.

Довгозбережне середовище для кріоконсервації сперми бугаїв-плідників та способи його виготовлення: Автореф. дис… канд. с.-г. наук / Л.М. Павленко, І

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OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO OAA?EIIEOeOAA OAAI

IAAEAIEI Ethaeieea Ieeiea?aia

OAeE 57.08:636.22/.28.453.5

AeIAAICAA?AAEIA NA?AAeIAEUA AeEss E??IEIINA?AAOe?? NIA?IE
AOAA?A-IE?AeIEE?A OA NIINIAE EIAI AEAIOIAEAIIss

3.00.20 – a?ioaoiieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e OAAI
Inoaoei Oaae?? ?aaiiae/.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aoa?ia Ieaen?e
Aeieo?iae/, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo a?ioaoiieia?? oa
aaiii? ?iaeaia??? ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI;

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe E?aia? Ia??y Einei?aia, iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo i?iaeai e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI
Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
aaoa?eia?ieo i?aia?ao?a ? ei?iiaeo aeiaaaie. Euea?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “23” aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 10-00 aiae.
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.65.356.02 i?e ?inoeooo?
oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI. I?ineii i?eeiyoe o/anoue a can?aeaii? ?aaee, aai
aeneaoe a?aeaoe a aeaio i?ei??ieeao, caoaa?aeaeaieo ia/aoeith.

Aae?ana ?inoeoooo: 312120, i. Oa?e?a, i/a Eoeeie/?

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 16 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, eaiaeeaeao n.-a. iaoe O.
I. Niaao?

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A ?aae?caoe?? e?oiiiianooaaii? naeaeoe?? oaa?ei
iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue caeia? ooo/ia in?iai?iiy. Iniiaith
aeiei??iii? ia?aaoaeiae i?aai?caoe?? ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy noaa iaoiae
aeeaieiai caii?iaeoaaiiy ? o?eaaeiai caa??aaiiy nia?ie ie?aeiee?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei, ia iniia? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo: (?.?.?aaiia, 1910;
A.E.I?eiaaiia, 1962; ?.A.Ni??iia, 1949; O.?.Inoaoei, 1968; A.I.Ieaoia,
1961; I.Ae.Aoa?ia, 1964; C.Polge, A.U.Smith, A.S.Parkes, 1948, 1949;
H.Nagase, T.Niwa, 1964; R.Cassou, 1964; L.Simmet, 1972). Caaaeyee
aeeeth/i?e aoaeoeaiino? a?i noaa iniiaiei aeaiaioii iaoe?iiaeueieo
i?ia?ai ii ?iciiiaeaiith ? iie?auaiith oaa?ei an?o oeea?e?ciaaieo e?a?i
na?oo. Iaeiae, aeaye? ae??oaeuei? aniaeoe oaoiieia?? e??ieiina?aaoe??
nia?ie aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei, ui ia aea? ciiae aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiai c
iaeneiaeueiith aoaeoeai?noth. ?aae?caoe?y iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae
iaoiaeo e??ieiina?aaoe?? nia?ie an?eyei caeaaeeoue a?ae neeaaeo ooo/ieo
na?aaeiaeu oa ?o nai?oa?ieo aeanoeainoae.

Iaia’yceiaei aioeoieiaei eiiiiiaioii a?aeiieo na?aaeiaeu ? aeiaoie
eo?y/eo y?oeue, ui iaiaaeo? no?iee caa??aaiiy ? ia aea? iiaeeeaino?
oeaio?ae?ciaaiiiai aeaioiaeaiiy oa iinoa/aiiy ?o ieai?iiei
i?aei?e?inoaai. E??i oiai, aeiaoie aoaeo/e oi?ioei aeeaeeueiei
na?aaeiaeuai aeey i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a ? iin??i iaoiaaiii?
? nai?io?oii? i?e?ioei?e, yea iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia nia?io, a oaeiae ia
a?aeoai?thaaeueio ooieoe?th ? noai caei?ia’y naieoeue. O ca’yceo c oeei
aeieeea iano?eia iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy noa?eeueieo aeiaaicaa?aaeieo
aeieia?/ii /enoeo na?aaeiaeu aeey e??ieiina?aaoe?? nia?ie ie?aeiee?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
a ?aieao iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai AANAI?E ino. 42.0107.I3;
ino. 77.08.02/?? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 010001316?; 01.8600048.345 oa IO?
OAAI ia 1991-1995 ??. “Oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaee e??ieiina?aaoe?? oa
aeiaaicaa?aaeaiiy nia?ie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei c iaoith
iaeneiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy aaiaoe/ieo ?aca?a?a ieai?iiiai
oaa?eiieoeoaa”, “?ic?iaeoe ia?niaeoeai? iiaeae? ainiiaea?noa ii
ae?iaieoeoao iieiea, caaacia/oth/eo aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue oaa?ei,
iie?auoth/eo ye?noue i?e cieaeaii? aeo?ao ei?i?a, i?aoe? oa o?iain?a”.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiue – ?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe noa?eeueia
aeiaaicaa?aaeia na?aaeiaeua aeey e??ieiina?aaoe?? nia?ie aoaa?a,
noaiaea?oeciaaia ca a?io?i?/ieie ? nai?oa?ieie iieacieeaie oa niiniae
eiai aeaioiaeaiiy ? oaeineiiaeeoe ia oe?e iniia? oaoiieia?th
e??ieiina?aaoe?? nia?ie ie?aeiee?a.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue:

1. ?ic?iaeoe niin?a iaea?aeaiiy c iaoeaiiai aeiaoea eiiiiiaioa c
aioeoieiaeie aeanoeainoyie.

2. Aea/eoe caoeni? aeanoeaino? eiiiiiaioo i?e ioieiaeaeoaaii? ia nia?i?
aoaay, aa?aia oa eio?a.

3. ?ic?iaeoe neeaae oa?iinoaa?eueiiai aeiaaicaa?aaeaiiai na?aaeiaeua
aeey e??ieiina?aaoe?? nia?ie aoaa?a ? oa?i?/iee niin?a eiai
noa?ee?caoe??.

4. ?ic?iaeoe niin?a o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii? noa?ee?caoe?? na?aaeiaeua c
iaoeaiei aeiaoeii.

5. ?ic?iaeoe anaioe/iee niin?a oa i?eno??e aeey ioe?iee nia?ie a
aa?iaoe/ieo oiaeiaeao.

6. I?iaanoe iaoeiai-ae?iaie/ee oa oe?ieee ae?iaie/ee aeine?ae ?
ai?iaaaeeoe ?ic?iaeaia na?aaeiaeua a ae?iaieoeoai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia oa oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiue. Aia?oa
onoaiiaeaii, ui aeno?aeo aeiaoea a neeaae? e??ii?ioaeoeaiiai na?aaeiaeua
i?ney oa?iiia?iaee caa??aa? nai? iiia?aaei? a?ieia?/i? aeanoeaino? ?
caaacia/o? caoeno noaoaaeo ee?oei i?e e??ieiina?aoaaii?, aiaeia?/ii
iaoeaiiio aeiaoeo. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? noai?aii oa?iinoaa?eueia noa?eeueia
na?aaeiaeua, aea iaoeaiee aeiaoie cai?iaii oa?iinoaa?eueiei aioeoieiaei
eiiiiiaioii (a.n. N?N? ? 745045).

Aia?oa onoaiiaeaii aoaeo ca?eueoaiiy aeoiaeo aioeoieiaiai eiiiiiaioo
i?ney aeno?aaoaaiiy eiai ?c caii?iaeaii-a?aeoaeiai aeiaoea.

Aia?oa aea/aia ae?y aioenaioeea – ia?aeeno aiaeith a neeaae?
na?aaeiaeua aeey e??ieiina?aaoe?? nia?ie ? aeyaeaia aoaeoeaia
n?ia?a?aeia aioei?e?iaia ae?y eiai ni?eueii c i?ia??aii 65-75°N, ui
caaacia/o? iiaio noa?eeuei?noue oa?iieaa?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua ? ia
cieaeo? eiai caoenieo aeanoeainoae i?e e??ieiina?aaoe?? nia?ie. Ia oe?e
iniia? noai?aii noa?eeueia, aeiaaicaa?aaeia aeiaoieoo?eiath/a
na?aaeiaeua aeey e??ieiina?aaoe?? nia?ie ? niin?a eiai aeaioiaeaiiy
(iaoaio N?N? ? 1828582 ? iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 13138).

Aia?oa aeiaeaeaii niin?a oa ?ic?iaeaii i?eno??e aeey anaioe/ii? ioe?iee
nia?ie a aa?iaoe/i?e oiaeiaoe? (a.n.C?N? ? 1543598).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeaee iiaeeea?noue
aeae?eeoe c iaoeaiiai aeiaoea oa?iinoaa?eueiee aioeoieiaee eiiiiiaio ?
aeei?enoaoe eiai a iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e ?iaio? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
oa?iinoaa?eueiiai aeiaaicaa?aaeiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey e??ieiina?aaoe??
nia?ie aoaa?a.

Aeyaeaiiy aioei?e?iaii? ae?? ia?aeeno aiaeith a aeiaoieoo?eiath/eo
na?aaeiaeuao aeicaieeei noai?eoe aeiaaicaa?aaeaia na?aaeiaeua aeey
e??ieiina?aaoe?? nia?ie ? oaoiieia?th eiai ae?iaieoeoaa, yea noaaeaia ?
?aeiiaiaeiaaia aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy I?aea?aeii/ith eii?n??th I?iaa?ii?iio
Oe?a?ie (i?ioieie ? 7 a?ae 10 ea?oiy 1992 ?.). Ia oe?e i?aenoaa?
i?aai?ciaaii oeaio?ae?ciaaia ae?iaieoeoai na?aaeiaeu ? iinoa/aiiy ?o
ieai?iiei i?aei?e?inoaai Oe?a?ie ? ?in?enuee?e Oaaea?aoe?? (aeo
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy IIAA “Aia??ii” a?ae 3 n?/iy 1998 ?.), ui aeeeth/eei
iiaeeea?noue caa?oaeiaiiy nia?ie ? noaoaaeo oeyo?a naieoeue i?e ooo/iiio
in?iai?ii? i?e?ioei?ith, yea iiaea ia?aaeaaaoenue ianoa?eeueieie
?icaaaethaa/aie.

C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iiai ??aiy ?iaioe ioieo?a
ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy nia?ie, noai?aii ?
ai?iaaaeaeaii a ae?iaieoeoai anaioe/iee niin?a oa i?eno??e aeey ioe?iee
nia?ie a aa?iaoeciaaieo nia?iiaeicao.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa a ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia iniaenoi aaoi?ii,
naiino?eii i?iaaaeai? an? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa oai?aoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiai-ae?iaie/? aeine?aee i?iaaaeai? c iniaenoith
o/anoth aaoi?a ia aac? aenia?eiaioaeueii-iaoiaee/ii? noaioe?? ooo/iiai
in?iai?iiy aeine?aeiiai ainiiaea?noaa “Oe?a?iea”, Oa?e?anueeiai
ieaiia’?aeiaiiy oa I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-ae?iaie/i? anioe?aoe??
“Aia??ii”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ?
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? ? iaaiai?ai? a aeiiia?aeyo
Ananithcii? eiioa?aioe?? “E??ia?ieia?y ? e??iiaaeeoeeia”, 1984, Oa?e?a;
10 th International Congress on Animal Reproduction and Artificial
Insemination (10-14 June, 1984 – Illinois, U.S.A.); iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iiaua iaoiaeu e aeioaoiieiaey a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa”, 1991,
Eeaa; I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oniaoe a nia?aiaiiie e?eiaeieiaee”
(21-25 ai?aey 1992, Oa?ueeia). A iiaiiio ia’?i? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue iaaiai?thaaeenue ia ia’?aeiaiiio can?aeaii? a?aeae?e?a
a?ieia?? ?iciiiaeaiiy oa ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oaa?ei, a?ioaoiieia?? a?aeoai?aiiy oaa?ei oa o?c?ieia??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o 3 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, 5
iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e ? eiia?ano, 2 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaao,
2 iaoaioao Oe?a?ie oa ?in??.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
iniiaii? /anoeie, aeniiae?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, aeiiiaiaiiy ?
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 132 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai ae?oeo, i?noeoue 24 oaaeeoe?, 3 ?ethno?aoe??, 9
aeiaeaoe?a. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 212 aeaea?ae, a oiio /ene? 62
?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoee: nia?ia aoaa?a, aa?ai?a ? eio??a, aeiaoie
eo?y/eo y?oeue ? eiai eiiiiiaioe, naieoe? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.
Oa?iinoaa?eueiee aioeoieiaee eiiiiiaio aeeo/aee c aeiaoea aeno?aaoaaiiyi
ia neiino?oeiaaiiio iaie i?eno?i?. A?aeieaaiiy nia?i??a a?ae caoenieo
eiiiiiaio?a cae?enithaaee oeaio?eooaeiei iaoiaeii, i?iao ia
oaiia?aoo?iee oie i?iaiaeeee ca AeANO 20909.4-75. I?aea?? eiiiiiaio?a
na?aaeiaeua i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii cono??/ieo ?yae?a ca A.E.I?eiaaiiaei,
1962. Iniioe/iee oene na?aaeiaeua aei??thaaee e??ineii?/iei iaoiaeii.
Eiioeaio?aoe?th aiaeiaaeo eii?a (?I) aecia/aee ia ?iiiiao?? AA-74 (ca
AeANO 20909.5-75). Caii?iaeoaaee nia?io ca Oa?e?anueeith oaoiieia??th.
?ooeea?noue, aeaeeaai?noue a aiaeeiao, iieaciee aaniethoii? aeaeeaaiino?
nia?i??a aecia/aee, ca?aeii c /eiieie AeANOaie ia iaoeaio ? caii?iaeaio
nia?io (AeANO 23745-79, AeANO 26030-83, AeANO 27777-88). Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a na?aaeiaeu ia aaeoa??ieia?/io caa?oaeiai?noue
i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith, caoaa?aeaeaiith AOA INA N?N?, 1969. An?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaee ia ?icae?eaieo ayeoeyoao.

A on?o aeine?aeao i?e aea/aii? caie?aeithth/i? caeaoiino? ii??aiyeuei?
a?oie oaa?ei i?e in?iai?ii? i?aeae?aee ca i?eioeeiii ia?-aiaeia?a.
Naieoeue in?iaiyee aeaie?aoii a iaeio ioioo iaii- aai a?cioea?a?eaeueiei
niiniaii. Io?eiai? aeai? i?aeaeaaaee noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe?
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie. Ioe?ieo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaiaeeee ca
e?eoa???i Nouethaeaioa. ??cieoey aaaaeaeanue a??ia?aeiith i?e ? 0,5). Aiaeia?/ia
caeaaei?noue aeyaeaia ? a aeine?aeao ia noaoaaeo ee?oeiao aa?aia ?
eio?a. Iieaciee ?ooeeaino? nia?i??a aoaay i?ney ?icaaaeaiiy ?
iine?aeoth/eo a?aeieaaiue a aeine?aeieo ? eiio?ieueieo c?aceao
a??ia?aeii cieaeoaaany (? 0,5). C aeaieo aene?aeaeaiue aeo?ea?, ui
aioeoieiaee eiiiiiaio (3%) ? iaoeaiee aeiaoie (30%) caoeuathoue nia?i??
aoaay, aa?aia ? eio?a a?ae oaiia?aoo?iiai oieo ia iaeiiio ??ai?.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieea aioeoieiaiai eiiiiiaioo ? iaoeaiiai aeiaoea a

na?aaeiaeu? ia e??i?ac?noaioi?noue nia?i??a aoaay, aa?aia ? eio?a

Aoaie ia?iaee ?ooeea?noue nia?i??a, aaeeR-eiao?oe?aio

e??i?ac?noaioiino?nia?iena?aaeiaeua c aeiaoeiina?aaeiaeua c aioeoi-

eiaei eiiiiiaioiina?aaeiaeua c aeiaoeiina?aaeiaeua c aioeoieiaeiaei
oieoi?ney oieoaei oieoi?ney oieoeiiiiiaioiiNia?ia aoaa?a (12)?icaaa-

eaiiy

7,1±0,18

3,95±0,22

6,8±0,25

3,95±0,14

0,55±0,1*

0,58±0,24*A?aeie-aaiiy

5,9±0,18

3,4±0,29

5,8±0,20

3,1±0,28

0,57±0,04*

0,55±0,04*Nia?ia aa?ai?a (10)?icaaa-eaiiy

6,3±0,11

2,4±0,15

6,4±0,13

2,3±0,13

0,38±0,02*

0,35±0,02*A?aeie-aaiiy

6,2±0,08

2,3±0,15

6,2±0,08

2,2±0,11

0,37±0,03*

0,35±0,03*Nia?ia eio??a (15)?icaaa-eaiiy

6,5±0,34

2,6±0,3

6,6±0,34

2,7±0,3

0,40±0,05*

0,40±0,03*A?aeie-aaiiy

6,2±0,4

2,6±0,4

6,1±0,6

2,8±0,4

0,41±0,04*

0,45±0,03** A??ia?aei?noue ??cieoe? (? > 0,5).

Caoenia ae?y aeno?aeoo iiynith?oueny ooai?aiiyi ia iiaa?oi? iaia?aie
nia?i?y e?iii?ioa?iiaiai i?ioa?eo, caiia?aath/iai iioeiaeaeoth/?e ae??
oieiaeo. Caa?aaeaiiy oeueiai i?ioa?eo i?ney aaaaoi?aciaiai a?aeieaaiiy
na?ae/eoue i?i i?oeiee o?i?/iee ca’ycie aioeoieiaiai eiiiiiaioo c
iaia?aiaie ee?oeie, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeine?aeaeaiiyie O.?.Inoaoei,
I.I.Iaaeaiei, 1976; I.I.Iaaeaiei, 1981 ? aenia?eiaioaeueii
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii J.Fulkes, 1978, yeee oaeiae niinoa??aaa i?oeiee ca’ycie
e?i?ae?a aeiaoea, i?/aieo ?aae?iaeoeaiei aoaeaoeai N17 c ieaciaoe/ieie
iaia?aiaie nia?i??a, iacaaaoe oeae ca’ycie o?i?/iei.

Oaeei /eiii, iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie aia?oa aecia/aii ??aaiue caoenoo
noaoaaeo ee?oei eiiiiiaioaie aeiaoea a?ae oaiia?aoo?iiai oieo ?
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iiaeaeue (O.?.Inoaoei, 1963) caoenii? ae?? aeiaoea ia
aeea? ee?oeie. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe a?aee?eaaee ia?niaeoeao noai?aiiy
ooo/ieo na?aaeiaeu aeey ??cieo aeae?a oaa?ei c e?aueie nai?oa?ieie,
a?ieia?/ieie, aeieia?/ieie ? oaoi?/ieie iieacieeaie.

Cia/iee ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaey? ieoaiiy aea/aiiy iiaeeeaino? cai?ie
iaoeaiiai aeiaoea a ooo/ieo na?aaeiaeuao eiai eiiiiiaioaie i?e aeeaieiio
caii?iaeoaaii? nia?ie aoaa?a.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a iaie aoee io?eiai? ? aeei?enoai? aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue nie?oiaee, ao??iee, nie?o-ao??iee ? aoeaoiiiaee aeno?aeoe
aeiaoea. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue onoaiiaeaii, ui
iaea?eueo aenieo aioeoieiao ae?th i?e e??ieiina?aaoe?? nia?ie
i?iyaeythoue ao??iee ? nie?oiaee aeno?aeoe. ?ooeea?noue nia?ie a
ao??iiio aeno?aeo? i?ney ?icii?iaeoaaiiy noaiiaeee 4,3 aae?a ?
aeaeeaai?noue (Sa) 22,4 iaeeieoe?, a nie?oiaiio aeno?aeo? oe? iieacieee
noaiiaeee 4,2 ? 21,2, a?aeiia?aeii. Aenieia??ia?aeia cieaeaiiy
?ooeeaino? nia?i??a a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai (? 0,5

>0,5

>0,5

>0,5Aaeoa??ieia?/i?

aeine?aeaeaiiynooe?eueiee

??no

noa?.

noa?.

noa?.

noa?.

Ianooiiei aoaiii aeine?aeaeaiue aoei aecia/aiiy caie?aeithth/i?
caeaoiino? nia?ie, caeiina?aiaaii? a aeiaaicaa?aaeiiio ooo/iiio
na?aaeiaeu?. Iaoeiaee aeine?ae i?iaaaeaii a eieaini? OOO Ia?oc’?caeo
Aaeeei-Ao?eoenueeiai ?aeiio ia 140 aieiaao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae. Ca
aeaieie ?aeoaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ca ?icoaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui
caie?aeiai?noue i?ney ia?oiai in?iai?iiy a aeine?ae? noaiiaeea 71,2%, a
a eiio?ie? 69,2, ui aoei aeua ia ei?enoue aeine?aeo ia 2%. Oe?
?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aeei?enoaiiy caa?aaeaiiai i?e
e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? i?ioyaii 2 ?ie?a na?aaeiaeua aeey e??ieiina?aaoe??
nia?ie caaacia/eei caie?aeithth/o caeaoi?noue naieoeue ia iaeiiio ??ai?
c? nia?iith, caeiina?aiaaiith a noaiaea?oiiio na?aaeiaeu?, ae?iaeaiiio
ia?aae ?icaaaeaiiyi nia?ie. Iaoeiai-ae?iaie/ee aeine?ae i?iaaaeaii a
eieainiao “?in?y” Iiai-Ieeiea?anueeiai ?aeiio Caii??aenueei? iaeano?;
“Eai?inueea ?ne?a” Iooe?nueeiai ?aeiio Noinueei? iaeano? ? aeine?aeiiio
ainiiaea?noa? “Oe?a?iea” ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI, aea aoei
in?iaiaii 3299 ei??a ? oaeeoeue nia?iith ?icae?eaieo ayeoeyo?a. C
in?iaiaieo 1816 naieoeue aeine?aeiith nia?iith i?ioeaio caie?aeiaiino?
i?ney ia?oiai in?iai?iiy neeaaeaa a na?aaeiueiio 62,2%, ui aoei aeua a
ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai ia 2% ? ia a?ae??ciyeinue a?ae a?aeiia?aeieo
iieaciee?a, io?eiaieo a ii??aiyeueiiio iaoeiaiio aeine?ae?.

Iaea?aeai? iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
oa?iinoaa?eueiiai aeiaaicaa?aaeiiai na?aaeiaeua aeathoue i?aenoaao aeey
i?aai?caoe?? oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai eiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia i?aei?e?inoaao
oa?iaeieia?/ii? ? a?ieia?/ii? i?iieneiaino?. Iaeiae, oea iia’ycaii c
aeiaeaoeiaeie eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiyie. Oiio, ia ia??iae ae??oaiiy oeueiai
ieoaiiy aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo ? i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy
i?inoeo, aoaeoeaieo ? aeaoaaeo niinia?a noa?ee?caoe??
aeiaoieoo?eiath/eo na?aaeiaeu. Ia iaoo aeoieo, ca nai?ie
o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie aeey noa?ee?caoe?? na?aaeiaeu, iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiei aioenaioeeii iiaea aooe ia?aeen aiaeith.

Aeey aea/aiiy ae?? aioenaioeea i?iaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aecia/aiith
nooiaiy oiene/iino? ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e 33%-iiai ia?aeeno aiaeith aei
nia?ie aoaa?a ? ??aiy eiai aaeoa?eoeeaeii? ae?? a neeaae? na?aaeiaeua c
aeiaoeii. Onoaiiaeaii, ui ia?aeen aiaeith a eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,02…0,03%
ia aieeaa? oiene/ii ia noaoaa? ee?oeie. I?e eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,02%
a?aei?/aii noeioethth/o ae?th i?iaeoeo?a ?iciaaeo I2I2 ia nia?i??. I?e
oeueiio na?aaeiy aeaeeaai?noue noaoaaeo ee?oei aoea aeua a ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieai ia 2 aiaeeie, iieaciee aaniethoii? aeaeeaaiino? ia 4,6
iaeeieoeue (59,7 a aeine?ae? i?ioe 55,1 a eiio?ie?), a aaeoa?eoeeaeia
ae?y aeine?aeiiai aioenaioeea a na?aaeiaeu? i?iyaeyeanue aaea i?e 0,03%.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e caii?iaeaii? nia?ie a na?aaeiaeu? c ai?noii
aioenaioeea a eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,02…0,03% ?ooeea?noue nia?i??a i?ney
aeaeiina?aaoe?? neeaea 4,8 i?ioe 4,4 aae?a, a eiio?ie?. Oaea ae
caeaaei?noue aoea a?aei?/aia ? ca iieacieeii ?? aaniethoii? aeaeeaaiino?
22,3 i?ioe 20,3%. Ui-aei aaeoa?eoeeaeiiai aieeao I2I2 ia i?e?ioei?o
i/aaeaeii, ui i?e ?? eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,02% a na?aaeiaeu? cao?eniaaia
iayai?noue (8-10 i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a 1 ie), a ii/eiath/e c 0,03%
eiioeaio?aoe?? ? aeua an? c?acee aoee noa?eeueieie, a a eiio?ie?
niinoa??aaany nooe?eueiee ??no i?e?ioei?e.

?acii c oeei a?aei?/aii, ui ia?aeen aiaeith a aeicao, ia?aaeuoth/eo
0,03% ii?yae c aaeoa?eoeeaeiith ae??th i?iyaey? oiene/io ae?th ia
nia?i??. Eiia??ii oea iiyith?oueny oei, ui i?e i?aeaeuaiieo
eiioeaio?aoe?yo ia?aeeno aiaeith ia an? aoiie eenith anoeaathoue
ia’?aeiaoenue a iieaeoee ? aiie ae?thoue ia noaoaa? ee?oeie a oae?e aea
i??? caoaii, ye ? ia i?e?ii?aai?cie ca ?aooiie aoiia?iiai eenith.

Aeey aea/aiiy n?ia?a?aeii? ae?? I2I2 ni?eueii c oa?iiia?iaeith, a
oaeiae aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aaeoa?eoeeaeii? o?i?/ii?
?a/iaeie i?iaaee niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy,?acoeueoaoe yeeo iieacai? a
oaaeeoe? 4. Aeai? oaaeeoe? aeacothoue ia oa, ui aeei?enoaiee
n?ia?a?aeiee niin?a noa?ee?caoe?? caaacia/ea noa?eeuei?noue na?aaeiaeua
i?e aeicao aioenaioeea 0,1…0,01% ia 100 ie. Oaeee ?aaeei noa?ee?caoe??
aeicaieea cieceoe noa?ee?coth/o aeico I2I2 a 10 ?ac?a ? oieeiooe
oiene/iino? aioenaioeea.

Oaaeeoey 4

Aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueii? noa?ee?coth/i? aeice I2I2

ni?eueii c iaa??aii i?e +65° N/40 oa.

IieacieeeEiio-

?ieueE?euee?noue I2I2 (ie) a na?aaeiaeu? 0,1
1,090,080,070,060,050,040,030,020,01??aaiue aae-

oa??aeueii?

caa?oaeia-iino?

106

106

106

106

106

106

106

106

106

106

106?acoeueoaoe

aaeoa??iei-

a?/ieo

aeine?aeaeaiue

++++

nooe.

??no

noa?

noa?

noa?

noa?

noa?

noa?

noa?

noa?

noa?

noa?

C iaoith io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai naioth/iai aoaeoo a?ae n?ia?a?aeiiai
niiniao noa?ee?caoe?? aecia/aee aeiionoeio aa?oith iaaeo iaa??ao
na?aaeiaeua c aeiaoeii.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue onoaiiaeaii, ui iioeiaeueiei ?aaeeiii
i?ia??ao na?aaeiaeua c aeiaoeii aoee oaiia?aoo?e +65…75°N i?e
aeniiceoe?? 40 – 20 oaeeei. Aneiiceoe?y aeine?aeieo c?ace?a i?e
oaiia?aoo?? + 60°N ia aa?aiooaaea naiaoe?? na?aaeiaeua, a i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e aei + 80°N i?ecaiaeeei aei aeaiaoo?aoe?? aeiaoea.

Aiae?coth/e ?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a ii ?ic?iaoe? o?i?ei-oa?i?/iiai
niiniao noa?ee?caoe?? ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ia?aeeno aiaeith c
aeiciaaiei iaa??aii ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui a?i caaacia/o? noa?ee?caoe?th ?
iiaea aooe canoiniaaiee aeey naiaoe?? a?ieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeu c ai?noii
oa?iieaa?eueieo eiiiiiaio?a. Aeae? aea/aee aieea aeiaaicaa?aaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua i?ney o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii? noa?ee?caoe?? ia ye?ni? iieacieee
nia?ie i?e e??ieiina?aoaaii?. Ca eiio?ieue a?aee na?aaeiaeua NAeN-1
(noa?eeueia aeiaaicaa?aaeia na?aaeiaeua) noa?ee?ciaaia ?aae?aoe?eiei
iaoiaeii. Ii??aiyeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaenoaaeai? a
oaaeeoe? 5

Aeai? oaaeeoe? na?ae/aoue, ui o?i?ei-oa?i?/iee niin?a noa?ee?caoe??
na?aaeiaeu ia aieeaa? iaaaoeaii ia noaoaa? ee?oeie a i?ioean? ?o
caii?iaeoaaiiy. Onoaiiaeaii c a??ia?aei?noth (? 0,5?ooeea?noue i?ney caii?i-

aeoaaiiy-a?aeoaiaiiy,aaee

4,0±0,01

4,2±0,02

>0,5Aeaeeaai?noue nia?i??a,

aiaeeie

7,0±0,05

9,0±0,05

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