I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Ia/a?aiei Aiae??e Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 535.36

AOAEO NEAAEI? EIEAE?CAOe?? NA?OEA

I?E CAI?IOIIIO ?ICN?THAAII?

IIAA?OIssIE C? NEEAAeIITH NO?OEOO?ITH

O Ae?AIACII? A?AIE*II IAEEO OACIAEO EOO?A

01.04.05 — iioeea, eaca?ia o?ceea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a-1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei — iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee, Oeo?aoia TH??e A?eai?iae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii
Ano?iiii?/ii? iana?aaoi??? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Iiieia TH??e Aiae?iiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith
caaaeueii? o?ceee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Ei?i??iei TH??e A’y/aneaaiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii ia?iaee
cia?aaeaiue ??A IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i.
A.?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie; a?aeae?e iioe/ieo oa iaai?oieo aeanoeainoae
oaa?aeeo o?e oa a?aeae?e niaeo?ineii?? iieaeoey?ieo oa iaai?oieo
e?enoae?a, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 2 “ ea?oiy   1999 ?. i _16-e_ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.03 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (310077, i. Oa?e?a-77, ieiua Naiaiaee, 4,
aoae. ?i. E.Ae. Neiaeueieeiaa).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
310077, i. Oa?e?a-77, ieiua Naiaiaee, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ “ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iieaea A. I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aoaeo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? oaeeue (/anoeiie) aoa
a?aee?eoee iacaeaaeii a ??cieo aaeocyo o?ceee. Aia?oa ye naiino?eia
yaeua eiai aoei iienaii a ieaiaoieia?? oa iacaaii iiiceoe?eiei aoaeoii.
Ooo a?i i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? ca?eueoaiiy yne?aaino? iiaa?oi? ?c
ciaioaiiyi eooa oace (oiaoi eooa i?ae iai?yiaie “Niioea-ieaiaoa” oa
“ieaiaoa-niinoa??aa/”) i?e aea/aii? oaa?aeeo iiaa?oiiue iaaanieo o?e,
oaeeo, ye noiooieee ieaiao (I?nyoeue) oa anoa?i?aee. I?ney oeueiai
aoaeo, iiae?aiee ca i?e?iaeith, ii/aa aeine?aeaeoaaoeny a aaaaoueio
aaeocyo o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea oa io?eiaa iacao aoaeoo neaaei?
eieae?caoe?? eaac?/anoeiie. Cie?aia, a?i aeyaey?oueny o aeaeyae?
aeiaeaoeiaiai ca?eueoaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o o iaaii?yaeeiaaieo
i?ia?aeieeao ca oiiae, ui a ieo aeinoaoiuei ?icaeiooa aaaaoi?aciaa
?icn?thaaiiy aeaeo?ii?a (aiaea?nii?anueea eieae?caoe?y aeaeo?ii?a).
Aiaeia?/ia yaeua (neaaea eieae?caoe?y oaeeue) o ?aae?ieieaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo aoei iacaaia aoaeoii eiaa?aioiiai i?aeneeaiiy cai?ioiiai
?icn?thaaiiy. *anoi a ?iaioao, ye? iia’ycai? c eaai?aoi?ieie aei??aie
cai?ioiiai ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea (C?N) a iioe/iiio ae?aiacii?, oeae aoaeo
iaceaathoue aoaeoii neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea.

?nio? ?yae oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae, ui iienothoue aoaeo neaaei?
eieae?caoe??. On? aiie caii/aoeiaai? ia a?aooaaii? ?ioa?oa?aioe?? oaeeue
(aeaeo?iiaai?oieo aai aea A?ieey), ui ?iciianthaeaeothoueny ii i?yieo oa
caa?iooeo o /an? o?a?eoi??yo.

Ca?aeii c iiaeaeyie aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea, oacia?
caeaaeiino? yne?aaino? iiaeii? i?noeoe a nia? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i no?oeoo?o
iiaa?oi?, a oaeiae i?i iioe/i? noae? ?a/iaeie iiaa?oi?. Oaeei /eiii,
aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai aoaeoo iiaea aeicaieeoe aea/aoe neeaae oa
no?oeoo?o, iai?., iiaa?oiiue aacaoiinoa?ieo iaaanieo o?e. Uia c?icoi?oe,
ye e?euee?nii iia’ycai? ia?aiao?e C?N ?c o?ce/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
iiaa?oiiue aacaoiinoa?ieo iaaanieo o?e, iaiao?aei? eaai?aoi?i? iioe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oi/ eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy C?N a?ae oaa?aeeo iiaa?oiiue neeaaeii?
no?oeoo?e cae?eniththoueny aaea aeaaii, i?ioa, aei??e oeueiai aoaeoo i?e
oaciaeo eooao, iaioeo a?ae 10, aea aoaeo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea
iaea?eueo ae?aaeaii, i?aeoe/ii ia i?iaiaeeeeny. Oea, cie?aia,
noino?oueny aei???a o iaiiey?eciaaiiio na?oe?, ui ?i?oo? ina?oeaiiy
iaaanieo o?e. Aeaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa e?ea?aeo? aeacaiee iaaeie?e.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aoiaeeoue
aei ieaio athaeaeaoii? IAe? AI OAeO (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0197U002493), a
oaeiae ? /anoeiith IAe?, ui aeeiio?oueny ca i?aeo?eiee Oe?a?inueeiai
Oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa Oiiaeo CRDF (a?aio
?UG2-295). ?iaioo aeeth/aii aei ieai?a i?aeia?iaeieo IAe?, ui
i?iaiaeyoueny ia AI OAeO ni?eueii c a/aieie NOA, O?I oa O?ieyiae??.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiith caaea/ath aeaii? ?iaioe aoei
aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy cai?ioiiai ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea
iiaa?oiyie neeaaeii? no?oeoo?e o ae?aiacii? a?aie/ii iaeeo oaciaeo
eoo?a. Cie?aia, a ?? caaea/? aoiaeeei:

aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? ia?aiao??a aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe??
na?oea a?ae o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?icn?th/i? iiaa?oi?, oaeeo, ye ?ici??
oa oi?ia iaiaeii??aeiinoae iiaa?oi?, eiioeaio?aoe?y ?icn?thaa/?a o
na?aaeiaeu?, iioe/ieo noaeeo /anoeiie, ui ooai?ththoue iiaa?oith;

aea/aiiy niaeo?aeueieo caeaaeiinoae aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea;

aeine?aeaeaiiy aianeo oeueiai aoaeoo o oi?ioaaiiy cai?ioiiai
?icn?thaaiiy;

canoinoaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a eaai?aoi?ieo aei???a aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
aeaieo iaoo?ieo oioiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

C iaoith ?icaeoeo iioe/ieo cania?a aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia aeey aei???a
o ae?aiacii? a?aie/ii iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a, iaiao?aeii aoei ?ic?iaeoe e
aeaioiaeoe oioiiao?, yeee i?a ae i?aoethaaoe ye o iiey?eciaaiiio, oae ?
o iaiiey?eciaaiiio na?oe? a ??cieo iaeanoyo niaeo?o.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao o
iaiiey?eciaaiiio na?oe? o ae?aiacii? a?aie/ii iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a (0.2 —
3.50) aeine?aeaeaii cai?ioia ?icn?thaaiiy oa aea/aii aoaeo neaaei?
eieae?caoe?? na?oea. Cie?aia, aeyaeaii /?oei ae?aaeaiee aieea ?ici???a
/anoeiie iiaa?oi? ia ia?aiao?e aoaeoo. Iieacaii, ui o oeueiio ae?aiacii?
iaa?oue ii??aiyii oaii? iiaa?oi? c aeueaaaei aeecueei 10% aeyaeythoue
iii?oiee aianie ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiiai i?aeneeaiiy na?oea o cai?ioia
?icn?thaaiiy. O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue aoei aia?oa ciaeaeaii caeaaei?noue
oe?eie i?eo neaaei? eieae?caoe??, a oaeiae iieiaeaiiy i?i?ioio ia
oacia?e e?ea?e iieacieea eieuei?o a?ae ?ici???a /anoeiie oa aeueaaaei
iiaa?oi?.

Eiie?aoi? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe oa iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

1. ?ic?iaea oa noai?aiiy eaai?aoi?iiai oioiiao?a-iiey?eiao?a aeey
aea/aiiy cai?ioiiai ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea ia iiaa?oiyo neeaaeii? no?oeoo?e
o ae?aiacii? a?aie/ii iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a (0.2 — 3.50), yeee aeaa ciiao
i?iaanoe aei??thaaiiy a?eueo i?ae noa c?ace?a i?e?iaeiiai oa ooo/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy.

2. Aenia?eiaioaeueia anoaiiaeaiiy oiai, ui o ae?aiacii? oaciaeo eoo?a
0.2 — 3.50 ia?aiao?e cai?ioiiai ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea ae?aeaeo?e/ieie
ii?iooaaoeie iiaa?oiyie caeaaeaoue a?ae ?ici??o /anoeiie, ye? ??
ooai?ththoue. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui o ?icn?thaaii? na?oea
iiaa?oiyie, aeey yeeo nooo?aei ? aaaaoi?aciaa ?icn?thaaiiy, ae??oaeueiee
aianie aea? aoaeo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea.

3. Aeyaeaiiy o ae?aiacii? a?aie/ii iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a eiei?eiao?e/iiai
iiiceoe?eiiai aoaeoo. Oea yaeua iia’ycaia ?c caeaaei?noth a?ae aeueaaaei
/anoeiie iiaa?oi? aaee/eie aianeo aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea aei
cai?ioiiai ?icn?thaaiiy.

4. Aeyaeaiiy aeueaaaeii? caeaaeiino? oaciaiai oiaeo o a?aeiioaiiy e?in-
oa ei- iiey?eciaaieo neeaaeiaeo na?oeiaiai iioieo, ?icn?yiiai
ae?aeaeo?e/ieie iiaa?oiyie. Oaciaee o?ae oeueiai a?aeiioaiiy c?
ciaioaiiyi aeueaaaei iiaa?oi? noa? a?eueo iieiaeenoei oa, ii/eiath/e c
aeayeiai cia/aiiy aeueaaaei, ci?ith? ciae iaoeeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeaii oa noai?aii
i?eeaae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae C?N o ae?aiacii? a?aie/ii iaeeo
oaciaeo eoo?a. Aeai? eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, io?eiai? ia oeueiio
i?eeaae?, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aaeaeaaoii ?ioa?i?aooaaoe oacia?
caeaaeiino? yne?aaino?, ye? niinoa??aathoueny ca aeiiiiiaith
oaeaneii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, oa cia?aaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue aacaoiinoa?ieo
iaaanieo o?e, ui ia?aaeathoueny eini?/ieie aia?aoaie i?e iaeeo oaciaeo
eooao. Cie?aia, ?acoeueoaoe eaai?aoi?ieo aei???a, iaaaaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aoee aeei?enoai? aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aeaieo,
io?eiaieo eini?/iei aia?aoii “Eeaiaioeia” i?e ceiioe? iiaa?oi? I?nyoey
oa eini?/iei aia?aoii “Aaeeeae” i?e ceiioe? noiooieea THi?oa?a ?a?iia.
E??i oiai, oe? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ia?aa??ee oa
a?aeai?o oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae oi?ioaaiiy oioiiao?e/ii? ooieoe??
iiaa?oiiue c? neeaaeiith no?oeoo?ith.

Oaeei /eiii, eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy C?N a?aee?eaathoue iia?
iiaeeeaino? o i?iaaaeaii? aeenoaioe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaa?oiiue
iaaanieo o?e. O naith /a?ao, ?icoi?iiy iaoai?ci?a C?N ia ano?iiii?/ieo
ia’?eoao iiaea aooe aeei?enoaii aeey c’ynoaaiiy aeayeeo iniaeeainoae
eieae?caoe?? oaeeue a ?ioeo aaeocyo i?e?iaeiciaanoaa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? noai?aii eaai?aoi?iee
oioiiao?-iiey?eiao?, ui i?aoeth? o ae?aiacii? oaciaeo eoo?a 0.2 — 3.50.
Iei i?iaaaeai? oa ia?iaeai? on? eaai?aoi?i? aei??e ia oeueiio i?eeaae?.
Aaoi? a?aa o/anoue o iinoaiiaoe? iniiaieo caaea/ eaai?aoi?ieo aei???a oa
iaienaii? noaoae oa oac aeiiia?aeae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oeceea Eoiu e ieaiao”
(Oa?e?a, 1994 ?.); ia 2-e eiioa?aioe?? “Oece/aneea yaeaiey a oaa?aeuo
oaeao” (Oa?e?a, 1995 ?.); ia 22, 24 oa 28 i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo c
i?iaeai ieaiaoieia?? (Iineaa, 1995, 1996 oa 1998 ??.), a oaeiae ia
iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao Ano?iiii?/ii? iana?aaoi??? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? iioeee Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, Aaeuen?inueei? iana?aaoi???, aaieia?/iiai
a?aeae?eaiiy oi?aa?neoaoo A?aoia (NOA) oa ieaiaoiiai ?inoeoooo DLR
(I?ia//eia).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 7 i?aoeue, o oiio
/ene? 4 noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa 3 oace aeiiia?aeae ia
eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c
ia?aaeiiae, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?c 121 iaeiaioaaiiy; aiia aeeeaaeaia ia 154
noi??ieao, i?noeoue 59 ?enoie?a oa 2 oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?aaeiia? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iaoo oa caaea/? ?iaioe,
iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?ae?/aii
eiie?aoi? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, ui aeianai? ia caoeno, a oaeiae iaaaaeaii
noeneee ci?no ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Aoaeo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea” i?enay/aii iaeyaeo
?ia?o, ui noinothoueny aeine?aeaeaiue aoaeo?a eieae?caoe?? oaeeue, o
oiio /ene? aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea. Cie?aia, noenei
?icaeyiooi iaoai?cie C?N ia ii?iooaaoeo na?aaeiaeuao oa iaaaaeaii iaeyae
i?aoeue, ui i?enay/ai? C?N ia oaa?aeeo iiaa?oiyo iaaanieo o?e. Iniaeeaa
oaaaa i?eae?eaia i?aoeyi, i?enay/aiei eaai?aoi?iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi C?N
ia c?aceao neeaaeii? no?oeoo?e. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui o ca’yceo c aeayeeie
oaoi?/ieie oa i?eioeeiiaeie o?oaeiiuaie, aei iauiaeaaiueiai /ano ?nioaaa
aeao?oeeo eaai?aoi?ieo aei???a ?icn?yiiai na?oea i?e iaeeo eooao oace, a
iiaeaeueieo aeine?ae?a o ae?aiacii? oaciaeo eoo?a < 10 o iaiiey?eciaaiiio na?oe? ia i?iaiaeeeiny. O oeueiio ?icae?e? oaeiae iienaia iiaeaeue, a ?aieao yei? i?iaaaeaia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a eaai?aoi?ieo aei???a. O e?ioe? ?icae?eo noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? caaea/? aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Eaai?aoi?iee oioiiao?-iiey?eiao? aeey oaciaeo eoo?a 0.2 - 3.50” i?enay/aii iieno i?eeaaeo aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy C?N ia ii?iooaaoeo c?aceao o ae?aiacii? a?aie/ii iaeeo eoo?a oac. I?e noai?aii? eaai?aoi?ieo aei??iee?a na?oeiaeo iioie?a aeey iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a iniiaia i?iaeaia iieyaa? o iaiao?aeiino? aeei?enoaiiy iaeeo eooiaeo aia?oo? aeaea?aea oa i?eeia/a aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Oea oyaia ca niaith ??cea iaae?iiy na?oeiaiai iioieo, ui ?a?no?o?oueny (ca caeiiii /aoaa?oiai nooiaiy ?ici??o aia?oo?e), oiio oioiiao?, yeee i?aoeth? o iaeeo oaciaeo eooao, iaieio/a iiaeiai aooe ?ic?aoiaaiee ia aei?? neaaeeo na?oeiaeo iioie?a. C a?aooaaiiyi oe??? iniaeeaino? aoee ?ic?iaeai? ? iioe/ia noaia i?eeaaeo ? aeaeo?e/i? noaie i?eeia/a aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Ia ?en.1 iaaaaeaii aeie-noaio oioiiao?a iaeeo eoo?a oac. I?eeaae neeaaea?oueny c ianooiieo iniiaieo /anoei: aeieo ina?oethaa/a (AeAE), o?eia/a c?acea (C), aeieo i?eeia/a na?oea (I) oa aeieo aeaeo?iiii? ia?iaee neaiaeo (AN), niieo/aiiai c eiii'thoa?ii (AII). ?en.1 Aeie-noaia oioiiao?a-iiey?eiao?a iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a. AAE1 - aeie aeeaeaiiy aeaea?aea na?oea; AeAE - aeaea?aei na?oea; AI - aeie iiey?ecaoi?a; A - i?e?iiao?e/iee aaeio; Ae1 - aeaeaoi aaeioa; AAE2 - aeie aeeaeaiiy OAI; I - i?eeia/ na?oea; AO - aeie na?oeio?eueo??a; AA - aeie aiae?caoi?a; Ae2 - aeaeaoi aiae?caoi?a; AN - aeie niieo/aiiy; C - c?acie. Ia noai?, iieacai?e ia ?en.1, ina?oethaaeueia /anoeia iicia/aia ye (AeAE). Cae/aeiith noaiith ina?oethaa/a o i?eeaaeao oaeiai ?iaeo ? “oaeaneii?/ia” noaia: eaac?oi/eiaa aeaea?aei na?oea ?icoaoiaaia o oieon? ia'?eoeaa, ui noai?th? iaeaea ia?aeaeueiee io/ie aeey ina?oeaiiy c?ace?a. Iniiaiei iaaeie?eii oe??? noaie ? oa, ui ?ici?? ia'?eoeaa aaaiii ia?aaeuo? ?ici?? eaac?oi/a/iiai aeaea?aea na?oea. Oea ia aea? iiaeeeaino? aeinyaoe iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a: ia'?eoeae i?eeia/a oa ina?oethaa/a caaaaeathoue iaeia iaeiiio ca aaaa?eoaie. Iioe/ia noaia ina?oethaa/a, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny, nooo?ai ci?iaia. Cia?aaeaiiy ieoee ?icaea?thaaiiy eaiie ooai?th?oueny ia ae?ao?aai?, ioa?? yei?, ii nooiino?, ? ? aeaea?aeii na?oea. Iioe/ia cia?aaeaiiy ae?ao?aaie aoaeo?oueny ia'?eoeaii iiaeeco ciai?oiueiai ?aa?a i?ecie iiaiiai aioo??oiueiai a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy. Oaea noaia aea? iiaeeea?noue iaaeeceoe iioe/ia cia?aaeaiiy aeaea?aea na?oea ia a?aie/ii iaeo a?aenoaiue aei aiaeia?/iiai cia?aaeaiiy aia?oo?ii? ae?ao?aaie aeieo i?eeia/a (aea o i?eeia/? o?ae i?iiaith ia ceaio?oueny). Oey noaia aeicaiey? aeinyaaoe o aei??ao a?aie/ii iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a. Oae, i?e eooiaiio ae?aiao?? aia?oo?ieo ae?ao?aai 0.050 i?eeia/a oa ina?oethaa/a aaeaeiny aeinyaoe i?i?iaeueiiai oaciaiai eooa 0.20. Aei noaie ina?oethaa/a iiaea aooe aaaaeaii eiiiainaoi? ia?aceoii? iiey?ecaoe??, yeei ? ieineiia?aeaeueia neeyia ieanoeia. Aeey aei???a o iiey?eciaaiiio na?oe? ia?aaeaa/aii iiaeeea?noue aaaaeaiiy aei iioe/ii? noaie iiey?ecaoi?a (AI ia ?en.1). Aeaea?aeii na?oea ? aaeiaaiiaa eaiia ?icaea?thaaiiy iiooaei?noth 100 Ao. ?? iiceoeaiith ye?noth ? aeniea eie??ia oaiia?aoo?a (aeecueei 3200 E), a, ioaea, e aeniea iiaa?oiaaa yne?aa?noue. E??i oiai, eieae oaeeo eaii ia oaii?thoue o i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai i?e i?iaaaeaii? na??e aeiaaio?eaaeeo aei??thaaiue. Ina?oethaa/ cae??ieaii ia ?ai?, ui iaa?oa?oueny iaaeiei in?, yea eaaeeoue o ieiuei? c?acea. Oea caaacia/o? i?e iaaaeeeeo eooao iiai?ioo ?aie iaii?ooi?noue na?oeiai? ieyie ia c?aceo. ?aia iiaa?oa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith aaeioa, yeee i?eaiaeeoueny aei ?ooo aeaeo?iaeaeaoiii (Ae1). Aei iioe/ii? noaie i?eeia/a na?oea aaaaeaii aocie na?oeio?eueo??a (AO) oa aocie iaa?oaiiy iiey?i?aea (AA), ui neoaeeoue aiae?caoi?ii (aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aei???a o iiey?eciaaiiio na?oe?). Aeey oi?ioaaiiy niaeo?aeueieo eaiae?a aeei?enoiaothoueny na?oeio?eueo?e EN-10, CN-11 oa NCN-22. sse i?eeia/ aeei?enoiao?oueny OAI-79. Aeie i?eeia/a cae??ieaii ia ?ai? i?eeaaeo iaii?ooii, ui caiia?aa? ci?i? /ooeeaino? OAI, yea a iaea i?noea i?e eiai iiai?io? a?aeiinii iaai?oiiai iiey Caie? aai ?ioeo /anoei i?eeaaeo. ?iioeuene, ye? i?eoiaeyoue ?c i?eeia/a na?oea, iineeththoueny oa iaaeoiaeyoue aei eiii'thoa?a, ui ?a?no?o? neaiae oa ea?o? aeaeo?iaeaeaoiaie, iaeei c yeeo (Ae1) ci?ith? oaciaee eoo, a ae?oaee (Ae2) - iiaa?oa? aiae?caoi?. (a - oaciaee eoo), ui ciaaaaeeeai iaei. I?eeaae ia? aeaa ?aaeeie ?iaioe: oioiiao?a oa iiey?eiao?a. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeinoaoiuei aeniei? ca?aeiino? aei???a, iniaeeai i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo oaiieo iiaa?oiiue, o?eaae?noue aei???a iaeiiai c?acea aeiaiaeeeany aei aeiae. On? c?acee aei??thaaeeny ii aeae?eueea ?ac?a. Oe? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i ianya aeeiiaii? ?iaioe oa oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo caeaaeiinoae. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui i?eeaae ? oi?eaeueiei ?c aeae?eueeio oa?aeoa?enoee. I?i oea, cie?aia, na?ae/aoue eiai ianooii? iniaeeaino?: 1. I?eeaae aeicaiey? i?aoethaaoe c iaiiey?eciaaiei na?oeii, aea i?e oeueiio aeinyaaoe aeineoue iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a - aei 0.20. ?ai?oa, /a?ac iioieia? iaiaaeaiiy, oaeeo cia/aiue eoo?a oace aaeaaaeiny aeinyaoe eeoa c aeei?enoaiiyi eaca?a ye ina?oethaa/a [3, 4]. 2. Aeniei? yeino? aei???a aaeaeiny aeinyaoe, cie?aia, caaaeyee canoinoaaiith i?ea?iaeueii? iioe/ii? noaie ina?oethaaeueii? oa i?eeiiii? /anoei i?eeaaeo. Oey noaia c aia?aaoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o aeiiiiii oi?io? iae? aia?oo?e aeaea?aea oa i?eeia/a na?oea, a e??i oiai, aeicaiey? iai??thaaoe c?acee c aaeeeith ieiuath i?e aeio?eiaii? oiiae iaeiaeiaino? oaciaeo eoo?a o eiaei?e oi/oe? iiaa?oi? c?acea. 3. I?eeaae aeicaiey? iai??thaaoe oacia? caeaaeiino? iieacieea eieuei?o, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaeia e oa ae naia aeaea?aei na?oea. O i?eeaaeao, aea canoiniaai? eaca?e, aeey oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii aeae?eueea eaca??a, ye? i?aoeththoue ia ??cieo /anoioao. O iaoiio aeiaaeeo ? aea?ao ia eeoa o i?inoio?, aea e o ca?aeiino? aei???a. 4. I?eeaae aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe aei??e c aenieith i??ith iaae?eiino?. (Oea, cie?aia, i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ii??aiyiiyi ?acoeueoao?a iaoeo aei???a, c?iaeaieo o iiey?eciaaiiio na?oe?, oa aei???a, i?iaaaeaieo ca aeiiiiiaith aia?eeainueei? onoaiiaee ?. Iaeueniiii, iaeieo e oeo aea c?ace?a ??cieo ?ici??ieo o?aeoe?e ii?ioeo Al2O3.) Iaiao?aeii oaeiae a?aecia/eoe, ui noai?aiee i?eai? iiaea aooe canoiniaaii ia eeoa aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy eeane/iiai aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea, aea e aeey aea/aiiy oae caaiiai iiey?eiao?e/iiai iiiceoe?eiiai aoaeoo (a?ae'?iii? iiey?ecaoe?? na?oea). O?ao?e ?icae?e “?acoeueoaoe aei???a. Aieea ??cieo o?ce/ieo /eiiee?a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea” i?enay/aii iieno oa aiae?co aei???a C?N ia c?aceao ?c ??cieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Iaoith i?iaaaeaieo aei???a ? aea/aiiy aieeao ia ia?aiao?e aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea: aeai?o iaoa??aeo iiaa?oi? (iaoae, ae?aeaeo?ee), ?ici??o /anoeiie iiaa?oi?, aeueaaaei oa u?eueiino? oiaeiaee c?acea, a oaeiae aeiaaeeie oaee? na?oea, ui iaaea?. Aeey aei???a aeei?enoiaoaaeiny ye iaiiey?eciaaia (oea iiaeaeth? niiy/ia ina?oeaiiy), oae ? e?i?eii iiey?eciaaia na?oei. A inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo aei??e i?iaiaeeeeny aeey aea/aiiy aiane?a aei oaciai? caeaaeiino? ?icn?yiiai na?oea o?iueiaiai iaoai?cio oa iaoai?cio ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiiai i?aeneeaiiy C?N. O oeueiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, a iniiaiiio, iiaeaeuei? c?acee, ai o ieo eaaoa eiio?iethaaoe no?oeoo?i? ia?aiao?e. Aei??e iieacaee, ui iae?i?eiee nieane yne?aaino? o ae?aiacii? oaciaeo eoo?a, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, niinoa??aa?oueny o a?eueoino? iaoa??ae?a. Aeyaeeiny, ui ?ieiee oacia? caeaaeiino? yne?aaino?, iaea?aeai? o ae?aiacii? iaeeo eoo?a oace (0.2 - 3.50), iathoue aeaui ?ioee oa?aeoa? i?ae o ae?aiacii? aaeeeeo oaciaeo eoo?a. Iai?eeeaae, i?e aei??ao o ae?aiacii? oaciaeo eoo?a 2 - 400 aeaye?, ?ieiee aeoaea ??ci? ca i?e?iaeith oa aeueaaaei iaoa??aee (iai?eeeaae, naaea oa ii?ioie ieeno iaai?th [2]) iieacoaaee aeoaea aeecuee? oacia? caeaaeiino? yne?aaino?. Iiaiaeaeaiiy oaciaeo caeaaeiinoae yne?aaino? aeey oaeeo c?ace?a o ae?aiacii? a?aie/ii iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a neeueii ?ic??ciy?oueny: iaeaea e?i?eiee o?ae oaciai? ooieoe?? aeey naae? oa ??cei iae?i?eiee nieane yne?aaino? o aeiaaeeo c?acea MgO. Oaea ae ?ica?aei?noue o oaciaiio oiae? yne?aaino? i?inoaaeo?oueny o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a i?e aei??ao ii?ioe?a ae?aeaeo?e/ieo (i?ici?eo) oa iaoaeiiiae?aieo ?a/iaei. Iiynith?oueny oea oei, ui a aeinoaoiuei na?oeeo ae?aeaeo?e/ieo iiaa?oiyo ?icaeiooa aaaaoi?aciaa ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea, oiaoi iiaeooue i?aoethaaoe ?ioa?oa?aioe?ei? aoaeoe, ye? aeine?aeaeothoueny. Aeey iai?ici?eo iaoa??ae?a iniiaiee aianie aei aeueaaaei aea? iaeii?aciaa ?icn?thaaiiy ?, ioaea, oaciaa caeaaei?noue yne?aaino? o oeueiio aeiaaeeo a cia/i?e i??? oi?io?oueny o?iueiaei aoaeoii. Aoei iaea?aeaii aenia?eiaioaeueiee ?acoeueoao, ui ? caaaeueiei aeey ae?aeaeo?e/ieo (?c i?ici?eie /anoeieaie) oa iaoaeaaeo (?c iai?ici?eie /anoeieaie) iiaa?oiiue. A?i noino?oueny iiaaae?iee iiiceoe?eieo i?e?a i?e iaoee? iiaa?oi? a?aeiinii i?iiaith a?coaaiiy. Aei?? neeyii? iaoiaaii? iiaa?oi? c na?aaei?i ?ici??ii oi?noeino? aeecueei 100 iei i?e: noaiaea?oi?e aaiiao???, eiee ii?iaeue c?acea iai?aaeaia acaeiaae in? i?eeia/a; ?c iaoeeii ii?iae? c?acea o ieiuei? ?icn?thaaiiy ia 450 o noi?iio, i?ioeeaaeio iai?yieo ia ina?oethaa/; oa c iaoeeii ii?iae? c?acea ia 450 o iai?yieo, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio ieiuei? ?icn?thaaiiy, iieacaee, ui iaeiaio iieiaeenoee o?ae oaciai? caeaaeiino? niinoa??aa?oueny aeey noaiaea?oii? aaiiao??? - naia o oeueiio aeiaaeeo o?iueiaee aoaeo, iia'ycaiee c iaiaeii??aeiinoyie iiaa?oi?, aeyaey?oueny i?i?iaeueii. Aiaeia?/ia caeiiii??i?noue niinoa??aa?oueny e o aeiaaeeo c?acea aethi?iiaaii? (iaoae?ciaaii?) iaoiaaii? iiaa?oi?. O e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?aeao iia?aeiieyeiny, ui o ae?aiacii? oaciaeo eoo?a 2 - 400 niinoa??aa?oueny ?ici??iee aoaeo - e?oo?noue oaciai? caeaaeiino? ca?eueoo?oueny c? ciaioaiiyi ?ici???a /anoeiie iiaa?oi? [1, 2]. Aiaeia?/io caeaaei?noue aoei aeyaeaii ? o ae?aiacii? eoo?a oace 0.2 - 3.50. Aeey oeueiai aoei iai??yii ii?ioee eaa?oeo c ??cieie na?aaei?ie ?ici??aie /anoeiie: < 25 iei, 45 - 63 iei, 125 - 180 iei, aea c i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaei aeueaaaei. sse ? o aeiaaeeo aaeeeeo eoo?a, a?eueo e?oiiica?ieno? ii?ioee aeathoue a?eueo aocuee? oa iaio? ca aiie?ooaeith i?ee. Oie aea ?ici??iee aoaeo aeyaey?oueny o ii?ioe?a n??iai neea, a oaeiae o ii?ioe?a aacaeueoo oa aoeeai?/iiai iiiaeo, ui aoee a?aeni?oiaai? ca ?ici??ii /anoeiie, oa o aaaaoueio ?ioeo ae?aeaeo?e/ieo iaoa??ae?a ??ciiiai?oiiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oea aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui oea aeineoue oi?aa?naeueia iioe/ia yaeua. ?en.2. Oacia? caeaaeiino? yne?aaino? (0.7 iei) aeey ii?ioe?a Al2O3 c ??cieie na?aaei?ie ?ici??aie /anoeiie. Iaaaaeaii ua iaeei i?eeeaae, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ?ici??iee aoaeo, yeee iieno?oueny. Aoee aei??yi? oacia? caeaaeiino? yne?aaino? aeey ii?ioe?a Al2O3 ?c na?aaei?ie ?ici??aie /anoeiie: 0.1 iei, 2.1 iei oa 30 iei (?en.2). C?acee aeia?a a?aeni?oiaai? ca ?ici??ai oa iathoue aocueeee ?iciiae?e. Aiie aoee iaaeai? o iaoa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy ?. Iaeueniiii. Aeyaeeiny, ui oaciaa e?eaa aeey o?aeoe?? c ?ici??ii /anoeiie 2.1 iei ia? iaea?eueo e?ooee o?ae. Aeoiaeeoue oae, ui ?nio? aeayeee ?aciiainiee ?ici?? iaiaeii??aeiinoae na?oei?icn?th/i? iiaa?oi?, i?e yeiio aoaeo eiaa?aioiiai i?aeneeaiiy C?N ? iaeneiaeueiei. ?nioaaiiy oaeiai ?aciiainiiai ?ici??o aoei iauiaeaaii caaaa/aia o oai?aoe/i?e ?iaio? [5]. Aoei oaeiae i?iaaaeaii aei??e oeueo?aaeenia?niiai ii?ioeo SiO2 ?c ?ici??aie /anoeiie a?ey 0.01 iei. Eiao?oe??io caeiieaiiy SiO2 aeecueeee aei Al2O3. Oaciaa caeaaei?noue yne?aaino? SiO2 i?iaeiaaeo? ?yae oaciaeo caeaaeiinoae Al2O3: e?eaa SiO2 ua a?eueo iieiaa, i?ae o naiiai ae??aiiaeenia?niiai c ii?ioe?a Al2O3 (?en.2). ?ici??iee aoaeo niinoa??aa?oueny eeoa o ae?aeaeo?e/ieo c?ace?a. Aeey iaoaeaaeo iiaa?oiiue ?ici??ii? caeaaeiino? ciaeaeaii ia aoei. Oeae ?acoeueoao neoaeeoue i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oiai, ui aaaaoi?aciaa ?icn?thaaiiy, yea oi?io? eiaa?aioia i?aeneeaiiy C?N, ia a?ae?a?a? aaaiii? ?ie? i?e oi?ioaaii? iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae ii?ioe?a iai?ici?eo iaoa??ae?a. Aeeeeea? aaeeea caoe?eaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ia oa?aeoa?enoeee C?N u?eueiino? oiaeiaee iiaa?oi?. Oacia? caeaaeiino? yne?aaino? aeey ianeiaiiai, a iio?i noeniooiai neeyiith ieanoeieith, ii?ioeo neea ?c na?aaei?i ?ici??ii /anoeiie aeecueei 10 iei iieacothoue oaeo ea?oeio: i?e yne?aaino? noeniooiai c?acea aeyaey?oueny a?eueo ae?aaeaiei, ? oea iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ca ?aooiie ae??aithaaiiy iiaa?oi? c?acea o?iueiaa neeaaeiaa eiai oaciai? ooieoe?? yne?aaino? iiaeiia aeoaea neaaiooe. Oaeei /eiii, oaanue io?eiaiee aoaeo iiaeia a?aeianoe ia ?aooiie iaoai?cio ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiiai i?aeneeaiiy C?N. I?e?iaeiei iiyniaiiyi oeueiai aoaeoo ? oa, ui i?e noeneaii? ii?ioeo ciaioo?oueny oa?aeoa?ia ?ioa?oa?aioe?eia aaca. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icoe?aiiy i?ea C?N. Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe io?eiai? e i?e aeine?aeaeaii? c?ace?a ?ioeo ae?aeaeo?e/ieo iaoa??ae?a, i?e/iio iaea?eueo? ci?ie niinoa??aathoueny o aeiaaeeo ae??aiiaeenia?nieo o?aeoe?e. Ii?ioee cae?ca (iaa?oue ae??aia o?aeoe?y) caeiiii??ieo ci?i ia?aiao??a oaciai? ooieoe?? yne?aaino? i?ney noeneaiiy iiaa?oi? ia iieacaee. Inoaii? oaeiae aeaco? ia oa, ui i?e oi?ioaaii? oaciaeo caeaaeiinoae ii?ioe?a iaoae?a, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, aaaaoi?aciaa ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea ia ia? aaaiiiai cia/aiiy. Aeey oiai, uia e?euee?nii i?inoaaeeoe o?ainoi?iaoe?th “?ioa?oa?aioe?eiiai” i?ea o “o?iueiaee”, iio??aii i?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?oae na?oeeo oa oaiieo iiaa?oiiue. Aoee iai??yi? c?acee noi?oae e?aeaee oa naae? o i?iii?oe?yo: 1:3, 5:1, 10:1. Aenia?eiaio iieacaa, ui ii??aiyii aocueeee iae?i?eiee nieane yne?aaino? aeey na?oeeo c?ace?a oe?oa? ii i??? iaae?iiy aeueaaaei ? noa? e?i?eiei aeey aeiaaeeo /enoi? naae?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy niaeo?aeueii? caeaaeiino? ia?aiao??a aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? o?nii iia'ycai? c aeine?aeaeaiiyie aieeao aeueaaaei ?icn?thaa/?a. Ni?aaae?, a ??cieo niaeo?aeueieo ae?aiaciiao aeueaaaei iiaa?oi? iiaea aooe ??ciei, ? oiio aoaeo, iia'ycaiee c aa??aoe?yie oa?aeoa?ii? aaee/eie ?ioa?oa?aioe?eii? aace ca ?aooiie (, iiaea neeueii ianeoaaoeny niaeo?aeueiith caeaaei?noth aeueaaaei. Aei??e oaciaeo caeaaeiinoae yne?aaino? c?ace?a /a?aiii? oa neiuei? aeaa?aeueieo oa?a o aeaio niaeo?aeueieo ?ioa?aaeao iieacaee, ui o aeiaaeeo a?eueo aenieiai aeueaaaei (a /a?aiieo i?iiaiyo o /a?aiii? oa?ae oa a aeaeeoieo i?iiaiyo o neiuei? oa?ae) niinoa??aa?oueny a?eueo ae?aaeaiee iiiceoe?eiee nieane yne?aaino?. A?aei?ie oaciaeo caeaaeiinoae yne?aaino? a ??cieo niaeo?aeueieo ae?aiaciiao c?o/ii oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iieacieeii eieuei?o N ((1/(2)=A ((1)/A ((2), aea A (() - aeueaaaei c?acea i?e a?aeiia?aei?e aeiaaeei? oaee? (. Ia oaciaeo caeaaeiinoyo iieacieea eieuei?o N (0.7/0.5 iei) aeey c?ace?a /a?aiii? oa neiuei? aeaa?aeueieo oa?a (aeea. ?en.3) niinoa??aathoueny caeaaeiino?, ui iathoue ??ci? ciaee. Aeey c?acea neiuei? oa?ae ?c ciaioaiiyi oaciaiai eooa a niinoa??aa?oueny niaaeath/a caeaaei?noue, aeey c?acea ae /a?aiii? oa?ae oey caeaaei?noue ? c?inoath/ith. ?en. 3. Oacia? caeaaeiino? iieacieea eieuei?o aeey c?ace?a /a?aiii? oa neiuei? aeaa?aeueieo oa?a. Ianiiae?aaii ??cia iiaaae?iea oaciai? caeaaeiino? iieacieea eieuei?o N (0.7/0.5 iei) aeyaey?oueny aeey ii?ioe?a Al2O3 c ??ciei ?ici??ii /anoeiie: e?oiiica?ienoee c?acie aea? neaaea c?inoaiiy N (0.7/0.5 iei) i?e ciaioaii? (; na?aaeiy ca ?ici??aie /anoeiie o?aeoe?y ia? iaeo?aeueiee o?ae; a ae??aia o?aeoe?y aeyaey? iaaaeeea niaaeaiiy N (0.7/0.5 iei) i?e ni?yiiaoaaii? ( aei ioey. Oaeee ia?ao?ae ocaiaeaeo?oueny c oei, ui ?ici?? /anoeiie aeecueei 1 iei ? ?aciiainiei o i?ioeanao aaaaoi?aciaiai ?icn?thaaiiy [5]. Aei??e “n??eo” iaoae?a (ii?ioe?a cae?ca, i?eaeth oa ?i.) iieacaee, ui o iaaeao iiieeie aei???a oaciaa caeaaei?noue aaee/eie N (0.7/0.5 iei) a?aenooiy. ?? iaia? o aethi?iiaaii? iaoiaaii? iiaa?oi?, oa, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai, aiia iaeaea ia i?inoaaeo?oueny o ii?ioea i?ae?, yeee ia? ?ioaineaiee /a?aiiee eie??, oiaoi ?noioii ??cia aeueaaaei a nei?o oa /a?aiieo i?iiaiyo. Iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oaeoe na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aaaaoi?aciaa ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea ia oi?noeeo iaoaeaaeo iiaa?oiyo (iaa?oue na?oeeo) ia aiineoue iii?oiiai aianeo aei oaciai? ooieoe?? yne?aaino? o ii??aiyii? c iaeii?aciaei ?icn?thaaiiyi. Aeeeeea? caoe?eaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aeayeeo c iienaieo iniaeeainoae iiaiaeaeaiiy oaciaeo ooieoe?e yne?aaino? oa iieacieea eieuei?o c?ace?a o e?i?eii iiey?eciaaiiio na?oe?. Oea, cie?aia, aeiiiiaaa? ioe?ieoe aianee aei ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea o?iueiaiai iaoai?cio oa eiaa?aioiiai i?aeneeaiiy C?N. Aei??e ei- oa e?in-iiey?eciaaieo neeaaeiaeo (?ioaineaiino?, iii??yi? a?aeiia?aeii o ia?aeaeueieo oa no?auaieo iiey?ecaoi?ao) oaciai? ooieoe?? yne?aaino? c?acea MgO iieacaee ianooii? ?ica?aeiino?: ei-iiey?eciaaia neeaaeiaa eaea iii?oii e?oo?oa, ai?ae e?in-iiey?eciaaia. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeueiai aeiaaeeo c?acie naae? aeyaea i?ioeeaaeio iniaeea?noue. O oeueiai c?acea e?in-iiey?eciaaia neeaaeiaa eaea e?oo?oa, i?ae ei-iiey?eciaaia. I?e oeueiio ? o aeiaaeeo c?acea MgO, ? o aeiaaeeo naae? e?in-iiey?eciaaia neeaaeiaa ia? iii?oii iaioo ?ioaineai?noue, ai?ae ei-iiey?eciaaia. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioeo c?ace?a ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oa iaoaeiiiae?aieo (iaoaeaaeo) ii?ioe?a oe?eeii i?aeoaa?aeaeo? a?aecia/aio ??cieoeth o iiaiaeaeaii? e?in- oa ei-iiey?eciaaieo neeaaeiaeo aeey ae?aeaeo?ee?a oa iaoae?a. Oae, ia ?en.4 iaaaaeai? a?aeiioaiiy ii?iiaaieo cia/aiue e?in- oa ei- neeaaeiaeo aeey c?ace?a e?aeaee e cae?ca. ?en. 4. Oacia? caeaaeiino? a?aeiioaiiy e?in- / ei- neeaaeiaeo aeey ii?ioe?a cae?ca oa e?aeaee o /a?aiieo i?iiaiyo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? a?aeiioaiiy e?in-/ei- aeey ii?ioe?a, ye? iathoue ??ciee ?ici?? /anoeiie (iai?., caaaeoaai? ?ai?oa ii?ioee Al2O3) iieacaei, ui c?acie ?c ?ici??ii /anoeiie 2.1 iei ciiao aeyaea naaa ye “?aciiainiee”. A?i ia? iaea?eueo e?ooee oaciaee o?ae a?aeiioaiiy (e?in-/ei-). Ii??aiyiiy oaciaeo caeaaeiinoae a?aeiioaiiy e?in-/ei- aeey c?acea iaeii/aii? naae? aei oa i?ney eiai i?anoaaiiy iieaco?, ui o ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo oaciaa caeaaei?noue a?aeiioaiiy e?in- oa ei-iiey?eciaaieo neeaaeiaeo noa? a?eueo iieiaith. *aoaa?oee ?icae?e “Aoaeo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea o i?e?iaeieo iiaa?oiiue” i?enay/aii iieno oa aiae?co aei???a ?ioaineaiino? ?icn?yiiai na?oea ia iaoa??aeao i?e?iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oae? aei??e aaaeeea?, cie?aia, aeey ?icaeoeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oioiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue caiii? iiaa?oi? oa iiaa?oiiue aacaoiinoa?ieo iaaanieo o?e. Aei??e C?N aeae?eueeio c?ace?a aoeeai?/ieo iiiae?a iieacaee, ui oeiiaee iiiceoe?eiee nieane yne?aaino? o oaeeo iie?ia?a neeaaea? a?ey 20%. Ia oaciaeo e?eaeo iieacieea eieuei?o, ye i?aaeei, niinoa??aa?oueny iiiioiiia c?inoaiiy c? ca?eueoaiiyi (. Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia neacaoe, ui iiiceoe?eiee nieane yne?aaino? iiaa?oi?, iie?eoi? iiiaeii, oeio oeo, ui aoee aei??yi?, aeyaeoueny i?e aeenoaioe?ei?e ceiioe? nenoaiaoe/ii aeua o /a?aiieo i?iiaiyo, i?ae o nei?o. A?aecia/eii, ui o aeiaaeeo ieeneaieo (aea?o?aieo) aoeeai?/ieo iiiae?a oe?eeii yne?aai aeyaey?oueny i?i?ioi ia oacia?e caeaaeiino? iieacieea eieuei?o. O ae?aiacii? oaciaeo eoo?a 0.2 - 3.50 aia?oa aaeaeiny aei??yoe oacia? caeaaeiino? yne?aaino? aeey eenoy ??cieo ?ineei. Aeyaeeany ianooiia caeiiii??i?noue: ye i?aaeei, ieaeiy noi?iia eenoa ia? a?eueo ae?aaeaiee iiiceoe?eiee aoaeo, i?ae aa?oiy. Oeae aoaeo ia? a?eueoo aiie?ooaeo e oe?eio a iaeano? i?ici?ino?, ?icoaoiaaii? i?ae nioaaie aani?aoe?? oei?io?eo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiiceoe?eiiai i?ea ni?ao iieacaei aaeeeo ??ciiiai?oi?noue aeaieo - oacia? caeaaeiino?, ye? aoee io?eiai? iaie, eaeooue nenoaiaoe/ii e?oo?oa, i?ae aeai? iaoo?ieo aei???a. Aeyaeeiny oaeiae, ui a?eueo ae?aaeai? i?ee ia? caa?oaeiaiee ni?a. Inoaii? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui oa?aeoa?enoeee iiiceoe?eiiai aoaeoo iioaioe?eii iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? c iaoith aeenoaioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee i?e?iaeieo ni?aeieo iie?ia?a, yeo iiaeia aeeiioaaoe c ai?oo e?oaea /e noiooiee?a, aeei?enoiaoth/e, iai?eeeaae, oioia?ao?/i? aeai?. Aoei i?iaaaeaii oaeiae iiaeaeuei? aei??e ii?ioe?a - niaeo?aeueieo aiaeia?a iiaa?oiiue aeayeeo iaaanieo o?e. Aei??e iaeaaii?o?a - aiaeia?a ia?n?ainueeiai a?oioo - iieacaee, ui an? aeine?aeaeai? iiaeaeuei? c?acee iathoue i?i?ioi ia oaciaeo e?eaeo iieacieea eieuei?o, ci?uaiee aei iaioeo oaciaeo eoo?a, o ii??aiyii? c oei, ui niinoa??aa?oueny o Ia?na. Oea aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui iiaa?oiy Ia?na a?eueo ae??aiica?ienoa, i?ae aei??yi? c?acee iaeaaii?o?a, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie, io?eiaieie ?ai?oa eini?/ieie aia?aoaie. Aei??e oaciaeo caeaaeiinoae yne?aaino? c?ace?a n??ee o ae?aiacii? 0.2 - 3.50 iieacaee, ui oeae iaoa??ae oe?eeii iiaea aooe aiaeiaii ?a/iaeie iiaa?oi? noiooieea THi?oa?a ?i (ui ?ai?oa i?eioneaeiny ca?aeii c aeaieie niaeo?aeueieo aei???a). Ii??aiyiiy aeaieo aei???a oaciaeo caeaaeiinoae yne?aaino? iiaa?oi? noiooieea THi?oa?a ?a?iie oa c?ace?a neeyieo eoeueie o ae?aiacii? 0.2 - 3.50 aeaei aeayea iaiaaeaiiy ia i?enooi?noue o a?oio? oeueiai o?ea /anoeiie noa?e/ii? oi?ie, ye? iiaee a ooai?thaaoeny o i?ioeanao aiaeyiiai aoeeai?cio. Aei??e oaciaiai oiaeo a?aeiioaiiy e?in-/ei- neeaaeiaeo yne?aaino? o noi?oae e?aeaee oa naae? iieacaee, ui o?ae oe??? caeaaeiino? ci?ith?oueny: ia?a?nii c?inoath/a i?e ciaioaii? a aei 0 (aeey /enoi? naae?), aiia noa? oaoaath/ith, i?e/iio ona a?eueo e?ooith i?e aeiaaaeyii? na?oei? ?a/iaeie. Oaeee aea o?ae iieaco? e na?oeee c?acie 61221 c i?noey iinaaeee eini?/iiai aia?aoo Aiieii-16. Oea iiaeia ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ye na?ae/aiiy ia ei?enoue oiai, ui iiiceoe?eiee aoaeo i?ny/ii? iiaa?oi? o aaeee?e i??? oi?io?oueny ca iaoai?ciii eiaa?aioiiai i?aeneeaiiy C?N. O aeniiaeao ia?ae?/ai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? aoee io?eiai? o oe?e ?iaio?. 1. Aeey aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?ic?iaeaii oa aeaioiaeaii eaai?aoi?iee oioiiao?-iiey?eiao?, i?ecia/aiee aeey aea/aiiy aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea i?e ?icn?thaaii? a?ae iiaa?oiiue neeaaeii? no?oeoo?e o ae?aiacii? a?aie/ii iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a 0.2-3.50. Iniiaiith ia?aaaaith oeueiai i?eeaaeo ? iiaeeea?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aei???a o iaiiey?eciaaiiio na?oe? a ??cieo iaeanoyo niaeo?o. Iaiao?aeii oaeiae a?aecia/eoe, ui i?eeaae iiaea aooe canoiniaaiee ia o?eueee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy eeane/iiai aoaeoo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea, aea e aeey aea/aiiy oae caaiiai iiey?eiao?e/iiai iiiceoe?eiiai aoaeoo (a?ae'?iii? iiey?ecaoe?? na?oea). 2. ?nioaaiiy ?ici??iiai aoaeoo i?e C?N ia ae?aeaeo?e/ieo c?aceao na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui o oaeeo iiaa?oiiue aeii?ioth/o ?ieue a ?icn?thaaii? a?ae?a?a? aoaeo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea. Oeae aeniiaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae ?aciiainiei oa?aeoa?ii ?ici??iiai aoaeoo o “na?oeeo” ae?aeaeo?ee?a. O oie aea /an, a?aenooi?noue caeaaeiino? oi?ie e?eai? C?N a?ae ?ici???a /anoeiie o iaoaeaaeo ii?ioe?a na?ae/eoue ia ei?enoue oiai, ui iniiaiee aianie aei ?icn?thaaiiy iiaa?oiyie, ye? neeaaeathoueny c iai?ici?eo /anoeiie, aea? o?iueiaee aoaeo. 3. C?inoaiiy iiooaeiino? i?ea C?N i?e ni?aniaoaaii? ii?ioe?a ae?aeaeo?e/ieo i?ici?eo iaoa??ae?a oaeiae na?ae/eoue i?i aaeeeee aianie ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiiai i?aeneeaiiy aei C?N oeeie iiaa?oiyie. Aeey iaoaeaaeo ii?ioe?a aiaeia?/iee aoaeo ia niinoa??aa?oueny, ai o?iueiaee aoaeo oaei? caeaaeiino? ia caaaa/a?. 4. Iaiiiioiiia iiaaae?iea oaciai? caeaaeiino? iieacieea eieuei?o C (l1/l2) ?icn?th/i? iiaa?oi? i?e iaeeo oaciaeo eooao na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui eiaa?aioia i?aeneeaiiy ? ?noioiei aeey oe??? iiaa?oi?. O aeiaaeeo eieuei?iaeo iiaa?oiiue (iai?eeeaae, iaeaaii?o?a - niaeo?aeueieo aiaeia?a iiaa?oi? Ia?na) oaea iiaaae?iea e?eai? iieacieea eieuei?o aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui a o?e iaeano? niaeo?a, aea aeueaaaei iiaa?oi? aeua, o C?N i?e iaeeo eooao oace aeii?io? aoaeo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea. O iaeo?aeueieo ca niaeo?ii ii?iooaaoeo na?aaeiaeu iiaea oaeiae niinoa??aaoeny iaiiiioiiiee oaciaee o?ae iieacieea eieuei?o. Iayai?noue oeueiai oiaeo caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici??o /anoeiie na?aaeiaeua oa oe?eie ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo iaiaeii??aeiinoae o oeeo na?aaeiaeuao. 5. Aeueaaaeia caeaaei?noue oaciaiai oiaeo a?aeiioaiiy e?in- oa ei-iiey?eciaaieo neeaaeiaeo na?oeiaiai iioieo, ?icn?yiiai ae?aeaeo?e/ieie iiaa?oiyie, na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi aeueaaaei iiaa?oi? aianie aei iiiceoe?eiiai i?eo iaoai?cio ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiiai i?aeneeaiiy C?N c?inoa?. Ciaeaeaii oaeiae ye?nio a?aei?io o iiaiaeaeaii? a?aeiioaiiy oaciaeo caeaaeiinoae e?in- oa ei-iiey?eciaaieo neeaaeiaeo o iaoae?a oa iaoaeiiiae?aieo iaoa??ae?a a?ae ae?aeaeo?e/ieo: oea a?aeiioaiiy c?inoa? c? ciaioaiiyi oaciaiai eooa, oiae? ye aeey ae?aeaeo?ee?a niinoa??aa?oueny i?ioeeaaeia caeaaei?noue. 6. Aeai? eaai?aoi?ieo aenia?eiaio?a iineoaeeee aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aeaieo, io?eiaieo ?c oaeaneii?/ieo oa iaoo?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue. ?acoeueoaoe aei???a, cie?aia, aeicaieeee c?iaeoe aeaye? aeniiaee noiniaii no?oeoo?e iiaa?oi? aacaoiinoa?ieo iaaanieo o?e. Nienie oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e Oeopaoia TH.A., Aeeiia E.A. Eaaipaoipiua enneaaeiaaiey io?eoeaoaeueiie iiey?ecaoeee naaoa, ?annayiiiai iiaa?oiinoyie ni neiaeiie no?oeoo?ie. Iaeioipua neaaenoaey aeey aacaoiinoa?iuo einie/aneeo oae. 1 // Eeiai. e oeceea iaaan. oae. - 1987. - O. 3, ? 2. - N. 22 - 27. Eaaipaoipiua enneaaeiaaiey io?eoeaoaeueiie iiey?ecaoeee naaoa, ?annayiiiai iiaa?oiinoyie ni neiaeiie no?oeoo?ie. Iaeioipua neaaenoaey aeey aacaoiinoa?iuo einie/aneeo oae. 2. / Oeopaoia TH.A., Aeeiia E.A., Noaieaae/ I.I. e ae?. // Eeiai. e oeceea iaaan. oae. - 1987. - O. 3. ?3. - N. 32 - 37. Hapke B., Nelson R. M., Smith W. The opposition effect of the Moon: the contribution of coherent backscatter // Science. - 1993. - 260. - P. 509-511. Hapke B., Nelson R. M., Smith W. The opposition effect of the Moon: coherent backscatter and shadow hiding // Icarus. - 1998. 133. - P. 89-97. Lagendijk Ad. Can light be localized (Chapter 4) // Current Trend in Optics / Ed. J. C. Dainty. - 1994. Academ. Press. London. - P. 51 - 68. Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue caeiaoaa/a ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? Ecia?aiey ia?aoiiai ?annayiey naaoa iiaa?oiinoyie oeia ieaiaoiuo ?aaieeoia i?e oaciauo oaeao 0,2-3,50 / TH.A. Oeo?aoia, Ae.A. Noaieaae/, A.A. Ia/a?aiei, A.A. Ei?ioei // Ano?iiiie/. Aanoiee. - 1997. - O. 31. - ? 1. - n. 56 - 63. Aiieeooaea iiiiceoeeiiiiai yooaeoa Ia?na ii aeaiiui EA “Oiain-2” / TH.A. Oeo?aoia, Ae.A. Noaieaae/, A.A. Ia/a?aiei e ae?. // Ano?iiiie/. Aanoiee. - 1998. - O. 32. - ? 2. - N. 107 - 115. Aeeaaiinoe/iinoue enneaaeiaaiee iiiiceoeeiiiiai yooaeoa ii einie/aneei ecia?aaeaieyi / TH.A. Oeo?aoia, I.A. E?aneaaneee, A.A. Ia/a?aiei e ae?. // Eini?/ia iaoea ? oaoiieia?y. - 1998. - O. 4, ?3/4. - N. 54 - 59. Oeo?aoia TH.A., Ia/a?aiei A.A., Iiiiceoeeiiiue yooaeo: oai?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue e eaai?aoi?iua ecia?aiey. // Ano?iiiie/. Aanoiee. - 1998. O. 32. - N. 315 - 326. Laboratory Photometry of Surfaces with Complicated Structure at Phase Angles of 0.2 - 3.5 Degrees / A.A. Ovcharenko, Yu.G. Shkuratov, D.G. Stankevich et al. // 22-nd Russian-American Microsymposium on Planetology. Abstracts. Moscow, 1995. P. 74 - 75. Modelling of Europa Opposition Spike A.A. Ovcharenko, Yu.G. Shkuratov, D.G.Stankevich et al. // 24-th Russian-American Microsymposium on Planetology. Abstracts. Moscow, 1996. P. 72 - 73. A.A. Ovcharenko, Yu.G. Shkuratov, Contribution of the Shadow-Hiding and Coherent Backscatter Effect in the Opposition Brightness Surge of the Moon // 28-th Russian-American Microsymposium on Planetology. Abstracts. Moscow, 1998. P. 86. Ia/a?aiei A.I. Aoaeo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea i?e cai?ioiiio ?icn?thaaii? iiaa?oiyie c? neeaaeiith no?oeoo?ith o ae?aiacii? a?aie/ii iaeeo oaciaeo eoo?a. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.05 - “iioeea, eaca?ia o?ceea”. - Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1998. O aeena?oaoe?? ia eaai?aoi?iiio oioiiao??-iiey?eiao?? aeine?aeaeoaaeiny cai?ioia ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea o ae?aiacii? oaciaeo eoo?a 0.2 - 3.50. Aeine?aeaeaii oacia? caeaaeiino? e?eaeo iiiceoe?eiiai aoaeoo yne?aaino? oa nooiaith iiey?ecaoe?? na?oea a?ae: ?ici??o oa oi?ie /anoeiie c?acea, u?eueiino? oiaeiaee /anoeiie, iaoa??aeo c?acea (ae?aeaeo?ee, iaoae), aeueaaaei iiaa?oi?, a oaeiae a?ae aeiaaeeie oaee? na?oea, ui iaaea?. O ae?aeaeo?ee?a, ia a?aei?io a?ae iaoae?a, niinoa??aaeany caeaaei?noue a?ae ?ici???a /anoie. Aeaye? c?acee iieacaee iaiiiioiiio iiaaae?ieo iieacieea eieuei?o. O iiey?eciaaiiio na?oe? aea/aii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aianeaie ??cieo iaoai?ci?a ?icn?thaaiiy a ooai?aiiy iiiceoe?eiiai i?eo a caeaaeiino? a?ae no?oeoo?e oa aeueaaaei c?acea. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoaeo neaaei? eieae?caoe?? na?oea, cai?ioia ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea, eiaa?aioia i?aeneeaiiy cai?ioiiai ?icn?thaaiiy. Ovcharenko A.A. Effect of weak localization of light at backscattering by surfaces with complicated structure at a range of extreme small phase angles. - Manuscript. The thesis as a manuscript is submitted for a candidate’s degree (PhD) in Physics and Mathematics according speciality 01.04.05. - optics and laser physics. Kharkov State University. Kharkov. 1998. In the thesis the backscattering of light in a range of phase angles 0.2-3.50 was investigated using the laboratory photometer-polarimeter. Phase dependences of brightness are investigated for the differenr particles sizes and forms, volume density, samples materials (metal or dielectric), surface albedo and illumination light wavelenght. Dielectrics, as against from metals, shows the dependence of backscattering from particle size. Some samples has nonmonotonic bechavior of color-index with phase angle. The contributions of different mechanisms to backscattering are investigated by the measurements in polarized light with various structures and albedo of the samples. Keywords: effect to weak localization of light, backscattering of light, coherent enhancement of backscattering. Ia/a?aiei A.A. Yooaeo neaaie eieaeecaoeee naaoa i?e ia?aoiii ?annayiee iiaa?oiinoyie ni neiaeiie no?oeoo?ie a aeeaiaciia i?aaeaeueii iaeuo oaciauo oaeia. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.05 - iioeea e eaca?iay oeceea. - Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1998. Yooaeo neaaie eieaeecaoeee aiei (/anoeoe) ecaanoai a ?aciuo iaeanoyo oeceee. Aia?aua eae naiinoiyoaeueiia yaeaiea ii aue iienai a ieaiaoieiaee e iacaai iiiiceoeeiiiui yooaeoii. Caeanue ii i?iyaeyaony a aeaea oaaee/aiey y?einoe iiaa?oiinoe iaaaniiai oaea n oiaiueoaieai oaea oacu i?e eco/aiee oaa?aeuo iiaa?oiinoae iaaaniuo oae. Yooaeo, noiaeiue ii i?e?iaea, enneaaeoaony oaeaea a oeceea oaa?aeiai oaea (aiaea?niiianeay eieaeecaoeey yeaeo?iiia) e a ?aaeeieieaoeee (yooaeo eiaa?aioiiai oneeaiey ia?aoiiai ?annayiey). *anoi a ?aaioao, naycaiiuo n eaai?aoi?iuie ecia?aieyie ia?aoiiai ?annayiey a iioe/aneii aeeaiaciia, yoio yooaeo iacuaatho yooaeoii neaaie eieaeecaoeee naaoa. Niaeanii oai?aoe/aneei iiaeaeyi yoiai yooaeoa oaciaua caaeneiinoe y?einoe niaea?aeao a naaa eioi?iaoeeth i no?oeoo?a e iioe/aneeo iinoiyiiuo aauanoaa, iai?eia?, iiaa?oiinoe iaaaniiai oaea. *oiau iiiyoue, eae eiee/anoaaiii naycaiu ia?aiao?u iiiiceoeeiiiiai yooaeoa n iaeioi?uie oece/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaa?oiinoae neiaeiie no?oeoo?u, iaiaoiaeeiu iiaeaeueiua eaai?aoi?iua yenia?eiaiou. Iaeiaei, ec-ca iaeioi?uo i?eioeeieaeueiuo e oaoie/aneeo o?oaeiinoae, ecia?aiey a iaiiey?eciaaiiii naaoa i?e oaciauo oaeao iaiueoa 10 i?aeoe/anee ia i?iaiaeeeenue. Aeaiiay aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa eeeaeaee?oao yoio i?iaae. Aeey ecia?aiee a iaeanoe oaciauo oaeia 0,2-3,50 nicaeai eaai?aoi?iue oioiiao?-iiey?eiao?, iicaieythuee i?iaiaeeoue ecia?aiey ii?ioeiia?aciuo ia?acoeia eae a iaiiey?eciaaiiii, oae e a iiey?eciaaiiii naaoa a ?acee/iuo niaeo?aeueiuo aeeaiaciiao. Ecia?aiey a iaiiey?eciaaiiii naaoa, i?iaaaeaiiua ia yoii i?eai?a, iieacaee, /oi iaeeiaeiia aic?anoaiea eioaineaiinoe ?annayiiiai naaoa n oiaiueoaieai oaciaiai oaea iaaethaeaaony o aieueoeinoaa enneaaeiaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, i?e/ai, /ai naaoeaa iiaa?oiinoue, oai enneaaeoaiue yooaeo y?/a au?aaeai. Iiaa?oiinoe, ninoiyuea ec aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo /anoeoe, iieacaee ?acia?iue yooaeo - caaeneiinoue aaee/eiu ieea e oi?iu e?eaie eioaineaiinoe ?annayiiiai naaoa io n?aaeiaai ?acia?a /anoeoe ia?acoea. Iaeioi?ua na?ee ecia?aiee aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo ia?acoeia, ioni?oe?iaaiiuo ii ?acia?ai /anoeoe, iieacaee ?aciiainiue oa?aeoa? ?acia?iiai yooaeoa. Ia aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo ia?acoeao iaaethaeaeanue oaeaea caaeneiinoue ia?aoiiai ?annayiey naaoa io ieioiinoe oiaeiaee /anoeoe enneaaeoaiie iiaa?oiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy iiaa?oiinoe, ia?aciaaiiua iaoaeee/aneeie /anoeoeaie, a i?aaeaeao ioeaie ecia?aiee ia iieacaee ie ?acia?iiai yooaeoa, ie aeeyiey ii?enoinoe iiaa?oiinoe ia oi?io e?eaie oaciaie caaeneiinoe y?einoe, /oi oeeaaeuaaaony a ?aiee iaoaiecia eioa?oa?aioeeiiiiai oneeaiey ia?aoiiai ?annayiey. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo oi?ia /anoeoe ?annaeaathuae n?aaeu neeueii aeeyao ia oi?io oaciaie caaeneiinoe y?einoe iiaa?oiinoe. Iai?eia?, neeueiue iee iaaethaeaaony o i?ic?a/iuo oa?eeia ai?ineeeeaoiiai noaeea, /oi naycaii n yooaeoii aei?ee. Aeeyiea aeeeiu aieiu iaaeathuaai naaoa ia aaee/eio iiiiceoeeiiiiai yooaeoa y?einoe enneaaeiaaeinue ia ie?aoaiiuo iiaa?oiinoyo. Niaeo?aeueiay caaeneiinoue ia?aoiiai ?annayiey a yoii neo/aa oanii naycaia n aeueaaaeiie caaeneiinoueth. Ia iaeioi?uo ia?acoeao, a /anoiinoe, ia niaeo?aeueiuo aiaeiaao a?oioa Ia?na, iaia?oaeai eiei?eiao?e/aneee iiiiceoeeiiiue yooaeo - iaiiiioiiiay oaciaay caaeneiinoue iieacaoaey oeaaoa. A oi aea a?aiy, ecia?aiey ia?aoiiai ?anayiey io iaie?aoaiiuo ia?acoeia a ?acee/iuo o/anoeao niaeo?a iicaieeee noaeeoue i aeeyiee ia oe?eio e aiieeooaeo ieea neaaie eieaeecaoeee naaoa eioa?oa?aioeeiiiiai ioiioaiey d/(, aaea d - oa?aeoa?iuo ?acia? aeeooocee naaoa a n?aaea. Ecia?aiey a iiey?eciaaiiii naaoa iicaieeee ioeaieoue aaee/eio aeeaaea yooaeoa neaaie eieaeecaoeee naaoa a ia?aoiia ?annayiea. Ieacaeinue, /oi eioa?oa?aioeeiiiue iaoaieci oneeaiey ia?aoiiai ?annayiey i?iyaeyaony, a iniiaiii, oieueei a ei-iiey?eciaaiiie ninoaaeythuae ?annayiiiai eceo/aiey. E?inn-iiey?eciaaiiay ninoaaeythuay iieacuaaao, eae i?aaeei, eeiaeioth oaciaoth caaeneiinoue. Iaia?oaeaia aeueaaaeiay caaeneiinoue oaciaiai oiaea ioiioaiey e?inn- e ei-iiey?eciaaiiuo ninoaaeythueo naaoiaiai iioiea, ?annayiiiai aeeyeaeo?e/aneeie iiaa?oiinoyie. ?acoeueoaou, iieo/aiiua a oiaea eaai?aoi?iuo enneaaeiaaiee iaoaieciia oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aoiiai ?annayiey naaoa, aeatho aiciiaeiinoue aaeaeaaoii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue iaaethaeaaiua oaciaua caaeneiinoe y?einoe e ecia?aaeaiey iiaa?oiinoae aacaoiinoa?iuo iaaaniuo oae, iieo/aiiua i?e eo enneaaeiaaiee einie/aneeie aiia?aoaie i?e iaeuo oaciauo oaeao. E?iia oiai, yoe ?acoeueoaou iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey i?iaa?ee e ioai?a oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeaeae oi?ie?iaaiey oioiiao?e/aneie ooieoeee iiaa?oiinoae ni neiaeiie no?oeoo?ie. Eeth/aaua neiaa: yooaeo neaaie eieaeecaoeee naaoa, ia?aoiia ?annayiea naaoa, eiaa?aioiia oneeaiea ia?aoiiai ?annayiey. PAGE

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