? eaoano?ioe /e eeoa, a oaeiae cae?eniaiiy

aeia?ia?eueiiai ? iaia’yceiaiai no?aooaaiiy a?iiaaeyi ? ?o iaeia,
aeioiae?a

i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e ia aeiaaeie oeiaee, caiiae?yii?

aiane?aeie caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey. Aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo e?eoa???a

iiaeiii aooe ni?yiiaaiei ia ?aae?caoe?th aieiaiiai i?eioeeio:
aeinyaiaiiy

i?eaooeo eeoa ca ?aooiie no?eeiai ?icaeoeo oeyoii caaeainiaaiiai

i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy — ?icaeoie iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a
aoaeue-yeiio

?aa?ii? iiaeiai caaacia/oaaoe no?ee?noue aa?iaeinenoai.

Aeioieneeieia?/ia neeaaeiaa iiaeiia a naaa aeeth/aoe aiae?c i?aeaeuaiiy

i?iaeoeoeaiino? aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a, ii/eiath/e c aiae?co no/anii?
aeieia?/ii?

neooaoe?? ?aa?iio ia iniia? aeioieneeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao oa
cae?i/oth/e

neeaaeaiiyi aeieiai-aa?io?i?/iiai ianii?oo.

Nioe?aeueia neeaaeiaa. I?e aeeiiaii? eiiieaenii? ioe?iee iaiao?aeii
aeeiioaaoe

aiae?c oaeeo aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueii? neeaaeiai?: 1) noaio caaaeueii?

aeieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy (ie?aii oa?ia??a,
oaa?eiiee?a,

iaoai?caoi??a, i?aei?e?ioe?a o noa?? aa?ia?ciano oiui); 2) noaio

ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aeieia?/ii? aace oa ?? aeeiiaiiy (noai eiio?ieth

ca aeeiiaiiyi /eiieo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, nenoaie aeieia?/ieo oiia,

iaiaaeaiue ? ?aaeaiaioaoe?e uiaei ?aaeei?a caieaei?enooaaiiy; noai
i?iaaaeaiiy

iaia’yceiai? aeieia?/ii? na?oeo?eaoe?? ae?iuaii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?

i?iaeoeoe?? oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai iaoiaeo
?aoe?iiaeueiiai

e eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a ? ioi?iie aeiae?eey)

; 3) canoinoaaiiy ae?eiaeo aeiiii?/ieo ?ino?oiaio?a aeey noeioethaaiiy

?ano?ni- oa aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, i?i?i?caoe?? oe?aeeeaeo aeeeae?a oiui;

4) noaio eiiia?oaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa c iaoith aeeiiaiiy aeieia?/ieo

i?ia?ai ia aca?iii-aeiaia??i?e iniia? oa anoaiiaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai

iaiaaeaiiy ia aeaee ?ia?o ? oaoiieia?e, ui oeiaeyoue aeiae?eeth; 5)
noaio

o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, oiia ?o i?iaeeaaiiy, i?aoeacaeaoiino?, aoaeoeaiino?

aeei?enoaiiy a AIE, i?a?aoe?? oiui.

?iiiaaoe?eia neeaaeiaa. Aeaiaioaie aiae?co oe??? neeaaeiai? ? aea/aiiy

noaio ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo, a?eueo aeieia?/ieo ? aoaeoeaieo aeaea?ae

aia?a?? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?: a?o?o, niioey, a?iaaco, iaei?

? i?e?ia?ae?iaia?aaoeee; ia?ao?ae aei ia?aaeiaeo, i?ia?aneaieo ?ano?ni-

? i?e?iaeicaa??aath/i? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?e; oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe??,

?ici?uaiiy, niaoe?ae?caoe?? e eiioeaio?aoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai

ae?iaieoeoaa, iiaea?i?caoe?y eiai eeoa ia iniia? nenoaiii-aeieia?/iiai

i?aeoiaeo; noai?aiiy aaieo aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?e ?aeiiieo oa

iaeanieo oi?aae?iiyo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? i?iaeiaieuenoaa;
?icaeoie

? iinooiiaa ?aae?caoe?y aeieia?/iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo (eiiieaeniiai
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaa

iiai oi?aae?iiy ye?noth aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a) ia iniia? iiai? aeieia?/ii
aacia/ii?, i?e?iaeiia?oei?aii? iie?oeee noaeiai ?icaeoeo Aeey oeueiai
iaiao?aeii

aeiei??iii ci?ieoe i?aai?caoe?th i?aoe? ? oaoiieia?th noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa

a AIE, aea iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo ?ino?oiaio?a oi?aae?iiy iiaeiai noaoe

aeieia?/iee aoaeeo (?aaoey?ia aeieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy ia’?eo?a AIE

c iaoith eiio?ieth ?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy), yeee
aeiiiiiaea

ioe?ieoe ye?noue aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a oa i?aeo?eiaoe ?o ii?iaeueiee
aeieia?/iee noai.

3. AEIEIA?*IA IOe?IEA ?IIIAAOe?EIEO I?IOeAN?A

A AIE A?IIE**EIE

3.1. Caaaeueiee aiae?c noaio i?iaeaie a ?aa?ii?

Niaoeeo?ea i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ia A?iie//ei? coiiaeaia cia/iei
?icaeoeii

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ui i?ecaaei aei ci?i
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii

? i?aai?caoe?? i?e?iaeieo eaiaeoaoo?a ? ii?ooaiiy a ieo aeieia?/ii?

??aiiaaae. ?noioi? ci?ie coiiaeai? cia/iei ciaioaiiyi a i?ioean?

inai?iiy oa?eoi??? ieiu, caeiyoeo i?e?iaeieie ?ineeiieie oa?oioaaiiyie

(e?naie, eoeaie), i?e iaeii/aniiio ca?eueoaii? ieoiii? aaae inai?iino?

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue, iniaeeai — ??ee?.

Ciaioaiiy ieiu iie?eoeo e?naie, oi?ioaaiiy ia oa?eoi??? ?aa?iio

aaeeeeo aace?nieo i?ieo ianea?a aac o?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ii? ioe?iee

oei?a i?noeaaino? (e?ooecie noee?a, oeio a?oioo, eiai i?ioea?ic?eii?

no?eeino? oiui), iaoeiai iaiaa?oioiaaiiai aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea

? ianoeoeeae?a i?e ae?iuoaaii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??
i?ecaaee

aei ?icaeoeo iaaaoeaieo aeieia?/ieo iane?aee?a: 1) iia??oaiiy no?oeoo?e

aa?ieaiaeoaooo oa ii?ooaiiy iioeiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae eiai

eiiiiiaioaie; 2) ciaioaiiy no?eeino? ? caeaoiino?
aa?ieaiaeoaooo

aei naii?aaoeyoe??; 3) i?enei?aiiy i?ioean?a aiaeii?
a?ic??

(ieiua a?iaeiaaieo caiaeue aeinyaea 41,2%, a oiio /ene? 29,5 % — i?ieo)

; 4) cieaeaiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy ai?noo aoiono

(1880 ?. — 3,68 %, 1960 — 2,94 %, 1998 — 2,67 %) a?ae ii/aoeiaiai

??aiy ? ao?aoe iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei aiane?aeie i?ia?ae?caoe?? aoiono ?

a?ic?? a?oio?a; 5) ia?aneoaiiy ? iai?e?iiy ??e (ciaioaiiy ia’?io

noieo ia 12-18 %); 6) caa?oaeiaiiy a?oio?a, iiaa?oiaaeo, i?aecaiieo

aiae ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ianoeoeeaeaie,
?aae?iioee?aeaie,

aaaeeeie iaoaeaie, i?o?aoaie, i?o?eoaie, iaooii?iaeoeoaie oiui, ye?

iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ethaeeio oa aeiae?eey. No/aniee
aeieiai-aa?io?i?/iee

noai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue iaeano? aecia/aiee
aa?iaeieia?/iei

iaoiaeii noaiiaeoue 53 aaee (ii 100 aaeuei?e oeae?). Ia iniia? aeaieo

aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaeaii ea?oo-noaio iaeneiaeueiiai oaoiiaaiiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy

aa?inoa?e iaeano? (?en.2); aeiaaaeaii, ui aiie ni?aiaaeathoue ?c ciiaie

iaea?eueoi? e?eueeino? caoai?thaaiue ethaeae. Iineeaiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai

aieeao ia eaiaeoaooe ?aa?iio i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy oiia

?nioaaiiy aeeaeo i?aai?ci?a, aeaa?aaeaoe?? i?e?iaeieo aeinenoai,
ciaioaiiy a?ieia?/ii?

oa eaiaeoaooii? ??ciiiai?oiino?.

3.2. Aeieia?/ia ioe?iea ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a aaeoc? ?ineeiieoeoaa

A aaeoc? ?ineeiieoeoaa iaiao?aeii: ia’?eoeaii ? ?aaeueii eiio?ieueiaaia

aea?aeaaith caaacia/aiiy ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? oeo, ooi caeaoai ??
?aoe?iiaeueii

aeei?enoiaoaaoe; a?aeiia?aei?noue ?ici?aiino? oa?eoi??? iaeano?
aeieia?/ii

iaa?oioiaaiei ii?iai, i?ea’ycaiei aei iaaieo aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a;
?aae?caoe?y

eiioo?ii-iae?i?aoeaii? nenoaie caiea?ianoaa ia anaa?/ii
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaai?e

aac? (ca?eueoeaoe ieiuo ei?iiaeo oa?aeue c 8 % aei 25 %, e?neno?noue

c 11,5 % aei 18 %, caiia?aei? ia’?eoe c 0,7 % aei 5 % — ca ?aooiie

a?ic?eii-iaaacia/ieo ae?eyiie); oe?iea canoinoaaiiy iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo

a?ieia?/ieo cania?a caoenoo ?ineei (ca?eueoeoe ?o /anoeo aei 30 %)

; ?icaeoie iiaeo a?ioaoiieia?e a naae?aieoeoa?, oaa?eiieoeoa? oiui;

?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa a?o/eciyii? aenieiaoaeoeaii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?

oaoi?ee ? cia?yaeaey ye aeey oa?ia?nueeeo, oae ? aeey aaeeeeo
eieaeoeaieo

ainiiaea?noa; noai?ee eiio?ieue ia iniia? iiaeo ii?iaoea?a ca
iaiao?aei?noth

a?aeaaaeaieo caiaeue aeey ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iio?aa; ia?ao?ae
ia

ae?iaieoeoai ? aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo i?aaii-i?ia?aeueieo

a?aioeueiaaieo aeia?ea, ye? ia aeatho iaeiie/aiue o ?ineeiao oiene/ieo

?a/iaei. Aeey oeueiai aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe ia?iaeo iin?a?a
i?i?iaeueiei aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaiei ianyaii o?i?/ieo cania?a,

a?aoiaoth/e aeiiae aeieia?/ii? oa a?a??i?/ii? aaciaee, i?iaiicoth/e

? a?aeaa?oath/e iaaaoeai? iane?aeee aaea ia aoai? ieaioaaiiy caoiae?a

ai?ioueae c oai?iaaie oa oe?aeieeaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?.

Ca aeaieie aeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao aeioe?eueii noai?eoe aaie
aeieia?/ii?

?ioi?iaoe??; i?iaanoe aeaoaeueio ?iaaioa?ecaoe?th aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??

a iaaeao aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a iaeano?, neeanoe eiiieaen aeieia?/ieo ea?o;

cie?aia ea?oo-noaio cii aeieia?/iiai ?eceeo oa aeae?eaii ciie aeey

ae?iuoaaiiy ye?nii? i?iaeoeoe?? aeey aeeoy/iai ? ae??oe/iiai oa?/oaaiiy

oa e?ea?nueei? ne?iaeie (?en.3).

3.3. Aeieia?/ia ioe?iea ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a aaeoc? oaa?eiieoeoaa

I?e aaaeaii? oaa?eiieoeoaa iaiao?aeii ia aeiioneaoe ciaioaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino?

oa aeaa?aaeaoe?? eoe ? ianiaeu, aeei?enoiaoaaoe caa?iii-ii?oe?eio ?

eiia?iiaaio nenoaio aeianaiiy oaa?ei, cae?i/oth/e aeian ca 30 aei?a

aei ianoaiiy ii?ic?a oa i?iaiaeeoe aeianaiiy o?aainoith ianiaeu i?ney

ooaeiae noaaeaie iaaoeue (a ?ic?aooieo 1 a?aoey ia 10 aie?a A?O). Aeey

?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ianiaeu iaiao?aeia ? iayai?noue eiiae
(aa?oiaeo

? aaaiaeo) c ?ic?aooieo 6 aie?a ia 100 ei??a (Aeiie/oe Ae.O., 1998)

. Eoeueoo?i? ianiaeua ne?ae noai?thaaoe c 3-5 eiiiiiaio?a (2-3 ceaeia?,

1-2 aiaia? aaaaoi??/i?, a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? yeeo iaee?aua
a?aeiia?aeathoue

aeieia?/iiio na?aaeiaeuo ?o i?i?inoaiiy, eiaeiiio eean? i?e?iaeieo

ei?iiaeo oa?aeue) c ?ic?aooieo 0,45 — 0,50 aa, a i?e c?ioaii? 0,25

— 0,30 aa ia eiaeio aieiao A?O. Aeioe?eueii noai?eoe 1,5 — 2-o

e?eiiao?ia? ei?iia? ciie iaaeiei ianaeaieo

ioieo?a ? a?aeiia?aeii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ii caaio?ae?, ia?a?iaoe? oa

?aae?caoe?? oaa?eiieoeueei? i?iaeoeoe??. Oea aeicaieeoue noai?eoe
aoaeoeai?

naeyinuee? ? oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa ii iaaoeo ooaeiae oa ae?iaieoeoaa

iieiea ia aeaoaaeo ianiaeuieo ei?iao i?aeoe/ii aac ?iaanoeoe?e
aea?aeaae.

Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe ieiuo i?e?iaeieo ei?iiaeo oa?aeue c

8,2 % aei 25 %, ciaioeaoe i?e oeueiio ieiuo iaea?eueo a?iaeiaaii? ??ee?,

ui neeaaea? 29,5 %, a ye?e i?aeoe/ii iaia? ? ? E oa noee noaiiaeoue

a?eueoa 70. A ei?iiae?iaieoeoa? aei?a/ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?ia?aeuei?

aeiaaaee, aa?ieeoeueoo?o, a?oio?o. Aeey ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a aa?oi
aeei?enoiaoaaoe

a?iaacia? onoaiiaee, ee/eiee n?iaio?ii?/ieo (aeiiaoi?o) ioo ? aeiuiaeo

/a?a’ye?a, a aa?ieeiiiino, yeee i?e oeueiio ooai?th?oueny aa?oi
aeei?enoiaoaaoe

aeey ?aai?iaoe?? iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo a?oio?a. I?e ?ici?uaii? oa
aenieoaoaoe??

oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa ioaoieiiieaen?a iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe aeieia?/i?

caeiie, i?eioeeie ? iieiaeaiiy. C iaoith cieaeaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
?aae?iioee?ae?a

a i?aai?ci oaa?ei oa ?o i?iaeoeoe, iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe aeieiaiaacia/i?

iioei?ciaai? ?aoe?iie aiae?ae? oa i?iaiic iaea?aeaiiy iaeneiaeueii
aeia?iye?nii?

i?iaeoeoe??, a?aoiaoth/e i?ioeaio ia?aoiaeo ?aae?iioee?ae?a ca
eaioethaii

a?oio-?ineeia-oaa?eia-i?iaeoeoe?y-ethaeeia.

Iaei??th c aaaiieo ?iiiaaoe?e a aaeoc? oaa?eiieoeoaa ? caoiaee c
i?io?eaeoeee

oa icaei?iaeaiiy aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a?ae ooaa?eoeueico. Ae??oaiiy

oe??? i?iaeaie caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee caoai?thaaiiy. O
oaa?eiieoeoa?

c ae?aaiinoe/iith iaoith caaeaathoue oaa?ei, ui aeaee iiceoeaio
?aaeoe?th

ia aaaaeaiee ooaa?eoe?i («IIAe aeey nnaaoe?a»), aea aaeoa??ieia?/ia

i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy c iaea?aeaiiai iaoa??aeo i?i iayai?noue caoaeieea
ooaa?eoeueico

ni?aiaaea? iaioa, i?ae 1% a?ae caaeoeo, a oaeeo oaa?ei ia?aoiao?oueny

oeny/? aie?a (Aeanaiei A.A., 1998). A ?acoeueoao? aeei?enoaiiy aeaiiai

ooaa?eoe?io eeoa ii A?iieoeuee?e iaeano? a 1996 ?. aoei iaiaa?oioiaaii

cieuaii 18 oen. 305 ei??a. Oea i?ecaaei aei cia/ieo aeiiii?/ieo caeoe?a

(iiiaae 60 iei a?i) oa cao?eiaei ?icaeoie oaa?eiieoeoaa iaeano? i?i?ioi

ye ia 3-5 ?ie?a. Aeey iie?auaiiy aeaii? neooaoe?? aaaeeeaith
?iiiaaoe??th

aoei ?ic?iaeaii o ni?aaaoi?noa? iaoiae ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee
«oano-oaeoi?»,

yeee /a?ac 48-72 aiaeeie aea? ?acoeueoao aiae?co oa a 90 ?ac oaeaeoa

anoaiiaeth? ae?aaiic — ooaa?eoeueic. Aeaiee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy
caoeuaiee

Iaoaioii Oe?a?ie, aeei?enoaiiy yeiai aeicaieeei a caa?aaoe iiaie?a’y

oaa?ei iaeano? aiane?aeie iiieeeiai? ae?aaiinoeee i?e ooaa?eoe?i?caoe??
oaa?ei.

3.4. Aecia/aiiy i??i?eoao?a o ?icaeoeo AIE A?iie//eie

Aeey oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueieo aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a, a yeeo ni?aa?aeiioaiiy

i?e?iaeieo ? aio?iiiaaiieo eiiiiiaio?a ciaoiaeeoueny a noai? no?eei?

??aiiaaae, iaiao?aeii aeio?eioaaoenue ianooiieo i?eioeei?a: 1)
a?aeiia?aeiino?

iai?yie?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?e?iaeiei
caeiiii??iinoyi

eaiaeoaooo; 2) iioeiaeueiiio ni?aa?aeiioaiith i?ae i?ieie, e?niaeie,

eo/ieie oa aiaeieie oa?aeaeyie (yea iiaeiii eieeaaoeny a iaaeao
40-50:15-25:20-35:2-

5 %); 3) iayaiino? aeaeiai? ? i?inoi?iai? ??ciiiai?oiino? eiiiiiaio?a

eaiaeoaooo; 4) a?aeiia?aeiino? o?oioeaiic?a (i?e?iaeieo ? ooo/ieo)
oiiaai

i?noeac?inoaiiy; 5) i??i?eoaoiino? o?oie?niiae?i?aoe??; 6) a?aooaaiith

i?e?iciiaeueiino? a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia oa ?aeue?oo; 7) a?eueo

oe?ieiio canoinoaaiith a?oioicaoenieo oa aia?aicaa??aath/eo nenoai

ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, iaeneiaeueiiio aeei?enoaiith o?aaeeoe?eieo ?
iao?aaeeoe?eieo

i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea i?e iaiaaeaiiio aeei?enoaii? aa?io?i?eao?a oa
?ioaa?iaaii?

nenoaie caoenoo ?ineei c i???ioaoe??th ?? ia a?ieia?/i? iaoiaee; 8)

iaea?eueoi? aeioe?eueiino? aeey eiie?aoieo oiia eiiieaeno oaoiieia?e

ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?; 9) ai?iaaaeaeaiith
nenoaie

?ioaineaiiai ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa; 10) i?iaaaeaiiy a?oioicaoenii? nenoaie

caiea?ianoaa c eiioo?ii-iae?i?aoeaiith i?aai?caoe??th oa?eoi???,
cai?iaaaeeaoe

?? aeey oa?eoi??? iaeano? ia ieiu? 513 oen. aa; 11) i?iaanoe
eiina?aaoe?th

aai /anoeiaa aeaaaeaiiy ?c n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ia?ao ?ano?n?a,

i?iaeoeoeai?noue yeeo cieceeany aei «aeieia?/iiai ii?iao», ca?eueoeaoe

ca ?aooiie oeueiai oa ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo caiia?aeieo ia’?eo?a
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiee

oiiae c 0,7% aei 4-5% aei 2010?. oa 10-12% aei 2050?. (?en.4).

Ia?oi/a?aiaei i??i?eoaoii aeey aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaeano? ? ?ic?iaea

?aa?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie ioi?iie aeiae?eey ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy

i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a ia iniia? neia?ico caeii?a ?icaeoeo i?e?iaee ?

aeiiii?ee i?e i??i?eoao? ia?oeo. Aiia a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo

aeiiiiiaea noi?ioaaoe oe?e?nio nenoaio aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy

aa?ii?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiyi, ciaioeaoe iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
i?e?iaeii-?ano?niee

iioaioe?ae. Iniiaieie neeaaeiaeie oe??? i?ia?aie iiaeii? noaoe:
i?aeaeuaiiy

caaaeueiiai ??aiy aeieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy; ?ic?iaea oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy

aeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a (caiaeueieo, aiaeieo,

e?niaeo); noai?aiiy aaieo aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?e iaeaniiio

oi?aae?ii? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa i?iaeiaieuenoaa; i?iaaaeaiiy

aeieia?/ii? ?iaaioa?ecaoe?? oa aeieia?/ii? ianii?oecaoe?? aeieia?/ii

iaaacia/ieo ia’?eo?a, yaeu, aeae?a aa?a?ii? ae?yeueiino?, aeaa?aaeiaaieo

oa?eoi??e; ?ic?iaeaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo, ciiaeueieo

? aioo??oiueiciiaeueieo nenoai aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa;
iioeiaeueiiai

?ici?uaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa oa?/iai? oa ia?a?iaii? i?iieneiaino?,
a?aoiaoth/e

aeieia?/io aenia?oeco i?e aeioe?eueiino? ye aeaieo ia’?eo?a, oae ?
oaa?eiieoeueeeo

oa ioao?aie/eo eiiieaen?a; aeei?enoaiiy iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaea?ae
aia?a??,

ca?eueoeaoe ?o /anoeo aei 10 %; caaacia/aiiy aeieia?/ii? ??aiiaaae,

i?e ye?e aaeeeiianooaai? ?iaioe ii ia?aoai?aiith i?e?iaee ia
noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeiooueny

iaaaoeaieie aeieia?/ieie iane?aeeaie (ciaioaiiyi ??/eiaiai noieo,

iia??oaiiyi a?ae?ia?ieia?/iiai ?aaeeio aiaeiei, i?aeoiieaiiyi,
caoiieaiiyi

? canieaiiyi caiaeue, ?icaeoeii a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a, iia??oaiiyi

oiia aeey ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ?ineeiiiai ?
oaa?eiiiai

na?oo); caaacia/aiiy ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy

a?oioo oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie a?oioicaoenieo caoiae?a; aeinyaiaiiy

iioeiaeueii? (20 %) e?nenoino? iaeano? (ca?eueoeoe ?? ca ?aooiie
a?ic?eii

iaaacia/ieo caiaeue) oa noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e aeey

?icaeoeo aa?a?ii-e?n?aieoeueeeo oaoiieia?e; cae?eniaiiy eiio?ieth ca

?aae?caoe?th n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? eeoa i?e iayaiino?
aeieia?/iiai

na?oeo?eaoo, aea a?aeia?aaeaii ai?no ?aae?iioee?ae?a, ianoeoeeae?a,
i?o?ao?a,

aaaeeeo iaoae?a iaooii?iaeoeo?a oa ?o AAeE; i?aai?caoe?y cai?o,
o?ainii?ooaaiiy,

ooee?caoe?? an?o aeae?a a?aeoiae?a, i?iaiaey/e ?o iiaio
ianii?oecaoe?th;

oe?ieiianooaaia cai?iaaaeaeoaaiiy a?ioaoiieia?e (ca?eueoaiiy /anoee
a?ieia?/iiai caiea?ianoaa oa a?ieia?/ieo

iaoiae?a ai?ioueae c ao?’yiaie, oe?aeieeaie, a??onaie, aeia?aoe ?o
/anoeo

aei 30%); noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ieo oiia aeey
i?aoe?,

a?aeii/eieo oa o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, iaeaaaeeea?oei i??i?eoaoii a AIE A?iie//eie ? ae??oaiiy

aeieia?/ii? ? i?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeaie, ca aeiiiiiaith ?icaeoeo
aeieia?/iiai

iaiaaeaeiaioo. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeia ?ic?iaea iiaoaiii? ?aae?caoe??
aeiaaino?ieiai?

aeieia?/ii? no?aoaa?? a AIE oa ona?aeiieaiiy oiai, ui aeinyaiaiiy

aeieia?/ii? aaciaee a noa?? AIE a iaeaeeae/? ?iee ? ia?oi/a?aiaei

caaaeaiiyi aea?aeaae.

AENIIAEE

1. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo ?iiiaaoe?e
(iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo,

nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa oi?aae?inueeeo) a aa?ii?iieneiaiio
ae?iaieoeoa?.

?ic?iaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aeieia?/ieo ?iiiaaoe?e a AIE Iiae?eey aea

aeae?eaii 8 a?oi: a nenoai? i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa

(1); a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? (ie?aii — ?ineeiieoeoa? ?
oaa?eiieoeoa?

(2); a nenoai? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy (3); a aaeoc? caa?aaeaiiy,

ia?a?iaee ? caooo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? (4); a aaeoc?

ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa (5); a nenoai?

aeiiii?/ieo (6) oa aia?aaoe/ieo caoiae?a caa?aaeaiiy aeiae?eey (7)

oa nioe?inoa?? (8), ye? ia’?aeiai? a iaei??i?eoaoi?o?, i??i?eoaoi?,

aea neeaaei? aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa ?iiiaaoe?e ia a?aeaeaeaio
ia?niaeoeao.

2. Aecia/ai? iniiai? e?eoa??? ioe?iee aeieia?/iiai noaio AIE Iiae?eey,

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aa?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao ca /ioe?ia
neeaaeiaeie:

aeiiii?/iith, aeioieneeieia?/iith, nioe?aeueiith oa ?iiiaaoe?eiith.

3. I?iaaaeaii aeioieneeieia?/iee iii?oi?eia aa?inoa?e A?iie//eie.

Aea/aii aieea ia ia? ??cieo aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a oa neeaaeaii

ea?oe-noaie ?? caa?oaeiaiiy aaaeeeie iaoaeaie, i?o?aoaie,
?aae?iioee?aeaie,

ianoeoeeaeaie, oaa?aeeie iiaooiaeie a?aeoiaeaie oa iieacaii iaaaoeaio

ae?th a?enueeiai-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno.

4. ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen ea?o aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aa?ieaiaeoaooe

iaeano?, iia’ycaiiai c ?icaeoeii oaa?eiieoeoaa (aaeeeith ?iaaoith
ooaeiaith,

naeia?noaii, ioao?aieoeoaii).

5. Aecia/aii ciie iaeneiaeueiiai oaoiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy
aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a

A?iie//eie. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?o noai neeueii iia??oaiee ? iaaeeaea?oueny

aei eaoano?io?/iiai — 4,6 aaee (ca 5-oe aaeueiith oeaeith).

6. Aeae?eaii ciie aeieia?/iiai ?eceeo, ui ni?aiaaeathoue ?c ciiaie
iaea?eueoi?

e?eueeino? caoai?thaaiiy ethaeae oa aecia/aii ciie aeey ae?iuoaaiiy
i?iaeoeoe??

aeeoy/iai ? ae??oe/iiai oa?/oaaiiy oa e?ea?nueei? ne?iaeie.

7. C?iaeaii ea?oo-noaio i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo A?iieoeueei?
iaeano?

? aeiaaaeaii, ui aeey iie?auaiiy aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? iaiao?aeii eiai

ca?eueoeoe c 0,7% aei 5% aei 2010?. ca ?aooiie ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo
caiia?aeieo

ia’?eo?a oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe iao?aaeeoe?ei? aeaea?aea aia?a??,
ca?eueoeaoe

?o /anoee aei 10%.

8. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e?iaeiioi?iiieie oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nue

eeie i?aai?caoe?yie iaeano?: Oi?aae?iiyi Aea?aeaaii? aeieia?/ii?
aaciaee,

iaeaniei oi?aae?iiyi n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa i?iaeiaieuenoaa,

Aea?e?nainiii, Aea?aeaaiith aaoiaaeeoeeiith, ea??aieeaie
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo

i?aei?e?inoa, aeeeaaea/aie aoc?a (aeeth/ai? a i?ia?aie aoc?a i?noa

A?iieoe?), nooaeaioaie oa i?eeiyo? aeey aeei?enoaiiy o i?aeaioiaoe?
e?a?ciaa/iai

aeaeaiiy «Caiia?aeia Iiae?eey» na??? «Caiey Iiae?euenueea», a oaeiae
i?aeaioiaee

iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai iin?aieea «Aeieia?y A?iie//eie».

AIIOAOe??

Ioae?ae I.A. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa

nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 03.00.16 — aeieiaiy.-

A aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi ?ic?iaeaia eeaneoieaoeiy aeieiai/ieo
iiiiaaoeie,

iai?aaeaieo ia ciaioaiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai oeneo a aa?iaeinenoaiao oa

caieueoaiiy ?o i?iaeoeoeaiinoi; ?ic?iaeaia eiiieaenia iaoiaeeea
aeieiai/ii?

ioeiiee aa?ieaiaeoaooia oa iie?auaiiy noaio aeiaeieey ca ?aooiie
aeieiai/ieo

iiiiaaoeie a aa?inoa?i.

Aia?oa caeieniaii ioeiieo no/aniiai aeieiai-aa?ioiii/iiai noaio

nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue Aiiie//eie (aiia noaiiaeoue 47 aaeia),
i ia

iniiai iiaoaeiaaii na?ith (14) aa?iaeieiai/ieo ea?o (yei aeei?enoaii

nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie i i?e?iaeiioi?iiieie i?aaiicaoeiyie),
?ic?iaeaii

iaoiaee/ii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? aeey iie?auaiiy aeieiai/ii? neooaoei? a
?aaiiii.

Aeaeieaii iniiaii i?ii?eoaoii oeyoe ?icaeoeo aeioaoiieiai/ieo ciii a

AIE Iiaeieey.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aa?iaeinenoaia, aa?ieaiaeoaoo, aeieiai/ii iiiiaaoei?,

eeaneoieaoeiy, aeioaoiieiai?, aeieiai/iee aoaeeo ? iaiaaeaeiaio.

Ioae?ae A.A. Yeieiae/aneay ioeaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a AIE

Iiaeieuey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa

naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe, niaoeeaeueiinoue 03.00.16. — yeieiaey. —
Einoeooo

aa?iyeieiaee e aeioaoiieiaee OAAI, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iauei iauaiii 172 no?aieoeu ninoieo ec

anooieaiey, 3-o ?acaeaeia, auaiaeia, nienea eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u
e

i?eeiaeaiee (14 aa?iyeieiae/aneeo ea?o), eeethno?e?iaaia 10-th
oaaeeoeaie e

8-th ?enoieaie.

A ?aaioa eco/aiu e eeanneoeoee?iaaiu nia?aiaiiua eiiiaaoeee a noa?a

yeieiaecaoeee anao io?aneae naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, auai?

iaeaieaa i?eaieaiuo aeey AIE Oe?aeiu, iniaaiii — aeey ?acaeoey
naeueneiai

oicyenoaa Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe. A ?aaioa aeaii ouaoaeueiia iainiiaaiea

?ac?aaioaiiie aaoi?ii eiiieaeniie yeieiai-yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee

oaoiieiae/aneie noa?u AIE e i?eaaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou naeaeaiiie ei
yeieiai-

yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee ninoiyiey e ia?niaeoea oaoiieiae/aneeo eciaiaiee

AIE Iiaeieuey a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea (?acaeae 2).
I?aaenoaaeaiu

?acoeueoaou yeieiae/aneie ioeaiee eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia AIE

Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe (aeeaioiiaiaenoai, ?anoaieaaiaenoai), aeaia i/aiue
aaaeiay

yeieiai-yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea eiiiaaoeee aeeaaiinoeee ooaa?eoeaca

e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa. Ii?aaeaeaiu i?ei?eoaou a ?acaeoee AIE

Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe.

Aia?aua naeaeaii eiiieaeniay yeieiae/aneay ioeaiea nia?aiaiiiai

ninoiyiey aa?ieaiaeoaooia Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe, ia iniiaa eioi?ie

iino?iaiu 14 aa?iyeieiae/aneeo ea?o, iniaiai aieiaiey n?aaee eioi?uo

caneoaeeaatho ea?ou caa?yciaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ii/a oyaeaeuie

iaoaeeaie e ieo?aoaie, iauae ianoeoeeaeiie iaa?ocee, iaeaieueoae

oaoiiaaiiie iaa?ocee, ea?oa-noaia cii yeieiae/aneiai ?enea Aeiieoeeie

iaeanoe, ea?oa-noaia oiiaea i?e?iaeiuo caiiaaaeieeia, noaia
eniieueciaaiey

aeueoa?iaoeaiuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena

Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe.

Iniaaiiiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaaao ?en. 2.1. — eeanneoeeaoeey

yeieiae/aneeo eiiiaaoeee a AIE Iiaeieuey, n?aaee eioi?uo auaeaeaiu aieaa

i?ei?eoaoiua, iaiaa i?ei?eoaoiua, ii neiaeiua aeey aiaae?aiey e oa,
eioi?ua

?aeiiaiaeiaaiu ia aoaeouaa. A ?enoiea ieiei 100 eiiiaaoeee na?oiie?iaaiu

a 8 aeieia (ii io?aneaaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe) n e?aoeie oa?aeoa?enoeeie

iniaaiiinoae e cia/eiinoae eaaeaeie eiiiaaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aa?iyeinenoaia, aa?ieaiaeoaoo, yeieiae/aneea

eiiiaaoeee, eeanneoeeaoeey, yeioaoiieiaee,

yeieiae/aneee aoaeeo e iaiaaeaeiaio.

Mudrak O.V. Ecological appreciation of innovation processes in Agro-

Industrial Complex of Podillia. — Is appted.

The thesis for a candidates degree of agriculture scienses, the
speciality

03.00.16-ecology. National Agrarian University, Kyiv, 1999.

This scientific work deals with the ecological innovation classification
to

limitting the antropologicul pressure in agroecosistems and growing of
productivity.

It also deals with the complex methods of ecology appreciation of
agrolandscape

and improving the state of the environment by the innovation in
agrosphere. This is

the first appreciation of the modern ecoagrochemical state of the
agrocultural lands

of Vinnitsa region (this is 47) and agroecologicul maps (14) are formed
(they are

used by agricultural and environment protection organizations). In this
work

methodical reccomendations are made for improvement of the ecology
situation in

the region. The priority ways are appointed to the development of the

ecotechnology changes in AIC of Podillia.

Key words: agroechosystem, agrolandscape, ecologicul innovation,

classification, ecotechnologies, ecological audit and managment.

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