18

OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO a?ae?ioaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe?? OAAI

IAOAETHE Aaneeue Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 633.615:631.582

AOAEOEAI? OA AEIEIA?*II CAAEAINIAAI? EI?IIA? N?AICI?IE IA INOOOAAIEO
OI?OIAEO A?OIOAO IIE?NNss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 06.01.02 – n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea iae?i?aoe?y

(n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? iaoee)

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? caiea?ianoaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo
iaoe.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? caiea?ianoaa ia inooaieo caieyo ?inoeoooo
caiea?ianoaa OAAI

NETHNA? ?aai Oeiio?eiae/.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
aeaeai oaeoeueoaoo aeieia?? oa caieaaii?yaeeoaaiiy ??aiainueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Eeeiaiei Ieeiea Ieaenaiae?iae/;

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? iae?i?aoe??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo EICss? Ieaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aea?aeaaia aa?iaeieia?/ia aeaaeai?y, i.AEeoiie?,
Noa?ee aoeueaa?, 7.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 26 n?/iy 2000 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.362.01 i?e ?inoeooo? a?ae?ioaoi?ee ?
iae?i?aoe?? OAAI ca aae?anith: 252022, Ee?a-22, aoe.Aaneeuee?anueea,
37.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
a?ae?ioaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe?? OAAI.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 17 a?oaeiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe
Oiiieuei?e O.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/aniee ??aaiue caiea?ianoaa ia inoooaaieo
i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao ia caaeiaieueiy? iio?aae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa oa aeieia?/i? aeiiae. Ia oeeo a?oioao a?aeaoaa?oueny
?ioaineaiee ?iceeaae i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie ? aeieaaiiy iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o
a?oioia? aiaee. Ae??oeoe oeth i?iaeaio iiaeia eeoa ca oiia iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo ?ic?iaie c ieoaiue oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth i?aaiiaaiieo
a?oio?a ia iniia? canoinoaaiiy aoaeoeaieo oa aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaieo
oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ? ci?ie
no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu.

Aaaaoi??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o ??cieo ?aa?iiao aoi?aeii? ciie ?a?iie
na?ae/aoue, ui caa?aaeaiiy ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeo?a/aiiy i?aai?ee
oi?oiaeu iiaeia aeinyaoe oeyoii aaaaeaiiy ia ieo ei?iiaeo, eo/ieo ?
eo/ii-ianiaeuieo n?aici?i c iaiaaeaiei iieueiaei ia??iaeii.

Aeey ?ic?iaee iiae?aieo n?aici?i ia i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao Iie?nny aaeeea
cia/aiiy ia? n?aaa i?inaiieo eoeueoo? i?ney aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, ui
iia’ycaia c iayai?noth aaeeei? e?eueeino? ae?ioyieea, yeee iaiineoue
aaeeeo oeiaeo i?inaiiei eoeueoo?ai. E??i oiai, c iaoith cieaeaiiy
i?ia?ae?caoe?? oi?oiaeu ciaioo?oueny /anoea iaeii??/ieo eoeueoo? o
n?aici?i? aei iaeiiai-aeaio iie?a c iaeii/aniei ca?eueoaiiyi eo/iiai
ia??iaeo n?aici?i.

Ioaea, aeieeea aino?a iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy eiiieaeno i?aai?caoe?eieo,
aa?io?i?/ieo oa aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a uiaei ?ic?iaee
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo, aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaieo oa aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo
ei?iiaeo n?aici?i ia i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao Iie?nny c ei?ioeei iieueiaei
ia??iaeii.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ii?
iniiae ? i?aeoe/ieo i?iiiceoe?e iiaoaeiae eo/ii-ei?iiaeo n?aici?i a
oiiaao inooaieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oio?a Iie?nny Oe?a?ie c ia?aiao?aie
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, a?aeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo, iie?ioaiiy
aeieia?/iiai noaio oa i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oeeo caiaeue.

A caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aoiaeeei:

– aeine?aeeoe oa ?ice?eoe iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy aea?ieie aaaaoi??/ieo
eoeueoo?ieo o?aainoi?oie i?ae iin?ae i?inaiieo eoeueoo? (eoeo?oaeca,
ei?iia? ao?yee, ii?eaa noieiaa);

– aecia/eoe aieea ae?? iiia?aaeiee?a ? niinia?a ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia
caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a ? ca?aaeaiiy iie?a ae?ioyieeii;

– aeine?aeeoe aieea eo/iiai ? i?inaiiiai ia??iae?a o n?aici?i? ia
?iaeth/?noue a?oioo, i?ia?ae?caoe?th i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie;

– aeaoe aa?iaeieia?/io, aeiiii?/io ? a?iaia?aaoe/io ioe?ieo ??ciei
ei?iiaei n?aici?iai c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii a oiiaao Iie?nny
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? iniaeeainoae
noai?aiiy aeieia?/ii-aacia/ii? ?ano?nicaa??aath/i? nenoaie caiea?ianoaa
ia inoooaaieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao Iie?nny; ?ic?iaoe? eo/ii-ei?iiaeo
n?aici?i c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii, ye? caaacia/othoue
aenieii?iaeoeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy oeeo caiaeue c iaeii/aniei caaeainiaaiei
i?ioeanii i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie oa a?aeoai?aiiyi aeniei?
?iaeth/ino? oi?oiaeu; aecia/aii? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo caoiae?a
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aaaaoi??/ii? aea?ieie o?aa i?ae iin?ae
i?inaiieo eoeueoo?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? a
eiiieaeniiio i?aeoiae? aei ?ic?iaee caoiae?a uiaei aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy inoooaaieo caiaeue Iie?nny Oe?a?ie, a naia: iiaoaeiaa
eo/ii-ei?iiaeo n?aici?i c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii; niin?a
aeei?enoaiiy aea?ieie aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ia noa?ii?ieo oi?oiaeo a?oioao
i?ae i?inaii? eoeueoo?e; aeei?enoaiiy i?ii?aeieo eoeueoo?, ye?
aeicaieythoue iiaeiaaeeoe caeaiee eiiaae?? aeey oaa?eiieoeoaa aei
aeeaiei? inai?; noai?aiiy oiia ?icoe?aiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai eo/iiai
ia??iaeo a n?aici?i?, ui caaacia/o? nei?i/aiiy iai?iaeoeoeaieo ao?ao
iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, io?eiaiiy aenieeo ? noaeeo o?iaea?a aenieia?eeiaiai,
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiiai ei?io c inoooaaieo a?oio?a.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii?
no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu, nenoaie ia?ia?oeo, oaeia?aiiy, ai?ioueae c
ao?’yiaie oa ae?ioyieeii, noaa?e?caoe?? iae?i?aoeaiiai caiea?ianoaa ia
i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao a no/anieo oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Ae?iaie/o ia?aa??eo
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo oa aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaieo ei?iiaeo n?aici?i
ia inoooaaieo oi?oiaeo a?oioao Iie?nny i?iaiaeeee a oiiaao Aeine?aeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa ?inoeoooo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?e?ia?ieia?? OAAI o
*a?i?a?anueeiio ?aeii? *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaciina?aaeiuei aeena?oaioii iaa?oioiaaia
?ic?iaea ei?iiaeo n?aici?i c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii ia oi?oiaeuao.
Aecia/ai? ? iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? caoiaee uiaei noaa?e?caoe??
iae?i?aoeaiiai caiea?ianoaa ia inoooaaieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao Iie?nny
Oe?a?ie, ye? aeeth/athoue nei?i/aiiy i?inaiiiai ia??iaeo ei?iiaeo
n?aici?i aei iaeiiai ?ieo, aaaaeaiiy i?ii?aeii? eoeueoo?e i?ney
aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, ui caaacia/o? cia/ia cieaeaiiy oeiaei/eiiino?
ae?ioyieea aeey i?inaiieo eoeueoo? ? aeoea?co? ?iaeth/?noue a?oioo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii oai? aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo oa niaoe?ae?no?a
?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe
(1995-1997??.), ia nai?ia?ao ea??aiee?a oa niaoe?ae?no?a ??aiainueei?
iaeano? (Aa?io??ia “Ci?y”, ??aiainueeiai ?aeiio, 1997-1998??.), ia
can?aeaiiyo eaai?aoi??? caiea?ianoaa ia inooaieo caieyo (1994-1999??.),
iaoiaee/ii? eii?n?? ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI c ieoaiue caiea?ianoaa ?
?ineeiieoeoaa (1999?.), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Caiea?ianoai OO1 noie?ooy — i?iaeaie oa oeyoe ae??oaiiy” (1999?.) oa
i?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? “A/eiiny ainiiaea?thaaoe”
(1999?.)

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 8 noaooyo o
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa
OAAI.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 148
noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ui aeeth/a? 38 oaaeeoeue, 4 aeiaeaoea ia
8 noi??ieao. Aiia neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
i?iiiceoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (222
iaeiaioaaiiy, a o./. 21 ?iicaiieo aaoi??a), aeo?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoai ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

?ICAe?E 1 ?IEUe N?AICI?I A AOAEOEAIIIO ? AEIEIA?*II AACIA*IIIO
AEEI?ENOAII? INOOOAAIEO A?OIO?A AOI?AeII? CIIE OE?A?IE

(iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e)

A ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae oa?aeoa?enoeee inooaieo
a?oio?a Iie?nny, iniaeeaino? ae?iuoaaiiy ia ieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, a oaeiae noi?iiaaii eiioeaioe?th
iiaoaeiae n?aici?i a no/anieo oiiaao ia inoooaaieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao
Iie?nny Oe?a?ie.

?ICAe?E 2 I?noea, oiiae ? iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue

2.1. Iae?i?iaaiee noai oa oa?aeoa?enoeea a?oioiaiai iie?eao

Inooaiiy ??i?inueei? caieaae i?iaaaeaii a 1947-1951??., ?aeiino?oeoe?th
cae?eniaii a 1969 ?ioe?. Ia caieaa? iiaoaeiaaii
inoooaaeueii-c?iooaaeueio nenoaio. Onoaiiaeaii 130 cae?ciaaoiiieo
a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo nii?oae, ia 45 c ieo onoaiiaeai? canoaaee aa?oiueiai ?
ieaeiueiai a’?oa aeey ?aaoethaaiiy aiaee. A?aenoaiue i?ae eaiaeaie
150-200 i. Ia i?ia?aeueieo ? iaaeeaieeo oi?oiaeuao oeaooiaaiee
aii/a?iee, a ia na?aaei?o oa aeeaieeo oi?oiaeuao e?ioiaee ae?aiaae.

?aaoethaaiiy aiaeiiai ?aaeeio inoooaaieo caiaeue i?iaiaeeoueny oeyoii
iiaeaiiy aiaee aeey caieiaeaiiy a iinooeea? ia??iaee aaaaoaoe?? eoeueoo?
c aiaeinoiaeu, ?icoaoiaaieo o aa?o?a’? nenoaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny a 1993-1996??. ia Ainoiiaeuenueeiio iii?iiio
ioieo? ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI (?.??i?iue, Ee?anueea iaeanoue) a
Iie?nuee?e cii? Oe?a?ie.

A?oioe aeine?aeieo ae?eyiie oeiia? aeey Iie?nny ? a?aeiinyoueny aei
na?aaeiueiaeeaieeo, noa?ii?ieo, aeia?a ?iceeaaeaieo oi?oiaeu (55-63%).
?aaeoe?y a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio neaaieenea (?Inieueiaa 5.3-5.4). A?oioe
a?aecia/athoueny iecueeei ai?noii eae?th (0.09-0.1%) oa oinoi?o
(0.8-0.9%), aenieei — acioo (2.8-3.4% ia aaniethoii nooo iaaaaeeo).
Cieuei?noue oa?o a?oioo 0-30 ni neeaaea? 21.5%.

2.2. Iiaiaeii-ee?iaoe/i? oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue

Ee?iaoe/i? oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a oa?aeoa?i? aeey Iie?nny Oe?a?ie.
Oea iii??ii oaiea, na?aaeiuei-caieiaeaia ciia. Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa
(ea?oaiue-aa?anaiue) oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y a 1993-1996??. aoea ia 0.1,
1.2, 1.2 ? 1.50N a?aeiia?aeii aeuith a?ae ii?ie (15.20N). Iaea?eueo
aieiaei aoa 1995?., eiee iiaae?a aeiaei 425 ii ca ea?oaiue-aa?anaiue i?e
ii?i? 357 ii; 1994?. aoa canooeeaei, eiee iiaae?a aeiaei 76% a?ae ii?ie;
1993?. oa?aeoa?ecoaaany iaoai?ieia?/ieie iieacieeaie, aeecueeeie aei
na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/ieo; 1996?. aoa iaeoaie?oee (16.70N) c e?euee?noth
iiaae?a iaioith a?ae ii?ie (86.8%).

2.3. I?ia?aia, iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue o noaoe?iia?iiio aeine?ae? c /ioe?ia
oanoei?eueieie n?aici?iaie oa iiiieoeueoo?ith aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ca
noaiith, iaaaaeaiith a oaaeeoe? 1. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny i?ae /an
ae?oai? ?ioaoe?? n?aici?i. Aea/aiiy n?aici?i i?iaiaeeeiny c o?ueiia
aa??aioaie oaeia?aiiy (oaae.2).

?ici?? iin?aii? ae?eyiee — 32 i2, iae?eiai? — 25 i2, iiaoi?aiiy —
4-?aciaa. ?ici?uaiiy aa??aio?a ii iiaoi?aiiyo nenoaiaoe/ia. ?aaeei
neiooaaiiy aaaaoi??/ieo o?aainoi?oie — o?eoe?niee. Aen?aaee ian?iiy
?aeiiiaaieo ni?o?a. Iae?e a?iaeath — iiae?eyieiaee.

O aeine?aeao canoiniaoaaee ?aeiiaiaeiaaio aeey i?aaiiaaiieo a?oio?a
oaoiieia?th ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ? ia iin?aao
aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa. Caeoaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee o?aainoi?oeith ceae?a (noieiein
aacinoee — 9, eino?eoey eo/ia — 8, oeiio??aea eo/ia — 7 ea/aa noiaeiai
ian?iiy) ia ii/aoeo na?iiy i?ney i?ii?aeii? eoeueoo?e oa i?e
ia?acaeoaeaii?. Niin?a n?aae — cae/aeiee ?yaeeiaee c i?ae?yaeaeyie 15
ni.

Acioi? aeia?eaa o oi?i? ai?a/ii? nae?o?e, oinoi?i? — a?aioeueiaaiiai
noia?oinoaoo, eae?ei? — oei?enoiai eae?th aiineee i?ae aaaaoi??/i?
o?aainoi?oee o?e/? ca aaaaoaoe?th (i?ae eiaeiee oe?n). I?ae iaeii??/i?
eoeueoo?e aeia?eaa aiineee iaeii?aciai ia aani? ia?aae n?aaith.

Iiaeeaiee ?aaeei a?oioo aecia/aee a oa?? 0-30 ni. A?aea?? c?ace?a a?oioo
i?ae aaaaoi??/ieie o?aainoi?oeaie i?iaiaeeee a o?e no?iee: ia?oee — a
ia??iae ii/aoeo aeoiaeo a o?oaeo, ae?oaee — i?ney ae?oaiai oeino o?aa ?
o?ao?e — i?ney o?aoueiai oeino o?aa.

O a?oioiaeo c?aceao aecia/aee ai?no ai?a/iiai acioo, i?o?aoiiai acioo,
?ooiieo oi?i oinoi?o ? eae?th. Ai?no ai?a/iiai acioo aecia/aee ca
iaoiaeeeith I.A.A?eiooe?ii?; i?o?aoiee acio — eieiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii c
aeenoeueoioaiieiaith eeneioith; oinoi? ? eae?e — ca E??naiiaei, c
iine?aeoth/ei aecia/aiiyi oinoi?o eiei?eiao?e/ii ? eae?th ia
iieoiaiaaiio oioiiao??. Aieia?noue a?oioo aecia/aee oa?iinoaoii-aaaiaei
iaoiaeii /ioe?e ?ace ca aaaaoaoe?th a 4-e?aoiiio iiaoi?aii? c eiaeiiai
10 ni oa?o a?oioo (0-30 ni).

1. Noaia aeine?aeo ca /a?aoaaiiyi eoeueoo? o n?aici?i?

Iiia?Iiia? iiey, eoeueoo?a n?aici?ien?aici?ie1234561Aaaaoi??/i?
o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aaeAaaaoi??/i?
o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aae +ia?aca-eoaeaiiy2Aaaaoi??/i? o?aaeAaaaoi??/i?
o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aae ia 2 oeine + ?aaeueea ie?eia ia

caeaio ianoEi?iia? ao?yeeAi?ioiai-a?anyia noi?oea + aaaaoi??/i?
o?aae3Aaaaoi??/i? o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aaeAaaaoi??/i?
o?aae ia 2 oeine+?aaeueea ie?eia ia caeaio ianoNoieia? ao?yee
Ai?ioiai-a?anyia noi?oea + aaaaoi??/i? o?aae4Aaaaoi??/i?
o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aae ia 2 oeine + ?aaeueea
ie?eiaEi?iia? ao?yeeNoieiaa ii?eaaAi?ioiai-a?anyia noi?oea + aaaaoi??/i?
o?aae5Aaaaoi??/i? o?aaeAaaaoi??/i? o?aae ia 2 oeine + ?aaeueea
ie?eiaEi?iia? ao?yeeNoieiaa ii?eaaEaionoa a?eiaieiaaAi?ioiai-a?anyia
noi?oea + aaaaoi??/i? o?aae2. Noaia aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea i?ae
eoeueoo?e n?aici?i

Aaaaoi??/i? o?aae i?ae oeine?aaeueea ie?eia iaAa??aio

aeine?aeo

ia?oee

ae?oaee

o?ao?eI?inaii?caeaiee ei?i, ai?ioiai-a?anyia
noi?oea1E50E50E50Eiio?ieueEiio?ieue2?45E50E50E50E150E603N45P45K50N45K50E
50?45E150?45E60Aeey a?io?i?/iiai aiae?co a?iaeath aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa
a?aeae?aee c?acee ca i?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith aeey iae?i?iaaieo a?oio?a.
Ai?no caaaeueiiai acioo a ?ineeiao aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii A?icao?a a
iiaeeo?eaoe?? Oeaia, oinoi? — ia oioieiei?eiao??, eae?e — ia
iieoiaiaaiio oioiiao??, i?o?aoiee acio ca iaoiaeii O.Ii/eiea-A?enna,
ne?o ee?oeiaeio ca ?.E.Neai?oeiaith, ne?o cieo – icieaiiyi.

Cae?aiiy a?iaeath i?iaiaeeee aaaiaei iaoiaeii c on??? iae?eiai?
ae?eyiee. A oeae aea /an i?iaiaeeee aioai?/iee aiae?c o?iaeath
aaaaoi??/ieo o?aainoi?oie.

Iaoaiaoe/iee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?ae?a i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii
aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co.

?ICAe?E 3 ?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

3.1. Aiaeiee ?aaeei a?oioo

?iaeth/?noue i?aaiiaaiieo a?oio?a cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae
aiaeiiai ?aaeeio, oiio aaaeeeai ciaoe noai aieiaino? aeoeaiiai oa?o
a?oioo ? ?? caeaaei?noue a?ae aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaiaeieo oiia ? oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy inoooaaeueii-caieiaeoth/ith
nenoaiith.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ??aiai a?oioiai? aiaee iieacaee (oaae.3), ui aeeaeia
?o caeyaaiiy aecia/aeanue iiaiaeieie oiiaaie ? ?iaioith inoooaaeueii?
ia?aae?.

O aieia? ?iee (1995) ??ai? a?oioiaeo aiae iaeaeeae/a caeyaaee aei
iiaa?oi? a?oioo (na?aaei? ca aaaaoaoe?th 76 ni), a a iinooeea? ?iee
(1993, 1996) — aeeaoa cieaeoaaeeny (85-86 ni).

3. Aeeaeia caeyaaiiy a?oioiai? aiaee ia aeine?aeieo ae?eyieao,

ni a?ae iiaa?oi? a?oioo

??eI?nyoeueNa?aaei?IVVVIVIIVIIIIXX19938677876773891138519948580617682829
5801995829279647164827619969193858075908886Na?aaei?8685887275819582

Ia ?aaeei aeeaeie caeyaaiiy ??ai?a aiaee cia/ii aieeaaei aeiaeaoeiaa
oethcoaaiiy, a 1993 ?ioe? i?iaiaeeee o?e oethcoaaiiy (10-16 o?aaiy, 1-10
/a?aiy, 2-9 na?iiy), a 1994 — o?e oethcoaaiiy (15-23 o?aaiy, 16-24
/a?aiy, 12-20 eeiiy) ? a 1996 — aeaa oethcoaaiiy aaniith (1-7 ? 25-30
o?aaiy). Oethcoaaiiy caaacia/oaaei i?aeiyooy ??ai?a a?oioiaeo aiae aei
?ic?aooieiaeo iieaciee?a. Oaea ?aaoethaaiiy ??ai?a a?oioiai? aiaee
a?aeiia?aeii ? caaacia/oaaei eieeaaiiy aieiaino? a?oioo a iioeiaeueieo
iaaeao. ?noioii? ??cieoe? ii aieiaino? aeoeaiiai oa?o a?oioo caeaaeii
a?ae oaeia?aiiy ? no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu o n?aici?iao ia aeyaeaii.

3.2. Aieea aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a ia iiaeeaiee ?aaeei a?oioo

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca a?ieia?/iith aeoeai?noth oi?oiaeu ia ??cieo aa??aioao
aeei?enoaiiy aea?ieie iieacaee, ui iae?ioaineai?oee ?iceeaae oeaieie
(iaoiae aie?eaoe?e) a?aei?/aee ia ae?eyieao c i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie ? a
aacaeiuia? ia??iaee aaaaoaoe??. Iaeiaioa ?iceeaaeaiiy oeaieie (30%)
niinoa??aaee ia ae?eyieao aaaaoi??/ieo o?aainoi?a i’yoiai ?ieo
ei?enooaaiiy.

A?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue a?oioo ? aecia/aea ai?no ?ooiiiai acioo a iueiio.
Oae yeui ia iiiieoeueoo?? aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa o 1994 ?ioe? i?o?aoiiai
acioo aoei 25-31 ia ia 100 a nooiai a?oioo, oi i?ae o?aaaie ae?oaiai
?ieo aeei?enoaiiy o?aouei? n?aici?ie anueiai aoei 52.4-80.6 ia,
/aoaa?oi? — 90.0-129.5 ia ? i’yoi? (aea o?e i?inaii? eoeueoo?e) —
137.9-168.0 ia.

sse i?aaeei, e?euee?noue ?ooiiiai acioo aoea a?eueoith ia aa??aioao aac
aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea. I?e aianaii? oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea
caiane eiai ciaioothoueny, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii ca?eueoaiiy a?iaeath
eoeueoo? ? i?aeaeuaiei aeiinii eiai ?ineeiaie, — ? aeoaea aaaeeeaei
caoiaeii caiia?aaiiy aeiino i?o?ao?a o a?oioia? aiaee.

Iin?ae aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, ii/eiath/e c ae?oaiai-o?aoueiai ?ie?a
ei?enooaaiiy, aac aianaiiy i?ia?aeueiiai acioo, iino?eii neaai
caaacia/ai? ?ooiiei acioii.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca oinoi?iei ?aaeeiii a?oioo iieacaee, ui e?euee?noue
?ooiiiai oinoi?o a aeoeaiiio oa?? a?oioo, ye i?aaeei, o aieia? ?iee ii
aa??aioao aac aianaiiy i?ia?aeueiiai oinoi?o ca?eueoo?oueny c aanie aei
inai?, a a noo? ?iee (1994) iaee i?ioeeaaeio caeaaei?noue. C ianaiiyi
noia?oinoaoo (?45) cia/ii ca?eueooaaeany e?euee?noue ?ooiiiai oinoi?o
i?ae an?ia eoeueoo?aie o an?o n?aici?iao aeine?aeo. *?oei? ??cieoe? ii
ai?noo ?ooiiiai oinoi?o a a?oio? caeaaeii a?ae ae?iuoaaieo eoeueoo? ? ?o
aeaeo ia aeyaeee.

Niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo ?ooiiiai oinoi?o i?ae o?aaaie c
?ieaie ?o noa??iiy, a oaeiae i?aeaeuo?oueny eiai e?euee?noue i?ae
i?inaiieie ? iaeii??/ieie eoeueoo?aie ii??aiyii c ae?eyieaie
aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa. E?euee?noue ?ooiiiai oinoi?o o a?oio? ?noioii
caeaaeaea a?ae iane/aiiy n?aici?i i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie. I?e aeaio,
o?ueio iaeii??/ieo eoeueoo?ao o n?aici?i? (ia?oa-o?aoy) ?ooiiiai
oinoi?o aoei cia/ii a?eueoa, i?ae o n?aici?iao c iaei??th, aeaiia
iaeii??/ieie eoeueoo?aie (aa?.1-3).

A oe?eiio i?aaiiaaii? a?oioe a iaoeo aeine?aeao iathoue aeia?o
caaacia/ai?noue ?ooiieie oi?iaie oinoi?o, ye ia aa??aioao c aianaiiyi,
oae ? aac aianaiiy noia?oinoaoo, ui caaacia/oaaei a?aeiinii iaaenieee
i?e??no o?iaeath an?o eoeueoo? o n?aici?i? ia oaeia?aieo aa??aioao
oaeia?aiiy oinoi?ieie aeia?eaaie.

E?euee?noue ?ooiiiai eae?th a aeoeaiiio oa?? a?oioo iaeaea iiai?noth
caeaaeeoue a?ae aianaiiy eae?eieo aeia?ea. I?ney aaniyiiai aianaiiy
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea a?oio iaa iaea?eueoo caaacia/ai?noue eae??i, a a
e?ioe? aaaaoaoe?? iaeaea ia an?o aa??aioao aeine?aeo caiane
cieaeoaaeenue aei iecueei? ? aeoaea iecueei? caaacia/aiino?.

Niinoa??aaee aeayea ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ?ooiiiai eae?th a a?oio? c?
ca?eueoaiiyi iieueiaiai ia??iaeo a n?aici?i?. Oae, yeui a ae?oa?e
n?aici?i? a 1996 ?ioe? o o?aai? i?ae ei?iiaeie ao?yeaie ?ooiiiai eae?th
aoei ia a?eueoa 6-7 ia, oi i?ae i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie i’yoi? n?aici?ie
e?euee?noue eiai ia?aaeuoaaea ia ie?aieo aa??aioao aeine?aeo 50 ia ia
100 a nooiai a?oioo.

I/aaeaeii, oea ? ?acoeueoaoii i?aeaeuaii? i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ii?
?a/iaeie oi?oo ? aea?eueiaiiy eae?th c i?aai?ee. *?oei? caeaaeiino?
aieeao n?aici?i ? eoeueoo? ia eae?eiee ?aaeei ia niinoa??aaee.

Ioaea, caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai eae?eiiai ?aaeeio i?aaiiaaiieo a?oio?a
iiai?noth caeaaeeoue a?ae aianaiiy eae?eieo aeia?ea ? cian?i iaei
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ioeo /eiiee?a. Iaa?oue o?eaaea ui??/ia aianaiiy
eae?eieo aeia?ea ia ci?ieei eae?eiiai ?aaeeio oi?oiaeu. I?e oeueiio
eae?ei? aeia?eaa iaiao?aeii aiineoe o no?iee, iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeai?
aei aeoeaiiai ?inoo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeieaaiiyi iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o a?oioia? aiaee
iieacaee, ui ?ooiiiai acioo aeieaaeinue a?eueoa o n?aici?iao, aea
iieueiaee ia??iae aoa a?eueoee. Oae ainaie 1994?. ia iiiieoeueoo?? o?aa
ai?a/iiai acioo aeieaaeinue 7-8 ia ia 1 e aiaee, oiae? ye o ae?oa?e
n?aici?i? ia o?aaao ia?oiai ?ieo oe? iieacieee neeaaeaee 20.0-63.7 ia ia
1 e aiaee. Iiae?aia yaeua iiaeia niinoa??aaoe ? uiaei i?o?aoiiai acioo.
sseui a /aoaa?o?e n?aici?i? i?ae i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie (noieiaa ii?eaa)
aeieaaeinue i?o?aoiiai acioo a a?oioia? aiaee 41.9-44.5 ia ia 1 e, oi ia
iiiieoeueoo?? aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa (n?aici?ia 1) eeoa 6.2-8.6 ia ia 1 e
aiaee, o ae?oa?e n?aici?i? i?ae o?aaaie ia ia?aaeuoaaea 8 ia, a i?ae
i?inaiieie 29 ia ia 1 e ae?aiaaeii? aiaee.

Aiaeia?/io caeaaei?noue niinoa??aaee ? uiaei aeieaaiiy ?ooiieo oi?i
oinoi?o ? eae?th o a?oioia? aiaee. sseui a ia?o?e n?aici?i?
(iiiieoeueoo?a o?aa) oinoi?o aeieaaeinue 0.1-1.6 ia ia 1 e aiaee, eae?th
ia ia?aaeuoaaei 10 ia ia 1 e aiaee, oi i?ae n?aici?iaie c ??ciei iaai?ii
i?aai?/ieo eoeueoo? e?euee?noue aeieoeo ?a/iaei aoea /anoi a?eueoith
iaeaea a aeaa-o?e ?ace.

Ioaea, ia caa?oaeiaiiy ??/eiaeo ? a?oioiaeo aiae ?noioii aieeaa? niin?a
aeei?enoaiiy i?aaiiaaiieo a?oio?a, yeee aei oiai i?aeaea?oueny
?aaoethaaiith, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai c oi/ee ci?o aeieia??. Ca?eueoaiiy
o?eaaeino? eo/iiai ia??iaeo a n?aici?i? ni?ey? cieaeaiith i?ia?ae?caoe??
i?aai?ee, iaaeeeoeiaiai aea?eueiaiiy ?ooiiiai acioo, cieaeaiith
o?eueo?aoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?oioo, ui caaacia/o? cia/ia ciaioaiiy
aeieaaiiy iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o a?oioia? aiaee. Iiceoeaii ae?? ia
cieaeaiiy aeieaaiiy ?ooiiiai acioo ? aianaiiy oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea.

3.3. Aieea aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a ia caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?neyoe?nia ?aaeueea ie?eia oa ai?io c
a?anii ? aeia?ei a?ieia?/iei caniaii ai?ioueae c ao?’yiaie. A
e?oiuei-in?ii?e ia??iae ao?’yie aeia?a i?eai?/othoueny ?ineeiaie
?aaeueee ie?eii?. Aei oiai ae, ian?iiy ao?’yi?a ia aec??aa? a
?acoeueoao? oaeaeeinoeaeino? caeaii? iane ?aaeueee ie?eii?, a nai?
ao?’yie i?e oeueiio neioothoueny ?acii c i?ii?aeiith eoeueoo?ith ia
caeaiee ei?i. Iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi iieueiaiai
ia??iaeo o n?aici?i? caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa c?inoa?
iacaeaaeii a?ae aianaieo aa?a?oeeae?a i?ae i?inaii? eoeueoo?e. Iaeiaioo
caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a an?o ?ie?a aeei?enoaiiy niinoa??aaee ia
iiiieoeueoo?? aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, a iaea?eueoo a i’yo?e n?aici?i?, aea
aoei o?e iaeii??/i? eoeueoo?e.

Caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a aaaaoi??/ieo o?aainoi?oie c?inoaea i?ney
iinooeeaeo i?nyoe?a iiia?aaeiueiai ?ieo (na?iaiue-aa?anaiue), ui ?
i?e/eiith neaaeiai ?icaeoeo iin?yieo o?aa ? a?eueo ?ioaineaiiai ?inoo
ao?’yi?a, iniaeeai ceioth/eo. Oae, yeui a e?ioe? e?oa 1993 ?ieo aeiaei
iiaae?a a?eueoa ii?ie, oi ? caao?’yiai?noue a 1994 ?ioe? aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aa aoea a?aeiinii iaeiaioith, ui aieeaaei ? ia iine?aeoth/? ?iee
aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith.

Caao?’yiai?noue iaeii??/ieo i?inaiieo eoeueoo? oaeiae c?inoaea c?
ca?eueoaiiyi iieueiaiai ia??iaeo a n?aici?i?. Ioaea, ca?eueooth/e eo/iee
ia??iae o n?aici?i? ia i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao, iiaeia cia/ii aoaeoeai?oa
aanoe ai?ioueao c ao?’yiaie, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai a iao /an, eiee aianaiiy
aa?a?oeeae?a ? aeineoue aei?iaei aa?icaoiaeii.

3.4. I?iaeoeoeai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ? n?aici?i
caeaaeii a?ae

aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a

??no, ?icaeoie ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?
caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaaoueio ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a, na?aae yeeo aa?ioaoi?/iei
caoiaeai iaeaaeeoue iniaeeaa ?ieue. A ca’yceo c oeei no?oeoo?a iin?aieo
ieiu, o?eaae?noue eo/iiai ia??iaeo o n?aici?i? oa oaeia?aiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? noai?th? aeey ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei
i?ioyaii ?ioaoe?? eoeueoo? o n?aici?i? ??ci? a?oioia? oiiae, ui ?
iniiaiei oaeoi?ii ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei ? ye
iane?aeie aieeaa? ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?
(oaae.4).

I?e??no o?iaeath aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa i?e aianaii? oinoi?ieo aeia?ea (?45)
niinoa??aaee eeoa o n?aici?iao c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith oa i?e
ae?iuoaaii? ?o o iiiieoeueoo??, aea a?i noaiiaeoue a?aeiia?aeii
5.1-12.4% ? 11.4%.

Ia iin?aao iaeii??/ieo eoeueoo? aianaiiy oinoi?ieo aeia?ea iiceoeaii
ae?yei eeoa ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue eaionoe oa ai?ioiai-a?anyii? noi?oee,
aea i?e??no o?iaeaeiino? neeaaeaa a?aeiia?aeii 11.4 ? 11.4-12%.

Aianaiiy eae?eieo aeia?ea i?ae i?inaii? eoeueoo?e caaaeaee i?aeaeuoaaei
o?iaeaei?noue ? ia ie?aieo aa??aioao aeine?aeo i?e??no o?iaeaeiino?
ei?iiaeo oa noieiaeo ao?ye?a noaiiaea a?aeiia?aeii 14.6 ? 15.0%
ii??aiyii c iieyie aac aianaiiy aeia?ea. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui
inoooaai? i?aai?/i? a?oioe neaai caaacia/ai? eae??i.

4. I?iaeoeoeai?noue n?aici?i ca ?ioaoe?th, oe/aa aaniethoii nooi?
?a/iaeie

Iiia?Oaeia?aiiyN?aici?ieKPKNPKNa?aaei?185.196.8113.098.3289.596.0111.499
.0390.697.5112.6100.2488.691.1101.293.6587.589.9100.192.5I??053.03.23.4

Aianaiiy acioieo aeia?ea i?iaiaeeee eeoa ia iin?aao aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa,
oae ye aaaaoueia aeine?aeieeaie anoaiiaeaii iaeo aoaeoeai?noue ?o
aianaiiy i?ae iaeii??/i? eoeueoo?e. I?e??no o?iaeaeiino? a?ae aianaiiy
acioieo aeia?ea noaiiaeoue 12.3-15.0% ia oii? oinoi?ii-eae?eiiai
oaeia?aiiy, aei oiai ae a?eueo aoaeoeaii acioi? aeia?eaa aeei?enoiaoaaee
aaaaoi??/i? o?aainoi?oee noa??oeo ?ie?a aeei?enoaiiy. Niinoa??aaee
oaiaeaioe?th aei ca?eueoaiiy o?iaeaeiino? eoeueoo? a?ae aianaiiy acioieo
aeia?ea o n?aici?iao c o?eaae?oei eo/iei ia??iaeii. O aieia? ?iee (1993,
1995) i?e??no o?iaeaeiino? a?ae acioieo aeia?ea neeaaeaa aeecueei
13.5-15%, oiae? ye o noo? — a?i aoa ieae/ee ia 1.5-3%, a ia ie?aieo
aa??aioao aeine?aeo a oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?e?inoo o?iaeath acaaae? ia
niinoa??aaee (1994?. 4 n?aici?ia, o?aae ae?oaiai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy).

Iaeaeuo a?iaeaei?noue aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa (147.9-148.0 oe/aa aaniethoii
nooi? ?a/iaeie) io?eiaii ca oiia aianaiiy iiaiiai i?ia?aeueiiai aeia?eaa
(N90P45K150) ia iieiaeeo o?aainoiyo ia?oiai-ae?oaiai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy o
n?aici?iao c iaea?eueo o?eaaeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii. Oea iiynith?oueny
oei, ui i?e ae?iuoaaii? i?inaiieo eoeueoo? a?eueo ?ioaineaii i?ioiaeyoue
i?e?ia?ieia?/i? i?ioeane a a?oio? ? cia/ii iie?ioo?oueny iiaeeaiee
?aaeei a?oioo, aea iaa?iiaaeaeo?oueny cia/ia e?euee?noue ?ooiieo
iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, ye? aeia?a aeei?enoiaothoue iieiae? o?aainoi?.

Iaeaeuo a?iaeaei?noue iaeii??/ieo eoeueoo? (178.3-186.9 oe/aa aaniethoii
nooi? ?a/iaeie) io?eiaee i?e aianaii? oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea oa a
n?aici?i? c iaeei?iooei eo/iei ia??iaeii. Aac aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?ea o?iaeaei?noue ai?ioo c a?anii cieaeo?oueny aei 58.3-61.8 oe/aa
nooi? ?a/iaeie, ui neeaaea? 67% a?ae iaee?ioeo aa??aio?a aeine?aeo.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca o?iaeaei?noth aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa o iiiieoeueoo??
iieacaee, ui aianaiiy acioieo ? oinoi?ieo aeia?ea iiceoeaii aieeaathoue
ia ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

Iiae?aio caeaaei?noue niinoa??aaee ? ia iin?aao iaeii??/ieo o?aa.

?ic??ciai? aeai? o?iaeaeiino? ie?aieo eoeueoo? ia iiai?noth aeathoue
oe?e?nia oyaeaiiy i?i aieea i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue
n?aici?ie, aai ie?aii? ?? eaiee. Io?eiaiiy oaei? ?ioi?iaoe?? noa?
iiaeeeaei ca oiia ?icaeyaeo o?iaeaeiino? eoeueoo? a n?aici?i? a
na?aaeiueiio ca ?? ?ioaoe?th (oaae.4). Aiae?c aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iieaco?, ui ae?y i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea a oe?eiio ii n?aici?iao c ??ciei
iane/aiiyi i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie a cia/i?e i??? a?ae??ciy?oueny ia
ie?aieo eoeueoo?ao. Oae, a n?aici?iao c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii
(n?aici?ia 2) aoaeoeai?noue oinoi?ieo aeia?ea aeineoue cia/ia ? neeaaea?
ia ??cieo eoeueoo?ao 7-11%, oiae? ye a n?aici?iao c ei?ioeei eo/iei
ia??iaeii (n?aici?ia 5)ia io?eiaii aoaeoo a?ae aianaiiy oinoi?ieo
aeia?ea ia iin?aao aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, ei?iiaeo ? noieiaeo ao?ye?a.

Noia?ia ae?y i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea o n?aici?iao c ??ciith o?eaae?noth
eo/iiai ia??iaeo iieaco?, ui aoaeoeai?noue oinoi?ieo aeia?ea
ciaioo?oueny c a?eueoei aaaaeaiiyi o n?aici?io i?inaiieo eoeueoo?. Oae,
yeui i?e iiiieoeueoo?? aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ca?eueoaiiy o?iaeaeiino? c
n?aici?iii? ieiu? neeaaeaei 13.7% aai 11.7 oe/aa aaniethoii nooi? iane,
oi a n?aici?iao c o?ueiia i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie (n?aici?ia 5)
aoaeoeai?noue oinoi?ieo aeia?ea a?aeiia?aeii neeaaeaea 2.7% ? 2.4 oe/aa
aaniethoii nooi? iane. Aoaeoeai?noue acioieo aeia?ea ia? oaiaeaioe?th
ciaiooaaoeny c ?icoe?aiiyi iieueiaiai ia??iaeo n?aici?ie, ui iia’ycaia c
iineeaiiyi i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ii? iane ? aea?eueiaiiyi ?ooiiiai acioo
c a?oioo.

Iaeaeuo o?iaeaei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ca ?iee
aeine?aeaeaiue iaee aaaaoi??/i? o?aainoi?oee ae?oaiai ?ieo
aeei?enoaiiy (150.1 oe/aa aaniethoii nooi? ?a/iaeie) o ae?oa?e n?aici?i?
c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith. Aeineoue iecuee? a?iaea? aoee
i?inaiieo eoeueoo? — ao?ye?a ei?iiaeo (43.8-44.1 oe/aa), noieiaeo
(65.8-67.9 oe/aa) ? eaionoe a?eiaieiai? (48.7 oe/aa aaniethoii nooi?
?a/iaeie).

Iaeaeuo i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaea n?aici?ia c iaei??th i?inaiiith
eoeueoo?ith (105.1 oe/aa). Aaaaeaiiy a n?aici?io aeaio- o?ueio i?inaiieo
eoeueoo? (n?aici?ie 4 ? 5) cieaeoaaei ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia 9.3-10.6%
i?ioe n?aici?ie c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith (n?aici?ia 3). Ne?ae
a?aei?oeoe, ui a nai?o aeine?aeao ia i?inaiieo eoeueoo?ao ie ia
a?aoiaoaaee iia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? — ae/ee ei?aiaieiae?a. Oea iia’ycaia c
oei, ui ia caaaeaee oea aeiiii?/ii aea?aeii, aei oiai ae oey i?iaeoeoe?y
/anoi ? caa?oaeiaiith i?o?aoaie ? iai?eaeaoiith ia ei?iia? oe?e?.

A oe?eiio a?iaeaei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo eoeueoo? a n?aici?i? cia/ii
caeaaeeoue a?ae aianaiiy

oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea, a ia iin?aao aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa — ? acioieo.
I?iaeoeoeai?noue n?aici?ie a

cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue ia eeoa a?ae i?ia?aeueiiai oaeia?aiiy, a e a?ae
no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu. Ciaioaiiy iieueiaiai ia??iaeo a n?aici?i? a?ae
o?ueio aei iaei??? i?inaiii? eoeueoo?e i?aeaeuo? i?iaeoeoeai?noue
n?aici?i iiiaae 10%. Aei oiai ae oea ni?ey? aeiiii?/iiio aeo?a/aiith
i?aai?/ii? iane oi?oiaeu, ui ?iaeoue aa?ioaoi?/i? caoiaee aeieia?/ii
iaa?oioiaaieie.

3.5. Aieea aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a ia ye?noue ae?iuaii? i?iaeoeoe??

?icaeyaeath/e no?oeoo?o iin?aieo ieiu, eo/iee ia??iae n?aici?i oa
aa?icaoiaee ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?o i?iaeoeoeaiino?, aaaeeeai ciaoe
iai?yiee ci?ie a?io?i?/iiai neeaaeo o?iaeath ia o?eueee ie?aii?
eoeueoo?e, a ? ci?io ei?iiai? ? oa?/iai? oe?iiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? a i?ioean? o?eaaeino? eo/iiai ?
iieueiaiai ia??iaeo n?aici?ie ia inoooaaieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao.

Iniiaiei iaaeie?eii no/anii? ei?iiai? aace oaa?eiieoeoaa, ia?o ca ana, ?
iacaaeainiaai?noue ca aoaeaaiaeii-i?ioa?iiaei iieacieeii ae?iuoaaieo
ei?i?a, a oea, a naith /a?ao i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?aaeo?ao ?ioeo ei?i?a,
iniaeeai eiioeaio?iaaieo.

I?iaaaeai? iaie aa?io?i?/i? aiae?ce o?iaeath na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
?noioii? ??cieoe? ca ai?noii oinoi?o a caeai?e ian? aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aainoi?oie ? ai?ioi-a?anyii? noi?oee caeaaeii a?ae ??cieo aa??aio?a
aeine?aeo ia anoaiiaeaii. Iiaeia eeo a?aei?oeoe, ui niinoa??aaee iaaio
oaiaeaioe?th ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo oinoi?o a ?ineeiao ia aa??aioao c
aianaiiyi oinoi?ieo aeia?ea ? cieaeaiiy eiai i?e aianaii? iiaiiai
i?ia?aeueiiai aeia?eaa. Oeth caeaaei?noue iiaeia iia’ycaoe c?
c?inoaiiyi o?iaeaeiino? eoeueoo?, eiee ca?eueoeeinue niiaeeaaiiy oinoi?o
?ineeiaie.

A oie aea /an, ?icaeyaeath/e iaeiie/aiiy oinoi?o ii oeinao aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aa, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui iaeaea ii an?o aa??aioao aeine?aeo
e?euee?noue eiai c?inoaea a?ae ia?oiai aei o?aoueiai oein?a. A oe?eiio
ai?no oinoi?o a o?iaea? aaaaoi??/ieo ? iaeii??/ieo o?aa ia ie?aieo
aa??aioao aeine?aeo aoa aeaui aeuei aeiionoeieo eiioeaio?aoe?e, i?ioa a
e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii? ei?i a?aeiia?aeaa ciioaoi?/iei aeiiaai.

Ai?no eae?th a i?iaeoeoe?? a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee ia ia?aaeuoaaa
aeiionoeieo eiioeaio?aoe?e ia an?o aa??aioao ? eoeueoo?ao n?aici?ie.
Oi/a a ie?ai? ?iee (1995 ??e) a o?iaea? i?inaiieo eoeueoo? c aianaiiyi
?E aoei cao?eniaaii ai?no eae?th aeaui a?eueoa aeiionoeieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e.

Aiae?coth/e ai?no eae?th ia ie?aieo eoeueoo?ao, ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui
iaeiaioa eiai aoei a noieia?e ii?ea? (1.05-1.42%), a iaea?eueoa — a
ei?aiaieiaeao ei?iiaeo ao?ye?a (a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee 2.62-2.99%).
Aianaiiy oinoi?ieo oa eae?eieo aeia?ea ia iin?aao o?aa iaei aieeaaei ia
ci?io ai?noo i?ioa?io a o?iaea?, a oie aea /an /?oei niinoa??aaee
i?aeaeuaiiy eiai c? ca?eueoaiiyi iieueiaiai ia??iaeo a n?aici?i?, a
oaeiae ciaioaiiy i?ioa?io a iai?yieo noa??iiy o?aainoi?a, oiaoi

a?ae aaaaoi??/ieo o?aainoi?oie ia?oiai ?ieo aei /aoaa?oiai-i’yoiai ?ie?a
ei?enooaaiiy.

Oaeia?aiiy iaei aieeaaei ia ai?no i?o?ao?a o ?ineeiao, aea /?oei
niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy eiai a n?aici?iao c ?icoe?aiiyi iieueiaiai
ia??iaeo. Oea iia’ycaia c? cia/iith i?ia?ae?caoe??th oi?oo i?e
ae?iuoaaii? i?inaiieo eoeueoo?, iaeiie/aiiyi iaaeeeoeiai? e?eueeino?
i?o?aoiiai acioo ? ye iane?aeie ca?eueoaiiyi eiai ai?noo o ?ineeiao.
Iniaeeai aaeeea e?euee?noue i?o?aoiiai acioo iaeiie/o?oueny a o?iaea?
ai?ioi-a?anyii? noi?oee, eiee eiai ai?no ia?aaeuoaaa aeiionoei?
eiioeaio?aoe?? a aeae?eueea ?ac?a. Ioiae, io?eiaiee caeaiee ei?i
iaeii??/ieo o?aa, ne?ae iaa?aaeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a oaa?eiieoeoa? ?
aeaaaoe eiai o a?aeiia?aeieo i?iii?oe?yo c ei?iaie, io?eiaieie c
i?ia?aeueieo nooiae?eueieo iie?a. Aiae?coth/e ai?no i?o?ao?a o
i?inaiieo eoeueoo?ao ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui e?euee?noue i?o?ao?a ia
ia?aaeuoaaea aeiionoei? eiioeaio?aoe?? a ei?aiaieiaeao ii?eae oa
noieiaeo ao?ye?a. A oie aea /an a ie?ai? ?iee eiai aoei a?eueoa a
eaiono? ? ei?iiaeo ao?yeao.

Aiae?c aeaieo ca ai?noii ne?iai i?ioa?io a ?ineeiao iieaco?, ui aianaiiy
oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea i?ae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? eoeueoo?e
ni?eyei i?aeaeuaiith eiai ai?noo. Aianaiiy iiaiiai i?ia?aeueiiai
aeia?eaa cia/ii i?aeaeuoaaei ai?no i?ioa?io ia o?aaao an?o ?ie?a
ei?enooaaiiy.

Aeo?ae ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue /?oei i?aeaeuo?oueny c aianaiiyi
oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea ? iniaeeai i?e iiaiiio i?ia?aeueiiio
oaeia?aii?. Iieacieee yeino? o?iaeath aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ?noioii
caeaaeaee a?ae o?eaaeino? aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith. Iieiae? o?aae (1-2
?ieo) iaee e?io? iieacieee yeino?, i?ae noa?o? o?aainoi?. Ai?no i?ioa?io
a aaaaoi??/ieo o?aaao cia/ii ci?ithaaany ii oeinao o?aa. A?i yaii
ca?eueooaaany a?ae ia?oiai aei o?aoueiai oein?a.

Ioaea, i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy yeino? ae?iuaii? i?iaeoeoe??
iieacothoue, ui aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea cia/ii iie?ioo? ye?noue
o?iaeath ? aeo?ae ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue c aaeoa?a. Ia oii? eae?eieo
aeia?ea ye?noue i?iaeoeoe?? c n?aici?iii? ieiu? c?inoa? a iai?yieo
iieueiaiai ia??iaeo n?aici?ie, a ia oii? iiaiiai i?ia?aeueiiai aeia?eaa
ye?noue i?iaeoeoe?? ia? cai?ioio caeaaei?noue, oiaoi ye?noue i?iaeoeoe??
iie?ioo?oueny a noi?iio ?icoe?aiiy eo/iiai ia??iaeo a n?aici?i?.

3.6. Aeiiii?/ia, aia?aaoe/ia oa aeieia?/ia ioe?iea ei?iiaeo n?aici?i
caeaaeii a?ae aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iaea?eueoee aeo?ae iai?iii? aia?a?? a oiiaao
noa?ii?ieo oi?oiaeu Iie?nny caaacia/othoue aaaaoi??/i? o?aainoi?oee 1-3
?ie?a ei?enooaaiiy (115.7-116.6 AAeae/aa), aeaui ieae/? iieacieee iaee
i?inaii? eoeueoo?e (ao?yee ei?iia? ? noieia?, ii?eaa, eaionoa
a?eiaieiaa), ? iaeiaio? — i?neyoe?nia ?aaeueea ie?eia oa ai?ioi-a?anyia
noi?oea. Iaea?eueo ?noioiei oaeoi?ii aeo?ao aia?a?? ?
iaeeaii-ianoeeuei? iaoa??aee, aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea, a

oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy oaoi?ee aeey ia?ia?oeo a?oioo.

Iaeaeuo a?iaeaei?noue nooi? ?a/iaeie (112.1 oe/aa) iaea ae?oaa n?aici?ia
(c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith — ei?iiaeie ao?yeaie), i?ioa
iaea?eueoee ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue (99.3 oe/aa) iaee c ia?oi?
n?aici?ie, aea ae?iuoaaeenue iaei? aaaaoi??/i? o?aainoi?oee. Aiane?aeie
oeueiai iaea?eueoee aeo?ae aia?a?? (98.5-100.0 AAeae/aa) iaee n?aici?ie
c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith (ae?oaa, o?aoy n?aici?ie) aai
iiiieoeueoo?a aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa (ia?oa).

Iaeaeu? aia?aiaeo?aoe a na?aaeiueiio ia n?aici?iio ieiuo iaea i’yoa
n?aici?ia (44.1 AAeae/aa), aea aoei o?e i?inaii? eoeueoo?e. C
?icoe?aiiyi eo/iiai ia??iaeo a n?aici?iao aia?aiaeo?aoe ciaiooaaeenue c
44.1 aei 25.8 AAeae/aa. Iaeaeuee eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
(3.8) iaee ia iin?aao c iiiieoeueoo?ith aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, aeineoue
aenieee a?i ? a n?aici?iao c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith (3.0-3.1) ?
cia/ii ieae/ee a n?aici?iao c 3-ia i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie (2.1).

Aeiiii?/i? ?ic?aooiee (oaae.5) iieacaee, ui caaaeuei? aeo?aoe a
na?aaeiueiio ii n?aici?iao c?inoathoue c? ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino?
i?inaiieo eoeueoo? o n?aici?i?, oiae? ye io?eiaiiy oiiaii /enoiai
i?eaooeo ia? i?ioeeaaeio caeaaei?noue. Iaee?io? aeiiii?/i? iieacieee
iaee o 3-e n?aici?i? c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith. Ca?eueoaiiy o
n?aici?iao e?eueeino? i?inaiieo eoeueoo? aei 2-3 i?eaiaeeei aei
ciaioaiiy io?eiaiiy /enoiai i?eaooeo ia oii? oinoi?ii-eae?eiiai
oaeia?aiiy o 5 ?ac?a, a i?e iiaiiio i?ia?aeueiiio oaeia?aii? o 8 ?ac?a.
Iaeiaioo nia?aa?o?noue (4.7-5.8 a?i/oe) ae?iuaii? i?iaeoeoe?? o
na?aaeiueiio c n?aici?iii? ieiu? iaee o ia?o?e n?aici?i? c
iiiieoeueoo?ith aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, a iaea?eueoo (13.2-14.8 a?i/oe) o
n?aici?i? c o?ueiia i?inaiieie eoeueoo?aie. ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?
n?aici?i iaa i?ioeeaaeio caeaaei?noue.

I?iaaaeaia aia?aaoe/ia oa aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea n?aici?i c ??ciei
iane/aiiyi iaeii??/ieie eoeueoo?aie oa oaeia?aiiyi na?ae/eoue, ui
iaeaeuo i?iaeoeoeai?noue n?aici?i (112.7-113.0 oe/aa nooi? ?a/iaeie) oa
aenieee eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? (3.0-3.8), iaea?eueoee
oiiaii /enoee aeioiae c aaeoa?a oa iaeiaioo nia?aa?o?noue ei?iiai?
iaeeieoe? io?eiaii a n?aici?iao c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith oa i?e
iiiieoeueoo?? aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa. Aaaaeaiiy a ei?iia? n?aici?ie aei 3-o
iie?a i?inaiieo eoeueoo? cia/ii iia??oo? oe? iieacieee.

Eo/iee ia??iae a n?aici?i? ?noioii aieeaa? ia a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue
oi?oiaeu ?, ye iane?aeie, ia acioiee ?aaeei a?oioo. C? ca?eueoaiiyi
o?eaaeino? eo/iiai ia??iaeo o n?aici?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny caoooaiiy
i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o a?oio?, cieaeothoueny caiane ?ooiiiai
acioo, yeee ? iaeiei c aieiaieo caa?oaeithaa/?a a?oioiai? ? ??/eiai?
aiaee. Iaeii/anii eo/iee ia??iae ou?eueith? aea?ieio ? caiia?aa?
aeieaaiith ?ooiieo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei ? i?aai?ee o a?oioia? aiaee. C
?ioiai aieo, iaaeoi o?eaaea (iiiaae 5-6 ?ie?a) ae?iuoaaiiy aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aa ia iaeiiio i?noe? i?eaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy iiaeeaiiai ?aaeeio
a?oioo ? cieaeaiiy eiai i?iaeoeoeaiino?.

5. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ei?iiaeo n?aici?i caeaaeii a?ae no?oeoo?e
iin?aieo ieiu oa ii?i aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea (ca oe?iaie ia
1.01.1998 ?ieo)

Iiia? n?aici?ie

Oaeia- ?aiiyI?iaeoe-oeai?noue n?aici?i, oe/aa aaniethoii nooi? iane

Caaaeuei? aeo?aoe, a?i/aa

Aa?o?noue ae?iuaii? i?iaeoeoe??, a?i/aa

Oiiaii /enoee i?eaooie, a?i/aa

Nia?aa?o?noue i?iaeoeoe??, a?i/oe

??aaiue ?aioa-aaeueiino?,

%K85.14927532615.853.01PK96.85088633555.269.9NPK113.053410164824.790.3K
89.5902103012810.114.22PK96.091511422279.524.8NPK114.493813163788.440.3K
90.6952123228010.529.43PK97.596513633989.941.2NPK112.798815605728.857.9K
88.6115111752413.02.14PK91.1116412286412.85.5NPK101.21177132514811.612.6
K87.5130013131314.81.05PK89.9131313867314.65.6NPK100.2132013896913.25.2I
oaea, c aeine?aeaeoaaieo n?aici?i aeioe?eueii ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe o
ae?iaieoeoa? ia inoooaaieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao n?aici?ie c iaei??th
i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith oa iaeiei iieai iaeii??/ieo o?aa c e?oi?i iin?aii
aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa. Oae? n?aici?ie ia o?eueee aeiiii?/ii oa aia?aaoe/ii
aei?aaaeai?, a ? aeieia?/ii caaeainiaai? a ?aeiiao iaea?eueo a?aceeaeo
uiaei ii?ooaiiy ??aiiaaae i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aeniiaee

1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia inoooaaieo neaaieeneeo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao
Iie?nny Oe?a?ie ae??oaeueiei /eiieeii aoaeoeaiiai oa aeieia?/ii
caaeainiaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy oeeo a?oio?a ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ei?iiaeo, a a
i?ei?nueeeo ?aeiiao ? iai/aai-ei?iiaeo n?aici?i c iaei??th i?inaiiith
eoeueoo?ith, yea caaacia/o? aeieia?/io ??aiiaaao a aa?ieaiaeoaoo? oa
i?iaeoi? o?iaea? ia iae?i?iaaieo a?oioao.

2. Iiaoaeiaai? inoooaaeueii-caieiaeoth/? iae?i?aoeai? nenoaie c ?o
no/aniith aenieoaoaoe??th oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei aeei?enoaiiyi
aeicaieythoue iiai?noth caaacia/eoe ?aaoethaaiiy aiaeiiai ?aaeeio
aeoeaiiai oa?o a?oioo. Ca ia??iae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue
(1993-1996??.), iacaeaaeii a?ae i?e?iaeiiai caieiaeaiiy,
aiaeii-iia?o?yiee ?aaeei a?oioo o an?o n?aici?iao aeine?aeo a aaniethoii
a?eueoee ia??iae /ano ciaoiaeeany a iioeiaeueieo iaaeao. A?i ia
cieaeoaaany ca iaae? aieiaino? ?ic?eao eai?ey??a (41-43% IA) ? iaeaea ia
ia?aaeuoaaa iaeiaioi? aieiai?ieino?.

3. No?oeoo?a iin?aieo ieiu o n?aici?i?, i?ia?aeueia oaeia?aiiy iaei
aieeaaee ia ci?io aieiaino? aeoeaiiai oa?o a?oioo, yea aieiaiei /eiii
caeaaeaea a?ae i?e?iaeiiai oa ooo/iiai i?aea?oioiaiai caieiaeaiiy.

Niinoa??aaeanue oaiaeaioe?y cieaeaiiy aieiaino? a?oioo ia aa??aioao c
aianaiiyi iiaiiai i?ia?aeueiiai aeia?eaa, ui iia’ycaia c e?auei
?icaeoeii ?ineei ? i?aeaeuaiei aiaeiniiaeeaaiiyi eoeueoo?.

4. Aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea i?ae aaaaoi??/i? o?aainoi?oee
(?45E150N90) oa iaeii??/i? eoeueoo?e (?45E150) i?ioyaii ?ioaoe??
ei?iiaeo oa ei?ii-iai/aaeo n?aici?i caaacia/oaaei oaiaeaioe?th aei
iaeiie/aiiy iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a aeoeaiiio oa?? a?oioo. E?euee?noue
?ooiieo oi?i iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei ca?eueooaaeanue c ?icoe?aiiyi iieueiaiai
ia??iaeo a n?aici?iao.

5. Ia acioiee ?aaeei a?oioo ?noioii aieeaaee iiaiaea, no?oeoo?a iin?aieo
ieiu ? oaeia?aiiy. Ai?no i?o?aoiiai acioo a a?oio? i?ae aaaaoi??/ieie
o?aaaie ia?oiai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy oa iaeii??/ieie eoeueoo?aie a 3-4
?ace, a ia ie?aieo aa??aioao ? cia/ii a?eueoa, aoa aeuee, i?ae i?ae
o?aainoi?oeaie 4-5 ?ie?a ei?enooaaiiy. C noa??iiyi o?aainoith
aoaeoeai?noue aianaiiy acioieo aeia?ea c?inoa?.

6. Iaeii??/i? eoeueoo?e oa aaaaoi??/i? o?aae ia?oiai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy
iiai?noth caaacia/othoueny ?ooiieie oi?iaie acioo, ui ooai?thaaany i?e
i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ii? iane oi?oiaeu. Oiio aianaiiy eiai i?ae oe?
eoeueoo?e ia ?aoe?iiaeueii.

Ai?no i?o?aoiiai ? ai?a/iiai acioo a aeoeaiiio oa?? a?oioo a iinooeea?
?iee ? ia??iaee aaaaoaoe?? i?ae on?ia eoeueoo?aie aoa aeuee, i?ae o
aieia? ?iee.

7. Iaea?eueo aeao?oeeoiei aeaiaioii aeeaeaiiy ia neaaieeneeo oi?oiaeuao
Iie?nny ? eae?e. Iioeiaeueiee eae?eiee ?aaeei ia i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao
caaacia/o?oueny oeyoii ui??/iiai aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo eae?eieo aeia?ea
i?ae i?inaii? eoeueoo?e iaeii?aciai aeecueei E150 ? i?ae aaaaoi??/i?
o?aae a ?icae??a — E50 + 50 +50.

I?ae iin?aaie iaeii??/ieo eoeueoo? ?ooiieo oi?i eae?th aoei aeaui
a?eueoa, i?ae i?ae iin?aaie aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii
?ioaineai?oiai i?e?ia?ieia?/iiai i?ioeano a a?oio?.

8. Ia aeieaaiiy iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o a?oioia? aiaee nooo?ai aieeaaea
no?oeoo?a iin?aieo ieiu o n?aici?i?. Iaeaea a i?aoi?a-aeaa ?ace a?eueoa
aeieaaeinue ?ooiiiai acioo i?ae iin?aaie iaeii??/ieo eoeueoo?, i?ae i?ae
aaaaoi??/ieie o?aaaie. A ?iee c a?eueoeie aoiinoa?ieie iiaaeaie
aeieaaeiny a?eueoa iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei ia aani?, a a iinooeea? – ainaie.

9. O?iaeaei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ca ?ioaoe?th
n?aici?i c?inoaea c? ca?eueoaiiyi ii?i aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea.
E?ioeie c o?aooaaiiyi aeoiaeo nooeo ?a/iaei, ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ?
ne?iai i?ioa?io aoee n?aici?ie c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith,
/ioe?e??/iei eo/iei ia??iaeii, oa iieai iaeii??/ieo o?aa c e?oi?i
caeoaeaiiyi aaaaoi??/ieie o?aainoi?oeaie.

10. Aianaiiy eae?eieo aeia?ea i?aeaeuoaaei o?iaeaei?noue nooi? ?a/iaeie
i?inaiieo eoeueoo? ia 36%, iaeii??/ieo o?aa nooe?eueiiai iin?ao 8%,
oinoi?ieo aeia?ea – aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ia?oiai-o?aoueiai ?ieo
ei?enooaaiiy ia 7%, ai?ioi-a?anyii? noi?oee – 17% ? ia niinoa??aaee
i?e?inoo a?iaeath ia iin?aao i?inaiieo eoeueoo? ? aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa
/aoaa?oiai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy; aianaiiy acioieo aeia?ea i?aeaeuoaaei
o?iaeaei?noue aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ia?oiai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy –13%, ae?oaiai
– o?aoueiai ?ieo – 23% ? /aoaa?oiai ?ieo – 29%.

11. Iaeiaio aia?aiaeo?aoieie c iaea?eueoei eiao?oe??ioii aia?aaoe/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ia inoooaaieo oi?oiaeuao ? ei?iia? oa iai/a-ei?iia?
n?aici?ie c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith oa ae?iuoaaiiyi aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aainoi?oie a iiiieoeueoo??.

12. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaieo caoiae?a (?icoe?aiiy eo/iiai
ia??iaeo a n?aici?iao, aianaiiy acioieo aeia?ea o?eueee i?ae o?aae,
iaiaaeaiiy iaoai?/iiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, aen?aaiiy i?ii?aeieo eoeueoo?
oiui) ia inoooaaieo i?aaiiaaiieo neaaieeneeo a?oioao Iie?nny iaea?eueoa
a?aeiia?aea? aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaiei aeiiaai aei nenoaie iae?i?aoeaiiai
caiea?ianoaa.

I?iiiceoe?? ae?iaieoeoao

1. Aeey aoaeoeaiiai oa aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy noa?ii?ieo
inoooaaieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oio?a Iie?nny Oe?a?ie aeioe?eueii aaiaeeoe
ei?iia? n?aici?ie, a a i?ei?nueeeo ?aeiiao iai/aai-ei?iia? n?aici?ie c
iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith, ia iaioa /ioe?e-i’yoe??/iiai eo/iiai
ia??iaeo, aen?aaiiyi i?ii?aeii? ?aaeueee ie?eii? ia caeaiee ei?i i?ney
aeaio oein?a aaaaoi??/ieo o?aainoi?oie oa c aeei?enoaiiyi inoaiiueiai
iiey n?aici?ie i?ae iaeii??/i? o?aae c e?oi?i caeoaeaiiyi aaaaoi??/ieie
o?aainoi?oeaie.

2. Aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaieie ii?iaie i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea,
?aeiiaiaeiaaieie aeey aianaiiy a ei?iiaeo n?aici?iao, ? ?60E150 i?ae
i?inaii? eoeueoo?e oa ?45E50+50+50 i?ae iin?ae aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aainoi?oie, a ii/eiath/e c o?aa ae?oaiai ?ieo ei?enooaaiiy ? N45+45.

NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Nethna? ?.O., Eaaeianueea A.A., Iaiooa ?.A., Iaoaethe A.a., Aaneethe
E.I. Aieea o?eaaeino? aeei?enoaiiy ? oaeia?aiiy aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aainoi?oie ia ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue a oiiaao inoooaaieo oi?oiaeu Iie?nny
// Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAi. — E., 1998. —
Aei.1. — N.161-165.

2. Eaaeianueea A.A., Aeaaeaethe A.A., Oea??anueea E.?., Iaiooa ?.A.,
Iaoaethe A.A. I?iaeoeoeai?noue oa aia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue n?aici?i ia
inooaieo a?oioao Iie?nny // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?inoeoooo
caiea?ianoaa OAAI. — E., 1998. — Aei.2. — N.16-19.

3. Oea/oe N.I., Iaoaethe A.A., Iaiooa ?.A., Naoeee I.?. Ci?ia
iiaeeaiiai ?aaeeio oi?oiaeo a?oio?a i?ae aieeaii nenoai oaeia?aiiy
aaaaoi??/ieo o?aainoi?oie a eo/ii-ei?iiaeo n?aici?iao // Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI. — E., 1998. — Aei.2. —
N.28-34.

4. Oea/oe N.I., Iaoaethe A.A. Aieea iiia?aaeiee?a ? ??cieo ii?i
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?inaiieo eoeueoo? a ei?iiaeo
n?aici?iao c ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI. — E., 1998. — Aei.2. — N.45-49.

5. Nethna? ?.O., Iaoaethe A.A. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeei?enoaiiy
inooaieo caiaeue a aoi?aei?e cii? Oe?a?ie oa caoiaee uiaei ?o
caa?aaeaiiy //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa
OAAI.-E.,1999.-Aei.1-2.-N.62-64.

6. Iaoaethe, A.A. Naoeee I.?., Ei?iia? n?aici?ie ia inooaieo
i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao /Caiea?ianoai OO1 noie?ooy — i?iaeaie oa oeyoe
ae??oaiiy //Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? -E.,
1999.-N.143-144.

7. Nethna? ?.O., Iaoaethe A.A., Iaiooa ?.A. Aa?iaeieia?/i? aniaeoe
caiea?ianoaa ia inoooaaieo caieaaieo a?oioao /A/eiiny ainiiaea?thaaoe
//Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai nai?ia?o. – E., 1999. – N.53-55.

8. Eaaeianueea A.A., O?aiei A.A., Iaoaethe A.A., Iaiooa ?.A., Naoeee
I.?., Neaaai?iaenueea I.I. I?ia?ae?caoe?y i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a
noa?ii?ieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oioao //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?inoeoooo
caiea?ianoaa OAAI.-E.,1999.-Aei.3.-N.8-11.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaoaethe A.A. ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo oa aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaieo ei?iiaeo
n?aici?i ia inooaieo oi?oiaeo a?oioao Iie?nny. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.02 —
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? iae?i?aoe?? (n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? iaoee) –
?inoeooo a?ae?ioaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe?? OAAI, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ?ic?iaee aia?aicaa??aath/eo oa
aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaieo ei?iiaeo oa iai/aai-ei?iiaeo n?aici?i c
ei?ioeei iieueiaei ia??iaeii a oiiaao inoooaaieo i?aaiiaaiieo a?oio?a
Iie?nny Oe?a?ie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/aee ieoaiiy aiaeiiai, iiaeeaiiai ?aaeei?a a?oioo,
caao?’yiaiino? iin?a?a, oeiaei/eiiino? ae?ioyieea, aieeao oaeia?aiiy,
o?eaaeino? iieueiaiai ? eo/iiai ia??iae?a o n?aici?i? ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ie?aieo eoeueoo? ? n?aici?i a oe?eiio. Aea/aeeny
ieoaiiy aeieaaiiy iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o a?oioia? aiaee oa aieea
aa?icaoiae?a ia ye?noue ae?iuaii? i?iaeoeoe??. Iaea?eueo aeioe?eueiith
aeyaeeanue n?aici?ia c iaei??th i?inaiiith eoeueoo?ith.

A ?iaio? c?iaeaia aia?aaoe/ia, aeieia?/ia oa aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea
aeine?aeaeoaaieo n?aici?i.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aaiiaaii? a?oioe, aiaeiee ?aaeei, ?iaeth/?noue,
n?aici?ia, iiaeeai? ?a/iaeie, caao?’yiai?noue, ae?ioyiee, i?o?aoiee
acio, aeieia?y, aia?aaoeea, aeiiii?ea.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaoaethe A.A. ?ac?aaioea yooaeoeaiuo, yeieiae/anee naaeaine?iaaiiuo
ei?iiauo naaiiai?ioia ia inooaaiuo oi?oyiuo ii/aao Iieanuey. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.02 —
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaeei?aoeee (naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaoee). —
Einoeooo aeae?ioaoieee e iaeei?aoeee OAAI, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ?ac?aaioee oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo
i?aaeeiaeaiee iino?iaiey eoai-ei?iiauo e iaiua-ei?iiauo naaiiai?ioia n
ei?ioeei iieaaui ia?eiaeii n ia?aiao?aie ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey,
ainnoaiiaeaiey ieiaei?iaeey ii/au, oeo/oaiey yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe
a oneiaeyo inooaaiuo i?aaiiaaiiuo ii/a Iieanuey Oe?aeiu.

Enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeeeenue a noaoeeiia?iii iiuoa Ainoiiaeueneiai
iii?iiai ioieoa eaai?aoi?ee caieaaeaeey ia inooaaiuo caieyo Einoeoooa
caieaaeaeey OAAI a iieia ?.E?iaiue (Eeaaneay iaeanoue) a 1993-1996aa. ia
n?aaeiaaeoaieeo, noa?iiaoioiuo, neeueii ?aceiaeeaoeony oi?oyieeao ni
neaaieeneie ?aaeoeeae ii/aaiiiai ?anoai?a. Ia iieia iino?iaia
inooeoaeueii-oaeaaeieoaeueiay nenoaia.

Noaia iiuoa aeeth/aea /aou?a oanoeiieueiuo naaiiai?ioa e iiiieoeueoo?o
iiiaieaoieo o?aainianae n o?aiy aa?eaioaie aianaiey ieia?aeueiuo
oaeia?aiee. Iioeiaeueiue eaeeeiue ?aaeei i?aaiiaaiiuo ii/a oi?ie?iaaee
i?aeiouanoaaiii aaeaaiaeiui aianaieai eaeeeiuo oaeia?aiee, eo
iaiaoiaeeii aiineoue a n?iee iaeneiaeueii

i?eaeeaeaiiuo e aeoeaiiio ?inoo e ?acaeoeth naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo?.

Aianaiea oinoi?iuo oaeia?aiee auei iaiaa yooaeoeaii, a acioiua
oaeia?aiey o?aaiaaeinue aiineoue oieueei ia iinaaao iiiaieaoieo o?aa
ia/eiay ni aoi?iai aiaea eo eniieueciaaiey. Auiuaaiea ieoaoaeueiuo
aauanoa a a?oioiaua aiaeu aic?anoaao n oaaee/aieai iieaaiai ia?eiaea a
naaiiai?ioa.

Cani?aiiinoue i?iiaoiuo eoeueoo? ni?iyeaie aic?anoaea n oaaee/aieai
iieaaiai ia?eiaea a naaiiai?ioa. Iniiaiui e iaeaieaa aeaoaaui i?eaiii
ai?ueau n ni?iyeaie a iinaaao iiiaieaoieo o?aa yaeyeanue naiaa?aiaiiay
eo iiaeei?iea iinea anoiaeia.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eoaiaiai ia?eiaea a naaiiai?ioa e oaeia?aiey
eoeueoo? nicaeaaaee aeey au?aueaaaiuo eoeueoo? ia i?ioyaeaiee eo
?ioaoeee ?aciua ii/aaiiua oneiaey, /oi yaeyeinue iniiaiui oaeoi?ii
?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeannii ?inoa e ?acaeoey ?anoaiee e eo
i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth.

Iaeaieueooth o?iaeaeiinoue iiiaieaoieo o?aa (147.9-148.0 oe/aa nooiai
aauanoaa) iieo/aii i?e aianaiee iieiiai ieia?aeueiiai oaeia?aiey (N90
P45 K150) ia?aiai-o?aoueaai aiaea iieueciaaiey, a iaeiieaoieo eoeueoo?
(178.3-86.9 oe/aa) — i?e aianaiee oinoi?iuo oaeia?aiee e a naaiiai?ioa n
naiui e?aoeei eoaiaui ia?eiaeii.

Noiia?iia aeaenoaea ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee a naaiiai?ioa iieacuaaao,
/oi yooaeoeaiinoue oinoi?iuo oaeia?aiee oiaiueoaaony n oaaee/aieai
i?iiaoiuo eoeueoo? a naaiiai?ioa, oaeay aea caaeneiinoue iaaethaeaaony e
n acioiuie oaeia?aieyie ia iinaaao iiiaieaoieo o?aa.

Iaeaieueooth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue eiae naaiiai?io n iaeiie i?iiaoiie
eoeueoo?ie (105.1 oe/aa nooiai aauanoaa), a aaaaeaiea a naaiiai?io
aeaoo-o?ao iaeiieaoieo eoeueoo? nieaeaei aai

i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ia 9.3-10.6%.

Aianaiea ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, oiaiueoaiea a naaiiai?ioa iieaaiai
ia?eiaea e ia?eiaee/aneia (/a?ac 5-7 eao) ia?acaeoaeaiea iiiaieaoieo
o?aa cia/eoaeueii oeo/oaei ea/anoai au?auaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Iaeaieueoea yia?aaoe/aneea cao?aou eiae naaiiai?io n o?aiy i?iiaoiuie
eoeueoo?aie (44.1AAeae/aa), n ?anoe?aieai eoaiaiai ia?eiaea aei
iiiieoeueoo?u iiiaieaoieo o?aa yia?aiecaea?aeee oiaiueoaeenue aei 25.8
AAeae/a.

Iaeaunoee eiyooeoeeaio yia?aaoe/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe (3.8) eiaee i?e
iiiieoeueoo?a o?aa, n?aaeiee (3.0-3.1) — a naaiiai?ioao n iaeiie
i?iiaoiie eoeueoo?ie e ieceee (2.1) — i?e o??o i?iiaoiuo eoeueoo?ao a
naaiiai?ioa.

I?iaaaeaiiay ioeaiea naaiiai?ioia n ?aciui ianuuaieai iaeiieaoieie
eoeueoo?aie iieacuaaao, /oi iaeaieueooth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue naaiiai?ioa,
aunieee eiyooeoeeaio yia?aaoe/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe, naioth aunieoth
oneiaii /enooth i?eaueue n aaeoa?a e iaeiaiueooth naaanoieiinoue
ei?iiaie aaeeieoeu iieo/aii a naaiiai?ioa n iaeiie i?iiaoiie eoeueoo?ie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?aaiiaaiiua ii/au, aiaeiue ?aaeei, ieiaei?iaeea,
naaiiai?iou, ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa, cani?aiiinoue, i?iaiei/iee,
ieo?aoiue acio, yeieiaey, yia?aaoeea, yeiiiieea.

ANNOTATION

Meteljuk V.V. Working out of effective ecologically balanced fodder crop
rotations on drained peat soils of the Polissja. — Typescript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of Master of Agricultural Science in
specialized field 06.01.02 – agricultural reclamations (agricultural
sciences).

The thesis deals with the problems of elaboration of energy-saving and
ecologically balanced fodder and vegetable-fodder crop rotations wits
short field period in conditions of drained soils in Pollissja of
Ukraine.

The researches included the problems of water and nutritious soil
regimes, weed situation in crops, damaging by wireworms, effect of
fertilizing, field and meadow period in crop rotation on crops
productivities and the one of whole rotation as well.

The questions of nutritive elements leaching into soil waters and
influence of agrotechnical methods on plant productions quality are
studied.

The most sensible crop rotation is the one which includes one tilled
crop. The work gives the energetical, ecological and economical
estimations of studied crop rotations.

Key words: organic soils, water regime, soil fertility, crop rotations,
nutrients, weeds, wireworms, nitrate nitrogen, ecology, energetics,
economy.

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