IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO I?IAEAI IAOEIIAOAeOAAIIss

?iai? A. I. I?AeAI?IIAI

Aa?iao Iaoae?y A?eai??aia

OAeE 539.3

AeAIAEI??IEE NE?I*AIIIAEAIAIOIEE AIAE?C EIIOAEOIEO CAAeA* ?C
A?AOOAAIIssI OAIEIIAI?IO

01.02.04 ( iaoai?ea aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a(1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? a?a?aoe?eieo oa oa?iii?oei?nieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?i. A.I. I?aeai?iiai
IAI Oe?a?ie (?IIao IAI Oe?a?ie)

Iaoeia? ea??aieee ( aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie,

I?aeai?iee Aiaoie?e Ieeieaeiae/, aee?aeoi?

?inoeoooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Aiioa?ianueeee Iaaei Iao?iae/,

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy

?i. A.I. I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe ( aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nei?eii Ieeiea Na?a?eiae/,

Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oaoiieia?? oa

i?aai?caoe?? oa?/oaaiiy, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith aeui? iaoaiaoeee;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Oaa?i Aaiiaae?e Eueaiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy oa

iaoaei??caeueieo aa?noao?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa ( ?inoeooo i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie,
a?aeae?e iaoaiaoe/iiai

iiaeaethaaiiy ? aiae?oe/iiai aiae?co ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ iaoai?ee

aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 30 “ aa?aciy 2000 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.180.01 a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?i. A. I. I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

61046, Oa?e?a-46, aoe. Aei. Iiaea?nueeiai, 2/10.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?i. A. I. I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 61046,
Oa?e?a, aoe. Aei. Iiaea?nueeiai, 2/10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 25 “ ethoiai 2000 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe A. I. Caeoeaa

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. C ?icaeoeii oaoi?ee i?aeaeuothoueny aeiiae aei
iaae?eiino? eiino?oeoe?e, ui i?iaeoothoueny. A ca’yceo c oeei c?inoa?
cia/aiiy i?aaeeueii? ioe?iee ?o oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio. Ine?eueee o
a?eueoino? iaoai?ci?a ia?aaea/a coneeue i?ae aeaoaeyie cae?enith?oueny
ca aeiiiiiaith eiioaeoo, a ?o oaiia?aoo?a ? i?oei?noue aecia/a?oueny
oa?aeoa?ii ?iciiae?eo eiioaeoiiai oeneo, noa? aeooaeueiith iiaoaeiaa
ooi/iaieo iiaeaeae ? iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo eiino?oeoe?e a oa?iieiioaeoi?e
iinoaiiaoe?.

Na?aae ??ciiiai?oieo iinoaiiaie oa ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaea/
aca?iiae??, oa?iieiioaeoi? caaea/? ? iaeieie c iaea?eueo neeaaeieo ?
iaeiaio aea/aieo, a oiio i/aaeaeia iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo
iaoiae?a ?o ?ica’ycaiiy. Aieiaia neeaaei?noue ?ic?aooie?a iieyaa? a
oiio, ui oaiia?aoo?ia caaea/a ca’ycaia c caaea/ath iaoai?ee /a?ac
nii/aoeo iaa?aeii? oiiae eiioaeoo, ine?eueee iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee
noai (IAeN) aeaoaeae ? oa?aeoa? ?o aca?iiae?? caeaaeaoue a?ae ?iciiae?eo
oaiia?aoo?, a oaiia?aoo?ia iiea, a naith /a?ao, aecia/a?oueny oiiaaie
eiioaeoo. Aeiaeaoeia? o?oaeiiu? aiinyoue o?ce/ia ? aaiiao?e/ia
iae?i?ei?noue, a oaeiae ianoaoe?iia?i?noue eiioaeoieo caaea/ ?c ci?iieie
iaeanoyie eiioaeoo e i?ineiacoaaiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo
aeaiaei??ieo eiioaeoieo caaea/ ?c a?aooaaiiyi oaieiiai?io i?ae
ni?aaeioe/ieie iiaa?oiyie. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae aaco?oueny ia
canoinoaaii? iiai? iiaeae? eiioaeoiiai oa?o, yea aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe
aieea oa?i?/ii? i?ia?aeiino? eiioaeoo, eiioaeoiiai oeneo oa /enoioe
ia?iaee iiaa?oi? (aenioe i?e?iia??aiinoae) ia oa?aeoa? oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai
noaio eiino?oeoe?e i?e ?ica’ycaii? caaea/ ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo
ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a (INA). ?ic?iaeaiee i?aeo?ae aeei?enoaiee aeey
aiae?co iai?oaeaiiai noaio ?yaeo oaoi?/ieo c’?aeiaiue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioo aeeiiaii
o a?aeae?e? a?a?aoe?eieo oa oa?iii?oeiinieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?IIao
?i. A. I. I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie a 1994-1999 ?.?. o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
aea?aeaaieie oaiaie: ?119 «?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae ?
ia/enethaaeueieo cania?a aiae?co aeeiai?/ii? ? o?eaaei? i?oeiino?
aia?aiiaoeiiaoae?aieo eiino?oeoe?e», ?207 «?ic?iaea ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
iniia ? eiiieaeno i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai caaacia/aiiy noaoe/ii? ?
aeeiai?/ii? i?oeiino?, iioeiaeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy, aeiaaia?/iino? ?
ae?aaiinoeee caeeoeiaiai ?ano?no aia?aiiaoei c a?aooaaiiyi ii/aoeiaeo ?
i?eaeaaieo aeaoaeo?a» oa iiooeiaith oaiith «Eiiieaenia ioe?iea ?ano?no
aeaiaio?a iaoei i?e aoii?».

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe yaey?oueny noai?aiiy aoaeoeaiiai iaoiaeo
ne?i/aiiiaeaiaioiiai aiae?co aeaiaei??ieo eiioaeoieo caaea/ ?c
a?aooaaiiyi oaieiiai?io i?ae iiaa?oiyie, ui aca?iiae?thoue, ?ic?iaea
i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy, a oaeiae ?ica’ycaiiy ?yaeo aaaeeeaeo aeey
?iaeaia?ii? i?aeoeee caaea/ uiaei aecia/aiiy oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio
eiino?oeoe?e.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/athoue a naaa ?ic?iaeo iiaeae?
oa?iieiioaeoiiai oa?o, ui aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe ?aaeuei? oiiae
aca?iiae?? o?e; io?eiaiiy iniiaieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue aeey oa?iieiioaeoiiai
ne?i/aiiiai aeaiaioo; iaea?aeaiiy nenoaie ?ica’ycoth/eo ??aiyiue INA
aeey ?ic?aooieo aeaiaei??ieo caaea/ oaieii?ia?aeiino? ? iaoai?ee i?e
iayaiino? eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? i?ae aeaiaioaie; aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?o oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio ieineeo ? inaneiao?e/ieo eiino?oeoe?e
ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo; ?ic?iaeo iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo IAeN
aeaoaeae ? aoce?a oeee?iae?iii?oiaai? a?oie aeaeaoia aioo??oiueiai
cai?yiiy ? aeaiaio?a ?ioi??a ia?iaeo oo?a?i a iiaeo ooi/iaieo
iinoaiiaeao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a caeeth/a?oueny o ianooiiiio:

cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue iiaiai “oa?iieiioaeoiiai” iaeiiaei??iiai
ne?i/aiiiai aeaiaioo, yeee caeaoiee iiaeaethaaoe ?aaeuei? oiiae ?
iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? o?e ?c a?aooaaiiyi oaieiiai?io i?ae
ni?aaeioe/ieie iiaa?oiyie;

ia iniia? INA ?ic?iaeaii iiao iaoiaeeeo ?ica’ycaiiy oa?iieiioaeoieo
caaea/ o ieineeo ? inaneiao?e/ieo iinoaiiaeao;

io?eiai? iia? /enaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeey a?aeiieo a e?oa?aoo??
eiioaeoieo caaea/ a ooi/iaieo iinoaiiaeao c a?aooaaiiyi oaieiiai?io i?ae
aeioe/ieie iiaa?oiyie;

ia iniia? noi?ioeueiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo ?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? oa iaoiaeeee
?ic?aooieo IAeN o iiaeo ooi/iaieo iinoaiiaeao eiino?oeoeaieo aoce?a
oeee?iae?iii?oiaai? a?oie aeaeaoia aioo??oiueiai cai?yiiy, caieiaeo
c’?aeiaiue oa ?ioeo eiino?oeoe?e;

i?iaaaeaii /enaeueiee aiae?c iai?oaeaiiai noaio ?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e a
oiiaao oa?iieiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? ?o aeaiaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea, i?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
IAeN eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a iaoei iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
iaea?aeaiiy aaeaeaaoii? ioe?iee oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio oaoiieia?/ieo
c’?aeiaiue, a oaeiae i?e i?iaeooaaii? ??ciiiai?oieo eiino?oeoe?e, ui
i?aeeyaathoue aieeao noaoe?iia?ieo ? ianoaoe?iia?ieo oaieiaeo iie?a.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoee aeei?enoai? ia caaiae? o?ainii?oiiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?i. Iaeeoaaa i?e aeiaiaeoe? iiai? iiaeae? aeaioaeoiiai
aeecaey.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a, oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue oa i?aeoe/ieo
aeniiae?a, c?iaeaieo a ?iaio?, caaacia/o?oueny ei?aeoi?noth iinoaiiaee
caaea/?, no?ia?noth iaoaiaoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, aiae?cii /enaeueii?
ca?aeiino? ??oaiue, i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny caaeia?eueiith a?aeiia?aei?noth
?acoeueoao?a a?aeiiei a e?oa?aoo?? /enaeueiei ? aiae?oe/iei

?ica’yceai, a oaeiae ?o i?aeoe/iei ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, c
ieo 3 noaoo? ? 3 oace aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo [1-6].

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? «oa?iieiioaeoiiai»
ne?i/aiiiai aeaiaioo, iaoiaeeee, aeai?eoio oa i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy
aeey ?ica’ycaiiy oa?iieiioaeoieo caaea/ o ieineeo oa inaneiao?e/ieo
iinoaiiaeao [3, 4, 5]. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii oi/i?noue
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a [1]. Cai?iiiiiaaii iia? ?ic?aooieia? noaie,
i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio ?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e
[2, 6].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
?acoeueoaoe, ?icaeyioo? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oaeineiiaeaiiy
oo?aionoaiiaie iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/iiai ? o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy”
(Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.), ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu iaoeiiaaaeaiey» (Aiiaeue, 1996 a.), ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee”
(Oa?e?a, 1999 ?.).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c
203 iaeiaioaaiue ? aeiaeaoea. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe neeaaea? 163
noi??iee ? i?noeoue 129 noi??iie oaenoo, 51 iaethiie, 22 oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oa aaaeeea?noue aea?aiiai
iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue, eiai i?aeoe/ia ? iaoeiaa oe?ii?noue,
oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa oa aecia/athoueny caaea/? ?iaioe, a oaeiae noenei
aeeeaaeathoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii iaeyae ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo ??ciiiai?oiei
iaoiaeai ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ ?c a?aooaaiiyi eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? i?ae
aeaiaioaie eiino?oeoe?e.

?noi?e/ii ia?oeie a oai??? eiioaeoieo caaea/ aoee aeine?aeaeaiiy
A. Aa?oea, yeee iaea?aeaa ?iciiae?e i?noeaaeo iai?oaeaiue a iaeano?
eieaeueiiai eiioaeoo i?oaei?o o?e. Aaaiiee aianie a ?icaeoie iaoiae?a
?ica’yceo caaea/ eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? c?iaeee ?iaioe A. I. Aa?aiiaa,
A. I. Aeaenaiae?iaa, Ae. Aa?aa?a, E. I. Aae?ia, Ae. Aeaaeoaeea,
Ae. A??iaoaea, I. Aoaa?a, Ae. Aeaoo?, E. Aeaeiiniia, Ae. Eaeea?a,
A. ss. Eaioi?a, ?. Ae. I?iaee?ia, N. A. I?oe?ia, I. ?. Iono?e?oa?e?,
A. ss. Iiiiaa, A. N. I?ioeaiei, A. E. ?aa/iaa, I. N. Nei?eiia,
Ae. ?. Oa?iaia, ?. ss. Ooa??iaia oa ?ioeo a/aieo.

Na?aae iaoiae?a /enaeueiiai aiae?co iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo ?
oi?aa?naeueieo yaey?oueny INA, yeee, caaaeyee nai?e aeai?eoi?/iino? ?
aio/eino? i?e iienaii? aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaeano?, iiaea aooe canoiniaaiee
aeey ?ic?aooieo eiino?oeoe?e i?aeoe/ii ethai? neeaaeiino?.

A?aeii? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo eiioaeoieo caaea/ ca aeiiiiiaith INA iiaeia
iiae?eeoe ia e?eueea iai?yie?a. Iaea?eueo i?inoee c aeai?eoi?/ii? oi/ee
ci?o niin?a, ui aaco?oueny ia ia/eneaii? eiao?oe??io?a aca?iiiai aieeao
oi/ie aca?iiae?th/eo o?e o ii?iaeueiiio oa aeioe/iiio iai?yieao. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae aeei?enoiaoaaany o ?iaioao A. A. Aeoa?aeciia,
N. A. Oiainueeiai, A. Ia?niina, A. A?eueniia.

?nio? a?oia iaoiae?a ?ica’caiiy eiioaeoii? caaea/? INA, iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy yei? a?oioothoueny ia oiio, ui oiiae aca?iiae?? o?e
iiaeaeththoueny ca aeiiiiiaith ni?aa?aeiioaiue o?ce/ii iae?i?eieo caaea/
iaoai?ee oaa?aeiai o?ea, oiaoi iaoai?ea eiioaeoo ?icaeyaea?oueny ii
aiaeia?? c o?ce/iith iae?i?ei?noth iaoa??aeo. Ia?oeie ?iaioaie a oe?e
iaeano? aoee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?. Ieoaeeianueeiai, C. I?ica,
A. O??ae??eniia.

Iniaeeaa i?noea caeiathoue iaoiaee, ye? aeey ia’?aeiaiiy eiioaeooth/eo
o?e a iaeio nenoaio aeei?enoiaothoue niaoe?aeuei? aeaiaioe, ui ?ici?uai?
i?ae ?o aoceaie o iaaeao eiioaeoo. ?aeay canoinoaaiiy aeaiaio?a
iniaeeaiai oeio iaeaaeeoue ?. Aoaeiaio, ?. Oaeei?o oa O. A?aeeaoo ?
?icaeaaeanue aeae? A. No?oaa?ii, A. I. Iaooiaei, I. I. Aiioa?ianueeei,
I. A. Iaeauaieii oa ?i.

A?eueo?noue aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e a i?ioean? ?iaioe, eiioaeooth/e i?ae
niaith, i?aeeyaathoue ae?? ianoaoe?iia?ieo oaieiaeo ? neeiaeo iie?a.
I?e/iio ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo? nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae ciie eiioaeoo ?
eiioaeoiiai oeneo, a IAeN ? oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?? aecia/athoueny
oaiia?aoo?iei iieai. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo naia oa?iieiioaeoia iinoaiiaea
caaea/? iiaea ei?aeoii a?aeia?aceoe ?aaeuei? oiiae aca?iiae??.

Iaeieie c ia?oeo a iaeano? oaiia?aoo?ieo eiioaeoieo caaea/ aoee ?iaioe
I. I. Ai?iaea/iaa, I. A. Ei?ia/einueeiai, Ae. A. A?ee?oeueeiai
A. I. Naa?ia. Cia/ia eiei caaea/ o oa?iieiioaeoi?e iinoaiiaoe?
?icaeyiooi o i?aoeyo A. A. Aaa?on?aa, A. A. Oaeanoianueeiai,
ss. N. Ooeyiaea, I. I. E?a?ae?aa, A. I. I?aeai?iiai,
I. I. Aiioa?ianueeiai oa ?i. O a?eueoino? ioae?eaoe?e oaieiaee eiioaeo
aaaaeaany ?aeaaeueiei. A. ?. Aaeoaoae aaiaeeoue eiao?oe??io eiioaeoii?
oa?i?/ii? aca?iiae??, ui ci?ith?oueny a?ae ioey (?aeaaeueia
oaiei?cieyoe?y) aei iaeeieoe? (?aeaaeueia oaieii?ia?aei?noue). Ia iniia?
aiae?co aaaaoueio aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a TH. I. Oeeeia,
A. A. Aai?i ? N. I. Oea?aanueeee aeey oa?i?/ii? i?ia?aeiino? eiioaeoo
iaea?aeaee caeaaei?noue, yea aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe an? iaeaaaeeea?o?
oaeoi?e aca?iiae?? (eiioaeoiee oene, oi?noe?noue eiioaeooth/eo
iiaa?oiiue, oaieii?ia?aei?noue na?aaeiaeua a cii? eiioaeoo, i?oei?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aca?iiae?th/eo iaoa??ae?a). Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy,
cai?iiiiiaaia ieie, aeei?enoaia a aeai?e ?iaio?.

Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae iieacaa, ui i?iaeaia ?ica’yceo caaea/ o
oa?iieiioaeoi?e iinoaiiaoe? yaey?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiith. ?ic?iaea
iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, iiooe aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a /enaeueiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy oa?iiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a ?c a?aooaaiiyi eiioaeoieo yaeu ?
aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi. O ca’yceo c oeei oi?ioeththoueny aeooaeuei?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue o aeai?e iaeano? ? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea??
iaoiaeeee ?o ?ica’ycaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii iniaeeaino? iinoaiiaee aeaiaei??ii?
ianoaoe?iia?ii? iae?i?eii? oa?iieiioaeoii? caaea/? a aeaea?oia?e nenoai?
eii?aeeiao roz aeey aca?iiae?th/eo i?ae niaith i?oaei?o /e
i?oaeiueiieanoe/ieo o?e, ui ?ica’yco?oueny iaoiaeii e?ie?a ca /anii,
iniiai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey oa?iieiioaeoiiai ne?i/aiiiai aeaiaioo, a
oaeiae iniaeeaino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy nenoaiith ?ica’ycoth/eo ??aiyiue INA.

Iaeanoue S, yeo caeiathoue o?ea, i?aaenoaaeaia ia’?aeiaiiyi
i?aeiaeanoae, /anoeia c yeeo iieno?oueny ooieoe?iiaeii inaneiao?e/ii?, a
/anoeia ( ooieoe?iiaeii ieinei? caaea/? a ?aieao ieineiai iai?oaeaiiai
noaio /e ieinei? aeaoi?iaoe??. Ia eiioo?? i?eioneathoueny a?aeiieie
a?aie/i? oiiae oaieiiai?io, a oaeiae eiiiiiaioe ia?ai?uaiue /e
iai?oaeaiue, aai ae oi?ioeththoueny ci?oai? a?aie/i? oiiae, ye? c /anii
iiaeooue ci?ithaaoeny. I?e ?ica’ycaii? caaea/? a?aoiaothoueny ia’?ii?
aeaea?aea oaiea, ia’?ii? neee a?ae iaa?oaiiy eiino?oeoe?? iaaeiei in? z
c oaeaee?noth ((t), ?ia?oe?ei? neee, aeeeeeai? inueiaei i?enei?aiiyi
w(t) oa aeaoi?iaoe??, aeeeeeai? ci?iith oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey T(t,r,z) (
T(0,r,z).

Eiaeia i?aeiaeanoue i?aaenoaaey? niaith /ioe?eeooiee c i?yiie?i?eieie
/e e?eaie?i?eieie noi?iiaie, ye? aaoiiaoeciaaii aeene?aoecothoueny ia
ne?i/aii? aeaiaioe, ia? nai? aeanoeaino? iaoa??aeo (?cio?iii? /e
ai?cio?iii?), ui iiaeooue caeaaeaoe a?ae oaiia?aoo?e. Ciie iiaeeeai?
eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? i?aaenoaaeythoueny iaeiiaei??ieie oa?iieiioaeoieie
aeaiaioaie ioeueiai? oiaueie. Iiaa?oith eiioaeoo aecia/a? aaiiao??y
aca?iiae?th/eo i?aeiaeanoae, a oaeiae ii/aoeiaee caci? /e iaoya i?ae
ieie. Eiioaeo i?ae aeaiaioaie cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
“eiioaeoiiai oa?o”, i?e/iio aca?iiae?y a?aeaoaa?oueny aocae o aocae,
iaeeaaeath/e iaiaaeaiiy ia ci?uaiiy eiioaeooth/eo o?e ii aeioe/i?e
acaeiaae ia?eae?aio iiaa?oi? eiioaeoo.

Oa?iiii?? ? oiiae oaieiiai?io a oa?iieiioaeoiiio aeaiaio? ca’ycai? c
??oaiiyi caaea/? iaoai?ee, oiaoi aecia/athoueny iayai?noth /e
a?aenooi?noth eiioaeoo, ? caeaaeaoue a?ae eiioaeoiiai oeneo. Iniaeeaith
?enith aeaiaioo ? eiai caeaoi?noue, i?e iayaiino? oa?oy,
“a?aene?aeaeoaaoe” ?noi??th iaaaioaaeaiiy, oiaoi iiiaio (e?ie ca /anii)
anooio oi/ee a eiioaeo ? iai?yiie ?? i?ineiacoaaiiy, a oaeiae
a?aoiaoaaoe oaieiaeae?eaiiy ca ?aooiie nee oa?oy.

Ii/aoeia? oiiae aecia/athoueny iino?eiei /e ci?iiei oaiia?aoo?iei
iieai, yea iiaea aooe caaeaia aai ae iaea?aeaia a ?acoeueoao? ?ica’yceo
noaoe?iia?ii? caaea/? oaieii?ia?aeiino? c caaeaieie a ii/aoeiaee iiiaio
/ano a?aie/ieie oiiaaie, a oaeiae i???ioiaiei ?iciiae?eii eiioaeoiiai
oeneo o ii/aoeia?e cii? eiioaeoo, ui aecia/a? oaieiia?aaea/o i?ae o?eaie
oa ooi/ith?oueny i?e ?ica‘ycaii? caaea/?.

A?aie/i? oiiae oaieiiai?io caaeathoueny ii ae?eyieai aeey aeae?eueeio
i?ae?yae ?icoaoiaaieo aeaiaio?a ? iiaeooue ci?ithaaoeny c /anii. I?e/iio
ia aeayeeo c ieo iiaea aooe caaeaiee oaieiaee iio?e /e oaiei?cieyoe?y
(a?aie/i? oiiae ae?oaiai ?iaeo), ia ?ioeo ( oaiia?aoo?a na?aaeiaeua ?
eiao?oe??io oaieiiai?io (a?aie/i? oiiae o?aoueiai ?iaeo), a oaeiae
oaieiiai?i aei?ii?iaiiyi ii caeiio Noaoaia-Aieueoeiaia. I?ae ni?eueieie
iaaeaie i?aeiaeanoae, aea eiioaeoia aca?iiae?y a?aenooiy, aea iiaeeeaa
?? iiyaa, caaeathoueny oiiae ae?oaiai /e o?aoueiai ?iaeo, ye? aoiaeyoue
o aeanoeaino? eiioaeoiiai oa?o. Oaieiiai?i i?ae o?eaie aecia/a?oueny
eiioaeoiei oa?i?/iei iii?ii, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioaeoiiai oeneo ii
e?i?eiiio caeiio, /e iaea?aeo?oueny ca iaoiaeeeith, aeeeaaeaiith a
?iaio? TH. I. Oeeeiaa, A. A. Aai?ia ? N. I. Oea?aanueeiai. I?iaaaeaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? cia/aiiy eiioaeoii? oaieii?ia?aeiino? ?
ia?aiaaeo oaiia?aoo? ia aca?iiae?th/eo iiaa?oiyo a?ae aaee/eie
iaaaioaaeaiiy, aenioe i?e?ioi?noeino? oa oaieii?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua.

Iaoai?/ia aca?iiae?y iiaa?oiiue, ui eiioaeoothoue, aecia/a?oueny
aaee/eiith ?o aca?iiiai i?iieeaiiy. O iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? eiioaeoiiai
oa?o aaiaeeoueny eiioaeoia aei?noe?noue Cn, aaee/eia yei? ia e?eueea
ii?yaee?a aeua, i?ae aei?noe?noue aaciaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a.
Eiioaeoi? iai?oaeaiiy iaea?aeothoueny ca ae?acii:

,

, (n ( ii/aoeiaee caci? /e iaoya (i?e (n<0) i?ae ieie. aei iiaa?oi? eiioaeoo. Aeioe/i? iai?oaeaiiy aecia/athoueny ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi: , iio?i ia?aa??y?oueny oiiaa i?ineiacoaaiiy , i?e aeeiiaii? yei?, aeioe/i? iai?oaeaiiy aecia/athoueny ca oi?ioeith: . Ia i?ioyc? e?eueeio ?oa?aoe?e ??oaiiy ooi/ith?oueny ca ?aooiie anoaiiaeaiiy cii eiioaeoo ? i?ineiacoaaiiy, aecia/aiiy eiioaeoieo ii?iaeueieo ? aeioe/ieo iai?oaeaiue, eiioaeoii? oa?iii?ia?aeiino?. A caaea/? iaoai?ee a?aoiaothoueny i?oaei?, oaiia?aoo?i?, ieanoe/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? aeaoi?iaoe?? iiaco/ino?. O?ce/iee caeii iieno?oueny oai???th ?cio?iiii? /e ai?cio?iiii? i?oaeiino?, oai???th ieanoe/iino? oeio oa/?? c ?cio?iiiei ci?oeiaiiyi ? oai???th ai?cio?iiii? iiaco/ino? c ai?cio?iiiei ci?oeiaiiyi. Ca’ycie i?ae ia?ai?uaiiyie ? aeaoi?iaoe?yie iieno?oueny caeaaeiinoyie Eio?. Aeey ??oaiiy caaea/? iaoai?ee INA aeey aeaiaei??ieo i?aeiaeanoae a e?ioe? iioi/iiai e?ieo aeei?enoiao?oueny e?iaa?eciaaia ??aiyiiy Eaa?aiaea a ?ie?aiaioaeuei?e oi?i?: ( eiiiiiaioe iiaiiai oaici?a iai?oaeaiue ? oaici?a i?e?inoo iai?oaeaiue, acyo? o iai?yieo aeaoi?iiaaieo eii?aeeiao ? a?aeianai? aei ?ici???a ia’?iiiai aeaiaioo aei aeaoi?iaoe??, F, (F ( eiiiiiaioe ia’?iiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy o ci?iaiiio noai? ? i?e?inoo oeueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, P, (P ( a?aeiia?aeii eiiiiiaioe iiaa?oiaaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Ii/aoeiai-e?aeiaa ca’ycaia caaea/a oa?iiiaoai?ee ae??oo?oueny iaoiaeii e?ie?a ca /anii. I?e ?ioaa?oaaii? caaea/? oaieii?ia?aeiino? aeei?enoiao?oueny iayaia no?eea noaia E?aiea-I?eieniia: . Ianoaoe?iia?ia iae?i?eia caaea/a oaieii?ia?aeiino? aeey aeaiaei??ieo iaeanoae iieno?oueny aeey iioi/iiai iiiaioo /ano ca aeiiiiiaith ooieoe?iiaeo aea T ( oaiia?aoo?a, Kr , Kz , Krz ( eiao?oe??ioe oaieii?ia?aeiino?, Q ( ?ioaineai?noue aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae oaiea, ((S(), T((S() ( eiao?oe??io oaieiiai?io ? oaiia?aoo?a na?aaeiaeua, ((c( oaiei?ii?noue iaoa??aeo, q( ?ioaineai?noue oaieiaiai iioieo, (, T( ( eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? ? oaiia?aoo?a na?aaeiaeua ia iaae?, n((, Tu( eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? /a?ac aei?ii?iaiiy ? oaiia?aoo?a aeaea?aea aei?ii?iaiiy, (q(t), (Q(t), (((t), (T(t), (((t), (u(t) ( oi?aaeyth/? ooieoe??, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae /ano, ? caaeathoueny ia i?aeiaeanoyo aeey ci?ie a?aie/ieo oiia, S( ( i?aeiaeano? c ??cieo iaoa??ae?a, (e ( eiioaeoi? iai?oaeaiiy a iaeano? eiioaeoo Le. Aeey eiioaeoiiai aeaiaioo aeei?enoiao?oueny ooieoe?iiae: , i=1,2 aea Kn ( aaee/eia eiioaeoii? oaieii?ia?aeiino? oa?o, Q=(nvfo? ( ?ioaineai?noue aioo??oiueiai aeaea?aea oaiea, ui aeieea? ca ?aooiie oaeaeeino? v a?aeiiniiai i?ineiacoaaiiy eiioaeoieo iiaa?oiiue i?e oa?o?, q, T, ( ( caaeaiee oaieiaee iio?e, oaiia?aoo?a na?aaeiaeua ? eiao?oe??io oaieiiai?io, r0 ( a?aenoaiue a?ae oi/ee eiioaeoo aei in? z aeey inaneiao?e/ii? caaea/?, aeey ieinei? ( oiaueia i?aeiaeano?. Iao?eoe? eiioaeoiiai aeaiaioo iaea?aeothoueny c oiiae ??aiino? ioeth aa??aoe?? ooieoe?iiaeo. ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo? aeey iaio o?e i?aaenoaaey?oueny , aea Til ( aoceia? cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e, (i(() ( eii?aeeiaoi? ooieoe??. ?c a?aooaaiiyi oeeo ni?aa?aeiioaiue iaea?aeaii nenoaio ??aiyiue caaea/? oaieii?ia?aeiino? aeey oa?iieiioaeoiiai ne?i/aiiiai aeaiaioo. ?ioaa?aee ia/eneththoueny /enaeueii ca aeiiiiiaith aeaiooi/eiaeo eaaae?aoo? Aaonna. I?e ??oaii? caaea/? iaoai?ee aaiaeeoueny aa??aoe?y aia?a?? aeaoi?ioaaiiy eiioaeoiiai oa?o aea ae?oaee aeiaeaiie a?aeiia?aea? a?aenooiino? i?ineiacoaaiiy a cii? eiioaeoo: . I?e iayaiino? nee oa?oy, cai?noue iueiai aaiaeeoueny ?iaioa oeeo nee: . Ia?ai?uaiiy a i?noeaa?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao aecia/athoueny /a?ac ia?ai?uaiiy a aeiaaeuei?e ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie: , aea ( ( eoo i?ae a?nnth z ? aeioe/iith aei ia?eae?aio eiioaeoii? iiaa?oi?. Iai?oaeaiiy aca?iiae?? aecia/athoueny: ; (i?e c/aieaii?) (i?e i?ineiacoaaii?) Aiaeia?/ii, c oiiae ??aiino? aa??aoe?? ooieoe?iiaeo aei ioey, iaea?aeothoueny eiao?oe??ioe iao?eoe? eiioaeoiiai aeaiaioo caaea/? iaoai?ee. I?e oi?ioaaii? nenoaie ??aiyiue canoiniaaii cae/aeio i?ioeaaeo?o INA, iao?eoe? oa?iieiioaeoiiai ne?i/aiiiai aeaiaioo ia aiinyoue i?yeeo iniaeeainoae. ?ica’ycie nenoaie aeicaiey? aecia/eoe IAeN o aoceao eiino?oeoe?? ia eiaeiiio e?ioe? ca /anii. ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy aeey ?ica’yceo oa?iieiioaeoieo caaea/ cae?eniaia ia aac? noai?aiiai a ?IIao IAI Oe?a?ie i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno KROK, ui ?aae?co? iie?ieiaee iaoiae ??oaiiy ianoaoe?iia?ieo ? noaoe?iia?ieo caaea/ oa?iiiaoai?ee. E??i iiaeeeaino? aeoiaeo ia caaea/o oaieii?ia?aeiino? ? (/e) iaoai?ee ia eiaeiiio e?ioe? c aeia?eueiei /eneii ?oa?aoe?e, aeey ianoaoe?iia?ieo caaea/ ia?aaeaa/aia iiaeeea?noue ii/a?aiaiai ?ic?aooieo eiaeii? c caaea/ i?ney eiaeii? ?oa?aoe?? i?ioyaii iaeiiai e?ieo. Aeey iie?auaiiy ca?aeiino? iaoiaeo caaeathoueny ii/aoeia? cia/aiiy eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue, ye? iaiiaeththoueny ooi/iaieie i?ney eiaeii? ?oa?aoe??, ? eiao?oe??ioe ona?aaeiaiiy eiioaeoiiai oeneo. O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? aeai?eoio ??oaiiy iae?i?eieo noaoe?iia?ieo ? ianoaoe?iia?ieo oa?iieiioaeoieo caaea/, a oaeiae ieoaiiy uiaei iiaeeeaino? iiaeaethaaiiy oa?iiiaoai?/ieo yaeu o ??ciiiai?oieo eiino?oeoe?yo. Aeey anaa?/ii? ia?aa??ee iaoiaeeee oa aeey aeaiiino?aoe?? ?? iiaeeeainoae ?icaeyiooi oe?ieee eean caaea/: c a?aeiieie ? iaa?aeiieie iaeanoyie eiioaeoo, aca?iiae?th o?e c ?cio?iiieo ? ai?cio?iiieo iaoa??ae?a oiui. ?acoeueoaoe ii??aithaaeenue c a?aeiieie aiae?oe/ieie ??oaiiyie ? /enaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie, iaea?aeaieie A. I. I?aeai?iei, I. I. Aiioa?ianueeei, TH. ?. Iaotho?iei, A. I. E??ea/ai, A. E. Oaa?iei oa ?i. Oe? ae caaea/? ?icaeyiooi oaeiae a a?eueo neeaaeieo, ooi/iaieo iinoaiiaeao c a?aooaaiiyi oaieiiai?io /a?ac ciie eiioaeoo. Oi/i?noue ?acoeueoao?a eiio?iethaaeanue ?o ni?aiaaeaiiyi i?e ??ci?e i?inoi?ia?e ? /ania?e aeene?aoecaoe??. Ia i?eeeaae? caaea/? i?i aaeaaethaaiiy aeaaeeiai inaneiao?e/iiai ooaiio a i?oaeiee oa?, i?iaeaiiino?iaaii iiaeeea?noue iiaeaethaaiiy ??cieo iinoaiiaie caaea/: caaeaaaoe ieineee ?iaeaioi? ? caci? o aeaeyae? ia?aaiee, aai ae noa?e/io iiaa?oith ?iaeaioi?a ? ieineee oa?. ?acoeueoaoe ii??aithaaeenue c aiae?oe/iei ??oaiiyi, iaea?aeaiei A. I. Aeaenaiae?iaei, oa /enaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie. ?ica?aei?noue ia ia?aaeuo? 6%. Ia?aa??eo a??ia?aeiino? ?ic?aooie?a caaea/ ?c a?aooaaiiyi oa?oy cae?eniaii ia i?eeeaae? eiino?oeoe??, yea neeaaea?oueny c aeaio iaeii??aeieo ieineeo ?cio?iiieo i?aeiaeanoae, ui eiioaeoothoue i?ae niaith. Caaea/a ?ica’ycoaaeanue aeey ??cieo aa??aio?a aeene?aoecaoe?? eiino?oeoe??, i?e ?aeaaeueiiio i?ineiacoaaii? ? nooiio oa?o? c eiao?oe??ioaie 0,3 ? 0,4. ?acoeueoaoe ocaiaeaeothoueny c a?aeiieie a e?oa?aoo?? (ciia eiioaeoo ni?aiaaea? c oi/i?noth aei iaeiiai aeaiaioo), ca?aei?noue iaoiaeo aeineoue aeniea, iaiao?aeia oi/i?noue aeinyaa?oueny ca 2-3 ?oa?aoe??. Aeaye? a?aei?iiino? a cia/aiiyo ? oa?aeoa?? ?iciiae?eo eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue iiyniththoueny ni?iiiaei?noth aeai?eoio a?aene?aeaeoaaoe ?noi??th iaaaioaaeaiiy ? oi/ii o?enoaaoe iiiaioe aoiaeaeaiiy a eiioaeo ? iiiaioe a?ae?eao, ui aaaeeeai i?e iiaeaethaaii? ?aaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. I?aoeacaeaoi?noue eiiieaeno i?e ?ic?aooieao eiino?oeoe?e, ui i?aeeyaathoue ae?? aenieeo oaiia?aoo?, ?icaeyaeaeanue i?e ?ica’ycaii? inaneiao?e/ii? oa?iieiioaeoii? caaea/? c a?aooaaiiyi iiaco/ino?. ??oaiiy aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c a?aeiiei, iaaaeeeo ?ica?aei?noue iiaeia iiynieoe iani?aiaaeaiiyi o ?icaeaoe? ia ne?i/aii? aeaiaioe. Ine?eueee a aeai?e ?iaio? aeene?aoecaoe?th aeeiiaii a?eueo aeaoaeueii, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iaea?aeaia ea?oeia IAeN oi/i?oa a?aeiia?aea? ?aaeuei?e. ?icaeyioo? caaea/? a ooi/iaieo iinoaiiaeao c a?aooaaiiyi oaieiiai?io i?ae aeioe/ieie iiaa?oiyie iieacaee, ui oaiia?aoo?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo ? aaee/eio eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue. O ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi ?ic?aooiie ieineiia?aeaeueiiai eii?/iiai ?ethi?iaoi?a, ui neeaaea?oueny ?c noaeueii? iaieie ? neeiaeaiaioo c i?aai?/iiai /e iai?aai?/iiai neea. ?acoeueoaoe ii??aithaaeenue c aeaieie, iaea?aeaieie iaoiaeii a?aie/ieo aeaiaio?a, ? iaee iaaaeeeo ?ica?aei?noue. Aeey oe??? ae eiino?oeoe?? ?icaeyiooi oaiia?aoo?io caaea/o aeey iiai?, a?eueo ei?aeoii? ?ic?aooieiai? noaie. ?iciiae?e noaoe?iia?iiai oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey iaaaaeaii ia ?en.1. Ianoaoe?iia?ia caaea/a ?ica’ycaia aeey aeaio aeiaaee?a: a) aac a?aooaaiiy oaieiiai?io a cii? eiioaeoo c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai; a) c a?aooaaiiyi oaieiiai?io. Ii/aoeiaa oaiia?aoo?a aia?aoa i?eeiaeanue ??aiith 40°N, aiaee – 4°N ?iciiae?e eiioaeoiiai oeneo ia neeiaeaiaio? o ??ci? iiiaioe /ano i?e caio?thaaii? ?ethi?iaoi?a o aiaeo ia aeeaeio h cia?aaeaii ia ?en.2. A ia?o? 240 n, aiane?aeie ia??aiii??iiai ioieiaeaeaiiy c aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? noi??i, aca?iiae?y niinoa??aa?oueny ia ii an?e aeiaaeei? AA. Nii/aoeo iiaa?oi? eiioaeoothoue a oi/oe? A, iio?i – a oi/oe? A, /a?ac 250 n – ii an?e iiaa?oi?. I?e aeinyaiaii? aeeaeie 200 i ?iciiae?e eiioaeoiiai oeneo iineoue a?eueo ia??aiii??iee oa?aeoa?, i?ae ia noaoe?iia?iiio ?aaeei? (e?eaa 4). Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iieacothoue, ui iaa?oue iacia/i? oaiia?aoo?i? ia?aiaaee iiaeooue nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia IAeN neeiaeaiaio?a. Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ? i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeathoue ciiao iaea?aeoaaoe aeinoia??i? ?acoeueoaoe ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?aooieao ?aaeueieo oaoi?/ieo caaea/. *aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio eiino?oeoe?e ?c a?aooaaiiyi oaieiiai?io i?ae ?o ni?aaeioe/ieie iiaa?oiyie. O i?ae?icae?e? 4.1 ?icaeyiooi oa?iiiai?oaeaio iinaaeeo oo?a?iiiai aeenea ia aae, yea cae?enith?oueny eiai iaa??aii aei oaiia?aoo?e oaieiaiai cai?o. Ioieiaeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny ia?aioneii aiaee ii ?icoi/oe? aaeo ? ca aeiiiiiaith iia?o?y /a?ac ?aooo iiaa?oi?. Iaoya iiaeiai aooe aeinoaoi?i aeey oiai, uia i?ney eiai iineaaeaiiy i?e ?iai/iio /ene? iaa?o?a, eiioaeoiee oene i?ae aeeneii ? aaeii i?a ia?aaeaaaoe iaiao?aeiee e?ooeeueiee iiiaio. ?icaeyaeaeanue ianoaoe?iia?ia caaea/a i?e ?aeaaeueiiio i?ineiacoaaii? ? c a?aooaaiiyi oa?oy. Ia ?en.3 i?aaenoaaeaia ?ic?aooieiaa noaia eiino?oeoe?? c ?cioa?iaie ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo? aeey /ano 8 oaeeei a?ae iiiaioo cai?o. A?aooaaiiy nee oa?oy ciaioo? ciio eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??. I?e ?aeaaeueiiio eiioaeo? aeene c aaeii aoa c'?aeiaiee /a?ac 8 oaeeei, a i?e iayaiino? oa?oy – o?eueee /a?ac 20. Aeae? caaea/a ?ica'ycoaaeanue nii/aoeo i?e ?iai/eo iaa?oao (niinoa??aaeinue iaae?iiy eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue); iio?i i?e e?eoe/ieo (=377 ?aae/n (a?aeaoeiny /anoeiaa ca?eueiaiiy aeenea a?ae aaeo, i?e/iio i?e ?aeaaeueiiio eiioaeo? ciia a?ae?eao aoea a 1,5 ?ace a?eueoa); aeae? iaa?oe aoee iiaa?iai? aei ii?iaeueieo (i?e oeueiio c??n eiioaeoiee oene, a i?e a?aooaaii? oa?oy /anoeia iiaa?oi? ii/aea i?ineiacoaaoe a cai?ioiueiio iai?yieo). Ia ?en.4 i?aaenoaaeaiee ?iciiae?e eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue, yeee anoaiiaeany a eiino?oeoe??. Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea oa i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeathoue ciiao iiaeaethaaoe oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane oaieiaiai cai?o c a?aooaaiiyi ?noi??? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ?ic?aooaaoe ?aaeeie iaa??ao eiino?oeoe?? aeey cae?eniaiiy ?icai?o, a?aenoaaeeoe i?e oeueiio iiyao ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e. ?icaeyiooa iinoaiiaea iiaeaethaaiiy oa?iiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a ei?aeoia naia a ?aieao oa?iieiioaeoii? caaea/?, iniaeeai c a?aooaaiiyi oa?oy i?ae aeaoaeyie. O i?ae?icae?e? 4.2 i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao iiioaaeiiai caci?a ia IAeN aea?iaiai e?eueoey aeaioaeoiiai aeecaey. Aeey oe??? eiino?oeoe?? a e?oa?aoo?? a?aeii? ??oaiiy aac a?aooaaiiy ci?ie oaieiiai?io a cii? eiioaeoo i?e ci?i? iiioaaeiiai caci?a. O aeai?e ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny inaneiao?e/ia oa?iieiioaeoia caaea/a c oiiaaie oaieiiai?io ia ae?eyioe? iiaeeeaiai eiioaeoo c a?euecith, ui aecia/athoueny a i?ioean? ?ica'ycaiiy ? caeaaeaoue a?ae ?iciiae?eo eiioaeoiiai oeneo. C iaoith ni?iuaiiy iinoaiiaee, ?icaeyaeaeany caaea/a i?i ooaii. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia eiino?oeoe?? i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.5. Aeaoi?iaoe?yie a?euece a?ae aca?iiae?? c e?eueoeai iaoooaaee, caaeath/e ia?ai?uaiiy aeca?eaea, ci?iia acaeiaae oeee?iae?a. C aieo ciai?oiuei? iiaa?oi? e?eueoey caaea?oueny na?aaeiy ca oeeee ?iaioe aeecaey oaiia?aoo?a aeca?eaea ? aaeeeee eiao?oe??io oaieiiai?io. I?ae ciai?oiueith oi?iaith (R=640ii) iiaa?oiath e?eueoey ? aeca?eaeii aaiaeeoueny eiioaeoiee oa?, ui a?aoiao? iiioaaeiee caci? ? iaeiinoi?iiith aca?iiae?th iiaa?oiiue. ?icaeyaeaeeny o?e aa??aioe iiioaaeiiai caci?a 0,12; 0,18; 0,24 ii, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue ia?ai?uaiiyi oi/ee z=1 ciai?oiuei? iiaa?oi? e?eueoey 0,21; 0,24; ? 0,27 ii a ?aeii? oi?noii/iiai iiyno oa 0,16; 0,19; 0,22 ii a cii? a?eii. Na?aaei?e eiioaeoiee oene i?ae a?euecith ? e?eueoeai aeey ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey aecia/aany aeey o?ueio iieiaeaiue: 1) a ?aeii? oi?noii/iiai iiyno a iiiaio iaeneiaeueiiai oeneo aac?a (?=14IIa); 2) a ?aeii? oi?noii/iiai iiyno aei ii/aoeo iiaea/? iaeeaa (?=8 IIa); 3) a ?aeii? a?eii i?ney ?o cae?eooy, eiee oene i?i?iaeueiee (?=0,2IIa). Oi/a a?aie/i? oiiae oaieiiai?io c aieo a?euece caaeaaaeenue na?aaei?ie ca oeeee ?iaioe, a eiaeiiio iieiaeaii? ia? i?noea ??ciee oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue ? iie?a oaiia?aoo?. A ae?eniino? oaiia?aoo?a ia iiaeiia caciaaaoe cia/ieo ci?i ca oeeee ?iaioe aeaeaoia, oiio ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooie?a aoa caaeaiee ona?aaeiaiee eiioaeoiee oene ? iaea?aeaii noaoe?iia?ia oaiia?aoo?ia iiea e?eueoey, caaaeueia aeey an?o eiai iieiaeaiue. C oeei iieai ? ?ica'ycothoueny e?ioeaa? eiioaeoi? caaea/? aeey aecia/aiiy ?iciaoo iai?oaeaiiai noaio e?eueoey. ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo? ia ciai?oi?e iiaa?oi? e?eueoey a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie iiioaaeiiai caci?o iaaaaeaii ia ?en.6. Iaea?eueo aeecueeei aei iioeiaeueiiai aeey aeaii? eiino?oeoe?? yaey?oueny caci? 0,18 ii, ?iciiae?e eiioaeoiiai oeneo aeey iueiai i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en.7, aea e?ea? 1-3 a?aeiia?aeathoue o?ueii iieiaeaiiyi e?eueoey. Oaiia?aoo?ia iiea aeey oeueiai aeiaaeeo cia?aaeaii ia ?en.5. I?e ciaioaii? caci?o eiioaeoiee oene cia/ii c?inoa?, ui iiaea i?ecaanoe aei caaee?o iiaa?oi?. Ie?oaei? iai?oaeaiiy – iaeneiaeuei? ii aaee/ei? ? neeaaeathoue iniiaio /anoeio aea?aaeaioieo, ?iciao yeeo aecia/a?oueny ci?iith ?aae?ona a?euece acaeiaae in? ca ?aooiie oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo aac?a. Inueia? iai?oaeaiiy ianooo?ai caeaaeaoue a?ae aaee/eie caci?o ? iaei ca?eueoothoueny ?c c?inoaiiyi oeneo aac?a, oae ye oi?iothoueny, a iniiaiiio, ca ?aooiie caeio iaiaeaoe. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe oa?iiiai?oaeaiee noai e?eueoey ? eiai caeaoi?noue a?aenoaaeoaaoe caci? ii a?aeiioaiith aei aeca?eaea a?euece. A?aooaaiiy i?aeoe/ii an?o aaaeeeaeo oaeoi??a, ye? aecia/athoue oiiae ?iaioe aea?iaiai e?eueoey, i?aeaeuo? oe?ii?noue ?ic?aooie?a ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy ? aeiaiaeee aeaeaoia, aeaei ciiao ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy oa?iiiao?e/ieo aeaieo aeey iiia?aaeiuei? iiaeae? e?eueoey c ciai?oi?i ae?aiao?ii 120 ii aecia/eoe IAeN aeey e?eueoey c ae?aiao?ii 140 ii. O i?ae?icae?e? 4.3 iaaaaeaii ?ic?aooiie oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a oa IAeN a?euece oeee?iae?a aeaioaeoiiai aeecaey, yea ia? aeineoue neeaaeio eiino?oeoeaio oi?io, ui aecia/a?oueny 42 iai?ae?oaeeie eaiaeaie aeey ioieiaeaeaiiy, aaiaeaaeiaaia c iaoyaii 0,02 ii ciai?oi?i oeee?iae?ii aeey aeinoaoiuei? aei?noeino? a ?aeii? oi?noii/iiai iiyno. Iaeneiaeuei? iai?oaeaiiy ioe?ithaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith iaaeeaeaieo ieinei? (?en.8) ? inaneiao?e/ii? (?en.9) ?ic?aooieiaeo noai. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio ia iniia? ieinei? iiaeae? cae?eniai? ii iiia?a/iiio ia?aoeio a?euece a ?aeii? oi?noii/iiai iiyno, aea iai?oaeaiiy ? oaiia?aoo?a iaeneiaeuei?. Oey iiaeaeue aeicaiey? ei?aeoiii?aaenoaaeoe ?iciiae?e iai?oaeaiue a e?oaiaiio iai?yieo, aea ia a?aoiao? ci?io iaaaioaaeaiiy ? oaieiaeo iie?a a inueiaiio. Aeey ?o ooi/iaiiy ?icaeyiooa inaneiao?e/ia iiaeaeue. ?aa?a o?aca?iaaieo eaiae?a i?e oeueiio cai?iththoueny ai?cio?iiiei o?eii /e i?aeiaeanoth c ieineei iai?oaeaiei noaiii ? aioo??oi?i oaieiiai?iii. A?aie/i? oiiae oaieiiai?io ci?ithaaeeny a inueiaiio iai?yieo, ui a?aeia?a aea? ?aaeueio oaieiao ae?th ia a?eueco. Iaeneiaeuei? ??ai? iai?oaeaiue o a?euec? oa aaiaeaae? i?aaenoaaeai? a oaae.1 Ie?oaei? ? eiioaeoi? iai?oaeaiiy aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny i?ae niaith, a inueia? i?eeiaeenue c inaneiao?e/iiai ?ic?aooieo. Ci?ia a?aie/ieo oiia oaieiiai?io a inueiaiio iai?yieo cia/ii ia iia??oo? aeecueeino? ?acoeueoao?a aeey iaio iiaeaeae. Oaeei /eiii, ca aeiiiiiaith eiia?iaoe?? ieineeo ? inaneiao?e/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo noai a ?yae? aeiaaee?a iiaeia aeaoe ioe?ieo IAeN eiino?oeoe?e c o?eaei??iei iieai iai?oaeaiue. Aeei?enoaiiy oa?iieiioaeoiiai ne?i/aiiiai aeaiaioo a ?ic?aooieia?e noai? a?euece aeicaiey? ei?aeoii aecia/eoe oaiia?aoo?i? iiey, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae oiia eiioaeoo a?euece c aaiaeaaeai. Oaaeeoey 1 , fo?=0 -284.8 -154.0 -244.8 90.1 19.7 87.5 19.8 inanei. aac inueia. ci?ie a?. oiia Pr=0 -277.2 -144.2 -238.3 91.3 5.6 90.2 20.9 ieinea, Pr=14 IIa -200.1 -64.4 -168.1 198.8 60.4 181.3 46.5-30.7 inanei. Pr=14 IIa, fo?=0 -222.2 -183.9 -190.2 161.8 58.2 167.3 38.2 inanei. aac ci?ie a?. oiia Pr=14 IIa -211.8 -175.1 -180.7 165.9 45.5 171.4 38.6 inanei. Pr=14IIa, fo?=0,2 -230.9 -182.4 -195.4 155.4 59.7 151.3 37.3 O i?ae?icae?e? 4.4 ?icaeyiooi ?ic?aooiee oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? IAeN ii?oiy aeaeaoia aioo??oiueiai cai?yiiy a ?aieao inaneiao?e/ii? oa?iieiioaeoii? caaea/?. Oaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeae? aeinyaiooi ca ?aooiie ?icaeyaeo ia'?eoa, ye iaeiiai oe?eiai, ui aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe iiaio ? aeinoia??io ea?oeio iai?oaeaiiai noaio, a?aoiaoth/e oaieiiai?i i?ae aeaoaeyie, ui aca?iiae?thoue. Ia ?en.10 cia?aaeaii caaaeueiee aeaeyae ia?eae?iiaeueiiai ia?aoeio eiino?oeoe??. I?ae aea?iaith iaeeaaeeith (1) ? ei?ionii (2) caeeaaeaii eiioaeoiee oa? (4), yeee caaacia/o? aca?iiae?th aeaoaeae c a?aooaaiiyi caci??a. Niaoe?aeueiee ai?cio?iiiee oa? (5) iiaeaeth? ??cueaiaa c’?aeiaiiy aieoa (3) ? aea?iai? iaeeaaeee. Caaea/a oa?iiiaoai?ee ?icaeyaeaeany aeey aeiaaee?a iaeneiaeueiiai ? i?i?iaeueiiai oeneo aac?a. A?aie/i? oiiae oaieiiai?io ? eiioaeoiee oene ona?aaeiai? ca oeeee. A ?iaio? iaea?aeaii ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey (?en.10) ? oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a ii?oiaai? a?oie. ?ic?aooiie aeeiiaii ia iiaeae? c a?eueo ei?aeoii iinoaaeaieie a?aie/ieie oiiaaie oaieiiai?io i?ae aeaoaeyie ? ?c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai. Aiia aea? ciiao a?aoiaoaaoe caeaaei?noue oaieiiai?io a?ae ieiu? eiioaeoo ? aaee/eie eiioaeoiiai oeneo, iniaeeaino? aenieoaoaoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue, aca?iiee aieea aeaoaeae iaeia ia iaeio. A?aooaaiiy oeeo oaeoi??a i?aeaeuo? aeinoia??i?noue ? i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O i?ae?icae?e? 4.5 ?icaeyiooi caaea/o eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? aeey aeaioiii?iiai caieiaiai c’?aeiaiiy a?eaiaeaeiiai oeio ia?oiai nooiaiy iecueeiai oeneo oo?a?ie E-300-240-2. I?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ? ?ic?aooieiai? noaie, i?aaenoaaeaii? ia ?en.11, aaiiao??y c’?aeiaiiy, ae?th/a iaaaioaaeaiiy caaeaaaeenue iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeaieie aei ?aaeueieo. Oainoiaee eiiaoee ?icaeyaeaany a ?aieao ieineiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio o aca?iiae?? c inaneiao?e/iei aeeneii. ?ica'ycoaaeanue ianoaoe?iia?ia caaea/a o i?oaei?e iinoaiiaoe?. ?ic?aooiee i?iaaaeaii aeey aeaio aeiaaee?a: aac a?aooaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ? c ?o a?aooaaiiyi (?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo? /a?ac aea? oaeeeie i?ney oaieiaiai oaea?o iieacaii ia ?en.11). Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey oe??? eiino?oeoe?? oaiia?aoo?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? ianooo?ai aieeaathoue ia ??aaiue eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue, iaeiae cia/ii iineeththoue ia??aiii??i?noue ?o ?iciiae?eo, ui o?aaa i?eeiaoe aei oaaae i?e ioe?ioe? o?eaaei? i?oeiino?. A caeeth/i?e /anoei? noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? aeniiaee. A aeiaeaoeo iaaaaeai? aeieoiaioe, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaeothoue i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oa oe?eii? ?iaioe. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE ?ic?iaeaii iiaee “oa?iieiioaeoiee” iaeiiaei??iee ne?i/aiiee aeaiaio, ui aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe ?aaeuei? oiiae aca?iiae?? o?e (iaeiinoi?iii? c/aieaiiy, i?ineiacoaaiiy, nooa oa?oy, oaieiaeae?eaiiy a cii? eiioaeoo ? o.ae.), a?aoiaoaaoe aieea eiioaeoiiai oeneo, /enoioe ia?iaee iiaa?oi?, oaieii?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua, i?oei?nieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a ia oa?aeoa? ? aaee/eio ?iciiae?eo oa?i?/iiai iii?o. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo, yea aeicaiey? ia iniia? INA ?ica’ycoaaoe oa?iieiioaeoi? caaea/? a ieineeo ? inaneiao?e/ieo iinoaiiaeao. I?iaaaeai? /enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeinoia??iino? ?acoeueoao?a, ye? iaea?aeothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith noai?aieo ia aac? i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno KROK (?ic?iaea ?IIao ?i. A. I. I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie) aeai?eoio ? i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo aeaiaei??ieo oa?iieiioaeoieo caaea/ c a?aooaaiiyi oaieiiai?io i?ae iiaa?oiyie, ui aca?iiae?thoue. Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieacaa ?o aeinoaoith oi/i?noue. Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae ei?aeoi?noth iinoaiiaie caaea/, iaa?oioiaai?noth i?eiouaiue, ye? iieeaaeaii a iniiao ?iaioe, no?ia?noth iaoaiaoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, aiae?cii ca?aeiino? ??oaiue ia iniia? /enaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a, ii??aiyiiyi o eiie?aoieo i?eeeaaeao, c a?aeiieie a e?oa?aoo?? aiae?oe/ieie ? /enaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aeei?enoaia aeey aiae?co IAeN aoce?a ? aeaoaeae oeee?iae?iii?oiaai? a?oie aeaeaoia aioo??oiueiai cai?yiiy. *enaeuei? ?ica'ycee caaea/ o iiaeo oa?iieiioaeoieo iinoaiiaeao, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue ?aaeuei? oiiae aca?iiae?? i?ae o?eaie, nooo?ai i?aeaeuothoue i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. *anoeia c ieo aoea aeei?enoaia i?e i?iaeooaaii? oa aeiaiaeoe? iiaiai aeecaey a?eueoi? iiooaeiino?. A iia?e iinoaiiaoe? ?icaeyiooi ?ic?aooiie caieiaiai c'?aeiaiiy aeaiaio?a oo?aiiaoei, ia i?eeeaae? yeiai iieacaii, ui a?aooaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ? aieeao aeaoaeae iaeia ia iaeio, iaeaea ia ci?ithth/e aaee/eie eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue, iiaea nooo?ai i?iyoe oa?aeoa? ?o ?iciiae?eo. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii iaaaaeaieo o ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiiyo aoee canoiniaai? i?e aeeiiaii? athaeaeaoieo i?ia?ai oa ainiaeiaia??ii? ?iaioe, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?aeoeoe? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ? i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e i?e i?iaeooaaii? iiaeo oa ioe?ioe? IAeN i?aoethth/eo eiino?oeoe?e a oiiaao oa?iieiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? ?o aeaiaio?a. NIENIE I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? Aa?iao I. A.  Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?iuo aeaoi?iaoeee ia iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea noaeeiyeaiaioia eeethieiaoi?ia // Aanoiee Oa?uee.ain.iieeoao.oi-oa.-Oa?ueeia: OAIO.-1999.-Aui.47.-N.16-21. Aiioa?ianeee I. I. , Eaaoa?ia A. I., Aa?iao I. A. Eiia/iiyeaiaioiue aiaeec oaiia?aoo?iuo iieae e iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey aea?iaiai eieueoea aeaoooaeoiiai aeecaey a oa?iieiioaeoiie iinoaiiaea // Aanoiee Oa?uee.ain.iieeoao.oi-oa.-Oa?ueeia: OAIO.-1999.-Aui.54.-N.101-108. Aa?iao I. A. Iiaeaee?iaaiea oa?iiiai?yaeaiiie iinaaeee oo?aeiiiai aeenea ia aae. // Aanoiee Oa?uee.ain.iieeoao.oi-oa. Iiaua ?aoaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaeyo. -Oa?ueeia: OAIO.-1999.-Aui.47.-N.13-15. Aiioa?ianeee I. I. , Aa?iao I. A. ?an/ao iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey eiiaoie oo?aiiaoei n o/aoii oa?iieiioaeoiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee // O?. Iaaeae. iao/.-oao. eiio. "Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oo?aionoaiiaie iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/aneiai e oece/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey": Oa?ueeia, 29 naio – 2 ieo 1997a.-Oa?ueeia.-1997.- N.533-536. Aiioa?ianeee I. I. , Aa?iao I. A. Eiiiuethoa?iia iiaeaee?iaaiea oi?iieciaiaiey oiieinoaiiuo inaneiiao?e/iuo eiino?oeoeee i?e iaee/ee iaeiinoi?iiieo ia?aie/aiee // Iao. Iaaeae. iao/.-oao. eiio."Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu iaoeiiaaaea-iey":Aiiaeue, 1-3 ethey 1996a.-Aiiaeue.-1996.- N.117-118. Aiioa?ianeee I. I. , Eaaoa?ia A. I. , Aa?iao I. A. , Oiiei A. TH.  *eneaiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea oaieiaiai e iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey aeeuecu oeeeeiae?a oi?ne?iaaiiiai o?ainii?oiiai aeecaey // Na. o?. Iaaeae. iao/.-oao. eiio."Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee", Aui.7, *.2, Oa?ueeia.-1999.-N.255-259. AIIOAOe?ss Aa?iao I.A. Aeaiaei??iee ne?i/aiiiaeaiaioiee aiae?c eiioaeoieo caaea/ ?c a?aooaaiiyi oaieiiai?io. ( ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.02.04 ( iaoai?ea aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea ( ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?i. A. I. I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?a, 1999. Aeey aiae?co oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio eiino?oeoe?e, ye? i?aoeththoue i?ae aieeaii oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a, ia iniia? iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo oa?iieiioaeoieo caaea/ a ieineeo ? inaneiao?e/ieo iinoaiiaeao. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iaeiiaei??iee “oa?iieiioaeoiee” ne?i/aiiee aeaiaio, caeaoiee iiaeaethaaoe ?aaeuei? oiiae aca?iiae?? o?e. Aeai?eoi iaoiaeo ?aae?ciaaii ca aeiiiiiaith eiiieaeno i?ia?ai, i?aoeacaeaoi?noue yeiai i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?yaeii /enaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a. Aeine?aeaeo?oueny aieea aaee/eie oa oa?aeoa?o ?iciiae?eo eiioaeoiiai oeneo ia oa?iiiai?oaeaiee noai eiino?oeoe?e. ?acoeueoaoe ni?anoaaeythoueny c /enaeueieie ? aiae?oe/ieie ?acoeueoaoaie, a?aeiieie a e?oa?aoo??. ?icaeyiooi ?yae i?aeoe/ieo caaea/ o iiaeo oa?iieiioaeoieo iinoaiiaeao. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oa?iieiioaeoia aca?iiae?y, iaoiae ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a, oa?iieiioaeoiee aeaiaio, eiioaeoiee oa?, oa?oy, oa?iiiaoai?/i? i?ioeane, iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai. SUMMARY Garmash N.G. Two-dimensional finite element analysis of contact problems taking into account the heat interchange. – Manuscript. Thesis for degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences by speciality 01.02.04.–Mechanics of deformable solid. –Institute for Problems in Machinery named by A. M. Podgornyi of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, 1999. The way of calculation of stress-strained state of structures in plane and axisymmetrical thermocontact problems on the base of the finite element method has been worked out in this work. A new one-dimensional “termocontact” finite element has been proposed. This element is able to model real conditions and parameters of the bodies’ interaction. The algorithm of the method has been realized by means of the program complex. Its efficiency is confirmed by numerical experiments. The influence of contact pressure and character of its distribution on termostress state of bodies are investigated. The results of calculation are compared with numerical and analytical results of other authors. A number of practical problems in new termocontact formulations are considered in this work. Key words: termocontact interaction, finite element method, termocontact element, contact lay, friction, termomechanics processes, stress-strain state. AIIIOAOeEss Aa?iao I.A. Aeaoia?iue eiia/iiyeaiaioiue aiaeec eiioaeoiuo caaea/ n o/aoii oaieiiaiaia. ( ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.02.04 ( iaoaieea aeaoi?ie?oaiiai oaa?aeiai oaea( Einoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiino?iaiey ei. A. I. Iiaeai?iiai IAI Oe?aeiu, Oa?ueeia, 1999. I?eaaaeai iaci? enneaaeiaaiee, iinayuaiiuo ?acee/iui iaoiaeai ?aoaiey caaea/ eiioaeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie eiino?oeoeee. Iniaia aieiaiea a iaci?a oaeaeaii iiaeaeyi, i?eiaiyaiui aeey iienaiey enneaaeoaiuo iauaeoia, iaoiaeai e ?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiey oa?iiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia n o/aoii eiioaeoiuo yaeaiee. Aeey aiaeeca iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey eiino?oeoeee, ?aaioathueo i?e aicaeaenoaee oaiia?aoo?iuo iieae, ia aaca iaoiaea eiia/iuo yeaiaioia ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa aeaoia?iuo oa?iieiioaeoiuo caaea/ a ieineeo e inaneiiao?e/iuo iinoaiiaeao. I?aaeeiaeai iiaue “oa?iieiioaeoiue” iaeiiia?iue eiia/iue yeaiaio, iicaieythuee iiaeaee?iaaoue ?aaeueiua oneiaey acaeiiaeaenoaey oae (noeaieaiea, i?ineaeuecuaaiea, nooia o?aiea, iaeiinoi?iiiaa acaeiiaeaenoaea, oaieiauaeaeaiea a ciia eiioaeoa e o.ae.), o/eouaaoue aeeyiea eiioaeoiiai aeaaeaiey, /enoiou ia?aaioee iiaa?oiinoe (auniou iee?iia?iaiinoae), i?i/iinoiuo naienoa iaoa?eaeia, oaieii?iaiaeiinoe n?aaeu iaaeaeo eiioaeoe?othueie oaeaie ia aaee/eio e oa?aeoa? ?ani?aaeaeaiey oa?ie/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey. Aeey yoiai yeaiaioa auee auaaaeaiu iniiaiua niioiioaiey aeey ?aoaiey n iiiiuueth IEY caaea/ oaieii?iaiaeiinoe e oa?iiiaoaieee. I?iaaaeaii enneaaeiaaiea caaeneiinoe iieo/aaiiai cia/aiey eiioaeoiie oaieii?iaiaeiinoe e ia?aiaaea oaiia?aoo? ia acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iiaa?oiinoyo io aaee/eiu i?eeaaaaiie iaa?ocee, auniou iee?ioa?ioiaaoinoae e oaieii?iaiaeiinoe n?aaeu. I?iaaaeaiu /eneaiiua enneaaeiaaiey aeinoiaa?iinoe ?acoeueoaoia, iieo/aaiuo n iiiiuueth nicaeaiiuo ia aaca i?ia?aiiiiai eiiieaena KROK, ?ac?aaioaiiiai a Einoeoooa i?iaeai iaoeiino?iaiey ei. A. I. Iiaeai?iiai IAI Oe?aeiu, aeai?eoia e i?ia?aiiu ?an/aoa aeaoia?iuo oa?iieiioaeoiuo caaea/ n o/aoii oaieiiaiaia iaaeaeo acaeiiaeaenoaothueie iiaa?oiinoyie. Aeai n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia e ecaanoiuo a eeoa?aoo?a aiaeeoe/aneeo e /eneaiiuo ?aoaiee. Aeinoiaa?iinoue iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oaeaea ei??aeoiinoueth iinoaiiaie caaea/, iainiiaaiiinoueth aeiiouaiee, iieiaeaiiuo a iniiao ?aaiou, no?iainoueth iaoaiaoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee, aiaeecii noiaeeiinoe ?aoaiee ia iniiaa /eneaiiuo yenia?eiaioia i?e ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo aeene?aoecaoeee ii i?ino?ainoao e a?aiaie. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea aiaeeca oa?iiiai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey oceia e aeaoaeae oeeeeiae?iii?oiaaie a?oiiu aeaeaaoaey aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey, caieiauo niaaeeiaiee yeaiaioia oo?aiiaoei. Iieo/aia ea?oeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey e iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey eiino?oeoeaiuo yeaiaioia ninoaaiiai ii?oiy. ?an/ao auiieiai n eniieueciaaieai inaneiiao?e/iie iiaeaee n ei??aeoiuie a?aie/iuie oneiaeyie oaieiiaiaia iaaeaeo aeaoaeyie e n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie. Niinia ioeaiee e aiaeeca iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey oaiia?aoo?iuo iieae eiino?oeoeee n o?aoia?iui iieai iai?yaeaiee n iiiiuueth eiiaeiaoeee ieineeo e inaneiiao?e/iuo ?an/aoiuo noai i?aaenoaaeai ia i?eia?a ?an/aoa aeeuecu oeeeeiae?a aeaoooaeoiiai aeecaey. A iiaie oa?iieiioaeoiie iinoaiiaea i?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey iiioaaeiiai caci?a ia iai?yaeaiiia ninoiyiea aea?iaiai eieueoea aeaeaaoaey aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey. O/ao i?aeoe/anee anao aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo oneiaey ?aaiou eieueoea, ei??aeoii iinoaaeaiiua oneiaey oaieiiaiaia ia o/anoea aiciiaeiiai eiioaeoa n aeeuecie, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony a i?ioeanna ?aoaiey e caaenyo io ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiioaeoiiai aeaaeaiey, iicaieee eniieueciaaoue iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou ia yoaia i?iaeoe?iaaiey e aeiaiaeee aeaoooaeoiiai aeecaey. Ia i?eia?a oa?iiiai?yaeaiiie iinaaeee oo?aeiiiai aeenea ia aae, eioi?ay auiieiyaony aai iaa?aaii aei oaiia?aoo?u oaieiaie nai?ee, iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue iiaeaee?iaaiey n iiiiuueth ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeee ?acee/iuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. I?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey aaee/eiu e oa?aeoa?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiioaeoiiai aeaaeaiey ia oa?iiiai?yaeaiiia ninoiyiea eiino?oeoeee. A iiaie iinoaiiaea ?anniio?ai ?an/ao caieiaiai niaaeeiaiey a?eaiaeaeiiai oeia ia?aie nooiaie ieceiai aeaaeaiey ia?iaie oo?aeiu E-300-240-2, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iieacaii, /oi a ?yaea neo/aaa o/ao oaiia?aoo?iuo aeaoi?iaoeee e acaeiiiai aeeyiey aeaoaeae ae?oa ia ae?oaa, ii/oe ia iaiyy o?iaiy eiioaeoiuo iai?yaeaiee a eiino?oeoeee, nouanoaaiii eciaiyao oa?aeoa? eo ?ani?aaeaeaiey. ?aoaiea caaea/ a iiauo oa?iieiioaeoiuo iinoaiiaeao, io?aaeathueo ?aaeueiua oneiaey acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo aeaoaeyie e o/eouaathueo iniaaiiinoe yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo iaa?ocie, nouanoaaiii iiauoaao i?aeoe/aneoth oeaiiinoue iieo/aaiuo ?acoeueoaoia, a oaeaea aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aiaeece?iaaoue oa?iiiaoaie/aneea i?ioeannu, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo ai a?aiy ?aaiou eiino?oeoeee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oa?iieiioaeoiia acaeiiaeaenoaea, iaoiae eiia/iuo yeaiaioia, oa?iieiioaeoiue yeaiaio, eiioaeoiue neie, o?aiea, oa?iiiaoaie/aneea i?ioeannu, iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea. A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione no. i. n., e. o. i. Iaotho?i TH.?. I?aei. aei ae?oeo 23.12.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60x90, 1/16. Iai?? ae?oe ? 3. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 0,96. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ? 2. ?ioai?eio ?inoeoooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?iai? A.I.I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie, 61046, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Aei. Iiaea?nueeiai, 2/10

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