2

AIEEINUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? EAN? OE?A?IEE

Ioae?ee Na?a?e Ai?eniae/

OAeE 371.73

AOAEOEAI?NOUe CANOINOAAIIss IAOe?IIAEUeIEO

?OOEEAEO ?AI? IA O?IEAO O?CE*II? EOEUeOO?E

O II*AOEIA?E OEIE?

24.00.02 – O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy

??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo

Eooeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aieeinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie

A?eue/eianueeee Aaeoa?ae Noai?neaaiae/,

?inoeooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-

ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie I?n?i/oe

Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/, Aieeinueeee

aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

I?aceyoa Aaiia Aanee?aia, ?aaii-

O?aie?anueeee iaeaniee ?inoeooo

i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieo

i?aoe?aiee?a, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeeeaaeaiiy

iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo o?ce/ii?

eoeueoo?e, eaoaae?a o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??

Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao Oe?a?ie c o?ce/ii?

eoeueoo?e ? nii?oo, i.Euea?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 14 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo ia 11 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 32.051.02 o Aieeinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (263021, aoe.Aeiie/aiea, 30).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (263021,
aoe.Aeiie/aiea.30).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 14 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oeueinue A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? noai?ththoue oiiae caa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e, cie?aia, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? canoinoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o nenoai? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a. Aoaeo/e aaaeeeaei caniaii iaaeaaiiy ? ia?aaea/? nioe?aeueiiai
aeina?aeo, ia?iaei? ?a?e iiaeii? oa?eoe nueiaiaei? o an? noa?e aeoiaii?
?iaioe, aiioe?eii caaaa/oth/e iniaeno?noue, aeeeeeath/e iio?aao aei
oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? oa i?aeaeuaiiy o?ce/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiino?.

Oai?oeai iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ? nai ia?iae. A?i caaaeaee
aenooia? aeoiaaoaeai iieiaeiai iieie?iiy, a aeoiaaiiy i?e oeueiio
ia-aoaa? ia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?o (A.N.Neiai?iaea, E.Ae.Ooeinueeee). Oiio
iaoe?i-iaeuei? ?ooeea? ?a?e eiaeiiai ia?iaeo nai???aei?, iaiiaoi?i? e
oi?eaeuei?. Oe? ?a?e a?aeia?aaeathoue na?oiaeyae ia?iaeo, eiai
ii?aeueii-aoe/i? e anoaoe/i? i?eioeeie, aaaaoia?eiaee aeina?ae aeoiaaiiy
i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy.

Ia iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ai? o aeoiaaii? caeaaia caa?oaee oaaao
aeaeaoi? a/ai? ? iaaeaaiae – Aeai? Ae?ae?i, ssi Aiin Eiiainueeee,
A?eueaaeuei Aaaono Eae, I?oaeue Iiioaiue, E.Ae.Ooeinueeee.

I?i ie?ai? aniaeoe aeei?enoaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo
?ai? o aeoiaaii? ae?oae aeioe?eueiiai ? iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo
aiai?eoueny o i?aoeyo E.Aiiaea?aiei, A.Aa?oiaeioey, A.A?eue/eianueeiai,
I.Ai?iiay, A.Neo?ao?anueeiai, A.I.Oniai?, I.TH.ssieoeueei? oa ?i.

Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc? iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? aeyaeee
iae-neeuei?oa aaaeaiiy o aeeoeie – oea aaaeaiiy ?a?iai? ae?yeueiino?
(E.N.Aeaio-nueeee, ?.A.A?oaanueeee, Ae.A.Aeueeii?i). Aeeoeia ?ooa?oueny
i?ae /an a?e, aiia aeeaaea? a ia? naith aia?a?th, aeyaey? oai?/?noue oa
iaiieaaeea?noue. Iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ooeea? ?a?e noai?ththoue iaee?au? oiiae
aeey oi?ioaaiiy oa oaeineiiaeaiiy ?ooiaeo oi?iue ? iaae/ie, ni?eythoue
?icaeoeo o?eanieo ? aeooiaieo nee, aeoiaothoue iiceoeai? ?ene oa?aeoa?o.

A Oe?a?i? caoeuaii aeae?eueea aeena?oaoe?e i?i canoinoaaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o nenoai? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
ae?oae aeioe?eueiiai ? iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo: A.A.Ai?iaae (1997) –
aeine?aeeea aieea ia?iaeieo ?ai? ia aa?o, ye ae?aeaeoe/io ?aei?noue
o?ce/ii? aeo?eaaeino? oa aeooiaii? no?eeino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ??cieo
aoiia?ao?/ieo a?oi I?eea?iaonueeiai e?ath; A.ss.Aieue/einueeee (1998) –
nenoaiaoecoaaa oe?a?inuee? ia?iaei? ?a?e ca iciaeith ?o ia?aaaaeath/iai
aieeao ia noai caei?ia’y oa ?ooiao i?aeaioiaeai?noue ae?oae 5-6 ?ie?a;
A.Eaae?a (1998) – ocaaaeueiea a?aeiiino? i?i iniaeeaino? cania?a
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a ??cieo noa?ao
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ae?oae ? aeine?aeea ?ioaineai?noue iaaaioaaeaiiy oeeo
cania?a ca iieacieeaie *NN (/anoioa na?oeaaeo nei?i/aiue) o iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a.

Iaeiae, aiae?c ioae?eaoe?e na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ia ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ca
ia?iaeiei eaeaiaea?ai o ii/aoeia?e oeie?, iaaeinoaoiuei ia??oioiaai? oa
ooi/iai? iniaeeaino? iaoiaeeee oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai?
ca oa?aeoa?ii ?ooiai? ae?yeueiino? ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?o ia o?ieao
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee, a oaeiae ia c’yniaaii aieea oeeo ?ai? ia
?icaeoie o?ce/ieo yeinoae ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.

Oaeei /eiii, aaeeea nioe?aeueia oa iaaeaaia?/ia cia/aiiy i?iaeaie
canoinoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o o?ce/iiio
aeoiaaii? oeiey??a ? iaaeinoaoi? ?? iaoeiaa ia??oiooaaiiy e coiiaeee
aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe 17-97
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee ia 1994-1998
?iee “Caeiiii??iino? aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a Oe?a?i?
(iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0196 U 006624).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: i?ioean o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a iieiaeoiai
oe?eueiiai a?eo.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy: nenoaia canoinoaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo
?ai? ia o?ieao o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e o ii/aoeia?e oeie?.

A?iioaca: ia?aaeaa/aeinue, ui oe?iea canoinoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? c o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e o ii/aoeia?e oeie? aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe o?ce/iee ?icaeoie oa
?ooiao i?aeaioiaeai?noue ae?oae 7-10 ?ie?a.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o iaoeiaiio ia??oiooaaii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ia?aa??oe? aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ia o?ieao o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e c iieiaeoeie
oeiey?aie.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aecia/eoe i?noea canoinoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo
?ai? o nenoai? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

2. ?ic?iaeoe eeaneo?eaoe?th iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? aeey o/i?a 2-3
eean?a.

3. Anoaiiaeoe aieea oe?a?inueeeo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ia
ii?oi-ooieoe?i-iaeueiee ?icaeoie oa ?ooiao i?aeaioiaeai?noue iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a.

4. Oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo i?iaaaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? c
ae?oueie 7-10 ?ie?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

 aecia/aii i?noea oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o nenoai?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a;

 aecia/aii ooieoe??, oiiae oa iniiai? iai?yiee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoe?i-iaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a;

 oai?aoe/ii ia??oioiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ooeeaeo ?ai? ca oa?aeoa?ii ?ooiai? ae?yeueiino?;

 ia??oioiaaii ci?no, oa?aeoa? ? cia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? a
eaeaiaea?i?e ia?yaeiaino? oe?a?ioe?a;

 c’yniaaii aoaeoeai?noue aieeao iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ia
o?ce/iee ?icaeoie oa ?ooiao i?aeaioiaeai?noue ae?oae iieiaeoiai
oe?eueiiai a?eo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ooi/iaii?
iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o
i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo ?ai? a?aeiia?aeii aei ci?noo iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie,
?ooiai? ae?yeueiino? ae?oae oa oa?aeoa?o eaeaiaea?ieo nayo.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo
?ai? ai?iaaaeaeaia o i?aeoeeo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oe?e Aieeinueei?
iaeano?.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe oaeiae aeei?enoai? o i?ioean?
i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
i?e aeeeaaeaii? i?aaeiao?a “?ooeea? ?a?e”, “?noi??y o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e”,
“Ia?iaeiciaanoai”.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? ? iaoeiaiio
ia-??oiooaaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? oa ooi/iaii? iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ca oa?aeoa?ii ?ooiai?
ae?yeueiino? ia o?ieao o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai 1-3 eean?a caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee, aecia/aii
aoaeoeai?noue ?o aieeao ia o?ce/iee ?icaeoie oa ?ooiao i?aeaioiaeai?noue
ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eiioeaioe?y
i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?” (Eooeuee, 1994);
I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a ?
caei?iaee niin?a aeeooy” (A?iieoey, 1997), “O?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy, nii?o ?
eoeueoo?a caei?ia’y o no/aniiio noni?euenoa?” (Eooeuee, 1999); ui??/ieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee, eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e
oa a/eoae?a ii/aoeiai? ina?oe i?e Aieeinueeiio iaeaniiio
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiio ?inoeooo? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii o iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiio iin?aieeo “?ooeea? ?a?e ia o?ieao
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e”, naie noaooyo oa oanoe iaoa??aeao ? oacao iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 172 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno ? neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Aeey e?auiai ni?eeiyooy iaoa??ae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii 20 ?enoie?a ? 26 oaaeeoeue. O
?iaio? aeei?enoaii 208 e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, c yeeo 12 ?iicaiieo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, a?iioaco, caaea/?, iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i? canaaee canoinoaaiiy ?ooeeaeo
?ai? o nenoai? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy” a?aei?/aii, ui a?a – i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoueio iaoe: o?einio??, iaaeaaia?ee, ineoieia??,
aoiia?ao??, eoeueoo?ieia??, a?ieia?? oiui. Oa, ui a?a a ?noi???
noni?euenoaa ? a aeeoo? ethaeeie – yaeua nioe?aeueia, na?ae/aoue i?aoe?
E.Aee??ai?, E.Aeaionueeiai, E.Aaec?iaa, Ae.Aeueeii?ia, AE.I?aaea,
N.?oa?iooaeia, A.Nooiieeinueeiai, A.Oeiea?oea oa ?i.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth aeeooy ethaeeie ? ?? aeene?aoi?noue,
iayai?noue a iaaeao ?aeeiiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ??ciiiai?oieo oac,
noaae?e, ia??iae?a ?icaeoeo. Aeeiai?ci ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeooy,
iine?aeiaia ci?ia a?eiaeo ? nioe?aeueieo ?ieae a cia/i?e i??? caaeai?
?iaeea?aeo nioe?oiii. A oiae? nioe?ae?caoe?? cae?enith?oueny i?ioean
i?eeo/aiiy ethaeeie aei eoeueoo?e, noaiiaeaiiy ?? ye iiaiii?aaiiai /eaia
noni?euenoaa. Oae? niaoeeo?/i? iaoe?iiaeuei? ? eoeueoo?i? iiaeae?
aeeoo?aiai oeyoo ?yae i?ia?aeieo oao?aoe?a (A.?.Aeaoa?e?, A.N.I?n?i/oe,
I.?.Iiiiia?ueia, ?.I.I?enooia, A.A.Noa?-eia, A.A.Oeueinue) aaa/athoue o
iie?auaii? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa o caaaa/aii? eiai ci?noo ca ?aooiie
aea/aiiy o?aaeeoe?e o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?aeoeeo.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ioae?eaoe?e (A.N.Iaea?aiei,
Ae.A.Aeueeii?i, A.I.Nooiieeinueeee oa ?i.) i?i aeoiai? iiaeeeaino? a?e
na?ae/aoue, ui o aeeoy/iio a?oe? – oea i?aoey, a ye?e ae?oe c?inoathoue,
iaaoaath/e iaiao?aeieo oi?iue oa iaae/ie. *a?ac a?o iiaeia aeoiaaoe o
aeeoeie o? aeanoeaino? oa?aeoa?o ? iiaaae?iee, ye? iio??ai? aei?ine?e
ethaeei?. Naia o a?? i?iyaeythoueny cae?aiino? ? iaoeee aeeoeie. Aiie
ianooue o nia? oe?iia oa iiceoeaia, ui iaeiie/ea ia?iae ca naith
aaaaoia?eiao ?noi??th. Ca A.Neiai?iaeith, ci?noiia?iaeaeoth/a neea
ia?iaeii? a?e aeiiiiaaa? “iiciaoue ciaiea iaciaaiia”, a?aee?eaa? aa/aiiy
?a/ae “ia aeaeeiuo” oa “iaeniiaaaeeiuo”, aaaaoiieaiia?noue aeoiaaiiy, ui
aea? ciiao i?ciaoe ? c?icoi?oe i?e?iaeo, i?ciaoe ? c?icoi?oe “oi/io”
ethaeeio.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaee oa i?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy” aea?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoeea aeei?enoaieo iaoiae?a ? aoai?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey
ae??oaiiy noi?iiaaieo caaea/ aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oae? iaoiaee: oai?aoe/iee
aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a, aan?aee oa aieaooaaiiy, oanooaaiiy, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?
niinoa?aaeaiiy, iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio. Ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeanue c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee
oa ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ?icaeoeo o?ce/ieo yeinoae canoiniaoaaee ianooii? oanoe:
neea – eenoueiaa aeeiaiiiao??y; oaeaee?noue – noaaeaiiy e?aiie ia
ia-ia?? oa no?eaee ia i?noe?; noaoe/ia aeo?eaae?noue – aen ia i?yieo
?oeao ia ia?aeeaaeei?; ni?eoi?noue –iaoaiiy oai?niiai i’y/a a
ai?eciioaeueio oe?eue oa iiai?ioe a a?aaeonao no?eaeii ia i?noe?;
aio/e?noue – iaoee ooeoaa aia?aae.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ?ooiai? i?aeaioiaeaiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey-
??a aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oae? oanoe: a?a c iaeneiaeueiith
oaeaee?noth (30 i), no?eaie o aeiaaeeio c i?noey, iaoaiiy oai?niiai
i’y/a (40 a) ia aeaeuei?noue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue ia aac? caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e ? 21, 23
i.Eooeueea. Aenia?eiaioii aoei ioiieaii 621 o/aiue aenia?eiaioaeueieo
(316) oa eiio?ieueieo (305) a?oi, yeee i?iaiaeeany i?ioyaii naie ?ie?a o
o?e aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1992-1994 ??.) aea/aeanue oa aiae?coaaeanue
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia e?oa?aoo?a c i?iaeaie canoinoaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
?oo-eeaeo ?ai? o nenoai? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Iaa?oiooaaeanue
iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aecia/aeanue iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1995-1996 ??.) i?iaiaeeany oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio ia
aac? aeuaaeacaieo caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e i.Eooeueea. Aeei?enoiaoth/e a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao oe?ieee niaeo? ia?iaeieo ?ai?, cia/ia oaaaa
i?eae?eyeanue aea/aiith oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aieeao ?o ia anaa?/iee
?icaeoie ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1997-1999 ??.) ooi/iyeeny oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i?
aniaeoe oa ocaaaeueithaaeeny aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo
ia?aa??yeenue o i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe a/eoae?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ? a/eoae?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aeei?enoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ia
o?ieao o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a ii/aoeia?e oeie?” aena?oeaii i?noea
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? ii/aoeiai?
oeiee oa oeyoe ?o i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??.

Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? oa o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaii?
e?oa?aoo?e cana?ae/o?, ui iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ooeea? ?a?e a nenoai? o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy canoiniaothoueny ai?ciaee/ii. I?e oeueiio iaaeinoaoiuei
a?aoiaothoueny nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? oa ineoio?c?ieia?/i? iiaeeeaino?
ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.

Iaoa??aee eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo na?ae/aoue (oaae.1), ui iieiaeo?
oeiey?? a?aeaeathoue i??i?eoao naia oei ?a?ai, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue
?oi?i ineoio?ce/iei iio?aaai.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aea?? ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ae?oueie ii/aoeiaeo eean?a (o %)

EeanNoaoueE-noue o/i?aAe?aiaoe-ciaai? ?a?eNthaeaoi? ?a?e c ianeeaaeieie
i?aaeeaie?a?e c i?a-aeeaie aac nthaeao?a?a?e-ai?aae c i???ioaoe??th ia
aeinyaiaiiy ?acoeueoaooNii?-oeai?
?a?e?O1044,821,141,311,51,9Ae9712,231,940,27,2–??O1222,413,946,712,215,5
Ae824,820,746,310,9–???O96–4,178,156,264,5Ae120–14,150,835,85,8Ia iniia?
aeai?o iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie ?ooeeaeo ?ai? iaie aoea ?ic?iaeaia
eeaneo?eaoe?y iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ai? ca oa?aeoa?ii ?ooiai? ae?yeueiino?. A
ieo a?aoiaoaaany ?ioa?an o/i?a, aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/i? iiaeeeaino?
i?aai?cio aeeoeie, ineoieia?/ia ni?eeiaiiy.

?a?e c aeaiaioaie caaaeueii?icaeaath/eo ai?aa. “Aaoueei ? ae?oe”, “Iae”,
“Ae?iaa”, “Aaeai ? ?aa”, “?icaeoa ss?/ei”, “Oaa/ee”, “Ie aeeoany,
ia??i/ee”, “Ai?ioueaa eaaeaia c a?o?ii”, “E?o iioyao?oueny”, “Aone ia
aiae?”, “Ioaoea”, “Iie?ee e?o”, “Ioce?”, “Aioethi ? e?eieoey”.

?a?e c oiaeueaith. “Iao?a, aea oe?”, “Iaian”, “AEio?ee”, “I?aeo?ae
aa?oiaeo”, “Ca?aeee oe?”, “Aa?aoc”, “Ia??i/ee”, “I?no”, “I?/iee ia?o”,
“Aeoa /e aa?aca”.

?a?e c a?aii. “?aeo ia Ae!”, “Aone”, “Iaiue”, “Aeaiue oa i?/”, “Oaoeia”,
“?aa?o”, “Aeoa”, “Caii?iaeaoeue ia N?/?”, “I?iaiaee ?onaeee”, “Neaaeaiee
aoaae”, “?eaaeee ? ?eae”, “E?o ? ieoa”, “Eaa/? ia?aie”, “Aeiaaiye,
ao?eath/e”, “Ai?ii”, “Ai?iaae”, “Aeee? eice”, “ssno?oa”, “O eieaeoia”,
“O?auee”, “Eeneoey ? ca?oeue”, “N??ee e?o”, “Eaaoie”, “Io?”, “Eiaaana”.

?a?e ?c no?eaeaie. “Aiae ? eice”, “O aeiaa? eice”, “Oaaaaae”, “Ia?ai?aaa
/a?ac ??/eo”, “No?oiie”, “A?a/ea”, “Oeiie”, “O ??/eo aii”, “Niooai?
eii?”, “I?aiee”.

?a?e c iaoaiiyi. “Aaao ia?aaiceoe”, “Ooi aeae? eeia”, “Aeo/iee
no??eaoeue”, “Caoeniee e??iino?”, “Iioeaae”, “Eaa/ c i’y/ai”,
“Ooaiaea?”, “Eai/ea”, “E?oaiaee”, “Ia iiethaaii?”, “Ieneeaaoeue ?
ea/ee”, “Ia?aiaeeoey”, “Iooea”, “Oeaiaeeaee”, “Aaaie”, “O ne?aee?”.

?a?e c aeaiaioaie i?eeeaaeieo ai?aa (eac?iiy, ia?ae?caiiy,
ia?aiiacaiiy). “Ae?noaoe naei”, “Noiai”, “Iia?iue”, “Neaeieac”, “Eoaei”,
“Iaca?aaiee aaaei?aeue”, “Caiaaeiy”, “Iaaoe”, “Eoieoey ? a?eee”,
“I?aea?niee i?no”, “Ooiaeue”, “TH?eee aoae”.

?a?e c ??aiiaaaith. “Aieaeaeee”, “AEo?aaaeue”, “Eano?aea”,
“Iaaia?aaaae”, “AEoe”, “?ae-iaai?ae”, “Ia?anoaaiiy ia ai/oe?”,
“Ae?ane?iaea ca???a”, “Iaoaeeoey”, “E?ooue-aa?oue”, “Ieei”.

?a?e c aeaiaioaie ae?iaaoeee. “E?aa”, “Ea?aeaoeoey”, “Ia?aeioe-iiea”,
“?icia/aia eieani”, “Iaaoe”, “AEaaea”, “Ea/aeea”, “Aeca?i”.

?a?e c aeaiaioaie ai?ioueae. “Ao?ye”, “Oyaoe aoea”, “??iea”,
“Ei?iienei”, “A?aeueia”, “A?e i?ai?a”, “E?o a i?oeo”, “Eiyaeee ino??a”,
“Ae?oaeeia ? oaoa?e”, “Ia?aoyaoaaiiy ii eeia?”.

?a?e c aeaiaioaie oaioeth. “Neaa oaiea”, “AEai/e/ie”, “Aii – neie”,
“Iaoaeeoey”, “O??eee”.

?a?e ia aiae?. “Ii?nueeee a?e”, “Ieneeaoe? ? ea/ee”, “Oaeaeeee e?aa”,
“Eieiai?io”, “E?ieiaeee”, “Eieiaea”, “Uoiaee”, “Iaa?ae”, “Eaa/?”,
“Ii?ae”, “Aiaeyia ci?y”, “I’yaea”.

?a?e ia eeaeao. “Iacaeiaeaie ao?eath/e”, “Aoene?iaea”, “Eaa/ ia eeaeao”,
“Eeaeiee aac iaeeoeue”, “O??eee”, “Noiaiie”, “Ooi aeae?”, “Oa?aiaith c
a??ee”, “Ieneeaaoeue ia iiethaaii?”.

Aiae?coth/e ?iciiae?e iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ai? ca oa?aeoa?ii ?ooiai?
ae?yeueiino?, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui aiie aeoeaii aieeaathoue ia
iioi?eeo aeeoeie, eiiieaenii ae??ooth/e icaei?ia/?, aeoiai? oa ina?oi?
caaaeaiiy.

Iaoe?iiaeueia niaoeeo?ea ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ca ia?iaeiei eaeaiaea?ai
i?iyaey?oueny: o a?aeoai?aii? ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ia?iaeo, eiai
na?oiaa/aii?, ii?aeueieo ii?iao; o iaoe?iiaeuei?e iia?; o a?aeia?aaeaii?
?noi??? iaoe??, a ?? eoeueoo??, o a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo? oa iiaoo?, a
o?aaeeoe?yo, ?ae?a?eieo a??oaaiiyo, cae/ayo; o ca’yceao ?ooeeaeo ?ai? c
iaoe?iiaeueiei oieueeei?ii; o iaoe?iiaeuei?e niaoeeo?oe? ae?aaeaiiy
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo ?aeae aeia?a ? ni?aaaaeeeaino?, anoaoe/ieo
iiaeyaeao, noni?eueieo ?ioa?anao; o ethaia? aei i?e?iaee, aei ??aeiiai
e?ath, aea aeeaa iaoe?y. Ona oea ?acii yaey? niaith iiaooith ?oo?eio
neeo anoaoe/iiai, ii?aeueii-aoe/iiai, eoeueoo?iiai, o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ia
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? oa ?ooiao i?aeaioiaeai?noue ae?oae
iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo” i?enay/aii aea/aiith ci?i iniiaieo
aio?iiiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae, ?icaeoeo
o?ce/ieo yeinoae iieiaeoeo oeiey??a. Iaie ii??aithaaeenue ?acoeueoaoe
ianoaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi c aiaeia?/ieie aeaieie ianoaaeaiiy
eiio?ieueieo a?oi. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieoe aeeiai?eo
o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo oa ?ooiai? i?aeaioiaeaiino? o/i?a; i?iaiae?coaaoe
ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoeenue o ieo i?ae aieeaii cai?iiiiiaaieo cania?a;
aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ?inoo o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino?.

I?iaaaeaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi anoaiiaeaii ci?ie iieaciee?a o?ce/iiai
?icaeoeo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, ye? a?aeaoaaeenue ??cieie oaiiaie.
Ca?eueoaiiy aio?iiiiao?e/ieo aeaieo a?aeaoeiny o an?o eeanao. Oae, o
iieacieeao aeiaaeeie o?ea ia niinoa??aa?oueny a??ia?aei?noue ??cieoe?
(?0,05), oi/a i?ine?aeeiao?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei iie?auaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
?inoo a noi?iio aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi. A aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao
oeii/eee 1 eeano i?ae?inee ia 5,3 ni, 2 eeano – ia 4,3 ni, 3 eeano – ia
4,5 ni; ae?a/aoea: 1 eeano – ia 5 ni, 2 eeano – ia 4,5 ni, 3 eeano – ia
4,7 ni. A?aeiia?aeii a eiio?ieueieo a?oiao o oeii/ee?a: 4,7 ni, 4,1 ni,
4,2 ni; ae?a/aoea: 4,3 ni, 4 ni, 4,2 ni.

Iaoaiaoe/iee aiae?c iieaciee?a iane o?ea a aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?
eiio?ieueieo a?oiao aeyaea a??ia?aeio ??cieoeth ?? o oeii/ee?a (? 0,05)
oa o ae?a/aoie (? 0,01) 3 eeano ia ei?enoue aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi. O
oeii/ee?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi iana o?ea ca?eueoeeanue o 1 eean? ia
2,7 ea, o 2 eean? – ia 2,4 ea, o 3 eean? – ia 3,3 ea; o ae?a/aoie: 1
eeano – ia 2,6 ea, 2 eeano – ia 2,5 ea, 3 eeano – ia 3,3 ea. A
eiio?ieueieo a?oiao o oeii/ee?a: 2,3 ea, 2 ea, 2,5 ea; o ae?a/aoie: 2,2
ea, 2,2 ea, 2, 5 ea.

I?e??no iaaiaeo a?oaeii? ee?oee, yea niinoa??aa?oueny i?ae
aenia?eiaioaeueieie ? eiio?ieueieie a?oiaie, aiai?eoue i?i
a??ia?aei?noue ??cieoe? iieaciee?a o oeii/ee?a 2-3 oa o ae?a/aoie 3
eeano (? 0,05). Iieacieee aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi o oeii/ee?a ae?inee:
o 1 eean? – ia 1,8 ni, o 2 – ia 2,2 ni, o 3 – ia 2,3 ni; o ae?a/aoie: o
1-2 eeanao – ia 1,7 ni, o 3 – ia 2,7 ni. A eiio?ieueieo a?oiao o
oeii/ee?a: 1,4 ni, 1,6 ni, 1,8 ni; o ae?a/aoie: 1,4 ni, 1,2 ni, 2,1 ni.

?acoeueoaoe iieaciee?a aeiaaeeie o?ea o 1-3 eeanao, iane o?ea o
ae?a/aoie 1-2 eean?a oa iaaiaeo a?oaeii? ee?oee o 1 ? o ae?a/aoie 2
eeano aeu? a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao, i?ae o eiio?ieueieo ? iaaeeaeai?
aei a??ia?aeiino? ??cieoe?.

I?iaaaeaia ia ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ii?
i?aoeacaeaoiino? iieacaei, ui o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a iieacieee *NN o
a?eueoino? ae?oae (71,4%) aeu? aai iaaeeaeai? aei e?eoe/ieo iaae a?eiai?
ii?ie.

Ca ia??iae aenia?eiaioo *NN o noai? niieith a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao
o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueieie cia/ii ciaioeeanue (? 0,05) ? noaiiaeea
77,2-85,8 oae/oa. Aiae?c ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio na?oeaai-noaeeiii?
nenoaie iieacaa iai, ui aaee/eie iieaciee?a o?ce/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiino?
noaee iaaeeaeaieie aei na?aaei?o aaee/ei.

Iieacieee AE?E cia/ii i?aeaeueeeny a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao ii??aiyii
c eiio?ieueieie. Iniaeeai oea i?ine?aeeiao?oueny o oeii/ee?a 2 (?
0,001) oa o oeii/ee?a (? 0,005) ? o ae?a/aoie (? 0,01) 3 eean?a.

Ioaea, ci?ie iniiaieo aio?iiiiao?e/ieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a
a?aeaoaaeenue o an?o a?oiao a noi?iio ca?eueoaiiy. A?eueoee c??no
iieaciee?a aeyaeaii a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i’yciai? neee ia ??cieo aoaiao iioiaaiaco aeicaiey?
i?ine?aeeoaaoe ca oi?ioaaiiyi ooieoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ia?aiai-i’yciaiai
aia?aoo ae?oae. Iaie aeine?aeaeoaaeanue neea caeia/?a i?aai? ? e?ai?
eeno? iaoiaeii aeeiaiiiao???. Io?eiaaoe a e?ioe? aenia?eiaioo
?acoeueoaoe iaio aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie, ie ia niinoa??aaee ci?ie i?ae
aenia?eiaioaeueieie ? eiio?ieueieie a?oiaie (? 0,5). Ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c a?eiai? aeeiai?ee iieaciee?a i?aai? ? e?ai? ?oee iieacaa
??aiii??ia c?inoaiiy i?aainoi?iiiuei? ia?aaaae o oeii/ee?a 1 oa o
ae?a/aoie 1-3 eean?a (0,35-0,45 ea). O oeii/ee?a 2-3 eean?a ??/ia
??cieoey i?ae eenoyie ?oe ca?eueoo?oueny a o?e ?ace, ui noaiiaeoue 1,05
ea ia ei?enoue neeuei?oi? ?oee.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co /anoioe ?oo?a aa?oi?o ? ieaei?o e?ioe?aie o an?o
eeanao aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi cia/ii i?aeaeueeeny ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieueieie a?oiaie. I?i c?inoaiiy /anoioe ?oo?a na?ae/eoue
a??ia?aei?noue ??cieoe? iieaciee?a ia ei?enoue aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi.
A naia: /anoioa ?oo?a aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie – ? 0,05-0,005; ieaei?o – ?
0,05-0,001. Ii??aiyeueia aeeiai?ea iieaciee?a na?aaei?o aaee/ei iieaco?
ia iaeiaeiaa c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino? aa?oi?o ? ieaei?o e?ioe?aie. Oae,
c??no iieaciee?a aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie o 1-2 eeanao ca?eueoo?oueny
ia??aiii??ii, a a 3 – ii/eia? cieaeoaaoenue. Oiae? ye i?e??no
?acoeueoao?a /anoioe ?oo?a ieaei?o e?ioe?aie iinooiiai c?inoa?.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? noaoe/ii? aeo?eaaeino? anoaiiaeaii ca?eueoaiiy
iieaciee?a o an?o eeanao aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieueieie (? 0,05-0,005). Aeeiai?ea ??/iiai i?e?inoo noaoe/ii?
aeo?eaaeino? iii?oii c?inoa? o oeii/ee?a c 2, a o ae?a/aoie c 3 eeano.
Aiane?aeie c?inoaiiy iieaciee?a aeo?eaaeino? i?aai?ci aeeoeie iinooiiai
aaeaioo?oueny aei aoiieaiiy, iaaoaa? caeaoiino? aeeiioaaoe ?ooe o?eaaeee
/an ? oaeaeoa a?aeiiaethaaoe o?ce/io oa ?icoiiao i?aoeacaeaoi?noue.

A??ia?aei?noue ??cieoe? iieaciee?a oaeiae aeyaeaia a iaoaii? oai?niiai
i’y/a o ai?eciioaeueio oe?eue (? 0,05-0,001) oa o no?eaeo ia i?noe? c
iiai?ioii a a?aaeonao (? 0,05-0,01). Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeeiai?ee
?icaeoeo ni?eoiino? iieacaa iai, ui c??no iieaciee?a o iaoaii? i’y/a a
ai?eciioaeueio oe?eue (36,7%) aeuee ii??aiyii c ?acoeueoaoaie no?eaea c
iiai?ioii a a?aaeonao (8,1%). Oea iiynith?oueny neeaaei?noth
eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ?ooo. I?e aeeiiaii? no?eaea c iiai?ioii, aieiaiei
/eiii, caae?yi? an? noaeiae ? i’ycia? eaiee o?ea. A i?e iaoaii?, a
iniiaiiio, a ?iaioo aeeth/a?oueny iea/iaee iiyn. Ioaea, ?icaeoie
i?inoi?iaeo ia?ai?uaiue o noaeiaao a?eueo i?ia?ano?, eiee a ?iaio? aa?a
o/anoue iaioa e?euee?noue noaeia?a ? i’yciaeo eaiie.

Oanooaaiiy ia aio/e?noue ia aeyaeei a??ia?aeii? ??cieoe? a iieacieeao (?
0,5) i?ae aenia?eiaioaeueieie ? eiio?ieueieie a?oiaie. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui c??no iieaciee?a aio/eino? o an?o a?eiaeo
a?oiao iinooiiai cieaeo?oueny.

Aenia?eiaio iieacaa, ui ??aaiue ?icaeoeo o?ce/ieo yeinoae (oaeaee?noue,
ni?eoi?noue, aeo?eaae?noue) o ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao aeuee, i?ae o eiio?ieueieo (oaae.2).
Iaea?eueoee c??no iieaciee?a o 1-2 eeanao oa o oeii/ee?a 3 eeano
noaiiaeoue oaeaee?noue, o ae?a/aoie 3 eeano ?icaeoie ni?eoiino?
ia?aaaaea? iaae ?ioeie yeinoyie.

Oaaeeoey 2

I?e??no iieaciee?a o?ce/ieo yeinoae o ae?oae iieiaeoiai

oe?eueiiai a?eo ca iaa/aeueiee ??e (o %)

O?ce/i? yeino?1 eean2 eean3
eeanoeii/eeeae?a/aoeaoeii/eeeae?a/aoeaoeii/eeeae?a/aoeaAEAEAEAEAEAENeea1
1.91399,214,812,711,410,519,419,715,212,4Oaeaee?noue33,52534,524,538,127
,835,525,635,127,832,924,8Aeo?eaae?noue15,49,914,710,224,615,616,711,723
,314,824,916,5Ni?eoi?noue20,612,626,216,23221,831,119,73421,546,930,8Aio
/e?noue6,86,38,78,13,12,56,851,81,854,3

I?ei?oee: A – aenia?eiaioaeueia a?oia; E – eiio?ieueia a?oia

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co aeaieo ianoaaeaiue ?ooiai? i?aeaioiaeaiino?
aeyaeaii, ui o an?o eeanao aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi ?acoeueoaoe
oaeaeeino? c a?ao ia 30i, no?eaea o aeiaaeeio c i?noey, iaoaiiy
oai?niiai i’y/a ia aeaeuei?noue c i?noey aeu? o ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieueieie a?oiaie. I?i a?aei?ii?noue ?acoeueoao?a i?ae
aenia?eiaioaeueieie oa eiio?ieueieie a?oiaie na?ae/eoue a??ia?aei?noue
??cieoe? iieaciee?a ia ei?enoue aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi: a?a ia 30i – ?
0,05-0,005; no?eaie o aeiaaeeio c i?noey – ? 0,01-0,001; iaoaiiy
oai?niiai i’y/a ia aeaeuei?noue c i?noey – ? 0,05-0,001.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy”
io?eiaii o?e a?oie aeaieo: i?aeoaa?aeaeoth/? (1 a?oia); aeai?, ui
aeiiiaiththoue ?nioth/? ?ic?iaee (2 a?oia) oa aaniethoii iia? c aeaii?
i?iaeaie (3 a?oia).

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeai? (O.A.Aiiiaoa?e?, A.N.Aao/aiyi,
I.I.Aeooae, A.?.Aeaoa?e?, I.A.ssaei/e?ia) i?i cieaeaiiy ?ooiai?
aeoeaiino? o/i?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e oa ?o iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei
o?ie?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, yea c ia?aoiaeii o ianooiiee eean iinooiiai
i?ia?ano?. ?ooeea? ?a?e ? iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoiith oi?iith caiyoue
o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie ? ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith ?ooiai? aeoeaiino? ae?oae
(A.N.A?eue/eianueeee, A.A.Ai?iaae, I.?.Eo?ie, A.Trigo Aza). Naia
noia?ieoeoai, aeaiaio iai?oae, ciaaaiiy, aiioe?ei?noue o a??
aeoea?cothoue aeeoeio aei ?ooiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie iaeaaeaoue aeai? i?i a?oioaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai?, ye? aeiiiaiththoue ?ioeo aaoi??a
(A.ss.Aieue/einueeee, A.A.Ai?iaae, A.?.Eaae?a, ?.I.I?enooia,
A.A.Oeueinue); ??aaiue o?ce/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
(O.A.Ai?oaoeueea, A.A.Eaiioue?aa). Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
(I.A.Aio?iiiaa, A.O.Aoaeaeianue-eee, E.A.Aieeia, A.A.Nooa?aa) na?ae/aoue
i?i ia??aiii??iee ?icaeoie ?ooiaeo yeinoae. ?ooeea? ?a?e eiiiainothoue
?ooiao ae?yeuei?noue ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo, aiane?aeie /iai
iie?auo?oueny ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoaie,
ca?eueoo?oueny i?e??no iieaciee?a ?ooiaeo yeinoae. Oae, iaoe?iiaeuei?
?ooeea? ?a?e aoaeoeaii aieeaathoue ia ?icaeoie oaeaeeino?, ni?eoiino? ?
aeo?eaaeino?. Ia ?icaeoie oaeeo o?ce/ieo yeinoae ye neea ? aio/e?noue
i?aeoe/iiai aieeao ia iathoue.

Aaniethoii iiaeie ? aeai?, ui aecia/athoue ooieoe??, oiiae oa iniiai?
iai?yiee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o
nenoaio o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.
Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ca oa?aeoa?ii
?ooiai? ae?yeueiino?. Aecia/aii iaoe?iiaeueio niaoeeo?eo oa iaa?oioiaaii
ci?no, oa?aeoa? ? cia/aiiy ia?iaeieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o eaeaiaea?i?e
ia?yaeiaino? oe?a?ioe?a.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui nenoaiaoe/ia
canoinoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ia o?ieao
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e aoaeoeaii aieeaa? ia o?ce/iee ?icaeoie,
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? ? ?ooiao i?aeaioiaeai?noue o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a.

AENIIAEE

1. No/ania nenoaia o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ia?aaeaa/a?
oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy ?ooeeaeo ?ai?, ye? ? iaeiei c iniiaieo cania?a
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ooiai? aeoeaiino? ae?oae, oi?ioaaiiy iiceoeaii? iioeaaoe??
aei caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie oa aeoiaaiiy ii?aeueieo, anoaoe/ieo ?
aieueiaeo yeinoae iniaenoino?. Aaeee? iiaeeeaino? o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii?
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a iathoue oe?a?inuee? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ooeea? ?a?e, ye?
noai?ai? iine?aeiaiith ci?iith a?eiaeo ? nioe?aeueieo ?ieae, caciaee
ci?i iaaoaath/e ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy. Aiie iaeiiai?oa a?aeia?aaeathoue
niin?a aeeooy ? na?oiaeyae iaoiai ia?iaeo. Aiae?c oe?eueieo i?ia?ai,
iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a oa i?aeoeee o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o oeieao iieaco?,
ui iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ooeea? ?a?e aeei?enoiaothoueny ai?ciaee/ii, aac
aeinoaoiueiai iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o aieeao ia o?ce/iee noai ae?oae.

2. ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y ia?iaeieo ?ai? ca oa?aeoa?ii ?ooiai?
ae?yeueiino?: c aeaiaioaie caaaeueii?icaeaath/eo ai?aa, oiaeueaith,
a?aii, no?eaeaie, iaoaiiyi, c i?eeeaaeieie ai?aaaie (eac?iiy,
ia?ae?caiiy, ia?aiiacaiiy), ??aiiaaaith, c aeaiaioaie ae?iaaoeee,
ai?ioueae, oaioeth, ia aiae?, ia eeaeao a iiai?e i??? ae??oothoue
icaei?ia/?, aeoiai? oa ina?oi? caaaeaiiy. Aei ia? oa?eoei 146 ia?iaeieo
?ooeeaeo ?ai?, ye? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeey o/i?a 1-3 eean?a. Aiie o an?o
a?aeiioaiiyo a?aeiia?aeathoue a?ieia?/i?e iio?aa? aeeoy/iai i?aai?cio a
?ooao aeey iaaoooy iaiao?aeieo iaae/ie ? ai?iue, aeey ?icaeoeo ?ooiaeo ?
aeoiaaiiy ii?aeueii-aieueiaeo yeinoae, aa?ooaaiiy i?aai?cio.

3. I?iaaaeaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi anoaiiaeaii ia??aiii??iee ?icaeoie
?ooiaeo yeinoae o ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo. Oaeaee?noue ?oo?a
aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie o ae?oae 7-10 ?ie?a ?icaeaa?oueny aeoeai?oa, aea c
iinooiiaei cieaeaiiyi iieaciee?a o ii??aiyii? c ieaei?ie e?ioe?aeaie
(iinooiiaa c?inoaiiy iieaciee?a). Neea ca?eueoo?oueny a oeo eaieao o?ea,
ye? ia?aaaaeii caae?yi? a iiaoo? ? o?oaeia?e ae?yeueiino? oa aa?ooue
o/anoue a ?a?iaeo ae?yo, ui iio?aaothoue a?eueoi? o?aiiaaiino?
a?aeiia?aeii? /anoeie o?ea aeey aeeiiaiiy o?ce/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue. E?auo
ni?eoi?noue iieiaeo? oeiey?? iieacothoue o oeo o?ce/ieo ai?aaao, o yeeo
caae?yia iaioa e?euee?noue noaeia?a ? i’yciaeo eaiie.

4. O i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii aieea ia?iaeieo ?ai?
ia ?icaeoie i’yciai? neee, oaeaeeino?, aeo?eaaeino?, ni?eoiino? oa
aio/eino? o ae?oae 1-3 eean?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a aeaiee a?eiaee ia??iae
a o/i?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ioaineaia ia?iuoaaiiy oaeaeeino? (oeii/eee: 1
eean – 35,5%, 2 eean – 38,1%, 3 eean – 35,1%; ae?a/aoea: 1 eean – 34,5%,
2 eean – 35,5%, 3 eean – 32,9%), ni?eoiino? (oeii/eee: 1 eean – 20,6%, 2
eean – 32,2%, 3 eean – 34%; ae?a/aoea: 1 eean – 26,2%, 2 eean – 31,1%, 3
eean – 46,9%), aeo?eaaeino? (oeii/eee: 2 eean – 24,6, 3 eean – 23,3%;
ae?a/aoea: 3 eean – 24,9%), neee (oeii/eee: 3 eean – 19,4%). C??no
iieaciee?a ?ooiaeo yeinoae o ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo
a?aeaoaa?oueny ??cieie oaiiaie (aaoa?io?iiii) ? i?ae ae??th oaeoi??a:
i?e?iaeii-a?eiaeo ci?i i?aai?cio (ii?oieia?/ia ia?aaoaeiaa ?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie) oa ?ooiai? aeoeaiino?, yeeie iane/ai? ia?iaei?
?ooeea? ?a?e.

5. Nenoaiaoe/ia canoinoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ca
oa?aeoa?ii ?ooiai? ae?yeueiino? ia o?ieao o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e iiceoeaii
aieeioei ia ?ooiao i?aeaioiaeai?noue ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi, yea ia?aaeuo? iieacieee eiio?ieueieo a?oi, a
naia:

– iieacieee oaeaeeino? a?ao ia aeenoaioe?th 30i o oeii/ee?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi i?aeaeueeenue: 1-2 eeane – ia 0,6n, 3 eean – ia
0,9n; o eiio?ieueieo: 1 eean – ia 0,3n, 2-3 eeane – ia 0,4n. O ae?a/aoie
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi: 1 eean – ia 0,5n, 2 eean – ia 0,6n, 3 eean – ia
0,8n; o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao: 1-2 eeane – ia 0,3n, 3 eean – ia 0,4n;

– no?eaee o aeiaaeeio c i?noey o oeii/ee?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi
iieacieee c?inee: 1 eean ia 16,7ni, 2 eean – ia 20,5ni; 3 eean – ia
24,3ni; o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao: 1 eean – ia 8,6ni, 2 eean – ia 10,1ni, 3
eean – ia 15,1ni. O ae?a/aoie aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi: 1 eean – ia
13,5ni, 2 eean – ia 17,2ni, 3 eean – ia 17,3ni; o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao: 1
eean – ia 6,3ni, 2 eean – ia 8,4ni, 3 eean – ia 11,2ni.

– a iaoaii? i’y/a ia aeaeuei?noue o oeii/ee?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi
?acoeueoaoe c?inee: 1 eean – ia 312ni, 2 eean – ia 407ni, 3 eean – ia
418ni; o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao: 1 eean – ia 208ni, 2 eean – ia 245ni, 3
eean – ia 290 ni. O ae?a/aoie aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi: 1 eean – ia
186ni, 2 eean – ia 290ni, 3 eean – ia 304ni; o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao: 1
eean – ia 92ni, 2 eean – ia 146ni, 3 eean – ia 181ni.

6. I?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a ca ia?iaeiei eaeaiaea?ai ?c canoinoaaiiyi
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ni?ey? ia eeoa ?icaeoeo ? aaeineiiaeaiith
?ooiaeo yeinoae, a e aeoiaaiith iiceoeaieo ?en iniaenoino?, aea/aiiy
cae/a?a ? o?aaeeoe?e naiai ia?iaeo, aeoiao? ethaia ? iiaaao aei ??aeiiai
e?ath, aei i?aoe?. ?ooeea? ?a?e ca ia?iaeiei eaeaiaea?ai yaeythoue
niaith iiaooith ?oo?eio neeo anoaoe/iiai, ii?aeueii-aoe/iiai,
eoeueoo?iiai aeoiaaiiy ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo. ?o
iaaeaaia?/ia cia/aiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie ? ?acoeueoaoii aeoiaieo
coneeue ia?iaeo i?ioyaii aaaaoueio noie?oue, ? ye iacai?iiee aeoiaiee
can?a ia?aaeathoueny ?c iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy.

7. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeei, ui iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ooeea?
?a?e canoiniaothoueny o ??cieo /anoeiao ? aeaeao o?ie?a o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e. I?ae /an i?aeaioia/i? /anoeie o?ieo aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe
?a?e, ye? ni?eythoue i?aai?caoe?? oa i?aeaioiaoe? ae?oae aei aeeiiaiiy
caaaeaiue o?ieo; a iniiai?e /anoei? – ?a?e, ni?yiiaai? ia cae??ieaiiy oa
oaeineiiaeaiiy neeaaeieo ?ooiaeo ae?e; o caeeth/i?e /anoei? – ?a?e iaei?
?ioaineaiino?, ye? ni?eythoue cieaeaiith o?c?ieia?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
o/i?a. A?eueo aeaoaeueii iaoiaeeea canoinoaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo
?ai? iiaeaia o iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiio iin?aieeo “?ooeea? ?a?e ia o?ieao
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e”.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Ioae?ee N.A. ?ooeea? ?a?e ia o?ieao o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e /
Iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee. – Eooeuee: Iaaenoe?’y, 1996. – 155 n.

2. Ioae?ee N.A. Aieea iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ia ?ooiao
i?aeaioiaeai?noue ae?oae 1-3 eean?a // Oece/aneia ainieoaiea nooaeaioia
oai?/aneeo niaoeeaeueiinoae: Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. – Oa?ueeia: OOIE,
1998. – ?2. – N.45-46.

3. Ioae?ee N.A. A?aeiioaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a aei o?ie?a o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e oa ?o ia?ciai?noue c ia?iaeieie ?a?aie // Iaaeaaia?ea,
ineoieia?y oa iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1999. – ?3. – N.17-22.

4. Ioae?ee N.A. Niaoeeo?ea iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? oa i?aai?caoe?y
? iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy ?o ca ia?iaeiei eaeaiaea?ai // Oece/aneia
ainieoaiea nooaeaioia oai?/aneeo niaoeeaeueiinoae: Nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia. – Oa?ueeia: OOIE, 1999. – ?5. – N.18-22.

5. Ioae?ee N.A. Aieea iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ia ?icaeoie o?ce/ieo
yeinoae ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo // Iaaeaaia?ea, ineoieia?y oa
iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo: Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1999. –?6. – N.19-24.

6. Ioae?ee N.A. Ia?iaei? ?ooeea? ?a?e ye iaeia c oi?i o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy iaoeo i?aaee?a // Iaaeaaia?ea, ineoieia?y oa
iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo: Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1999. –?9. – N.12-17.

7. Ioae?ee N.A. A?a ye aeae ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino? a ioe?ioe? a/aieo
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “O?ce/ia
aeoiaaiiy, nii?o ? eoeueoo?a caei?ia’y o no/aniiio noni?euenoa?”. –
Eooeuee: Iaae?y, 1999. – N.64-70.

8. Ioae?ee N.A. O?aaeeoe?ei? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ooeea? ?a?e oa ?o oa?aeoa?
// Iieiae?aeiee iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.Ean? Oe?a?iee. – Eooeuee, 1997. – ?1. – N.53-58.

9. Ioae?ee N.A., Ioae?ee A.I. ?a?e e caaaae a ia?yaeao oa cae/ayo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo // O?aaeeoe?? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. – E.: ?CII, 1997. – N.162-184.

10. Ioae?ee N.A. ?ieue ? i?noea ?ooeeaeo ?ai? a ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie // Iaoeia? caienee ani??aio?a: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. – Aei.3. – Eooeuee, 1997. – N.50-62.

11. Ioae?ee N.A. ?ooeea? ?a?e – aeooiaia niaaeueia oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ??? I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a oa caei?iaee niin?a aeeooy”. – A?iieoey-
Aa?, 1997. – *.3. – N.26-27.

12. Ioae?ee N.A., Naoa?oe ?.A. ?icaeoie ni?eoiino? o ae?oae iieiaeoiai
oe?eueiiai a?eo // Iaoa??aee OOOV??? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ?inoeoooo. – Eooeuee, 1992. –
*.1. – N.135.

13. Ioae?ee N.A., Iaeueiee O.O. O?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/? caoiaee a
?aaeei? iaa/aeueiiai ? i?iaeiaaeaiiai aeiy oeiee // Iaoa??aee ia?oi?
?anioae?eainueei? eiioa?aioe?? “Eiioeaioe?y i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa nii?oo a Oe?a?i?”. – Eooeuee: Iaaenoe?’y, 1994. –
N.38-39.

14. Ioae?ee N.A. Ona?aeiieaiiy naaa a ?a?ao ia?yaeiaiai oa cae/a?aiai
oa?aeoa?o ae?oueie iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo // Iaoa??aee OL? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ean? Oe?a?iee. – Eooeuee:
Aaaea, 1995. – *.3. – N.98.

15. Ioae?ee N.A. Ia?iaei? ?a?e a aeooiaiiio ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa //
Iaoa??aee OL?? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ean?
Oe?a?iee. – Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1996. – *.3. – N.209.

AIIOAOe??

Ioae?ee N.A. Aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ia
o?ieao o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e o ii/aoeia?e oeie?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 24.00.02 – O?ce/ia
eoeueoo?a, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy. – Aieeinueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, Eooeuee, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? c’yniaaii oa?aeoa? ? niaoeeo?eo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo
?ai? o ??ci? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee Oe?a?ie. Aecia/aii i?ia?aeio ?ieue
?ooeeaeo ?ai? o nenoai? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai
a?eo. ?ic?iaeaia ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ca
oa?aeoa?ii ?ooiai? ae?yeueiino? oa ooi/iaia iaoiaeeea ?o i?iaaaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii aei iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.
Iaa?oioiaaii ci?no, oa?aeoa? ? cia/aiiy ia?iaeieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? o
eaeaiaea?i?e ia?yaeiaino? oe?a?ioe?a. Anoaiiaeaii aoaeoeai?noue aieeao
oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ooeeaeo ?ai? ia o?ce/iee ?icaeoie oa ?ooiao
i?aeaioiaeai?noue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ooeea? ?a?e, eaeaiaea?ia ia?yaeia?noue,
?ooiaa ae?yeuei?noue, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy, o?ce/iee ?icaeoie, iieiaeo?
oeiey??.

Mudryk S.B. The Effectiveness of National Motional Games Application at
the Physical Education Lessons in Primary School. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree in the field of physical education and
sport in specialty 24.00.02 – Physical culture, physical education of
different groups of population. – Lesya Ukrainka Volyn State University,
Lutsk, 1999.

The dissertation reveals the character and peculiar features of national
motional games in different periods of Ukrainian history. The
century-old experience of folk pedagogics, which reflects life and world
outlook of people in the best way, is considered. The opinions of the
scientists and scholars of the past and those of the contemporary
investigators are presented, and it is noted that game is the subject
matter of the following fields of research: philosophy, pedagogics,
psychology, ethnography, culturology, biology, etc.

On the basis of both scientific-theoretical and special literature as
well as psychopedagogical observations, the leading role of the national
motional games in the system of physical education of junior
schoolchildren is deter-mined. The analysis of school curricula and
manuals is made, as well as the organization of physical education in
schools concerning the application of the motional games by physical
education specialists and primary school teachers is analysed. The
dissertation states the insufficient scientific grounding of the
motional games influence on the physical condition of junior
schoolchildren.

The attitude of junior schoolchildren to physical education lessons in
secondary school has been studied. The priority of choice of motional
games by junior schoolchildren has been determined.

In accordance with the pupils’ choice, the classification of the
national motional games as to the character of the motional activity is
worked out and theoretically grounded. These games are follows: those
with the elements of drawing up exercises, e.g. forming up, reforming
up; those with the elements of all-round physical improving exercises,
e.g. in standing position and in motion; those combined with walking,
e.g. with or without objects; those combined with running, e.g. aiming
to gain time, aiming to obtain an object, aiming to achieve a definite
goal; those combined with jumping, e.g. with standing jumps and with
running jumps; those combined with throwing, e.g. in standing position
and in motion; those with the elements of applied exercises, e.g.
climbing, climbing over and crawling across; those with the elements of
keeping equilibrium, e.g. in standing position and in motion; those with
the elements of acrobatics, e.g. in standing position and in motion;
those with the elements of wrestling, e.g. in ground position and in
standing position; those with the elements of dancing, e.g. aiming at
rhythm sensation and developing the ear; those taking place in water,
e.g. in the shallow and deep parts; and those with the elements of
skiing, e.g. on the flat country and on the hilly land. The
above-mentioned classification is developed taking into consideration
the age, anatomical and physiological capabilities of a child’s
organism. The classification includes 146 national motional games, which
are recommended for the pupils of the 1-3 forms and correspond to the
biological needs of a child’s organism for its acquiring the essential
habits and skills, for developing the motional characteristics and
training the moral and volitional qualities and for improving the
endurance of the organism.

The thesis determines the content, character and importance of the
national motional games in the calendarial ceremonialism of the
Ukrainian people as well as their application at the physical education
lessons. The dissertation reveals the forms of the renewal the
traditions of customary character (uniform mass motional actions define
the sphere of the action), those of ritual character (regulated
symbolical actions define the character of the action), those of festive
character (avocations unregulated actions define the character of the
action) and those of competitive character (providing the harmonious
development of the individual). The national peculiar features of the
motional games in the calendarial ceremonialism is singled out, the
latter being considered to be a mighty driving force of the aesthetical,
moral, cultural and physical education of junior schoolchildren.

The research determines the effectiveness of the influence of the
national motional games on the physical development and physical
efficiency of junior pupils. The improvement of the increase of physical
characteristics indices (speed, endurance, aptitude) is revealed. The
uneven development of the speed of the movements of upper and lower
limbs, of the strength of the right and left hand and the aptitude of
the movements of separate parts of the body and the whole organism is
ascertained.

The systematic application of the national motional games at the
physical education lessons has had a positive influence on the motional
preparedness of junior schoolchildren (the speed of 30 metre run,
standing jumps and distance tennis ball throwing).

The results of the experimental work have determined the functions,
conditions and the main trends of the national motional games
introduction into the system of physical education of junior
schoolchildren.

Key words: national motional games, calendarial ceremonialism, motional
activity, physical education, physical development, junior
schoolchildren.

Ioae?ee N.A. Yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo iiaeaeaeiuo ea? ia
o?ieao oece/aneie eoeueoo?u a ia/aeueiie oeiea. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe ii
oece/aneiio ainieoaieth e nii?oo ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 24.00.02 –
Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a, oece/aneia ainieoaiea ?aciuo a?oii ianaeaiey.
Aieuineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eane Oe?aeiee. Eooee, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee auyniaii oa?aeoa? e niaoeeoeeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo
iiaeaeaeiuo ea? a ?aciua enoi?e/aneea ia?eiaeu Oe?aeiu. Ii?aaeaeaii
aaaeouoth ?ieue iiaeaeaeiuo ea? a nenoaia oece/aneiai ainieoaiey aeaoae
ieaaeoaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa. ?ac?aaioaia e iao/ii iainiiaaia
eeanneoeeaoeey iiaeaeaeiuo ea? ii oa?aeoa?o aeaeaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e ooi/iaia iaoiaeeea eo i?iaaaeaiey niioaaonoaaiii n
o/aaiuie i?ia?aiiaie iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeieu. Iainiiaaii
niaea?aeaiea, oa?aeoa? e cia/aiea ia?iaeiuo iiaeaeaeiuo ea? a
eaeaiaea?iie ia?yaeiinoe oe?aeioeaa. Onoaiiaeaii yooaeoeaiinoue aeeyiey
oe?aeineeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo iiaeaeaeiuo ea? ia oece/aneia ?acaeoea e
aeaeaaoaeueioth iiaeaioiaeaiiinoue ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoeeiiaeueiua iiaeaeaeiua ea?u, eaeaiaea?iay
ia?yaeiinoue, aeaeaaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue, oece/aneia ainieoaiea,
oece/aneia ?acaeoea, ieaaeoea oeieueieee.

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