2

Iaoeiiiaeueia Aeaaeaiiy Iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iinoeooo naioiai? aeiiiiiee i iiaeia?iaeieo aiaeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie

AA?I Ii?a

Iiaeaen OAeE 333(439+477)

Aeinaiae ?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa Oai?ueie a oiiaao
?eieiai? aeiiiiiee oa iiaeeeainoi eiai aeei?enoaiiy a Oe?a?ii

Niaoeiaeueiinoue 08.05.01 — naioiaa ainiiaea?noai

i iiaeia?iaeii aeiiiii/ii aiaeiineie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiiii/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1998

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iinoeoooi naioiai? aeiiiiiee i iiaeia?iaeieo aiaeiinei
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiai ea?iaieee: — aeieoi? aeiiiii/ieo iaoe

Aeiaoi Ieaenaiae? Eaeiaiiae/,

Caea?iaonueeee aa?ii?iieneiaee iinoeooo OAAI

— eaiaeeaeao aeiiiii/ieo iaoe

Ia?aae?ie Ieaenaiae? Naiieeiae/,

caaiaeoaa/ Oaeai?iaenueeiai aiaeaeieo Iinoeoooo naioiai? aeiiiiiee i
iiaeia?iaeieo aiaeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeaaeaiie OAAI, aeieoi? aeiiiii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?aaia/oe Aaeaioei Ieoaeeiae/,

caaiaeoaa/ aiaeaeieo Iinoeooo aeiiiiiee IAI Oe?a?ie

Naa/oe Aieoi? Iaaiiae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiiii/ii? oai?i? oa oi?aaeiiiy ia?iaeiei
ainiiaea?noaii Ee?anueeiaii oiiaa?neoaoo iiaii Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

I?iaiaeia — Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao, i.Oaeai?iae,
i?aaiicaoeiy eaoaae?a aeiiiiiee, iaiaaeaeiaioo oa
ia?eaoeiao

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny 17 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14-00 aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii
niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ii caoenoo aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiiii/ieo iaoe a Iinoeoooi naioiai?
aeiiiiiee i iiaeia?iaeieo aiaeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: i.Ee?a-30,
aoe.Eaiioiae/a, 5, eiioa?aioe-cae.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a aiaeiioaoei Iinoeoooo naioiai?
aeiiiiiee i iiaeia?iaeieo aiaeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee » 15 » eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiiii/ieo iaoe Oaoethe
A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iiney ?iciaaeo ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco
caoiaeii aenia?oe iaeiicia/ii aeniei ioeiithaaee aeiiiii/iee iioaioeiae
iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie, a oiio /enei e aa?iaeieiai/iee. Aeienii,
i?e?iaeii-eeiiaoe/ii oiiae aeey ae?iaieoeoaa aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo
i?iaeoeoia ni?eythoue, ii?yae ic caaacia/aiiyi iio?aa ianaeaiiy o
i?iaeoeoao oa?/oaaiiy ca ?aooiie aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa, noai?aiith
aenii?oieo oiiaeia i?iaeoeoei? nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa oa?/iai?
i?iieneiainoi. Ae?oaa ieoaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aa?iaeieiai/iee
iioaioeiae Oe?a?ie, ia aeoieo aaoi?a aeena?oaoei?, aeei?enoiao?oueny
iaaeinoaoiuei, c iecueeei aoaeoii.

Aiaeiai/ia iieiaeaiiy niinoa?iaa?oueny i a Oai?ueii. Aeinyaiaiiy o
?icaeoeo aa?a?ii? noa?e o e?a?ii o 1970-1980-o ?ieao io?eiaee ananaioi?
aeciaiiy. Ii ?yaeo iieacieeia — a?iaeaeiinoue ie?aieo
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ooaeiae oa ioeoei,
ae?iaieoeoai ia aeooo ianaeaiiy ca?ia, i’yna — Oai?ueia caeiaea iaeia c
ia?oeo iinoeue ia oieueee a ?a?iii, aea e o naioi. O 1980-o ?ieao
aieueoa 1/3 ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoei? nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
aenii?ooaaeiny a naiaeiio aai ia?a?iaeaiiio aeaei. Ic ciiiith
iieioe/iiai eo?no — a ?acoeueoaoi ia?oeo aieueieo aeai?ia o 1990 ?ioei a
Oai?ueii noi?ioaaany i?aaioeaio?enonueeee o?yae — oi?noaaiiy
aeaeieaeoeaicaoei? a aa?a?iie iieioeoei nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aeaei
cai?ioiee aoaeo. Ae?iaieoeoai nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoei? o
1990-1995-o ?ieao nei?ioeeiny aieueo iiae ia 30%, oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi
— ia 20%. C?icoiiei, ui niaae aoei aecaaii oaeiae /a?ac ao?aoo noieeiai
?eieo caooo i?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeoeoei? o ca’yceo c ?iciaaeii ?AA.
Iaeiae, ia iiaeia ia a?aoe aei oaaae ?yae iioeo ianoaaei.
Aeaeieaeoeaicaoeiy nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ii eiio?eaooeieieo
na?oeoieaoao, ii?yae c iathaaiiyi a?iiaaenueeiai iaeia
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iiaei?e?inoa, i?eaaea aei oi?ioaaiiy o
ianiaiio ianooaai ea?eeeiaeo, iaaoaeoeaieo iaeiiiniaieo ainiiaea?noa.
I?eaaoecaoeiy iiaei?e?inoa oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi oeieiai ?yaeo aaeocae
i?iaiaeeeany c ii?ooaiiyi iioa?ania a?iiaaeyi Oai?ueie, caoiaeii
iiaanoi?e, yei i?eaeaaee ia oieueee eiio?ieueiee iaeao aeoeie, aea e
100% aeoeie a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao, iaea?aeaee iiiiiieueia i?aai c
aeieeaath/eie caiaene ianeiaeeaie.

I?iaeiaieue/a ainiiaea?noai ie?aieo e?a?i — ae?oaee oa o?aoie aeiee
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, ? ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiue oe?a?inueeeo
a/aieo. ?acii c oei iaiaoiaeii aiaeiioeoe oa, ui a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo
aaoi? aeena?oaoei? ia cono?i/aa aeinoiai?ieo aeniiaeia aiaeiinii iiaiai
aoaio ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia o e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii-Noiaeii? ?a?iie. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeineiaeaeaiue,
i?iaaaeaieo a i?aaenoaaeaiie aeena?oaoei?, ai?iaiaeii, noaia iiaeeeaei
aeaoe iaa?oioiaaio ioeiieo ?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa
Oai?ueie oa c?iaeoe aiaeiiaiaeii aeniiaee uiaei oieeiaiiy aiaeiai/ieo
iiieeie, yei aoee aeiiouaii a noniaeiie e?a?ii i?e ia?aoiaei aei
?eieiaeo aiaeiinei.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. A aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi ia iniiai
oai?aoe/ieo aniaeoia i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa a
eiie?aoiie e?a?ii, a naia, a Oai?ueii, a inoi?e/iiio ieaii aeaoaeueii
?icaeyaeathoueny oi iniiaii iiiaioe, yei ? oa?aeoa?ieie aeey oiia
ia?aoiaeiiai ia?iiaeo aei ?eieiaeo aiaeiinei.

Aiaeiiaiaeii aei iaoe ?iaioe iinoaaeaii neiaeoth/i caaaeaiiy:

— aeyaeoe caeiiiii?iinoue oa aoaeoeaiinoue aeei?enoaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?iaie i?e oi?ioaaiii i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa;

— aecia/eoe iinoea i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa a aeiiiiioei Oai?ueie;

— aeineiaeeoe i?ioean iioaa?aoei? ae?iaieoeoaa eiioeaai? i?iaeoeoei?
i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa c iiceoei? eiai aoaeoeaiinoi;

— aecia/eoe oi iiiaioe o ?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa Oai?ueie
a ia?iiae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo aiaeiinei, yei iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoaii a Oe?a?ii.

Ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ? ae?oaee oa o?aoie aeiee aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno Oai?ueie — nieuenueea ainiiaea?noai oa oa?/iaa i?iieneiainoue,
c iaaiei o?aooaaiiyi i?iaeai ?aaeicaoei? aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia.

Iaoiaeieiaiy oa iaoiaeeea aeineiaeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith oa iaoiaee/iith
iniiaith aeineiaeaeaiiy ? ia’?eoeaia aeiiiii/ia iaoea, yea ?ice?eaa?
aca?iica’ycie iiae oai?aoe/ieie ?ic?iaeaie oa oaeoe/iei i?ioeanii
?icaeoeo iaeiiai c aaaeeeaeo eiiieaenia ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. A
aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi aeei?enoaii iiiia?aoi/iee iaoiae, noaoenoe/ii
a?oioaaiiy, iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/iiai aiaeico oiui.

Aaoi? aeena?oaoei? i?e aeineiaeaeaiii i?iaeai ?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai
ainiiaea?noaa a oai?aoe/iiio ieaii oa aiaeiiaiaeii aei aeaiiai i?ioeano
a Oai?ueii aeei?enoaa ?iaioe oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo I.E.Aeiaoi, A.I.Aieea,
I.I.Iieuaiea, I.O.Naaeoea, A.A.Oaie, A.A.TH?/eoeia, oai?nueeeo a/aieo
E.Aaiaoa, ?.Ao?aa?a, A.Oacaeaoa, O.Oaeaoa, C.Eaeia?a, ss.Ia?oiia,
E.Iaeiaoe, Ae.Aa?ae, I.Nth/a oa iioeo.

Noaoenoe/io aaco aeineiaeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue cai?ieee Oeaio?aeueiiai
noaoenoe/iiai Oi?aaeiiiy Oai?ueie, iaoa?iaee iinoeoooo aa?a?ii?
aeiiiiiee oa iioi?iaoeee Aeaaeaii? iaoe Oai?ueie (Iinoeooo acya ia naaa
ooieoei? ?icoi?iiaaiiai Noaoenoe/iiai i aiaeioe/iiai oeaio?o
Iiiinoa?noaa nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa i i?iaeiaieuenoaa Oai?ueie),
iaoa?iaee ?aaiiiaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue ii ?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai
ainiiaea?noaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia oa ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue, io?eiaii iniaenoi
aaoi?ii, yei aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— iaa?oioiaaii ye aeiiiii/ii, oae i iieioe/ii, aniaeoe i?ii?eoaoiiai
?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa Oai?ueie, i?e oeueiio anoaiiaeaii
aieea ciiie iieioe/iiai eo?no ia oiae oa iai?yie ?icaeoeo;

— aia?oa ?iaeoueny ni?iaa eiiieaeniiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ae?oaiai oa
o?aoueiai aeieia aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno — i?iaeiaieue/iai
ainiiaea?noaa Oai?ueie a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo aiaeiinei;

— i?iaaaeaia a ?iaioi aeineiaeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi iioaa?aoei?
ae?iaieoeoaa aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia aeyaeei iiai, a cia/iie ii?i
aiaeiiiii aiae ia?iiaeo aei 1990 ?ieo, iiiaioe oa oi?ie iioaa?aoei? a
nieuenueeiio ainiiaea?noai a oeieiio, e a i?iaeiaieue/iio ainiiaea?noai
cie?aia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe, iineieueee aiia aeiineoueny
ia caoeno a Oe?a?ii, iieyaa? a i?aaenoaaeaiii i?aaiai oi?aaeiiiy oa
eii?aeeiaoei? aa?ii?iieneiaei eiiieaenii Oe?a?ie iioi?iaoei? uiaei
iayaieo i?iaeai ae?iaieoeoaa aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia a ia?aoiaeiee
ia?iiae aei ?eieiaeo aiaeiinei oa i?i iiaeeeai oeyoe iiaeieaiiy oeeo
i?iaeai.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?. Aaoi? aeena?oaoei? a?aa e oaia?
aa?a o/anoue o ?ic?iaoei eiioeaioeie ?icaeoeo aeiiiiiee
Naaie/-Naoia?-Aa?aa iaeanoi Oai?ueie, aea aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ?acoeueoaoe
eiai aeineiaeaeaiue a /anoeii aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aa?iaeieiai/iiai
iioaioeiaeo ?aaiiio. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue ii aeena?oaoeieiie
?iaioi ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy a ioaeieaoeiyo a Oai?ueii oa Oe?a?ii,
aeiiiaiaeaeeny ia ?aaiiiaeueieo oa iiaeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioeiyo.
Ai?iaaoeiy aeena?oaoei? aiaeaoeany ia caniaeaiii Oaeai?iaenueeiai
aiaeaeieo Iinoeoooo naioiai? aeiiiiiee i iiaeia?iaeieo aiaeiinei IAI
Oe?a?ie 24 eaioiy 1998 ?.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeia; nieneo aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e, . Anueiai
ianya ?iaioe — 144 noi?iiee. ?iaioa iinoeoue a niai 17 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O ia?oie aeaai aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe ?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/ii
aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa — ae?oaiai oa o?aoueiai
aeieia aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno ie?aieo e?a?i. Aaoi? ?iaioe ia
caia?a/o? i?aaeeueiinoue aeeth/aiiy a i?iaeiaieue/a ainiiaea?noai noa?e
oi?aiaei aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eie i?iaeoeoaie a ia?iiae ieaiiai? aeiiiiiee —
oi?aiaey ca oeo noniieueieo aiaeiinei aeienii aoea a ?aeeiie eaioei e a
cia/iie ii?i ?aaoethaaeany aea?aeaaith ye ca ianyaii, oae i ca
oeiiiooai?aiiyi. Iaeiae, a ia?iiae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo aiaeiinei ia
ia?aaeiie ieai aenooia? niiaeea/a aa?oinoue oiaa?o —
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei iiaei?e?inoaa, iaeiiiniaii naeyinueei
ainiiaea?noaa, iiaei?e?inoaa oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi i?aoeththoue ia
iiieo, e aiie, ae?iaieee aa?ii?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeoeoei?, a cia/iie ii?i
aiaei?aaii aiae iiia?aaeiuei caieaiiaaiiai oeyoo i?ioiaeaeaiiy
i?iaeoeoei? aei niiaeeaa/a. Oaeei /eiii, oi?aiaeth iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye
ie?aio noa?o aeiiiiiee e?a?ie.

A aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi aea?oueny iaaaeeeee inoi?e/iee aiaeic ?icaeoeo
ae?iaieoeoaa aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia a Oai?ueii a ia?iiae iiney
ae?oai? naioiai? aieie. Ooo iniiaiee aeoeaio ?iaeoueny ia iieioe/ieo
aniaeoao i?ii?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa e?a?ie,
yei yne?aai i?iyaeeeny iiney iiaeie 1956 ?ieo. Oai?nueea Nioeiaeinoe/ia
?iai/a ia?oiy, yea i?eeoea aei aeaaee, i?aaeeueii aecia/eeanue a oiio,
ui oiiaith eiinieiaeaoei? noniieuenoaa ? i?iaeiaieue/a caaacia/aiiy
ianaeaiiy. ?acii c oei, i?ii?eoaoiee ?icaeoie i?iaeiaieue/iai
ainiiaea?noaa iaa oaeiae i aeiiiii/iee aniaeo. Aeinaiae Oai?ueie
iieaco?, ui i?e neeaaeieo aeiiiii/ieo oiiaao, c?icoiiei, i?e iayaiinoi
aenieiai aa?iaeieiai/iiai iioaioeiaeo e?a?ie, oi?noaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
aa?ii?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeoeoei? i?e noai?aiii aiaeiiaiaeieo oiia iiaea
aeaanoe ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai c e?eciaiai noaio.

A ae?oaiio ?icaeiei ia?oi? aeaae aeaoaeueii aeineiaeaeo?oueny ia?iiae
iiney ciiie iieioe/iiai eo?no a 1990 ?ioei. Oai?nueea iiaeaeue
nioeiaeinoe/iiai nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, caniiaaia ia ae?iaieoeoai
i?iaeoeoei? ?ineeiieoeoaa oa oaa?eiieoeoaa o aaeeeeo
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iiaei?e?inoaao aea?aeaaiiai e eiiia?aoeaiiai
naeoi?a aaeoci i a iioaa?iaaieo aea?aeainiaie e eiiia?aoeaaie
ainiiaea?noaao ianaeaiiy, yea aoea iniiaiei aeinyaiaiiyi
ananaioiueiaeciaieo oniioia i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa Oai?ueie a
1970-1980-o ?ieao, i?aeoe/ii ia?anoaea inioaaoe. Aa?a?ia iieioeea
i?aaioeaio?enonueeiai o?yaeo, yeee i?eeoia aei aeaaee ca ?acoeueoaoaie
aeai?ia o 1990 ?ioei, a iniiao ?icaeoeo nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
iieeaa aeaeieaeoeaicaoeith aaeoci, a ?acoeueoaoi /iai a ianiaiio
ii?yaeeo (iiiaae 1,5 iei.) oi?ioaaeeny iecueeii?iaeoeoeaii iaeiiiniaii
ainiiaea?noaa. A aaeocyo oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi oae caaia «aeeea
i?eaaoecaoeiy» oaeiae aeaea cai?ioiee aoaeo. ?acii c oei neiae
aiaeiioeoe, ui eiaioeaio?enonueeee o?yae, yeee i?eeoia aei aeaaee iiney
aieueieo aeai?ia o 1994 ?ioei, aoa ia a ciici aei?aaeoe noaiiaeua, ia
iath/e iineiaeiaii? aa?a?ii? iieioeee. Iaeii/anii iaeaooiie anooi
Oai?ueie aei ?a?iiaenueeeo aeiiiii/ieo no?oeoo? — ?a?iiaenueeee Nithc —
aenoaa? iiai, aei oeueiai /ano ua iaei aea/aii aeiiae uiaei ae?iaieoeoaa
aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia o e?a?ii.

Iinoea i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa a aeiiiiioei ie?aieo e?a?i
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny o/anoth o noai?aiii aaeiaiai aioo?ioiueiai i?iaeoeoo.
A Oai?ueii aiii noaiiaeei a 1991 ?ioei 14,2%, o oiio /enei nieuenueea
ainiiaea?noai — 8,6%, oa?/iaa i?iieneiainoue — 5,6%, a a 1994 ?ioei
aiaeiiaiaeii — 11,5%, 6,4%, 5,1%, oiaoi /anoea i?iaeiaieue/iai
ainiiaea?noaa ciaioeeanue. Iaeiae, a?aoiaoth/e oa, ui a 1980-o ?ieao i?e
iiaiiio caaacia/aiii iio?aa ianaeaiiy a i?iaeoeoao oa?/oaaiiy ia
aenieiio ?iaii ca ?aooiie aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a Oai?ueii aieueoa 1/3
ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoei? aenii?ooaaeiny o naiaeiio aai ia?a?iaeaiiio
aeaeyaei, o/anoue i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa a ciaiioiueioi?aiaiio
iai?ioi aea? iiaio oyao i?i cia/aiiy eiai aeey ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
e?a?ie.

Ca aeaieie oaaeeoei 1 iiaeia anoaiiaeoe, ui /anoea i?iaeiaieue/iai
ainiiaea?noaa a aenii?oi a 1986-1990-o ?ieao noaiiaeea 21,2%, a iiii?oi
— anueiai eeoa 7,3%, a 1995 ?ioei — aiaeiiaiaeii — 22,0 i 5,9%, oiaoi
ianyae aeaico aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia ca aeaiee ia?iiae c?inee,
caieueoeeanue eiai /anoea a aenii?oi i?e ciaioaiii ieoiii? aaae a
iiii?oi. Iaiaoiaeii aiaeiioeoe, ui aeoeaia naeueaei aenii?oo-iiii?oo
aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia o 1992-1995-o ?ieao, yeui iiaiinoth ia
iiaei eiiiainoaaoe iaiaoiaeiee iiii?o aia?aiiini?a, ne?iaeie i o.i., oi
iaaaaaoi cieceei aeaoioeeo ciaiioiueioi?aiaiai aaeaino e?a?ie.

Ni?aaaaeeeai aoaea aiaeiioeoe, ui a 1996-1997-o ?ieao /anoea i?iaeoeoei?
i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa a aenii?oi Oai?ueie ciaioeeanue i?e
ia?aaaaeath/iio aeaici i?iaeoeoei? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy i oi/ii? iaoaiiee
(aeaany aciaee ?acoeueoao i?eaaoecaoei? ca o/anoth iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia,
i?ioa oea oaia iioeo aeineiaeaeaiue).

O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei ia?oi? aeaae aoee ?icaeyiooi iieioe/ii aniaeoe ciiie
eo?no ca ?acoeueoaoaie ia?oeo aieueieo aeai?ia o 1990 ?ioei, eiee aei
aeaaee i?eeoia i?aaioeaio?enonueeee o?yae i eiee aa?a?ia noa?a aoea
aiaeaeaia eiaeioeieiiio ia?oia?o — ia?aiiaeoeth ia?oi? Oai?nueeiai
Aeaiie?aoe/iiai Oi?oio, Ia?oi? ae?iaieo naeyi. Caaaeaiee ?aiioa ?icaae
oai?nueei? iiaeaei nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aoa, ia aeoieo aaoi?a
aeena?oaoei?, iniiaiith i?e/eiith ?iceiai niaaeo ae?iaieoeoaa
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoei? o 1991-1995 ?ieao (oaaeeoey 2).

?ic?aooiee a aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui aoaeoeaiinoue
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoei? ?ineeiieoeoaa e oaa?eiieoeoaa a iaeiiiniaieo
ainiiaea?noaao ieae/a iieacieeia eiiia?aoeaia i aea?aeainiia, yei
caa?aaeeny, a oaeiae iieacieeia iiai? i?aaiicaoeieii? oi?ie a
nieuenueeiio ainiiaea?noai — ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa.

Ie?aiee ?icaeie a aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi i?enay/aiee i?iaeaiai ?icaeoeo
oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi a ia?iiae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo aiaeiinei. Ca
aeinooiieie aaoi?o iaoa?iaeaie aaeaeiny anoaiiaeoe oaiaeaioeith
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie a oeth aaeocue. O oeieiio ca
?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaii? i?eaaoecaoei? a 1991-1995-o ?ieao o
iiaei?e?inoaao oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi /anoea iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo
noaiiaeea 53%, ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa, caniiaieeaie yeeo ? eeoa
a?iiaaeyie Oai?ueie — 21%, i?eaaoia aeaniinoue a?iiaaeyi Oai?ueie —
7,6%, iioa (iioeo th?eaee/ieo inia) — 6,1%, o aea?aeaaiie aeaniinoi
caeeoeeinue anueiai 12,3%. Iaeiae, iiicaiii iiaanoeoei? a oa?/iao
i?iieneiainoue iaaeoiaeyoue ia?iaiiii?ii — ie?aii aeniei?aioaaaeueii
aaeoci, iai?eeeaae ianei?iaia i?iieneiainoue ia?aeoee iiaiinoth aei ?oe
iiicaioeia, o oie /an ye iiicaiii eaiioaeiaeeaaeaiiy o ioeiiaeueio e
i’ynio i?iieneiainoi iiiiiaeueii (oaaeeoey 3).

Uiaei iaoiaeia i?eaaoecaoei? a aaeocyo oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi, oi neiae
aiaeiioeoe, ui a Oai?ueii oaeiae niinoa?iaa?oueny oaiaeaioeiy, ye i a
iioeo ie?aieo iinonioeiaeinoe/ieo e?a?iao, aeeoio iiaei?e?inoaa eiai
eieeoiii ea?iaieoeoaii. ?acii c oei, o oaeeo aeiaaeeao iiai aeanieee
oi/ii ciathoue iioaioeieii iiaeeeainoi iiaei?e?inoaa, i, ui naia
aieiaia, aieiaeithoue ciaiiyie aeey caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai
ooieoeiiioaaiiy i?eaeaaiiai ia’?eoa.

Iaeneeaaeiioei caaaeaiiyi o i?ioeani aeineiaeaeaiiy aoei anoaiiaeaiiy
aoaeoeaiinoi iioaa?aoei? ie?aieo eaiie ae?iaieoeoaa i ia?a?iaee
aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia. I?iaeaia a oiio, ui /ioea nenoaia cai?o
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo a Oai?ueii, ia aeaeue, c?oeiiaaia, a /anoeia
i?eaaoeciaaieo iiaei?e?inoa oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi aiaeiiaey?oueny
iiaeaaaoe caioiinoue i?i naith aeiyeueiinoue.

I?iaeaia ?icaeoeo iioaa?aoeieieo ca’yceia o i?iaeiaieue/iio
ainiiaea?noai Oai?ueie a iiaeo oiiaao ca inoaiii ?iee ?icaeyaeaeany o
i?aoeyo ?yaeo oai?nueeeo a/aieo. Aaoi? aeena?oaoei? i?e?aeio?oueny aei
iiceoeie, caiaeii c yeeie ?ieue iioaa?aoi?a iiaeiia aoaeoaaoeny ia
i?eioeeii anaioiiethth/i? eii?aeeiaoei? anueiai i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa e
ia?a?iaee nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?iaeoeoia. ?acii c oei, ia
no/aniiio aoaii ?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa Oai?ueie neiae
?ic?iciyoe ianooaaii iioaa?aoei?. C iaeiiai aieo, iioaa?aoi?aie
aenooiathoue ioeueoeiaoeiiiaeueii oi?ie, yei a ciici eii?aeeioaaoe
ae?iaieoeoai aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia ia oieueee a iaaeao
ie?aieo ?aaiiiia aai ani?? e?a?ie, aea e anueiai eiioeiaioo. Ia
ae?oaiio iiethni ciaoiaeyoueny iioaa?aoi?e ?aaiiiaeueiiai iie?i- e
iaciianooaao, eii?aeeioth/a aeiyeueiinoue yeeo iaiaaeo?oueny
ae?iaieoeoaii i?iaeoeoei? aeey caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa, a iniiaiiio, iaeiiai
?aaiiio. A aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi iaaaaeaii eiie?aoii i?eeeaaee i?i
?icii ianooaae, oa?aeoa?ii aeey ie?aieo aaeocae
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa cie?aia, e aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia o oeieiio.

C?icoiiei, ui eiioeaaith iaoith ?icaeoeo iioaa?aoei? ii aeaio aeieao
i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa iiae ae?iaieoeoaii i ia?a?iaeith
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie ? iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi
ae?iaieoeoaa aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia.

Aea iaaoioii ?acoeueoaoe ?icaeoeo nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oai?ueie a
1990-o ?ieao, aacoiiaii, aoee iioiaeieie, ineieueee, c iaeiiai aieo,
iaiaaeoiaia c?oeioaaiiy /ioei? nenoaie no?oeoo?e aa?a?ii? noa?e e?a?ie,
ye oaea caaaeoaaeinue, oaeoe/ia eieaiaeaoeiy oai?nueei? iiaeaei
nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, a c ae?oaiai aieo aeieeiaiiy iiaeeoeue —
ia?aaaaeath/ee ?ino oeii ia i?iieneiai iaoa?iaee, yei aeei?enoiaothoueny
a nieuenueeiio ainiiaea?noai,

Oaaeeoey 1. *anoea i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa a ciaiioiie oi?aiae?
Oai?ueie

O oeiiao aiaeiiaiaeieo ?ieia, iei.oi?eioia1986-1990

a na?aae-iueiio1992199319941995Aenii?o

Ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai — anueiai

501220

843566

819915

1128595

1622000Aa?ii?iaeiaieue/i i?iaeoeoe — anueiai

106476

202358

175068

231971

356396a oiio /enei:

i?iaeoeoeiy nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa

34924

72328

43426

61252

113171i?iaeoeoeiy oa?/iai?
i?iieneiainoi71552130030131642170719243225Iiii?o

Ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai — anueiai

479657

878503

1162491

1537002

1936400Aa?ii?iaeiaieue/i i?iaeoeoe — anueiai350085166768556104676114861a
oiio /enei:

i?iaeoeoeiy nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa

11215

11393

13292

31827

33853i?iaeoeoeiy oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi2379340274552647284981008

Oaaeeoey 2. Ae?iaieoeoai nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?iaeoeoia o
1991-1995 ??. (iei.oi?eioia o ii?iaiyeueieo oeiiao 1991 ?.)

Eoeueoo?eIi ?ieao1995 %19911992199319941995aei 1991Ca?iiai i
ca?iiaiaiai1119517114461748805767700068,8Oaoii/ii29031213081748520159241
0083,0Ea?oiiey152951475312826116801420092,8A?oai oa nieiaeoi
ei?ie19589139721270914708—Iai/i282382242621127216342350083,2O?oeoe24346
2241723396201361460060,6Aeiia?aae138931150311121112411020073,4Iioi
eoeueoo?e1190011343111358118—Anueiai i?iaeoeoeiy ?ineeiieoeoaa

254243

188866

171547

188252

186000

73,2I?iaeoeoeiy:

neioa?noaa

51395

48326

40603

37861

38000

73,2naeia?noaa752015770151712456484910065,3aia/a?noaa7534612541953445—i
oaoiaieoeoaa525674937047194499645130097,6iioeo aaeocae

oaa?eiieoeoaa

8165

8788

8935

9251

-Anueiai i?iaeoeoeiy oaa?eiieoeoaa

194862

170310

152639

146169

160900

77,4I?iaeoeoeiy nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa — anueiai

449105

359176

324186

334421

336900

75,0

Oaaeeoey 3. Iiicaiiee eaiioae o oa?/iaie i?iieneiainoi (% noaoooiiai
oiiaeo)

I?iieneiainoueAnueiai ii aaeocyoA niieueieo
iiaei?e?inoaaoI’ynia15,654,6Ioaoiaie/a9,021,6Iiei/ia29,090,2Ioeiiaeueia1
,238,1Ianei?iaia96,498,0Ei?iiaa4,440,2Eiina?aia20,772,4Oeoe?iaa27,732,7E
iiaeeoa?nueea90,895,7Nie?oiaa51,965,7Aeii?iaia24,881,7Ieaiaa?ia31,660,1I
?ioieiaeaeoth/i iaii?95,097,9

Oaaeeoey 4. Iiaeaene oeii o nieuenueeiio ainiiaea?noai (1990 ?.=100,0%)

Ii ?ieao19911992199319941995Iiaeaen oeii ia nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeo
i?iaeoeoeith

99,1

107,6

127,5

159,3

204,1Iiaeaen oeii ia i?iieneiao i?iaeoeoeith, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a
nieuenueeiio ainiiaea?noai

132,6

143,2

171,8

202,9

255,7a oiio /enei:

ei?ie i?iieneiaiai iioiaeaeaiiy

113,0

121,3

153,0

187,0iaeeaii-ianoeeueii iaoa?iaee, aeaeo?iaia?aiy

156,2

173,2

195,4

224,3iiia?aeueii aeia?eaa151,7146,7158,9199,2caniae caoenoo
?ineei128,0160,8181,2202,7aaoiaaeeeaiaioe130,8150,6172,2197,9iioi
caniae134,1150,2aoaeiaaeueii iaoa?iaee141,0166,4nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueea
oaoiiea, cai/anoeie

220,7

207,5Aa?a?ii iiaeeoei oeii — ia?a-aaaeath/a iiaeaeuaiiy oeii ia
iaoa?iaee i?iieneiaiai ii-oiaeaeaiiy ii?iaiyii c iiaeae-uaiiyi oeii ia
nieuenueei-ainiiaea?nueei i?iaeoeoe

133,8

133,1

134,7

124,7

125,3ii?iaiyii c ?inoii oeii ia i?iaeoeoeith ?ineeiieoeoaa e
oaa?eiieoeoaa, ui ?aaeico?oueny.

C?icoiiei, ui ?ice?eooy aa?a?ieo iiaeeoeue iaaaoeaii aieeioei e ia
ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoei? oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi — iiaei?iae/aiiy
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie i?ecaaei aei ?inoo niaiaa?oinoi, a
?acii c oeei i oeii ia i?iaeiaieue/i i?iaeoeoe, ui oo?oaeith? ?o
?aaeicaoeith. Iinoa? ieoaiiy, /e ciiaea ?icaeoie iioaa?aoeieieo ca’yceia
i?ioenoiyoe aeaiie oaiaeaioei?.

I?iaiicoaaoe ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aa?ii?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa
Oai?ueie aeoaea iai?inoa caaaeaiiy. C aaeeeith aiaaiaiinoth iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aiaeiiaeaiiy oai?nueei? iiaeaei nieuenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa iacaeieniaiia. Iaeiiiniaiee naeoi? nieuenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, noi?iiaaiee ca ?acoeueoaoaie aa?a?ii? iieioeee
i?aaioeaio?enonueeiai o?yaeo, yeee i?eeoia aei aeaaee a 1990 ?ioei,
iaeiaoaeoeaiee, ana aieueoa iaeiiiniaieo ainiiaea?noa noathoue
aaie?ooaie. Oaeee noai aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie iioaa?aoeieieo ca’yceia
ae?iaieoeoaa aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia, aea iioaa?aoi?ii aenooia?
aai nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueea iiaei?e?inoai, ui caa?aaeiny, aai
iiaei?e?inoai oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi, aaaeei iaeaaiaeeoe aeiaaino?ieiai
ae?iaie/i ca’ycee c i?iaeaiaoe/ieie ia?oia?aie. Anacaaaeueia
i?eaaoecaoeiy oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi ca o/anoth iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo
ni?ey? aoaeoeaiie aeiyeueiinoi ie?aieo ?? aaeocae. Iaeiae ia nueiaiaeii
iaio?, iiaeia neacaoe aeeea caoeieaaeaiinoue ie?aieo eaiie ae?iaieoeoaa
eiioeaai? i?iaeoeoei? a iiaeaeuaiii aoaeoeaiinoi — i?eaooeiainoi nai??
aeiyeueiinoi.

Ie?aiith noaooath aeineiaeaeaiue iiaeooue noaoe i?iaeaie iaeaooiueiai
anooio Oai?ueie aei ?a?iiaenueeeo aeiiiii/ieo no?oeoo? — ?a?iiaenueeee
Nithc. Ineieueee ia?aaiai?e ii/iooueny oieueee a 1998 ?ioei, aiia ia ?
oaiith oei?? aeena?oaoei? i eeoa a caeeth/aiii aea?oueny iineeaiiy ia
aeayei aniaeoe iaeaooiueiai ia?iiaeo.

AENIIAEE

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaieo o aeena?oaoei? aeineiaeaeaiue iiaeia
c?iaeoe oaei ocaaaeueithth/i aeniiaee:

1. I?ii?eoaoiee ?icaeoie i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa a Oai?ueii
aecia/a?oueny ?? aenieei aa?iaeieiai/iei iioaioeiaeii. Neiae aiaeiioeoe,
ui Oai?ueia a ieioeiio aoea aa?a?iith, e no?iiea nioeiaeinoe/ia
iiaeono?iaeicaoeiy ia ii/aoeo 50-o ?ieia, yea aianea iaaii ciiie a
no?oeoo?o ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ia ia?aoai?eea Oai?ueio a e?a?io
«caeica i iaoaeo» — i?iaieioaio i?ia?aiith «ea?oth/i? i iai?aaeyth/i?»
ia?oi?. Aiaenooiinoue ne?iaeiieo ?ano?nia i?iieneiainoi e oa ianoaaeia,
ui iio?aaa a aia?aiiiniyo ia 70-80% caaeiaieueiy?oueny iiii?oii,
aecia/eea iniiao aeey caa?aaeaiiy iiceoei? i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa
(oaae.1 i 2 aeena?oaoei? aecia/athoue iinoea i?iaeiaieue/iai
ainiiaea?noaa a aeiiiiioei Oai?ueie).

2. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeineiaeaeaiue ye oai?nueeeo, oae i aeayeeo
oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo, a oaeiae aaoi?a aeena?oaoei? naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui
i a neeaaeieo aeiiiii/ieo oa iieioe/ieo oiiaao i?ii?eoaoiee ?icaeoie
nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa e?a?ie (c?icoiiei, i?e iayaiinoi
aa?iaeieiai/iiai iioaioeiaeo) e aaeocae i?iieneiainoi ii ia?a?iaoei
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie iiaea aooe aeineoue aoaeoeaiei. I?e
oeueiio a Oai?ueii aaea a na?aaeeii 1960-o ?ieia, oiaoi aei ?aoi?ie 1968
?ieo, naia a nieuenueeiio ainiiaea?noai e oa?/iaie i?iieneiainoi aoee
cai?iaaaeaeaii ie?aii aeaiaioe ?eieiai? aeiiiiiee. Oea i aiaeiiia
iaia’yceiaiai aeeiiaiiy aea?aeaaieo caiiaeaiue ii ?aaeicaoei?
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoei?, inioaaiiy aaaaoieaiaeueii?
nenoaie iinoa/aiiy nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iiaei?e?inoa caniaaie
ae?iaieoeoaa, iaao?o/aiiy i?aaiia aeaaee o aeiyeueiinoue ae?iaieeia
aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia.

3. Oi?ioaaiiy oai?nueei? iiaeaei nioeiaeinoe/iiai nieuenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa aaea a na?aaeeii 1960-o ?ieia noaei i?aaeiaoii
aeaoaeueiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy a/aieie. Neiae aiaeiioeoe, ui i?iaaaeaii
?ic?aooiee naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui oiiaeiiinoeinoue ae?iaieoeoaa a
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iiaei?e?inoaao Oai?ueie — i?e oaeiio ae
aenieiio ?iaii ae?iaieoeoaa nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?iaeoeoia
(o?iaeaeiinoue eoeueoo?, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ooaeiae ? ioeoei oiui) — a 6
?acia aoea ieae/ith aiae iieacieeia oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa Caoiaeii?
?a?iie. ?icaeoie iioaa?aoeieieo ca’yceia, c iaeiiai aieo, iiae
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie iiaei?e?inoaaie i ainiiaea?noaaie ianaeaiiy
(yea caeiaei aei 15% nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaiaeue, aea ae?iaeyei,
caaaeyee ?o iioaa?aoei?, 1/3 i?iaeoeoei? nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa), c
ae?oaiai, iiae ae?iaieeaie nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoei? i
i?iieneiainoth ii ia?a?iaoei nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie, ni?eya
aoaeoeaiiio ooieoeiiioaaiith anueiai aa?oeeoio ae?iaieoeoaa
aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeoia.

4. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeineiaeaeaiue aieeao ciiie iieioe/iiai eo?no a 1990
?ioei ia ?icaeoie i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa a oeieiio e ia aa?a?io
noa?o Oai?ueie cie?aia, iiaeia c?iaeoe ?yae aaaeeeaeo aeniiaeia. Ia?o ca
ana, iiceoeiy aaoi?a aeena?oaoei?: i?eioniaa aeaeieaeoeaicaoeiy
nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa c iieioe/ieo iioeaia (ia?oueny ia oaaci
?icaae /ioei? no?oeoo?e i?aaiicaoeieieo oi?i — aaeeeiianooaaiiai a
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iiaei?e?inoaao e ae?iaiiai a ainiiaea?noaao
ianaeaiiy) ? oaeei aea aeiiiii/iei cei/eiii, ye i ianeeueieoeueea
eieaeoeaicaoeiy (eieaeoeaicaoeith a Oai?ueii a 1959-1961-o ?ieao ia
iiaeia aaaaeaoe ianeeueieoeueeith oi/a a /a?ac oa, ui a ia?iiae
eieaeoeaicaoei? c?inoaei ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoei? ?ineeiieoeoaa e
oaa?eiieoeoaa). Niaae ianyaia ae?iaieoeoaa nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoei? a 1990-1996-o ?ieao aieueo iiae ia 30% aoa aeeeeeaiee ye
ia’?eoeaieie, oae i noa’?eoeaieie i?e/eiaie. Ao?aoo noieeiai ?eieo caooo
ianiaeo i?iaeoeoia — ca?iiaeo, ooaeiae ia caaie, ?iaaiue ae?iaieoeoaa
yeeo a Oai?ueii aiaeiiaiaeaa naioiaei noaiaea?oai, o ca’yceo c ?iciaaeii
?AA, aacoiiaii, iiaeia aiaeianoe aei ia’?eoeaieo i?e/ei. C?icoiiei, ui
iniiaiee i?eioeei — caiey iaeaaeeoue oiio, ooi ?? ia?iaey?, — ?
i?aaeeueiei. ?acii c oei, ia iiaeia iiaiaeeoeny c iieioeeith
eiaeioeieiiai o?yaeo, yeee i?eeoia aei aeaaee ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeai?ia o
1990 ?ioei, ni?yiiaaiith ia i?ii?eoaoiee ?icaeoie iaeiiiniaiiai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. ?acoeueoao aiaeiiee, a ianiaiio ii?yaeeo aoee noai?aii
ia oaiaeaeyo ?icoi?iiaaieo aea?aeainiia e nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eiiia?aoeaia iai?iaeoeoeaii iaeiiiniaii ainiiaea?noaa, yei aaea a 1994
?ioei caeiaee 27,2% onio nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaiaeue e?a?ie. Ooo
aaoi? iiaeiai c?iaeoe aiaenooi. Aiaeiii, ui a 1997 ?ioei a Iinoeoooi
aa?a?ii? aeiiiiiee OAAI aiaeaoany oniioiee caoeno eaiaeeaeaonueei?
aeena?oaoei? ii i?iaeaiao caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie a Oai?ueii, oi/a e c iioeo
aniaeoia, oiio aaoi? aaaaea? iaaeioeieueiei aiaeicoaaoe ?o ?acoeueoaoe.
Aea iiaeiai aiaeiioeoe, ui anoia?a/ ie?aiei oaa?aeaeaiiyi, aoaeoeaiinoue
aeei?enoaiiy iniiaiiai caniao ae?iaieoeoaa a caiea?ianoai — oaiaeue a
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ia?iaioeo, i?i oea naiae/aoue iaaaaeaii a
aeena?oaoei? ?ic?aooiee, a iaeiiiiniaieo ainiiaea?noaao ieae/a
iieacieeia nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iiaei?e?inoa, yei caa?aaeeny.
Aiaeiinii iiaeo i?aaiicaoeieieo oi?i, ui aeieeee iiney ciiie iieioe/iiai
eo?no, ooo neiae caa?iooe oaaao ia aoaeoeaia ooieoeiiioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa, ui caeiaee a 1994 ?ioei anueiai eeoa 13,6%
anio oaiaeue ii e?a?ii. Ia aeeeeea? noiiiao, ui aiaeiai/ii
i?aaiicaoeieii oi?ie ae?iaieoeoaa, yei ni?eyoeeai aeey iiaei?e?iieoeoaa,
iaee a aieueoi ia?niaeoeae a nieuenueeiio ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie.

5. A aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi ie?aiee ?icaeie i?enay/aii i?iaeaiai
?icaeoeo oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai?
aeiiiiiee. Ooo o?aaa aiaeiioeoe iaeio ianoaaeio. Oai?ueia ? eiaea?ii
na?aae iinonioeiaeinoe/ieo e?a?i ii caeo/aiith iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie. Ia
aeooo ianaeaiiy aiie noaiiaeyoue iaeaea 1,5 oeny/i aeiea?ia NOA, o oie
/an, ye, iai?eeeaae, a *aoi?, Iieueui — iaioa oeny/i aeiea?ia NOA. ?yae
aaeocae, ui ia?a?iaeythoue nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeo ne?iaeio, aaea
iiaiinoth ciaoiaeyoueny o ?oeao iiicaioeia, i naia oei aaeoci
ooieoeiiiothoue oniioii, iai?eeeaae, ianei?iaia i?iieneiainoue. Aaoi?
aeena?oaoei?, iiaa?oath/enue aei ?ai?aaiicaoei? i?aaiicaoeieieo oi?i
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aaaaea?, ui i?eaaoia aeaniinoue
ia caieth aiaeiiaiaea? oiiaai ?eieiai? aeiiiiiee, aea aeanieeaie
iniiaiiai aaaaonoaa e?a?ie iathoue aooe oieueee a?iiaaeyie Oai?ueie
(c?icoiiei, ui i?eaaoia aeaniinoue ia caieth ia?aaeaa/a? ?aaoeueiaaiee,
ye o aieueoinoi e?a?i Caoiaeii? ?a?iie, caiaeueiee iaia, oiaoi
iiaeeeainoue eoiiaei-i?iaeaaeo caiaeue). O?ioe iioa noaiiaeua c
i?eaaoecaoei?th ia’?eoia oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi. Iiicaiii iiaanoi?e
aeeaaeathoue naie eaiioae eeoa o i?eaooeiai aaeoci. sseui /anoea
iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo a iiaei?e?inoaao oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi noaiiaeoue
anueiai 53% (o aea?aeaaiie aeaniinoi caeeoeeinue 12,3%, o aeaniinoi
oai?nueeeo ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa — 21,0%, o i?eaaoiie oa iioie
aeaniinoi — 13,7%), oi, ye aaea aeacoaaeiny ianei?iaia i?iieneiainoue
iiaiinoth ia?aeoea aei ?oe iiicaioeia. Aeoaea aaeeea /anoea iiicaiiiai
eaiioaeo a ieaiaa?iie e ai?ie/aii-ae?iaiie i?iieneiainoi. O oie aea /an
iiicaioei — ooo iathoueny ia oaaci ia oieueee iaoeiiiaeueii oi?ie, aea e
ioeueoeiaoeiiiaeueii — iaeaea ia aa?ooue o/anoi o i?eaaoecaoei? oeo
aaeocae, i?iaeoeoeiy yeeo o ieioeiio iaea caoo ia noiaeiiio ?eieo —
ioeiiaeueii?, i’ynii?. Ooo aeieea? caieoaiiy, i?e/iio iieioe/iiai
oa?aeoa?o: Caoiae /e iaaienia ia iiaeo?eio? ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoei?,
yea iiney ao?aoe noiaeiiai ?eieo iiaea noaoe eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiith ia
caoiaeiiio ?eieo, /e aaaaea? aeioeieueiei ?icaeaaoe aaeoci, i?iaeoeoeiy
yeeo i?e aiaeiiaiaeiiio ioi?ieaiii iiaea aooe ?aaeiciaaia c aenieei
i?eaooeii ye ia aioo?ioiueiio, oae i ia ciaiioiueiio ?eieao. Oey
i?iaeaia iiaea aeieeaoe e a Oe?a?ii i?e caieueoaiii iioieo iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie.

6. A?aoiaoth/e ianoaaeie, ui neeaeeny, a aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi iniaeeaa
oaaaa i?eaeiey?oueny ieoaiiyi ?icaeoeo iioaa?aoeieieo i?ioeania o
i?iaeiaieue/iio ainiiaea?noai. A oeueiio ieaii neiae aiaeiioeoe, ui
ae?iaie/i nenoaie, oa?aeoa?ii aeey oai?nueeiai nieuenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa a ieioeiio, i?aaiicaoeieii oi?ie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoai i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieiaie, /anoeiai i?eieieee naith
aeiyeueiinoue, /anoeiai ia?aoai?eeeny a aeoeiiia?ii oiaa?enoaa (iinoea
aieiaiiai ainiiaea?noaa caeiyea ?aaea caniiaieeia — aeoeiiia?ia
oiaa?enoaa). Oea ieoaiiy iiaea oeieaaeoe e Oe?a?io, ineieueee, ye
aiaeiii aaoi?o, a ie?aieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie a ieioeiio oniioii
ooieoeiiioaaee ae?iaie/i nenoaie a ?icieo aaeocyo nieuenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. A ?icaeoeo aeaii? oaie neiae caa?iooe oaaao ia
?ai?aaiicaoeith aiaeiii? e ca iaaeaie Oai?ueie ae?iaie/i? nenoaie EIOA a
naei Iaaeoaeaa?. A oeieiio iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo
aei ?eieiaeo aiaeiinei caaino?th?oueny ai?ioueaa iiae iioaa?aoi?ii
ae?iaieoeoaa eiioeaai? i?iaeoeoei? e iioaa?iaaieie ia’?eoaie
niia?iaioieoeoaa, iniaeeai, yeui iioaa?aoi?ii ? iiaei?e?inoai oa?/iai?
i?iieneiainoi, ca iaeneiaeicaoeith nai?o i?eaooeia, aea, ye i?aaeei,
aeiiiiothoue eiai iioa?ane. Iaaaaeaiee i?eeeaae ?ai?aaiicaoei?
ae?iaie/i? nenoaie EIOA a aeoeiiia?ia oiaa?enoai, ia aeoieo aaoi?a
aeena?oaoei?, iiaea noaoe aoaeiiii caoenoo iioa?ania ae?iaieea
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie e i?aaenoaaey? iioa?an i?e
?ai?aaiicaoei? aa?a?ii? noa?e a Oe?a?ii.

7. Iniaeeao caoeieaaeaiinoue i?aaenoaaey? iiaeaioiaea Oai?ueie, a oiio
/enei e ianooiia ?ai?aaiicaoeiy i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa e?a?ie,
aei anooio a ?a?iiaenueei aeiiiii/ii no?oeoo?e — ?a?iiaenueeee Nithc
(aeaoa ii/aoeo ia?aaiai?ia uiaei anooio aaea aecia/aia — ii/aoie 1998
?ieo). Na?aae i’yoe aea?aeaa, yei io?eiaee cai?ioaiiy ia ia?aaiai?e,
aeiiiiiea Oai?ueie (ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeineiaeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo
aenia?oaie ?N), iaeaieueo aiaeiiaiaea? aeiiaai anooio.

Aiaeiinii aa?a?ii? noa?e, ia ia?oee ieai aenooia? caaacia/aiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoei? nieuenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ui ia aeeeth/a?, c iaeiiai aieo, ?ai?aaiicaoeith
iaeiiiniaiiai naeoi?a aaeoci aeey noai?aiiy oiaa?iae?iaeyth/eo
oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa, a c ae?oaiai, i?ecoieiaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa a
?aaiiiao, aea i?e?iaeii oiiae aeicaieythoue aanoe aoaeoeaia ae?iuoaaiiy
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? aac cia/iiai aeiooaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa.
Eiei i?iaeai ii anooio Oai?ueie aei ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco aeiaaa?
aeaoaeueiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy. O aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi iaoith
aeineiaeaeaiue aoei aecia/aiiy aeoiaeiiai noaiiaeua i?iaeiaieue/iai
ainiiaea?noaa e?a?ie aeey anooio a ?a?iiaenueei aeiiiii/ii no?oeoo?e.
A?aoiaoth/e, ye oaea aiaeii/aeiny iaiaeii?aciai, aeeeth/ii aenieee
aa?iaeieiai/iee iioaioeiae Oe?a?ie, aaoi? aeena?oaoei? ia aeeeth/a?
iiaeeeainoi iiaeeeth/aiiy o ia?niaeoeai aa?a?ii? noa?e iacaeaaeii?
Oe?a?ie aei caoiaeii?a?iiaenueeeo aeiiiii/ieo no?oeoo? (ia?oueny ia
oaaci ia i?inoi ciaiioiy oi?aiaey aa?ii?iaeiaieue/eie i?iaeoeoaie, aea e
aieueo oinia niia?iaioieoeoai). A oeueiio ieaii no/ania noaiiaeua
i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa Oai?ueie, aeooaeueii i?iaeaie ia?aoiaeo
aei ?eieiaeo aiaeiinei iiaeooue noaoe i?i?ioe?ii oi/a a c iaoith
iaaeiiouaiiy aiaeiai/ieo iiieeie, yei iaee iinoea a noniaeiie e?a?ii a
ia?iiae iiney 1990 ?ieo.

Aaoi? aeena?oaoei?, a?iiaaeyiei Oai?nueei? ?anioaeiee, i?e i?iaaaeaiii
aeineiaeaeaiue ii oaii aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe aeyaea ?yae iiiaioia o
?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa, yei aei oeueiai /ano ia io?eiaee
aeinoaoiueiai aenaioeaiiy. I?e oeueiio aeicaieea niai aeoeaiooaaoe oaaao
ia iaaaoeaieo ?acoeueoaoao ?ai?aaiicaoei? aa?a?ii? noa?e Oai?ueie, yei
iiaeooue caoeieaaeoe a/aieo Oe?a?ie.

IOAEIEAOeI? II OAII AeENA?OAOeI?

1. Caiaeueia ?aoi?ia a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii-Noiaeii? ?a?iie//Aeiiiiiea
AIE. — 1996. -N4.-N.79-85. (o niiaaaoi?noai c Aeiaoi I.E., Aaeyi A.A.,
Naiaiaiei I.N.) (oaeno aaoi?a 79-82).

2. I?iaeiaieue/a ainiiaea?noai Oai?ueie//I?iaeaie aeiiiii/iiai oa
nioeiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?aaiiio i i?aeoeea iaoeiaiai
aenia?eiaioo.-1996.-Aei.12.-N.16-17. (o niiaaaoi?noai c Aeiaoi I.E.,
Eaeia? Cieoai) (oaeno aaoi?a 18-19).

3. I?eaaoecaoeiy a oa?/iaie i?iieneiainoi (Oai?ueie)//I?iaeaie
aeiiiii/iiai oa nioeiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?aaiiio i i?aeoeea iaoeiaiai
aenia?eiaioo.-1996.-Aei.12.-N.16-17.

4. Oa?/iaa i?iieneiainoue Oai?ueie a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai?
aeiiiiiee//Aeiiiiiea AIE.-1997.-N7.-N.85-89.

5. Iioaa?aoeieia aeiyeueiinoue iiaei?e?inoa oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoi
Naaie/-Naoia?-Aa?aa iaeanoi Oai?ueie//I?iaeaie aeiiiii/iiai oa
nioeiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?aaiiio i i?aeoeea iaoeiaiai
aenia?eiaioo.-1997.-Aei.13.

6. Egy fejl?desi alternativa//Szabolcs-Szatmari
Szemle.-1988.-N.3.-S.254-256. (Aeueoa?iaoeae ?icaeoeo).

7. Ipari vallalkozasok//Tarsadalmi-gazdasagi Helyzetkep
Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg Megye 1995.I. Nyiregyhaza. — 1995.-S.207-211.
(I?iieneiaa iiaei?e?iieoeoai).

8. Vallalkozasi oevezet.//Tarsadalmi-gazdasagi Helyzetkep
Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg Megye 1995.III.Nyiregyhaza. — 1995.-S.113-132.
(Ciia iiaei?e?iieoeoaa).

9. Koevetkeztetesek es lehetosegek //Tarsadalmi-gazdasagi Helyzetkep
Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg Megye 1995. III. Nyiregyhaza. — 1995.-S.199-206.
(tarsszerzo Hegedues Laszlo). (Aeniiaee ? iiaeeeaino?), (oaeno aaoi?a
202-206).

10. Innovacios parkok // A Bessenyei Gyoergy Tanarkepzo Foiskola
Tudomanyos koezlemenyei 13/F. Nyiregyhaza. — 1996. — S.303-312.
(?iiiaaoe?ei? ia?ee).

11. Vertikalis integracio az elemiszergazdasagban//Tarsadalmi-gazdasagi
Helyzetkep Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg Megyeben 1996.Nyiregyhaza.
-1996.-S.61-65. (Aa?oeeaeueia iioaa?aoeiy a i?iaeiaieue/iio
ainiiaea?noai).

12. Az elelmiszergazdasag vertikalis integracioja//XXXVIII Georgikon
Napok. Integracio az agrargazdasagban. Keszthely, 1996. Szeptember
12-13.-S.21. (I?iaeiaieue/a ainiiaea?noai — ?ioaa?aoe?y aa?oeeaeueia).

13. A magyar gyuemoelcsvertikum fejlesztesenek nehany
gazdasagstrategiai kerdese // A Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia
Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg Megyei Tudomanyos Testuelete 1997 evi Tudomanyos
uelesen elhangzott eloadasok oesszefoglaloi. Nyiregyhaza. — 1997. —
S.1-14. (tarsszerzo Lakner Zoltan). (Aeaye? ieoaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo oai?nueeiai aa?oeeoio o?oeo?a), (oaeno aaoi?a 7-14).

Aiioaoeiy

Aa?i Ii?a. Aeinaiae ?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa Oai?ueie a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiiiiee oa iiaeeeainoi eiai aeei?enoaiiy a Oe?a?ii.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiiii/ieo iaoe
ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 08.05.01 — Naioiaa ainiiaea?noai i iiaeia?iaeii
aeiiiii/ii aiaeiineie. Iinoeooo naioiai? aeiiiiiee i iiaeia?iaeieo
aiaeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1998.

O aeena?oaoei? aiaeico?oueny ?ieue i iinoea i?iaeiaieue/iai
ainiiaea?noaa Oai?ueie o ?icaeoeo aeiiiiiee e?a?ie o 80-90-o ??. OO no.,
aeineiaeaeothoueny ae?oaee i o?aoie aeiee aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno
Oai?ueie — nieuenueea ainiiaea?noai oa oa?/iaa i?iieneiainoue a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiiiiee.

A ?iaioi aeineiaeaeaii i?ioean iioaa?aoei? ae?iaieoeoaa eiioeaai?
i?iaeoeoei? i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa c oi/ee ci?o eiai
aoaeoeaiinoi, a oaeiae a?aoiaoth/e aeeeth/ii aenieee aa?iaeieiai/iee
iioaioeiae Oe?a?ie — ia?niaeoeae eiai aieueo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy. A
?iaioi ocaaaeueith?oueny oai?nueeee aeinaiae (ye iiceoeaii, oae i
iaaaoeaii ?acoeueoaoe) ?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai ainiiaea?noaa e?a?ie.

Eeth/iai neiaa: i?iaeiaieue/a ainiiaea?noai, iioaa?aoeiy, ?eieiaa
aeiiiiiea, ae?oaee oa o?aoie aeiee aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno,
nieuenueea ainiiaea?noai.

Aiiioaoeey

Ya?e Ei?a. Iiuo ?acaeoey i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai oicyenoaa Aaia?ee a
oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e aiciiaeiinoue aai eniieueciaaiey a
Oe?aeia.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.05.01 — Ie?iaia oicyenoai e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey. Einoeooo ie?iaie yeiiiieee e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
ioiioaiee IAI Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?oaony ?ieue e ianoi i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai
oicyenoaa Aaia?ee a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee no?aiu a 80-90-o aa. OO no.,
enneaaeothony aoi?ie e o?aoee aeiee aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena Aaia?ee
— naeueneia oicyenoai e ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e
?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

A ?aaioa enneaaeiaai i?ioeann eioaa?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa eiia/iie
i?iaeoeoeee i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai oicyenoaa n oi/ee c?aiey aai
yooaeoeaiinoe, a oaeaea o/eouaay eneeth/eoaeueii aunieee
aa?iyeieiae/aneee iioaioeeae Oe?aeiu — ia?niaeoeau aai aieaa
yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey. A ?aaioa iaiauaaony aaiaa?neee iiuo (eae
iieiaeeoaeueiua, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou) ?acaeoey
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai oicyenoaa no?aiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiia oicyenoai, eioaa?aoeey, ?uii/iay
yeiiiieea, aoi?ie e o?aoee aeiee aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena, naeueneia
oicyenoai.

Annotation

Egry Imre. The Experience of development of Food Economy in Hungary in
Conditions of Market Economy and Possibility of its Application in
Ukraine.

Dissertation competing for the scientific degree of Candidate of
Economical Sciences in speciality 08.05.01 — World Economy and
International Economical Relations. Institute of World Economy and
International Relations of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Kyiv, 1998.

The role and the place of food economy of Hungary in the development of
country’s economy in 80-90ies of the XX century are being analized, the
second and the third blocks of the agroindustrial complex of Hungary —
agriculture and food industry in conditions of transition to market
economy are investigated.

In the thesis the process of integration of production the final product
of production economy are examined from the point of view of its
effectiveness as well as the perspectives of more effective use in
Ukraine, taking into account its exceptionally high agroecological
potential.

The Hungarian experience (positive and negative results as well) of food
economy development is generalized.

Key words: food economy, integration, market economy, second and third
blocks of agroindusrial complex, agriculture.

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