IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

EA?IAIEI IEAIA TH???AIA

OAeE 631.555:51.747

AOAEOEAI?NOUe I?NEssAEIEAIEO IIN?A?A OA CAOIAe?A INIIAIIAI IA?IA?OEO
A?OIOO IA O?IAEAE CA?IA EOEO?OAeCE A OIIAAO I?AAIAA?AAEIIAI E?NINOAIO
OE?A?IE

06.01.01 — caaaeueia caiea?ianoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?, Eaa?iao
i?i?no??a Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Aoaecue Aieiaeeie? Iaaeiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai caiea?ianoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
I?eiae ?aai Aeieo?iae/,

A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
caiea?ianoaa;

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Ii?ic Ieaa Aaneeueiae/,

Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y aa?a?ieo iaoe, a/aiee nae?aoa? a?aeae?eaiiy
caiea?ianoaa ? aa?iaeieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai??
aa?a?ieo iaoe, eaai?aoi??y n?aici?i,

n.i.o. *aaaie Ee?ai-Nayoioeinueeiai ?aeiio

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «6 » eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.00.4.10 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith 252041, i.Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 15,
iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 11, iaa/aeueiee
ei?ion 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «5 » aeiaoiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aeieo?eoae I.ss.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O no/anio aiioo i?e?iaei? aeinenoaie, a oiio /ene?
aa?io?oioeaiice, caciathoue iino?eii c?inoath/iai aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao.
Aianaiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ? o?i?/ieo cania?a
caoenoo ?ineei i?ecaiaeeoue aei caa?oaeiaiiy a?oioiaeo aiae, aei
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia ??no ? ?icaeoie ?ineei, ii?ooaiiy i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a o a?oio?, a /anoi ? aei aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oio?a.

Aeey caiia?aaiiy iaaaoeai?e ae?? ?ioaineaii? o?i?caoe?? ia aeinenoaie ?
caei?ia‘y ethaeae iaiao?aei? oae? i?aeoiaee aei i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaeth/ino?
a?oioo nooue yeeo iiaeiia caiaeeoueny aei a?ieia?caoe?? nenoai
caiea?ianoaa ? i?eaaaeaiiy ?? o a?aeiia?aei?noue aei e?oaiia?ao ?a/iaei.
Aeueoa?iaoeaith o?aaeeoe?eiiio caiea?ianoao aenoaathoue a?ieia?/ia
caiea?ianoai. I?aaii-a?ieia?/ia caiea?ianoai ye iai?yiie aeieia?/iiai
n?euenueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a inoaii? ?iee iaaoei cia/iiai iioe?aiiy.
Iniiaith i?aaii-a?ieia?/iiai caiea?ianoaa ? a?oio, yeee caieea? oeeee
caoiae?a ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Oiio ??no ?ineei caeaaeeoue a?ae i?ioean?a, ye? a iueiio
a?aeaoaathoueny.

Iaeiei ?c ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yie?a iiaea aooe ae?iuoaaiiy i?neyaeieaieo
iin?a?a. Ieoaiith i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ?iaeeie Brassicaceae ia ??ci?
i?ioeane a a?oio? oa ia iin?ae eoeo?oaece i?eae?eyeanue oaaaa aaaaoueio
aeine?aeiee?a. I?ioa ?icaeyae oeueiai ieoaiiy a eiiieaen? c ??cieie
oaeoi?aie, ui aeeth/athoueny o n?aici?ie a cii? i?ai?/iiai E?ninoaio ia
aeeaieeo eo/ieo /i?iicaiao iio?aao? cia/iiai ooi/iaiiy. ? a ia?oo /a?ao,
oea aea/aiiy ieoaiue ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, nenoaie i?ia?aeueiiai,
i?aai?/iiai ? neaea?aeueiiai oaeia?aiiy oa iia‘ycai? c oeei ??ci?
aa?io?i?/i? oa i?e?ia?ieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy. Iio?aaothoue oaeiae oe?
caoiaee, a /an ia?aoiaeo ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie, aia?aaoe/ii?,
aeiiii?/ii? oa aeieia?/ii? ioe?iee. Ui ? ? aeooaeuei?noth aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaii? ?iaioe.

Ca‘ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oaiaoe/ii? i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue
eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai caiea?ianoaa Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
c oaie «?ic?iaea iiaeaeae ii?iaoeaiiai caiea?ianoaa i?e ae?iuoaaii?
iieueiaeo eoeueoo? o E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie», iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0194 U 001957.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia aieeao
i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ?iaeeie Brassicaceae ia i?e?ia?ieia?/i?,
a?io?i?/i?, aa?io?i?/i?, aa?io?ce/i? aeanoeaino? a?oioo, a oaeiae
ca‘ycie aeaeiiaoe/iiai oaeoi?a i?e iane/aii? n?aici?ie oeeie
eoeueoo?aie.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue:

aeyaeoe iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ?iaeeie
Brassicaceae ye iiia?aaeieea aeey eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii;

ioe?ieoe aeioe?euei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ??ee? ca ?aooiie
iin?a?a i?neyaeieaieo eoeueoo? ?aaeueee ie?eii? ? iceiiai ??iaeo ??cieo
oi?i aeei?enoaiiy;

anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeueiee aa??aio nenoaie iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo aeey
?iceeaaeo ?ineeiieo oa i?neyaeieaieo ?aooie ?aaeueee ie?eii? ? iceiiai
??iaeo;

aecia/eoe aieea caoiae?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo oa i?neyaeieaieo
iin?a?a ia iiaeeaiee ?aaeei a?oioo;

aeyaeoe caeaaei?noue caao?‘yiaiino? o?oioeaiico eoeo?oaece a?ae
iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo oa i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a;

aeaoe aeiiii?/io oa aia?aaoe/io ioe?ieo ?ic?iaeaiei caoiaeai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? iniaeeainoae aieeao
iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo oa i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ?aaeueee ie?eii? ?
iceiiai ??iaeo ia neaea?ao ? caeaiee ei?i a oiiaao oeiiaiai /i?iicaio
i?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie ia aa?io?ce/i? aeanoeaino?,
i?e?ia?ieia?/i?, a?io?i?/i? i?ioeane a a?oio?, iiaeeaiee ?aaeei,
caao?‘yiai?noue iin?a?a ? oi?ioaaiiy a?iaeath eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ananoi?iiiy ioe?iea
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe, ui i?neyaeieai? iin?ae
?aaeueee ie?eii? ? iceiiai ??iaeo ia neaea?ao iie?auothoue ?iaeth/?noue
a?oioo, ciaioothoue caao?‘yiai?noue iin?a?a, ui iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia
oi?ioaaiiy o?iaeath eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii, aeei?enoaiiy i?neyaeieaieo
iin?a?a ia caeaia aeia?eai, ui ? aoaeoeaiei caoiaeii ii cae?eniaiith
iioe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo ? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeey
oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy o ae?iaieoeoa?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a iaea?aeaii? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
aeyaey?oueny a naiino?ei?e ?ic?iaoe? ? i?aeoe/iiio cae?eniaii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, ia?iaoe? oa aiae?c? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iaoa??aeo oa ocaaaeueiaii? ?acoeueoao?a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? c aa?aieia?? (Ee?a,
1996), iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo IAO
(1994-1998) oa can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai caiea?ianoaa.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 5 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, a oiio /ene? 1 — noaooy a iaoeiaiio aeo?iae?, 3 — noaoo? o
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa 1 — oace aeiiia?aeae o iaoa??aeao
eiioa?aioe??.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 160 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/a? 40 oaaeeoeue, neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
ainueie ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ae?iaieoeoao. Nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ioiieth? 240 iaeiaioaaiue, a oiio /ene? 15 aaoi??a
aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

1. IAEssAe E?OA?AOO?IEO AeAEA?AE

Iiaeaii ei?ioeee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c ieoaiiue no/aniiai noaio
iinoaaeaieo a ?iaio? i?iaeaiao. A ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy
?iaeth/ino? a?oioo, caoiaee ii i?aeaeuaiith o?iaeaeiino? eoeo?oaece,
caiia?aaiith iaaaoeaii? ae?? o?i?caoe?? ia aeinenoaie, a?ieia?caoe??
caiea?ianoaa, no/ani? aia?aicaa??aath/? oaoiieia?? ii ia?ia?oeo a?oioo,
caoenoo ?ineei ia iniia? yeeo iinoaaeaia aeooaeuei?noue aeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

2. OIIAE OA IAOIAeEEA I?IAAAeAIIss AeINE?AeAEAIUe

2.1. Iiaiaeii-ee?iaoe/i? oa a?oioia? oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny i?ioyaii 1994-1997 ?ie?a ia iieyo
noaoe?iia?ii? n?aici?ie eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai caiea?ianoaa Aa?iiii?/ii?
aeine?aeii? noaioe?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a
n.Ioaie/iiio Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?. Oa?eoi??y
aeine?aeii? noaioe?? ciaoiaeeoueny a i?ai?/ii-no?aei?e /anoei?
i?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.

Aeine?ae caeeaaeaiee ia aeeaieiio, oeiiaiio, iaeiaoioniiio,
na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaiio /i?iicai?. Ai?no aoiono a i?iiio oa??, ca
Oth??iei, neeaaea? 4,34 — 4,68%, ?I nieueiai? aeoyaeee 6,8 — 7,3;
?ie?noue iiaeeiaiiy — 30,7 — 32,5 ia-aea ia 100 a a?oioo. Ai?no
caaaeueiiai acioo, ca Eaeueaeaeai — 0,27 — 0,31%, caaaeueiiai oinoi?o —
0,15 — 0,25%, eae?th — 2,3 — 2,5%. Ai?no ?ooiiiai oinoi?o a a?oio?, ca
Ia/ea?iei, neeaaea? 4,5 — 5,5 ia, a iai?iiiai eae?th — 9,8 — 10,3 ia ia
100 a aaniethoii nooiai a?oioo.

Ee?iao iii??ii eiioeiaioaeueiee. Aaaaoi??/ia na?aaeiuei??/ia oaiia?aoo?a
iia?o?y neeaaea? + 7,50N. Na?aaeiy aaaaoi??/ia a?aeiinia aieia?noue
iia?o?y 79,4%. Iiaae?a o na?aaeiueiio ca ??e aeiaaea? 563 ii, c ieo
aceieo 125 ii (22%), aaniith — 126 ii (22%), e?oii — 204 ii (36%),
ainaie — 108 ii (20%). Ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae aeiaaea? 333 ii aai 59%
??/ii? e?eueeino?.

Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa (??/ia) oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y a 1995 ? 1997 ??. aoea
aeuith ia 0,8 ? 0,10N, a a 1994 ? 1996 ??. ieae/ith a?aeiia?aeii ia 0,1
? 0,90N a?ae ii?ie (7,50N). Iaea?eueo iinooeeaei ?ieii a ia??iae
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aoa 1994, eiee aeiaei iiaae?a 336,1 ii (i?e
ii?i? 562 ii), a iaea?eueo aieiaei — 1995 ??e, eiee iiaae?a aeiaei
598,1%, ui neeaaeaei 106% a?ae aaaaoi??/ieo. A 1997 ?ioe? aeiaei 504,4
ii, a a 1996 ?ioe? — 528,3 ii.

A oe?eiio, a ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaiaei? oiiae aoee
ni?eeiyoeeaeie aeey ae?iuoaaiiy eoeo?oaece.

2.2. Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue

Aea/aiiy aieeao i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a oa ??cieo nenoai iniiaiiai
ia?ia?oeo ia o?iaeaei?noue eoeo?oaece i?iaiaeeee a aaaaoi??/iiio
noaoe?iia?iiio aeine?ae? ii aea/aiith caoiae?a ai?ioueae c ao?‘yiaie a
n?aici?i? c ianooiiei /a?aoaaiiyi eoeueoo?: aaaaoi??/i? o?aae — iceia
ioaieoey + i?neyaeieai? iin?ae — eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii — ai?io — iceia
ioaieoey + i?neyaeieai? iin?ae — oeoe?ia? ao?yee — eoeo?oaeca ia neein —
iceia ioaieoey — y/i?iue c i?aen?aii aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny ca noaiith:

Eiio?ieue (ei?aiaa? oa i?neyaeieai? ?aooee iceii? ioaieoe?).

Ai?e, 40 o/aa.

Iceiee ??iae ia neaea?ao.

Iceiee ??iae ia caeaiee ei?i.

?aaeueea ie?eia ia neaea?ao.

?aaeueea ie?eia ia caeaiee ei?i.

Ia cacia/ai? aa??aioe aeine?aeo iaeeaaeaee aea? nenoaie iniiaiiai
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo:

1 – I?aiea ia 28-30 ni.

2 – *ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo ia aeeaeio 28-30 ni.

Iiaoi?i?noue aeine?aeo o?e?aciaa, ?ici?uaiiy aa??aio?a nenoaiaoe/ia.
Ieiua iin?aii? ae?eyiee 120 i2, iae?eiai? 100 i2.

A aeine?ae? aen?aaee a?a?eae eoeo?oaece THa?eaeiee 60 IA. N?aao
i?iaiaeeee a iioeiaeuei? no?iee i?e i?ia??aaii? a?oioo aei 8-100N. Ii?ia
aen?ao ian?iiy – 25 ea ia iaeei aa. N?aao i?iaiaeeee n?aaeeith NOII-8.

Ae?iuoaaiiy i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a i?iaiaeeee ca oaeith oaoiieia??th:
i?ney cae?aiiy iceii? ioaieoe? i?iaiaeeee iiaa?oiaaee ia?ia?oie a?oioo
aeeneiaeie cia?yaeaeyie c iaeii/aniei eioeoaaiiyi. N?aao i?iaiaeeee a
ia?oeo /eneao na?iiy cae/aeiei ?yaeeiaei niiniaii ca?iiaeie n?aaeeaie
N3-3,6 c iaeii/aniei i?eei/oaaiiyi.

Aeey i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a aeei?enoiaoaaee iceiee ??iae, ni?o
“Ieoieoeueeee-1”, ?aaeueeo ie?eio – “?aeaeoaa” – 25 ea/aa. Ia caeaiee
ei?i oa ia neaea?ao i?neyaeieai? eoeueoo?e aeei?enoiaoaaee a o?ao?e
aeaeaae? aeiaoiy.

A?aea?? a?oioiaeo c?ace?a i?iaiaeeee o?e ?ace ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae:
ia?aae iin?aii eoeo?oaece, o oaco 6-8 eenoi/e?a ? ia?aae cae?aiiyi
o?iaeath.

Aeey aea/aiiy iaeiie/aiiy o?c?ieia?/ii-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei o a?oio? i?ae
iin?aaie eoeo?oaece canoiniaoaaee iaoiae a?ieia?/ieo oano?a: ia
e?an-naeao? ca iaoiaeii A.I.A?iaeceinueeiai [1990] oa ia i?e?ii?aai?ciao
Azotobacter chroococum (?iecei, 1964).

I?e?ia?ieia?/i? aiae?ce i?iaiaeeee a na?aeia?ae?a?aieo c?aceao a?oioo,
iaoiaeii n?aae a?oioiaeo noniaic?e, c a?aeiia?aeiei ?icaaaeaiiyi ia
aonoiio ? ??aeeiio iiaeeaiiio na?aaeiaeu?. I?ae?aooiee, aeae?eaiiy
aaeoa??e ? aeoeiii?oeao?a i?iaiaeeee oeyoii iiaa?oiaaiai iin?ao 0,05 ie
a?oioiai? noniaic?? c /ioe?ueio?aciaiai ?icaaaeaiiy ia eaionoyiiio
na?aaeiaeu? ? 19. I?e?ineii?/i? a?eae i?ae?aoiaoaaee ia i?aeeeneaiiio
aei pH 4,5 na?aaeiaeu? *aiaea.

Aeae?eaiiy ?ooiieo i?aai?/ieo niieoe aecia/aee iaoiaeii ?iiiiai iai?io;
a?eueieo oaiieueieo niieoe o a?oio? – ca iaoiaeii Naaia ? O?ee?na; ai?no
a?eueieo ai?iieeneio – ca iaoiaeii A.I.A?iaeceinueeiai, N.A.Ai?iaoey,
E.?.E?oia; ai?no oaiieea?aiiiaeo eeneio o a?oio? – ca iaoiaeii
?.Oaiieaia ? E.AEthnoa.

U?euei?noue i?iiai oa?o a?oioo aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii I.I.Ea/einueeiai, a
ai?no aeinooiii? aieiaino? a a?oio? – iaoiaeii aenoooaaiiy i?e 1050N.
?ooii? oi?ie oinoi?o ? eae?th a a?oio? aecia/aee ca *e??eiaei,
Ianeiaith; a?ae?ie?ciaaiee acio ca Eiio?eueaeii.

A ?ineeiao aecia/aee ai?no oei?io?eo, ea?ioeii?ae?a aeaa ?ace ca
aaaaoaoe?th: o oac? 6-8 eenoi/e?a ? oea?o?iiy eoeo?oaece.

Caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a aecia/aee e?euee?nii-aaaiiei iaoiaeii o oaco
oea?o?iiy eoeo?oaece. Iae?e o?iaeath i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii nooe?eueiiai
cae?aiiy iae?eiai? ae?eyiee c ia?a?aooieii ia aaeoa?.

Aia?aaoe/io ioe?ieo aa?icaoiaeai, ui canoiniaoaaeenue a aeine?aeaeaiiyo,
?ic?aoiaoaaee ca iaoiaeeeith, ?ic?iaeaiith I.A.Oiea??aei,
A.I.A?aoooeiaei, I.I.I?e?oi?iaei oa ?i. (1989).

3. AIEEA IAAOI?O?EIAAII? I?AAI?*II? ?A*IAEIE IA I?E?IA?IEIA?*I? ?
A?IO?I?*I? I?IOeANE A A?OIO?

?iaeth/?noue a?oioo, iaa?ae’?iii iia’ycaio c a?oioiooai?aiiyi,
iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe ye aca?iiae?th a?oioo ? ?ineei, ui ?inoooue ia
iueiio.

I?ia?ae?caoe?y ?ineeiii? iane ?aaeueee ie?eii? e ??iaeo iceiiai
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy a?eueieo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei o a?oio?,
ui noai?ththoue iaaiee aeaeiiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae o i?eei?aiaaiio
na?aaeiaeu?. Aieea aeaeiiaoe/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei ia ianooii? eoeueoo?e
aecia/a?oueny ?oiueith o?i?/iith no?oeoo?ith ? eiioeaio?aoe??th.
Niinoa??aaoe ca ?aaeoe??th ?ineei ia ai?no o a?oio? o?c?ieia?/ii
aeoeaieo ?a/iaei aeicaiey? iaoiae i?yiiai a?ioanooaaiiy ia e?an-naeao?.
Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue (oaae. 1), ui a?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue
a?oioo ci?ithaaeanue i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. Iaeaeuee i?e??no
ei?ai?a e?an-naeaoo niinoa??aaany ia?aae cae?aiiyi eoeo?oaece. E??i
?ineeiiiai oanoo, ie aaaaeaee ca aeioe?eueia aeei?enoiaoaaoe
acioiaaeoa?, i?e?ii?aai?ci, /ooeeaee aei a?oioiaeo oiia.

A?aeiii, ui iayai?noue acioiaaeoa?a o a?oio? ? iieacieeii eiai
?iaeth/ino?, ine?eueee a?i ? ?iaeeeaoi?ii ia iayai?noue o a?oio?
oinoi?o, eae?th, eaeueoe?th, pH na?aaeiaeua oa ?i. Oeae i?e?ii?aai?ci
ia? caeaoi?noue o?enoaaoe acio aoiinoa?e, a oaeiae neioacoaaoe
noeioeyoi?e ?inoo ?ineei: aoenei, a?oai?ie. Aeine?aeaie anoaiiaeaii, ui
aeei?enoaiiy ?aaeueee ie?eii? ? iceiiai ??iaea i?aeaeuo? /enaeuei?noue
acioiaaeoa?o o oaco 6-8 eenoe?a eoeo?oaece, a oea na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo
a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue. I?e iieeoeaaiio ia?ia?oeo niinoa??aa?oueny
a?eueo aeniea e?euee?noue acioiaaeoa?o, i?ae i?e /ecaeueiiio. Oaea
caeaaei?noue a?aei?/aia ia?aae cae?aiiyi eoeo?oaece o aa??aio? c
aianaiiyi aiith oa aeei?enoaiiyi ?aaeueee ie?eii? ia neaea?ao oa caeaiee
ei?i, a oie /an, ye i?e /ecaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo e?euee?noue acioiaaeoa?o
ciaiooaaeanue.

Aeeiai?ea /enaeueiino? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ?ecinoa?e eoeo?oaece i?e
canoinoaaii? i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ?aooee ??iaeo
iceiiai ? ?aaeueee ie?eii? ni?eythoue ca?eueoaiith /enaeueiino?
ianii?iaeo aaeoa??e, aeoeiii?oeao?a ? a?ea?a.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? ?aooie i?neyaeieaieo eoeueoo?
/enaeuei?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a?ae??ciyeanue ii aa??aioai. Aa??aio c
?aaeueeith ie?eiith ia neaea?ao aeoea?coaaa i?e?ia?ieia?/i? i?ioeane, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue a?oioo.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui i?e?ia?ieia?/i? i?ioeane iaea?eueo aeoeaii
i?ioiaeeee ca oiia /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, oiio ui any i?aai?ea ca
oiia oeueiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ciaoiaeeoueny o aa?oiueiio oa??.

I?e ?iceeaaeaii? neaea?ao?a ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue i?aai?/ieo
?a/iaei, ye? ia?aaoaathoue o a?oio? o a?eueiiio noai?. Oiio, i?e
aeae?eaii? oaiieueieo ?a/iaei c a?oioo a nie?oiaeo ? aiaeii-aoeaoiiiaeo
aeno?aeoao a?aei?/aii ?o ca?eueoaiiy.

Aaaeeeaei iieacieeii a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? ? ai?no a?eueieo
ai?iieeneio. ?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a na?ae/aoue, ui ai?no ai?iieeneio a
a?oio? i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? eoeo?oaece iaaiith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae
caoiae?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo. Iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue ?o
a?aei?/aia ca oiia /ecaeueiiai

Oaaeeoey 1 — Aieea iaaoi?o?eiaaii? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie oa ??cieo
niinia?a ia?ia?oeo

a?oioo ia aeaeiiaoe/io aeoeai?noue a?oioo i?ae eoeo?oaecith ia ca?ii

(% ia?inoaiiy a?oaei/ie a?oioo oano eoeueoo?ith Azotobacter),

na?aaei? ca 1995-1996 ??, %

Iiia? aa??aioo Aa??aio aeine?aeo I?aiea ia 28-30 ni *ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie
ia 28-30 ni

ia?aae iin?aii eoeo?oaece

(14.05.96) oaca 6 eenoe?a eoeo?oaece

(2.07.96) ia?aae cae?aiiyi eoeo?oaece

(23.09.96) ia?aae iin?aii eoeo?oaece

(14.05.96) oaca 6 eenoe?a eoeo?oaece

(2.07.96) ia?aae cae?aiiyi eoeo?oaece

(23.09.96)

1 Eiio?ieue (ei?aiaa? oa noa?iueia? ?aooee iceii? ioaieoe?) 98 96 98 96
94 98

2 Ai?e, 40 o/aa 100 100 100 94 98 98

3 Iceiee ??iae ia neaea?ao 92 100 94 98 96 96

4 Iceiee ??iae ia caeaiee ei?i 96 100 98 100 100 96

5 ?aaeueea ie?eia ia neaea?ao 96 100 100 96 100 98

6 ?aaeueea ie?eia ia caeaiee ei?i 96 100 100 96 100 98

ia?ia?oeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?eueoa e?euee?noue ai?iieeneio o a?oio?
ciaoiaeeoueny ia?aae iin?aii eoeo?oaece.

??aee? oi?ie i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie oaeiae aieeaaee ia e?euee?nio noi?iio
ai?iieeneio a a?oio? i?ae /an aaaaoaoe?? eoeo?oaece. Ca oiia
aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo o aa??aioao c aeei?enoaiiyi iceiiai
??iaeo ? ?aaeueee ie?eii? ia caeaia aeia?eai ai?no ai?iieeneio o a?oio?
aoa iaea?eueoee a on? no?iee ?o aecia/aiiy. Ii i?aioe? oaei?
caeiiii??iino? ia niinoa??aaeinue a ia?o? aeaa no?iee aecia/aiiy. Eeoa
ia?aae cae?aiiyi caeiiii??i?noue aoea oaeith naiith, ye ? i?e
/ecaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo a?oioo. Ia iaoo aeoieo, oaea yaeua c ai?noii
ai?iieeneio ii i?aioe? iiynith?oueny a?aei?iiinoyie eiioeaio?aoe??
i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a a?oio? a ii??aiyii? c /ecaeueiei ia?ia?oeii.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue iaie aeae?eai? oa ?aeaioeo?eiaai? oae?
ai?iieeneioe: e?c?i, a?no?ae?i, aeooai?i, ae?oeei, aae?i, oai?eaeii?i,
?cieaeoeei, eaeoe?yi, ania?aa?iiao oa aeooai?iiao eeneioe.

Ia aa??aioao c ?aaeueeith ie?eiith ? iceiei ??iaeii ca ??cieo oi?i
aeei?enoaiiy ?o aaaaoaoeaii? iane i?e /ecaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo a?oioo
ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue ae?oeeia, ania?aa?iiai? ? aeooai?iiai?
eeneio. Ca?eueoaiiy oeeo ai?iieeneio na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo a?ieia?/io
aeoeai?noue a?oioo.

Ioaea, i?neyaeieai? iin?ae cacia/aieo eoeueoo? ??ciiai aeei?enoaiiy
aeoea?cothoue i?e?ia?ieia?/i? i?ioeane, i?aeaeuothoue a?ieia?/io
aeoeai?noue a?oioo.

4. A?OIOIA? OIIAE AEEOOss ?INEEI

4.1. Aieea nenoaie iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia aa?io?ce/i?
aeanoeaino?

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui a?ae iin?ao aei cae?aiiy a?iaeath
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ia’?iii? iane a?oioo (oaae.2). Aei oiai ae,
i?e /ecaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo oey caeaaei?noue a?eueoa. Oae, a?oio noaaaa
a?eueo u?eueiei ca oiia /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo a?ae 0,08 aei 0,14 a/ni3,
a i?e i?aioe? — 0,06-0,08 a/ni3. Ou?eueiaiiy a?oioo a?aeaoaa?oueny
?ioaineai?oa a ia?o?e iieiaei? aaaaoaoe??, ui iia’ycaia c a?eueoei ?ooii
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oaoi?ee i?e aeiaeyae? ca iin?aaie.
Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy neaea?ao?a ciaiooaaei ia’?iio iano a?oioo ca iaio
ia?ia?oe?a a?oioo.

*ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo ni?eya a?eueoiio iaeiie/aiith aieiae a oa??
a?oioo 0-100 ni, ii??aiyii c iieeoeaaith i?aieith. Iaioee caian aieiae
a?aei?/aany ia aa??aio? c ?aaeueeith ie?eiith ia neaea?ao.
I?ioa a oe?e cii?

Oaaeeoey 2 — Aieea iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo ? i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ia
aeeiai?eo

u?eueiino? aeoeaiiai oa?o a?oioo a iin?aao eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii

(na?aaei? ca 1995-1997 ??.), a/ni3

Iiia? Ia?ia?oie a?oioo

aa??aioo I?aiea ia 28-30 ni *ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie

ia 28-30 ni

ia?aae

iin?aii oea?o?iiy ia?aae

cae?aiiyi ia?aae

iin?aii oea?o?iiy ia?aae

cae?aiiyi

1 1,07 1,15 1,20 1,10 1,22 1,27

2 1,06 1,14 1,18 1,08 1,22 1,25

3 1,05 1,12 1,18 1,08 1,20 1,24

4 1,06 1,15 1,18 1,09 1,21 1,25

5 1,05 1,11 1,17 1,06 1,17 1,22

6 1,06 1,14 1,18 1,08 1,19 1,22

iiaae?a aeiaaea? aeinoaoiy e?euee?noue, oiio ciaioaiiy caiano
i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae a oeueiio aa??aio? ?noioii ia aieeaaei ia
oi?ioaaiiy a?iaeath.

Oaeei /eiii, aiaeii-o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? aoee a?eueo ni?eyoeeaeie ca oiia
/ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, a aen?aaiiy i?neyaeieaieo eoeueoo? ia
aieeaaei iaaaoeaii ia aiaeii-o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? a?oioo.

4.2. Iiaeeaiee ?aaeei a?oioo

I?iaaaeai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui e?euee?noue a?ae?ie?ciaaiiai
acioo a a?oio? cia/ii ca?eueoo?oueny ?c canoinoaaiiyi iceiiai ??iaea ?
?aaeueee ie?eii? ia neaea?ao, aei oiai ae iaea?eueoa eiai e?euee?noue
a?aei?/aia o ia??iae cae?aiiy eoeo?oaece. ?noioii aieeaaa iniiaiee
ia?ia?oie a?oioo ia acioiee ?aaeei a?oioo. A?eueoa iaeiie/oaaeiny acioo
ca oiia /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo. E?euee?noue eiai o aa??aio? c ?aaeueeith
ie?eiith ia neaea?ao i?e iieeoeaaiio ia?ia?oeo noaiiaeea 19,08, a i?e
/ecaeueiiio 19,24 ia ia 100 a nooiai a?oioo.

Aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee ai?noo oinoi?o a a?oio? i?e aianaii? na?aei?
iaaoi?o?eiaaii? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie iieacaei (oaae.3), ui eiai
e?euee?noue cia/ii caeaaeaea a?ae ia?ia?oeo a?oioo. I?e iieeoeaaiio
ia?ia?oeo iaea?eueoa eiai aoei ia?aae cae?aiiyi eoeo?oaece, a i?e
/ecaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo o oaco 6-8 eenoe?a. Ui na?ae/eoue i?i ni?eyoeea?o?
oiiae ii oinoi?o aeey ?ineei i?e /ecaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo. Cia/ii a?eueoa
iaeiie/oaaeinue oinoi?o a a?oio? ? i?e

Oaaeeoey 3 — Aieea iaaoi?o?eiaaii? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie oa ??cieo
niinia?a iniiaiiai

ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia aeeiai?eo ai?noo iai?iiiai oinoi?o ? eae?th a a?oio?

i?ae iin?aaie eoeo?oaece

(na?aaei? ca 1995-1997 ??.), ia ia 100 a nooiai a?oioo

I?aiea ia 28-30 ni *ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie ia 28-30 ni

Aa??aioa aeine?aeo ia?aae

iin?aii oaca 6-8

eenoi/e?a ia?aae

cae?aiiyi ia?aae

iin?aii oaca 6-8

eenoi/e?a ia?aae

cae?aiiyi

?2I5 E2I ?2I5 E2I ?2I5 E2I ?2I5 E2I ?2I5 E2I ?2I5 E2I

Eiio?ieue (ei?aiaa? oa noa?iueia? ?aooee iceii? ioaieoe?) 17,07 2,07
17,14 17,3 17,02 13,3 17,70 20,2 17,40 17,1 17,53 13,9

Ai?e, 40 o/aa 18,52 23,8 19,37 19,3 20,07 14,8 19,00 23,2 19,60 18,0
19,26 15,7

Iceiee ??iae ia neaea?ao 17,23 23,0 17,66 17,3 17,85 14,6 18,43 21,8
19,25 18,3 17,82 16,7

Iceiee ??iae ia caeaiee ei?i 16,18 21,8 16,96 14,7 16,72 13,5 15,7 21,2
16,78 17,5 16,12 15,1

?aaeueea ie?eia ia neaea?ao 18,82 22,5 17,38 18,7 17,66 14,7 — 21,9
20,96 19,1 20,05 17,1

?aaeueea ie?eia ia caeaiee ei?i 14,71 20,5 16,78 15,7 16,98 14,0 15,94
21,5 17,15 17,2 16,90 15,3

cai?iaaaeaeaii? neaea?ao?a. Iaea?eueoa ai?noo a a?oio? iai?iiiai eae?th
niinoa??aaee aaniith, a iaeiaioa ia?aae cae?aiiyi a?iaeath. ??ci? oi?ie
i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie ?noioii aieeaathoue ia e?euee?noue eae?th.
Iaea?eueoa eiai niinoa??aa?oueny ia aa??aioao c aianaiiyi 40 o aiith.
Ioaea, neaea?aoe?y eaionoyieie eoeueoo?aie iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia
iiaeeaiee ?aaeei a?oioo.

5. I?IOEAO?’ssIIAA AOAEOEAI?NOUe I?NEssAEIEAIEO IIN?A?A

Aecia/aiiy caao?’yiaiiino? iin?a?a eoeo?oaece a iaoeo aeine?aeao
na?ae/eoue, ui e?euee?noue ? iana ao?’yi?a ?noioii caeaaeaea a?ae
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ? iin?ao i?neyaeieaieo eoeueoo?.

Iaea?eueo /enoeie aoee iin?ae eoeo?oaece o aa??aioao, aea ??
iiia?aaeieeii aoea ?aaeueea ie?eia oa iceiee ??iae ia caeaia aeia?eai.
Ii a?aeiioaiith aei eiio?ieth cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? ao?’yi?a a?aeiia?aeii
noaiiaeei 54% ? 37%. I?e iieeoeaaiio ia?ia?oeo o aa??aio? c iceiei
??iaeii ia caeaiee ei?i ao?’yi?a ciaioeeinue ia 29%, c ?aaeueeith
ie?eiith — ia 33%, a i?e /ecaeueiiio a?aeiia?aeii — ia 16% ? 23% ii
a?aeiioaiith aei eiio?ieth.

6. AIEEA INIIAIIAI IA?IA?OEO A?OIOO

? I?NEssAEIEAIEO IIN?A?A IA ??NO ? ?ICAEOIE EOEO?OAeCE

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui /ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo
caaacia/oaaa oaiaeaioe?th aei i?aeaeuaiiy iieueiai? noiaeino? ian?iiy
eoeo?oaece ? ye iane?aeie a?eueoo aonoioo ?ineei ia aaeoa??, ii??aiyii c
iiaa?oiaaei ia?ia?oeii. Aonoioa ?ineei noaiiaeea i?e i?aioe? 78,7 oen.
oooe, a i?e /ecaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo — 80,4 oen. oooe ia iaeiiio aaeoa??.

Ia?ia?oie a?oioo aieeaaa ? ia aenioo ?ineei. I?e /ecaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo
a?oioo aenioa ?ineei iaeaea anth aaaaoaoe?th aoea a?eueoith, i?ae ia
aa??aioao c i?aieith a?oioo. Ana oea iaoiiaeei iiceoeaiee aieea ia
caaaeueiee ?icaeoie ?ineei ? eenoiaee aia?ao (oaae.4).

Oaeei /eiii, canoinoaaiiy /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ni?eyei a?eueo
?ioaineaiiio oi?ioaaiith eenoiaiai aia?aoo, ui iiceoeaii aieeioei ia
caaaeueio i?iaeoeoeai?noue eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii. A?eueoo eenoiao
iiaa?oith ca /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo iiaeia iiynieoe e?auei iiaeeaiei ?
aiaeiei ?aaeeiii a?oioo, aenieei ai?noii ai?iieeneio o a?oio?.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ai?no oei?io?eo «a» aoa aeuee i?e /ecaeueiiio
ia?ia?oeo. I?aiea a?oioo ni?eyea a?eueo ??aiii??iiio a?aeiioaiith
oei?io?eo «a» aei «a».

Ai?no ea?ioeii?ae?a a eenoyo eoeo?oaece aoa aeuee o aa??aioao aeine?aeo
c iceiei ??iaeii oa /ecaeueiei ia?ia?oeii a?oioo. I/aaeaeii oea
iiynith?oueny iayai?noth a a?oio? aeaeiiaoe/ii aeoeaieo oaiieea?aiiiaeo
eeneio o aa??aio? c iceiei ??iaeii.

Oaaeeoey 4- ?iaeaen eenoiai? iiaa?oi? eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii a caeaaeiino?

a?ae nenoaie iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo oa i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a
(na?aaei? ca 1995-1997 ??.)

Iiia?

aa??aioo I?aiea ia 28-30 ni *ecaethaaiiy

ia 28-30 ni

6-8 eenoe?a oaca

oea?o?iiy 6-8 eenoe?a oaca

oea?o?iiy

Eiio?ieue (ei?aiaa? oa noa?iueia? ?aooee iceii? ioaieoe?) 1,20 2,23 1,22
2,33

Ai?e, 40 o/aa 1,27 2,66 2,04 3,00

Iceiee ??iae ia neaea?ao 1,29 2,42 1,71 2,84

Iceiee ??iae ia caeaiee ei?i 1,14 2,27 1,27 2,56

?aaeueea ie?eia ia neaea?ao 1,50 2,75 1,74 3,47

?aaeueea ie?eia ia caeaiee ei?i 1,46 2,53 1,35 3,18

Ioaea, /ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie noai?th? e?au? oiiae aeey i?i?inoaiiy
ian?iiy ? oi?ioaaii? aonoioe ?ineei, ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiiio ia?inoaiith
ieiu? eenoiai? iiaa?oi?, ai?noo i?aiaio?a ? ea?aoeii?ae?a a eenoyo. Ana
oea iiceoeaii aieeioei ia o?iaeaeiino? ca?ia eoeo?oaece (oaae.5).

Oaaeeoey 5 – Aieea iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo oa i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a
ia a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia eoeo?oaece, oe/aa

Aa??aioe i?neyaeieaieo

eoeueoo? (oaeoi? A) Ia?ia?oie a?oioo (oaeoi? A) Na?aae-i?

oaeoi-?o

A ??cieoey

aei eiio?i-eth

I?aiea

ia 28-30 ni *ecaeueiee ia-?ia?oie

ia 28-30 ni

1995 ??e

Ei?aiaa? oa noa?iaa? ?aooee

iceii? ioaieoe? (eiio?ieue) 68,5 65,3 66,9

Ai?e, 40 o /aa 76,2 77,8 77,0 10,1

Iceiee ??iae ia neaea?ao 75,8 77,2 76,5 9,6

Iceiee ??iae ia caeaiee ei?i 69,8 69,4 69,6 2,7

?aaeueea ie?eia ia neaea?ao 77,3 78,6 78,0 11,1

?aaeueea ie?eia ia caeaiee ei?i 71,3 70,9 71,1 4,2

Na?aaei? oaeoi?o A 73,2 73,2

??cieoey aei eiio?ieth

0,05

I??05 oaeoi?o A- iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo = 0,5; oaeoi?o A- neaea?aoo
= 1,7.

1996 ??e

Ei?aiaa? oa noa?iaa? ?aooee

iceii? ioaieoe? (eiio?ieue) 82,8 80,2 81,5

Ai?e, 40 o /aa 88,9 87,3 88,1 6,6

Iceiee ??iae ia neaea?ao 86,1 87,8 87,0 5,4

Iceiee ??iae ia caeaiee ei?i 72,1 83,7 77,9 -3,6

?aaeueea ie?eia ia neaea?ao 88,1 90,6 89,4 7,8

?aaeueea ie?eia ia caeaiee ei?i 83,9 84,4 84,2 2,7

Na?aaei? oaeoi?o A 83,7 85,7

??cieoey aei eiio?ieth

2,0

I??05 oaeoi?o A — iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo = 0,9; oaeoi?o A —
neaea?aoo = 2,1.

1997 ??e

Ei?aiaa? oa noa?iaa? ?aooee

iceii? ioaieoe? (eiio?ieue) 67,3 65,8 66,6

Ai?e, 40 o /aa 73,5 74,1 73,8 7,3

Iceiee ??iae ia neaea?ao 72,2 73,4 72,8 6,3

Iceiee ??iae ia caeaiee ei?i 68,1 67,9 68,0 1,5

?aaeueea ie?eia ia neaea?ao 74,2 76,0 75,1 8,6

?aaeueea ie?eia ia caeaiee ei?i 68,8 68,4 68,6 2,1

Na?aaei? oaeoi?o A 70,7 70,9

??cieoey aei eiio?ieth

0,3

I??05 oaeoi?o A — iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo = 0,5; oaeoi?o A —
neaea?aoo = 1,3.

7. AEIIII?*IA ? AIA?AAOE*IA AOAEOEAI?NOUe OAOIIEIA?E AE?IUOAAIIss
EOEO?OAeCE

Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea oaoiieia?e

Ioe?iea niinia?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo iieacaea, ui iaea?eueo
aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaiei aoei canoinoaaiiy /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo ia aeeaeio
28-30 ni. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo ciaiooaaeinue ii??aiyii c i?aieith
oaoiieia?/ieo aeo?ao ia 4-6%, a i?eaooie c?inoaa ia 47-65 a?i. ia 1 aa ?
?aioaaaeuei?noue — ia 11-15%. Iaeii/anii nia?aa?o?noue i?iaeoeoe??
ciaiooaaeanue ia 12-14%.

Iaea?eueo? a?ioia? aeo?aoe iaee i?e aianaii? i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea a ii?i?
40 o/aa aiith. Ia oeueiio aa??aio? aeo?aoe ca?eueooaaeenue ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieai iaeaea ao?e/?.

Aen?aaiiy i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ca?eueooaaei aeo?aoe, iniaeeai i?e
aeei?enoaii? ?o ia caeaiee ei?i. Aeei?enoaiiy iiaoi?ieo iin?a?a ia
neaea?aoe aeicaieeei io?eiaoe iaeaeuee i?eaooie (677-718 a?i. ia 1 aa),
ui i?aeoe/ii aoei ia ??ai? eiio?ieth, oiae? ye a ?ioeo aa??aioao
niinoa??aaeinue eiai cia/ia ciaioaiiy. Oae, i?e aianaii? 40 o /aa aiith
i?eaooie ciaiooaaany aei 224 a?i. ia 1 aa, aai a?eueoa, i?ae ao?e/?
ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai.

Aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea oaoiieia?e

I?iaaaeai? aia?aaoe/i? ?ic?aooiee ii aa??aioao aeine?aeo iieacothoue
(oaae.6), ui iaea?eueoee ??aaiue aia?aaoe/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? aoa
aeinyaiooee i?e canoinoaaii? /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ? iin?ao
?aaeueee ie?eii? ia neaea?ao. I?e oeueiio aeinyaaeinue ca?eueoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino?, ye ca iniiaiith i?iaeoeoe??th (ca?ii eoeo?oaece) — ia
3-16%, oae ? ca caaaeueiith a?ieia?/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth
aa?io?oioeaiic?a — ia 4-34%.

Iaea?eueoee eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? (8,7 a?aeiinieo
iaeeieoeue) niinoa??aaee ia eiio?ie?. Aeei?enoaiiy eeoa i?aai?/ieo
aeia?ea (aa??aio 2) i?ecaiaeeei aei cia/iiai (iaeaea a aeaa ?ace)
ciaioaiiy ieoiiino? aeo?ao. Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a aoei
aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaiei.

I?e oiio, canoinoaaiiy i?neyaeieaieo eoeueoo? ia neaea?ao iaeaea a 4-4,4
?ace ia?aaeuoaaei eiao?oe??io aoaeoeaiino? io?eiaieo ia aa??aioao c
aeei?enoaiiyi oeeo iin?a?a ia caeaiee ei?i.

Aianaiiy aiith i?ecaiaeeei aei cia/iiai (iaeaea ia 70%) i?aeaeuaiiy
aia?ai?iiino? ae?iaieoeoaa 1 oe ca?ia eoeo?oaece ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai.

I?iaaaeaia a?iaia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea an?o aa??aio?a aeine?aeo iieacaea
aiaeia?/io caeaaei?noue, yeo niinoa??aaee i?e aia?aaoe/ieo ?ic?aooieao.

Oaaeeoey 6 — Aia?aaoe/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? cao?aoi? oa?aeoa?enoeee
oaoiieia?ei?e canoinoaaii? /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo ia aeeaeio 28-30 ni,
AAeae /aa

Aa??aioe

aeine?aeo I?iaeoeoeai?noue

iniiaii? i?iaeoeoe??

eoeo?oaece Caaaeueia a?ieia?/ia

i?iaeoeoeai?noue

eoeo?oaece ? i?ney-

aeieaieo iin?a?a Cao?aoe

Eiio?ieue (ei?aiaa? oa noa?iueia? ?aooee iceii? ioaieoe?) 106,6 543 12,2

Ai?e, 40 o/aa 120,6 615 23,4

Iceiee ??iae ia neaea?ao 120,3 702 14,4

Iceiee ??iae ia caeaiee ei?i 111,6 658 15,9

?aaeueea ie?eia ia neaea?ao 123,7 728 14,5

?aaeueea ie?eia ia caeaiee ei?i 112,9 673 15,6

AENIIAEE

Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeeeaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a uiaei aea/aiiy
aieeao nenoaie iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ? i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue eoeo?oaece a oiiaao i?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie
ia oeiiaiio /i?iicai? aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? iniiai? aeniiaee:

I?neyaeieai? iin?ae eoeueoo? ?iaeeie Brassicaceae — iceiee ??iae oa
?aaeueea ie?eia — aeoea?cothoue i?e?ia?ieia?/i? i?ioeane a a?oio?.
Iaea?eueo aeoeaii aiie i?io?eaee i?e canoinoaaii? /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo
a?oioo oa aeei?enoaiiy ?aaeueee ie?eii? ia neaea?ao. A oeueiio aa??aio?
a?aei?/aia iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue aeoeiii?oeao?a – 582,2 oen.a
aaniethoii nooiai a?oioo.

Ca?iaeaia caeaia iana ?aaeueee ie?eii? oaeaeei ?iceeaaea?oueny a a?oio?,
ca ?aooiie /iai i?aeaeuo?oueny ai?no i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei.

*ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo ni?ey? ae?oaeiueiio i?i?inoaiith ian?iiy
ao?’yi?a, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?eueoiai cani?/aiiy iin?a?a eoeo?oaece
ii??aiyii c i?aieith.

?noioiee aieea ia cani?/ai?noue iin?a?a eoeo?oaece iaee i?neyaeieai?
eoeueoo?e, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaee ia caeaia aeia?eai. ?aaeueea ie?eia ?
iceiee ??iae cieaeoaaee caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai
a?aeiia?aeii ia 54% ? 37%.

Aeei?enoaiiy i?neyaeieaieo eoeueoo? ia neaea?ao oa /ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie
ni?eyee iie?auaiith aa?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae a?oioo ? ia ciaiooaaee
caiane aieiae a a?oio? i?ae ianooiiith eoeueoo?ith.

*ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo noai?th? e?au? oiiae aeey i?i?inoaiiy ?
ii/aoeiaiai ?inoo eoeo?oaece, ui ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith a?eueoi? ieiu?
eenoiaiai aia?aoo oa aenioe ?ineei a ii??aiyii? c cae/aeiith i?aieith.

I?ii?aei? iin?ae ?aaeueee ie?eii? ? iceiiai ??iaeo ca ??cieo oi?i
aeei?enoaiiy ?o aaaaoaoeaii? iane oa i?e canoinoaaii? /ecaeueiiai
ia?ia?oeo ca?eueoothoue e?euee?noue ai?iieeneio ae?oeeio, ania?aa?io ?
aeooai?io a a?oio?. Aiane?aeie /iai i?aeaeuo?oueny a?ieia?/ia
aeoeai?noue a?oioo, ui iiceoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia ?icaeoeo ?ineei
eoeo?oaece.

Aeei?enoaiiy i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ?aaeueee ie?eii? oa iceiiai ??iaeo
ia neaea?ao ni?eyei ca?eueoaiith ai?noo eoaeiia?ae?ie?ciaaiiai acioo,
oinoi?o oa iai?iiiai eae?th a a?oio?.

*ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo oa aeei?enoaiiy i?neyaeieaieo eoeueoo? ia
neaea?ao iioei?cothoue oiiae ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo eoeo?oaece, ui ni?eyei
i?aeaeuaiith a?iaeaeiino? ca?ia, ii??aiyii c i?aieith.

Iaea?eueo aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueiei aoei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy /ecaeueiiai
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo oa aeei?enoaiiy ?aaeueee ie?eii? ia caeaia aeia?eai.
Oea coiiaeei ciaioaiiy aeo?ao ia 4-6%, ca?eueoaiiy i?eaooeo ia
47-65 a?i. ? ?aioaaaeueiino? ia 11-15% ia 1 aa ii??aiyii c iieeoeaaith
i?aieith.

Aianaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea iaeaea a aeaa ?ace ciaiooaaei ieoii?noue
aeo?ao, i?aeaeuoaaei aia?ai?ii?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia eoeo?oaece
a?eueoa ye ia 70% ii??aiyii c aa??aioaie aac eiai. Aeei?enoaiiy
i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ia neaea?ao a 4-6 ?ac ciaioo? aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe
ia io?eiaiiy aeiaeaoeiai? iaeeieoe? a?iaeath.

I?IIICEOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

A oiiaao i?ai?/iiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeeaieeo /i?iicaiao aeieia?/ii
? aia?aaoe/ii aoaeoeaiei ? canoinoaaiiy a ca?ii-i?inaii?e n?aici?i?
/ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo ia 28-30 ni i?ae eoeo?oaeco c ca?iaeith caeaii?
iane i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ?aaeueee ie?eii? ? iceiiai ??iaeo ia
neaea?ao.

Ioae?eaoe?? ii oai? aeena?oaoe??

Aoaecue A.I., Iaenei/oe ?.I., Eae?aa?aea A.I., E?io?iia I.I.,
Eooethe ?.I., Oethe I.A., Ea?iaiei I.TH. ?ic?iaea iiaeae? ii?iaoeaiiai
caiea?ianoaa i?e ae?iuoaaii? iieueiaeo eoeueoo? a E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie//
Ca. iaoe. i?. — Iaoeiaee a?niee IAO. — E., 1997. — ? 1. — N. 65 — 71
(Aecia/aia aoaeiaa i?iiai oa?o a?oioo).

Ea?iaiei I.TH., E?io?iia I.I. I?ioeao?‘yiiaa aoaeoeai?noue i?neyaeieaieo
iin?a?a ia caeaia aeia?eai// Ca. iaoe. i?. — Iaoeiaee a?niee IAO. — E.,
1997. — ? 2. — N. 86-89. (Cae?eniaia ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? i?neyaeieaieo
iin?a?a).

Aoaecue A.I., E?io?iia I.I., Ea?iaiei I.TH. Aieea ??cieo niinia?a
iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo oa i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ia aeeiai?eo
ai?iieeneio o a?oio?// Ca. iaoe. i?. — ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI. —
E., 1998. — ? 1. — N. (Aeeiiai? a?io?i?/i? aiae?ce).

Aoaecue A.I., Ea?iaiei I.TH., O?ieue O.N. Aieea iaaoi?o?eiaaii?
i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie ia a?oioiai-i?e?ia?ieia?/i? i?ioeane i?e ae?iuoaaii?
eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii// A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. — 1998. — ? 4. — N. 14-15.
(Cae?eniai? i?e?ia?ieia?/i? aiae?ce).

A??theia I.A., Eae?aa?aea A.I., Ea?iaiei I.TH. Aieea i?neyaeieaieo
eoeueoo? i?e ??cieo niiniaao ?o aeei?enoaiiy a n?aici?i? ia oiene/i?
aeanoeaino? a?oioo// Iaoa??aee i?aei. iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
«Naeaeoe?y, ian?iieoeoai ? oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy iieueiaeo eoeoo?». —
*a?i?aoe?. Aoeiaeia, 1996. — N. 194-195. (Aeeiiai? a?io?i?/i? aiae?ce).

Ea?iaiei I.TH. Aoaeoeai?noue i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a oa caoiae?a iniiaiiai
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia o?iaeaei?noue ca?ia eoeo?oaece a oiiaao
i?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.01 — caaaeueia
caiea?ianoai. — Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith aieeao i?neyaeieaieo iin?a?a ?iaeeie
Brassicaceae oa caoiae?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia a?ieia?/io,
i?e?ia?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue a?oioo oa ia eiai iieacieee ?iaeth/ino?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy ?aaeueee ie?eii? ia neaea?ao aeoea?co?
i?e?ia?ieia?/i?, a?io?i?/i? i?ioeane a a?oio? ? oei naiei
i?aeaeuothoueny iieacieee ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo. E??i oiai neaea?aoe?y
caaacia/o? aoaeoeaio ai?ioueao c ao?‘yiaie, ui aeicaiey? io?eiaoe
iaeaeuee a?iaeae eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?ia?oie a?oioo, i?neyaeieai? iin?ae, ?aaeueea ie?eia,
iceiee ??iae, neaea?aoe?y, eoeo?oaeca, ?iaeth/?noue, o?iaeaei?noue.

Ea?iaiei A.TH. Yooaeoeaiinoue iiaeieaiuo iinaaia e niiniaia iniiaiie
ia?aaioee ii/au ia o?iaeae ca?ia eoeo?ocu a oneiaeyo i?aaiaa?aaeiie
Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.01 — iauaa
caieaaeaeea. — Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth aeeyiey iiaeieaiuo iinaaia naiaenoaa
Brassicaceae e niiniaia iniiaiie ia?aaioee ii/au ia aeieiae/aneoth,
iee?iaeieiae/aneoth aeoeaiinoue ii/au e iieacaoaee ieiaei?iaeey.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eniieueciaaiea ?aaeueee ianee/iie ia neaea?ao
aeoeaece?oao iee?iaeieiae/aneea e aeioeie/aneea i?ioeannu a ii/aa e oai
naiui iiauoaao iieacaoaee ieiaei?iaeey ii/au.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?aaioea ii/au, iiaeieaiua iinaau, ?aaeueea ianee/iay,
iceiue ?ain, neaea?aoeey, eoeo?oca, ieiaei?iaeea, o?iaeaeiinoue.

Olena Y.Karpenko. The effecissency of sowing after the harvest and the
ways of main soil treatment for the crop of corngrains in conditions of
mixed forest and fields located in right bank of the river Dnipro in
Ukraine. — Pamflet.

The thesis is to obtain a scientific degree of the Doctor of Phylosofy
(PHD) in the domain of agricultural science, speciality 06.01.01 —
general Treatment of soil. — The National Agricultural University, Kiev,
1998.

The Thesis is assigned to study the influence of sowing the Brassicaceae
family after the harvest and the ways of main soil treatment on the
biologycal, microbiologycal activity of soil and on its indexes of
fertility.

It is ascertain, that the use of radish of oil on the ciderat actvates
the microbiologycal and biochemical processes in soil and by that means
the soil fertility indexes are improved. Exept this, the cideration
provides an effeciant strugle with useless herbs, what permits to get
high crop of the corn grains.

Key words: the soil treatment, sowing after the harvest, radish of oil,
winter rape, cideration, corn, fertility, crop.

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