I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Ooothe A?oae?e Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 664.047, 547.416,

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a io?eiaiiy ?ic/eiiiai

ii?ioeo c oii?iaiao?a

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.18.12 — I?ioeane oa aia?aoe

oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a OAeOOO 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio Aanna?aa Ieaenaiae? Naiaiiae/, eaoaae?a “Iaoeie oa aia?aoe
oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa” Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e, i?i?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?eoei Ieoaeei Ieaenaiae?iae/, eaoaae?a “Oaoiieia?y iieiea oa noo?iiy
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a” Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e, i?ioani?

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

ss?iaee Aieiaeeie? Eaii?aeiae/,

eaoaae?a “Oaoiieia?/ia iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa” Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, aeioeaio

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oeoe?iai?
i?iieneiaino?

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 25 ” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo i 16.00 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.058.02 Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e ca aae?anith:

252033, i. Ee?a-33, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 68, aoae. 311.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 23 ” aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

e.o.i., aeioeaio A.E. a’yeia

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Neeaaeiee aeieia?/iee noai a Oe?a?i? aeiaaa?
iino?eiiai aaeeaaiiy ianaeaiiyi i?iaeoeo?a c ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ieie
aeanoeainoyie. Aaeee? ia?niaeoeae a oeueiio iai?yi? a?aee?eaa?
oii?iaiao?. Eiai aeei?enoiaothoue aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ae??oe/ieo,
eeneiiiei/ieo i?iaeoeo?a, a oaeiae oe?aa, oe?aiaoei/ieo ae?ia?a,
ieiaeiiai/aaeo oa iiei/ieo eiina?a?a, iaii?a oiui. Aea iiaeaeueoa
?icoe?aiiy ani?oeiaioo ? niaoeeo?ea ae?iaieoeoaa aaaaoueio i?iaeoeo?a
cia/ii ni?iuo?oueny c aeei?enoaiiyi oii?iaiao?a o aeaeyae? ii?ioeo.

Ni?iaa i?iieneiaiai ia?a?iaeaiiy oii?iaiao?a ia aac? aia?aoo?ii? noaie
oeoe?iaiai caaiaeo c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy oeoe?ice o e?enoae?/iiio
aeaeyae? iieacaea iaaeioe?euei?noue oaei? oaoiieia??. ?io? noaie
iaea?aeaiiy eiioeaio?ao?a oaeiae aoee neeaaeieie, a?ii?caeeeie,
iio?aaoaaee aei?iaeo ?iiiiai?iiee?a ? iaia?ai, aeei?enoaiiy o?i?/ieo
?a/iaei, ui caa?oaeiththoue iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua.

Ni?iae ia?a?iaeaiiy oii?iaiao?a cae?i/oaaeenue iaea?aeaiiyi
eiioeaio?iaaiiai aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a. Ia?niaeoeaiei ? noo?iiy
eiioeaio?aoo, ine?eueee ?acii c i?inoioith aeei?enoaiiy ?ic/eiiiai
ii?ioeo o ae?iaieoeoa? cia/ii ni?iuothoueny oiiae eiai caa??aaiiy oa
o?ainii?ooaaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e iaaee/ia ni?yioaaiiy i?iaeoeo?a c oii?iaiao?a — ?ineeie,
yea i?noeoue cia/io e?euee?noue ai?iieeneio, aeooaeueieie ? ieoaiiy
aea/aiiy i?e/ei ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a (IA) ? ?ic?iaeaiiy oaoiieia??
iaea?aeaiiy nooiai aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a c? ciaioaiei ai?noii
eaioea?iaai?a ? i?o?icai?i?a.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaeaiiy oa iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a iaea?aeaiiy nooiai aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a c? ciaioaiei ai?noii
i?o?icai?i?a, aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano noo?iiy aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a,
aea/aiiy i?e/ei ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a o oaieiaeo i?ioeanao, aea/aiiy
oaieio?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a, ?ic?iaeaiiy ?
a?aei?aoethaaiiy ?aaeei?a noo?iiy aeno?aeoo a ?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe?.

Aeoiaey/e c iaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee noi?ioeueiaai? oae?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

?ic?iaeoe ? a?aei?aoethaaoe ?aaeeie noo?iiy aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a a
?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe?;

aea/eoe i?ioeane ooai?aiiy i?o?iciae?iaoeeai?io i?ae /an oaieiaiai
ia?iaeaiiy aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a o ae?iaieoeoa? nooiai aeno?aeoo ia
noaae?yo aeno?aeoe??, eiioeaio?aoe?? oa noo?iiy;

aecia/eoe ?aaeeii? oa eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e i?eno?i?a aeey
niaethaaiiy aaco ca e?iaoe/iei i?eioeeiii;

aecia/eoe oaieio?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiioeaio?aoo aeno?aeoo
oii?iaiao?a ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e oa oaiia?aoo?;

aea/eoe ia?aa?a i?ioean?a oaiei- ? ianiiai?io i?ae /an noo?iiy
eiioeaio?aoo aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a a ?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia iniia? eiiieaenieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaea?aeai? oae? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe:

aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean
ae?iaieoeoaa nooiai ?ic/eiiiai ii?ioeo c oii?iaiao?a;

aecia/ai? e aeine?aeaeai? iniiai? oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia neioac IA
a i?ioeanao: aeno?aaoaaiiy — oea oaiia?aoo?a ? eeneioi?noue na?aaeiaeua;
eiioeaio?aoe?? — oaiia?aoo?a aeia?thaaiiy; noo?iiy — eiioeaio?aoe?y
ieene?a acioo oa aoaeaoeth a nooeeueiiio aaaio?;

?ic?iaeaii oaieiaaia?aoi? eiioaeoiiai oeio, yeee aea? iiaeeea?noue
iaea?aeoaaoe nooeeueiee aaaio c iecueeei ai?noii ieene?a acioo;

aea/ai? iniiai? oaieio?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiioeaio?iaaiiai aeno?aeoo
oii?iaiao?a oa ?ic?iaeai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? ci?ie eiai aonoeie ?
oaieii?ia?aeiino? a?ae ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e oa eiioeaio?aoe??, ye?
caaacia/eee ye?nia ia?iaeaiiy aeine?aeieo aeaieo c noo?iiy aeno?aeoo
oii?iaiao?a;

aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/ai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e nooeeueiiai
i?ioeano (ii/aoeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a noaiiaeoue
30-33 % N?, ii/aoeiaa oaiia?aoo?a nooeeueiiai aaaioa – 140…180 °N);

?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue noo?iiy aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a a
?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue oa ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iaea?aeaiee,
ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? aia?aoo?ii-i?ioeanii? noaie, nooee ?ic/eiiee
ii?ioie aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a aea? iiaeeea?noue ?icoe?eoe ani?oeiaio
ae?iaieoeoaa oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a ae??oe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy ? cia/ii
ciaioeoe ai?no eaioea?iaai?a o ieo.

Oaeineiiaeaii oaieiaaia?aoi? eiioaeoiiai oeio c iecueeei ai?noii ieene?a
acioo a nooeeueiiio aaaio? aeey nooa?ie, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a
oa?/ia?e ? ia?a?iai?e i?iieneiainoyo.

?aeiiaiaeiaai? ?aaeeie aeno?aaoaaiiy, aeia?thaaiiy oa noo?iiy a
?icieethaaeueieo nooa?eao aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a.

I/?eoaaiee ??/iee i?eaooie i?e ae?iaieoeoa? 1 oen. oii nooiai ?ic/eiiiai
aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a noaiiaeoue aeecueei 700 oen. a?i.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?iaioe. Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e caaacia/aia aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo iaoiae?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, no/anieo aei??thaaeueieo i?eeaae?a,
aaaaoi?aciaith iiaoi?thaai?noth eaai?aoi?ieo oa iai?ai?iieneiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaii?

iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o eaai?aoi?ieo oa ae?iaie/eo oiiaao, ia?iaeai?
oa ocaaaeueiaii? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, ?o oai?aoe/iiio
iaa?oioiaaii?, ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue, iaaiai?thaaeenue ? aoee noaaeai? ia naie iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo: I?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue-2000” (Eacaiue, 1996 ?.), IX I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a o?i?/ieo, oa?/iaeo oa
iaooio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa”(Iaeana, 1996 ?.), I?aeia?iaeiiio
iieiae?aeiiio neiiic?oi? “Oaoieea e oaoiieiaey yeieiae/anee /enouo
i?iecaiaenoa” (Iineaa, 1996 ?.), 2-?e I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Oi?aae?iiy aia?aiaeei?enoaiiyi” (Euea?a, 1997 ?.), ae?oa?e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai- i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?aii?iaeoeoe — 97”
(Iaeana, 1997 ?.), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Yeieiaey /aeiaaea e
i?iaeaiu ainieoaiey iieiaeuo o/aiuo” (Iaeana, 1997 ?.) oa
Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?aei?e?inoaa ? oeaoe iaei? iiooaeiino?
aeey ia?a?iaee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie: aoaeoeai?noue ?
iniaeea?noue i?aai?caoe??”, (Iieoaaa, 1997 ?.).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeiaeaoe?a.
?iaioo aeeeaaeaii ia 119 noi??ieao iniiaiiai oaenoo. Aeena?oaoe?y
?ethno?iaaia 36 ?enoieaie oa 8 oaaeeoeyie. Nienie aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 144 a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeaea?aea.

Ioae?eaoe??. C oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 15 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeue oa iaea?aeaii iaeei iaoaio Oe?a?ie.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aia iaoa oa iniiai?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, iieacai? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea o?i?/iiai neeaaeo
oii?iaiao?a, iieacaia eiai a?ieia?/ia oe?ii?noue, iaa?oioiaaia
iaiao?aei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa nooiai ?ic/eiiiai ii?ioeo oii?iaiao?a. A
?acoeueoao? aiae?co ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeo?a c oii?iaiao?a,
iieacaia aeiiii?/ia iaaoaeoeai?noue iaea?aeaiiy o?oeoice a oaa?aeiio
aeaeyae? oeyoii eiioeaio?aoe?? ca aiaeia??th c oeoe?iaei ae?iaieoeoaii.

Iaa?oioiaaii iaoiae noo?iiy ?icieeaiiyi aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a ?
?icaeyiooi eiai oai?aoe/i? iniiae. C?iaeaii iaeyae iaoiae?a ?icieeaiiy
noniaic?e, yeee na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
a?aeoeaio?iaiai ?icieeaiiy. sse nooeeueiee aaaio aea?aii iia?o?y.

Iieacaia i?iaeaia caa?oaeiaiiy i?iaeoeo?a c oii?iaiao?a i?ae /an
oaieiaeo i?ioean?a eaioea?iaaiieie ?a/iaeiaie, a iniaeeai
i?o?iciae?iao?eai?iii (IAeIA), aeeth/aiei na?aae ?ioeo i?o?iciniieoe
I?aeia?iaeiei aaaionoaii c aea/aiiy ?aeo (IAA?) aei /enea niieoe,
eaioea?iaaii? aeanoeaino? yeiai ia aeeeeeathoue noii?ao. Iaaaaeaii
iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a oa ?icaeyiooi iaoiaee iiieaeaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? ieneae?a acioo a nooeeueiiio aaaio?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao oaieiaeo i?ioean?a
ia ooai?aiiy eaioea?iaaiieo ?a/iaei o ae?iaieoeoa? nooiai ?ic/eiiiai
ii?ioeo c oii?iaiao?a.

Aeey aecia/aiiy IAeIA a aeno?aeo? oii?iaiao?a aeei?enoiaoaaeanue
iaoiaeeea, ?ic?iaeaia ?inoeoooii oa?/oaaiiy ?in?enueei? oaaea?aoe??.
Iaoiaeeea a?oioo?oueny ia iiaea?ei?e aeenoeeyoe?? IAeIA a eoaeiiio
(?I=8) ? eeneiio (?I=3) na?aaeiaeuao iaeii??aeii? aeenia?aiaaii? i?iae c
ianooiiei aeno?aaoaaiiyi oei?enoei iaoeeaiii, ciaaiaeiaiiyi ?ic/eio
i?iaea?aiei noeueoaoii iaai?th ? eiioeaio?oaaiiyi aeno?aeoo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a, i?iaaaeaieo c oii?iaiao?ii ni?oo “?ioa?an”
aaniyiiai eiiaiiy 1994 ?., na?ae/aoue, ui ?ioaineai?noue iaeiie/aiiy
IAeIA i?ae /an aeno?aaoaaiiy oii?iaiao?a c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? nooeo ?a/iaei a aeno?aaaio?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
i?o?icoaaiiy ai?i?a ? ai?iia?oi i?ae /an ia?aoiaeo c ee?oei no?oaeee
oii?iaiao?a a ?ic/ei acioenoi? eeneioe ? i?iaeoeo?a ?? ?iceeaaeaiiy.
I?o?icoaaiith oaeiae i?aeeyaathoue ieneaee acioo, i?o?aoe oa i?iaeoeoe
?o ia?aoai?aiiy. Ca?eueoaiiy aeoeaiino? ooai?aiiy IAeIA a na?aaeei?
i?ioeano aeno?aeoe?? iiynith?oueny oei, ui no?eeeie ? o?eueee aoi?eii?
ai?ie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a i?ae /an eiioeaio?aoe?? aeno?aeoo na?ae/aoue i?i
oa, ui niinoa??aa?oueny ia?aa?a i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy IAeIA, oa?aeoa?ieo
aeey i?ioeano aeno?aeoe??. Iaeii/anii c iiaeaeueoei i?o?icoaaiiyi
ai?i?a, i?o?ao?a ? i?iaeoeo?a ?o ia?aoai?aiue i?ae aieeaii i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e eiioeaio?aoe?y IA a eiioeaio?ao? aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a
ciaioo?oueny. Oeae i?ioean iiynith?oueny eaoe?noth i?o?icai?i?a ? oei,
ui ?o iin??i ? aiaeyia ia?a.

O i?ioean? noo?iiy ia aenia?eiaioaeuei?e onoaiiaoe? (?en. 1)
anoaiiaeaii, ui eiioeaio?aoe?y ae?ieneaeo acioo i?ae /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy
/a?ac nooeeueio eaia?o ciaioo?oueny, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeeiaiiy
ae?ieneaeo acioo aeno?aeoii oii?iaiao?a. A?eueo ?ioaineaia iiaeeiaiiy
NO2 niinoa??aa?oueny ia ia?o?e noaae?? noo?iiy, ui iiynith?oueny
iayai?noth a aeno?aeo? cia/ii? e?eueeino? a?eueii? aieiae — iiaeeia/a
ae?ieneaeo acioo.

?en. 1. Noaia aeine?aeii? onoaiiaee aeey noo?iiy aeno?aeoo c oii?iaiao?a
c aeicoaaiiyi ieene?a acioo: 1-aaeii c NOx; 2,- ?oooiee iaiiiao?; 3, 5,
7-iaiiiao?e; 4, 6, 8- ?aaeoeoi?e; 9, 15, 18, 22, 25- aaioee?; 10, 14-
oa?iiiao?e iii?o; 11- aei??thaaeueiee i?no; 12- nooeeueia eaia?a; 13-
ieanoeia c aeno?aeoii oii?iaiao?a; 16- NOx-aiae?caoi?; 17- aaeni?aa?;
19- aaioeeyoi?; 20-aeaeo?ieaei?eoa?; 21- caiia?aeiee ?aca?aoa?; 23-
eai?ey?; 24- iaiiiao?

Ia ?ioaineo?eaoe?th i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy IAeIA a aeno?aeo? oii?iaiao?a
i?ae /an noo?iiy iaea?eueoee aieea ni?aaey? eiioeaio?aoe?y ae?ieneaeo
acioo a nooeeueiiio aaaio?. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?ieneaeo acioo
a nooeeueiiio aaaio? c 0,1 aei 0,6 ia/ea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? IAeIA a nooiio aeno?aeo? oii?iaiao?a a 1,2(3 ?ace.

Ai?no IAeIA a nooiio aeno?aeo? nyaa? 80 iea/ea.

O i?ioean? noo?iiy aoiinoa?iei iia?o?yi aac aeicoaaiiy ieneae?a acioo a
nooeeueiee aaaio a?aeaoaa?oueny ooai?aiiy a aeno?aeo? oii?iaiao?a
i?o?eo?a, i?o?ao?a ? IAeIA, ui cana?ae/o?oueny iiaeeiaiiyi aeno?aeoii
aoiinoa?iiai ae?ieneaeo acioo.

Aeey ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?ieneaeo acioo a nooeeueiiio aaaio?
?ic?iaeaii oaieiaaia?aoi? eiioaeoiiai oeio, aac a yeiio niaeth?oueny a
e?iaoe/iiio oaeae?, a nooeeueiee aaaio ia? i?i?iaeueiee ai?no acioo a
i?iaeoeoao cai?yiiy (?en. 2). A?i yaey? niaith eaia?o ci?ooaaiiy 3 c
iao?oaeii 2 aeey i?aeaaaeaiiy aaco ? iao?oaeii 1 aeey i?aeaaaeaiiy
iia?o?y. Aiia a?aeie?aieaia a?ae eaia?e cai?yiiy 6 noaa?e?coth/ith
?ao?oeith 4, i?ecia/aiith aeey ?icoe?aiiy noa?e ?aaoethaaiiy ae?aiaciio
aeo?ao aaciiia?o?yii? noi?o? oa onoiaiiy i?noeaaiai ia?aa??aaiiy a
oeaio??.

?en. 2. Noaia oaieiaaia?aoi?a eiioaeoiiai oeio: 1,2- iao?oaie; 3- eaia?a
ci?ooaaiiy; 4- noaa?e?coth/a ?ao?oea; 5- eaiaee 6- eaia?a cai?yiiy

?ao?oea yaey? niaith aeene ci?iii? oiaueie, ui ca?eueoo?oueny a?ae
ia?eoa??? aei oeaio?o a 2(3 ?ace. A ?ao?ooe? ia?aaeaa/ai? iane??ci?
eaiaee 5, ye? ?icoe?ththoueny a a?e eaia?e cai?yiiy. Ae?aiao? eaiae?a
ca?eueoo?oueny a?ae ia?eoa??? ?ao?oee aei oeaio?o ? aecia/a?oueny ca
oi?ioeith

, , (1)

aea — ae?aiao? eaiae?a ia ia?eoa??? ?ao?oee; — oiaueia ?ao?oee, yea
a?aeiia?aea? ae?aiao?o ; — oiaueia ?ao?oee ia ia?eoa???.

?en.3. Ooai?aiiy IAeIA a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa nooeo aeno?aeoo
oii?iaiao?a ? eiai no?oaeee

Oaeei /eiii, aecia/aeueieie oaeoi?aie, ui aieeaathoue ia ai?no IAeIA a
nooiio aeno?aeo? oii?iaiao?a, ? oaiia?aoo?a ? eeneioi?noue na?aaeiaeua
ia noaae?? aeno?aeoe??, oaiia?aoo?a aeia?thaaiiy i?ae /an
eiioeaio?oaaiiy aeno?aeoo, a i?ae /an noo?iiy — eiioeaio?oaaiiy
ae?ieneaeo acioo a nooeeueiiio aaaio? (?en. 3).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oaieio?ce/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a, ni?e/eiaieo a?aenooi?noth
nenoaiaoeciaaieo a?aeiiinoae o e?oa?aoo?? c oeueiai ieoaiiy, ui ia iiaei
caaacia/eoe ye?nia ia?iaeaiiy aeine?aeieo aeaieo. Ine?eueee aeno?aeo
oii?iaiao?a ca nai?i neeaaeii iiae?aiee aei neeaaeo ieiaeiya?aeieo
nie?a, oi ca iiaeaeue aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieio?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aoei
acyoi aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae yaeo/iiai ? aeiia?aaeiiai nie?a ye
iaea?eueo aea/aieo.

Aeey aeine?ae?a aeei?enoiaoaaee aeno?aeo oii?iaiao?a c ai?noii nooeo
?a/iaei 10(70 %. Oaiia?aoo?a a aeine?aeao ci?ithaaeanue a?ae 283 aei 373
°E.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?ae?a aea/ai? oae? oaieio?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee:
aonoeia ?, eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino? ?, a?aeiinia a’yce?noue ? ?
oaiei?ii?noue n caeaaeii a?ae oaiia?aoo?e t ? ai?noo nooeo ?a/iaei N?
(?en. 4-7).

Aiae?c aeaieo iieacaa, ui ca iino?eii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aonoeia e?i?eii
caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e aeno?aeoo ? iiaea aooe ae?aaeaia oaeei
??aiyiiyi:

(2)

aea a ? b- eiao?oe??ioe.

Aecia/eaoe eiao?oe??ioe a ? b a?ao?/ii ? i?aenoaaeaoe ?o o ??aiyiiy (2)
iaea?aeeii iaoaiaoe/io caeaaei?noue aonoeie a?ae ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e ?
eiioeaio?aoe?? eiioeaio?aoo:

(3)

Ciaioaiiy aaee/eie aonoeie eiioeaio?aoo aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a c?
c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? nooeo ?a/iaei iiynith?oueny oei, ui aonoeia
neeaaeiaeo nooeo ?a/iaei iaioa aonoeie aiaee. Oae, ca oaiia?aoo?e 20°N
oa eiioeaio?aoe?? 10 % N? aonoeia oii?iaiao?a noaiiaeoue 1054 ea/i3, a
ca eiioeaio?aoe?? 70 % N? — 1352 ea/i3.

Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa oaieii?ia?aeiino? oaeiae ianeeaaeii ae?aceoe
iaoaiaoe/ii:

(4)

Aeey aeaaaeaiiy oeueiai ??aiyiiy c a?ao?ea ?en. 6 acyo? ??aiyiiy
caeaaeiinoae eiao?oe??ioa oaieii?ia?aeiino? aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e ca iino?eii? eiioeaio?aoe?? . A ?acoeueoao? iaea?aeaia
nenoaia ??aiyiue:

(5)

?en. 4. A?ao?e caeaaeiino? aonoeie aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e ? ai?noo nooeo ?a/iaei

?en. 5. A?ao?e caeaaeiino? a’yceino? aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e ? ai?noo nooeo ?a/iaei

?en. 6. A?ao?e caeaaeiino? oaieii?ia?aeiino? aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e ? ai?noo nooeo ?a/iaei

?en. 7. A?ao?e caeaaeiino? oaiei?iiino? aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e ? ai?noo nooeo ?a/iaei

?ica’yceii aeaii? nenoaie i?ney iaoaiaoe/iiai ia?iaeaiiy noaei
??aiyiiy, yea c aeinoaoiueith oi/i?noth iieno? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue:

(6)

C?inoaiiy aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa oaieii?ia?aeiino? c? ca?eueoaiiyi
ai?noo nooeo ?a/iaei iiynith?oueny oei, ui inoaii? a aeno?aeo?
oii?iaiao?a neeaaeathoueny ia?aaaaeii c oeoe??a, ye? iathoue a?eueoee
eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino? ii??aiyii c aiaeith.

Aiae?c aeaieo ?en. 5 na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?
20…100 °N a?aeiinia a’yce?noue aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a ci?ith?oueny
aiaeia?/ii ci?i? a?aeiinii? a’yceino? aeiia?aaeiiai oa yaeo/iiai nie?a.
O ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 60…70 °N niinoa??aa?oueny aiiiae?y (a?eueo ??cea
cieaeaiiy a’yceino?). Oea iia’ycaii c? ci?iith no?oeoo?e
aenieiiieaeoey?ieo o?oeoai?a — a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ic?eaaiiy
aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ieo ca’yce?a. Oe? cia/i? ci?ie o aenieiiieaeoey?ieo
o?oeoaiao i?ecaiaeyoue aei cia/iiai ciaioaiiy a’yceino?.

Ieoiia oaiei?ii?noue aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a ciaioo?oueny c?
ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? oa ca?eueoo?oueny c? c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e,
ui oaeiae a?aeiia?aea? oa?aeoa?o ci?ie ieoiii? oaiei?iiino?
ieiaeiya?aeieo nie?a.

Iaea?aeai? a?ao?ee caeaaeiino? ci?ie oaiei?iiino? eiioeaio?aoo
aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a a?ae ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? oa oaiia?aoo?e aeaee
iiaeeea?noue ia?aaeaa/eoe iaea?aeaiiy caaaeueii? caeaaeiino? o aeaeyae?

(7)

Iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaeaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieacaea, ui ci?io
oaiei?iiino? aeno?aeoo c iaeneiaeueiith iioeaeith 2,9 % iieno? oaea
a?aeiioaiiy:

(8)

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aea/aiith ia?aa?ao i?ioean?a oaiei- ?
ianiia?aiino a aeno?aeo? oii?iaiao?a c ??cieie eiioeaio?aoe?yie nooeo
?a/iaei a i?ioean? eiai noo?iiy. Aeey oeueiai aoea ni?iaeoiaaia ?
aeaioiaeaia eaai?aoi?ia aeine?aeia onoaiiaea (?en. 8), ui neeaaea?oueny
c nooeeueii? eaia?e 9, a na?aaeei? yei? ?ici?uaia i?aea?nia ?aia 7 c
aeno?aeoii oii?iaiao?a ia ieanoeiao 8. Aei??thaaeuei? ieanoeie 8
i?aea?ooaaeenue aei aaa 5 niaoe?aeueieie i?aea?neaie. O i?ioean? noo?iiy
aaae aeicaieyee aei??thaaoe ci?ie iane aeno?aeoo aacia?a?aii.
?a?no?aoe?y ci?ie iane i?iaiaeeeanue c iiia?aaeiuei caaeaiei ?ioa?aaeii
caeaaeii a?ae iio?aae. Ia aoiae? a nooeeueio eaia?o anoaiiaeaii
oa?iiiao? 4 aeey eiio?ieth oaiia?aoo?e nooeeueiiai aaaioo ? oa?iiia? 3,
yeee aeicaiey? /a?ac aeie oi?aae?iiy 2 ?aaoethaaoe iaa??aaiiy
nooeeueiiai aaaioo a aeaeo?ieaei?eoa?? aei caaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e.
Iaai?oa/ 10 yaey? niaith aaciaee e?/eeueiee c aeaeo?e/iei aeaeaoiii
iino?eii? iai?oae, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue eiio?iethaaoe aeo?aoe
nooeeueiiai aaaioo. O c?aceo anoaiiaethaaeanue iaeia o?iiaeue-eiiaeaaa
oa?iiia?a, aeaioiaeaia c i?ia?aeiee?a ae?aiao?ii 0,1 ii. Iieace
oa?iiia?e caienoaaeenue aeaeo?iiiei iioaioe?iiao?ii 6. Aei??thaaeueia
e?i?y oa?iiia? ?ici?uoaaeany ia neeyi?e ieanoei? 8.

?en. 8. Noaia aeine?aeii? onoaiiaee: 1 — aeaeo?ieaei?eoa?; 2 — aeie
oi?aae?iiy; 3- oa?iiia?a; 4 — oa?iiiao?; 5 — aaae; 6 — iioaioe?iiao?; 9
— nooeeueia eaia?a; 7 — i?aea?nia ?aia ; 8 — ieanoeie c aeno?aeoii; 9-
nooeeueia eaia?a; 10 — iaai?oa/

C iaoith a?eueo a?oioiaiiai aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae i?ioeano noo?iiy a
i?iieneia?e ?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe? iaie cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue
noo?iiy oa?o aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a ia ieine?e ieanoei?. I?e oeueiio
aeo?eioaaeenue aea? iniiai? oiiae: oiaueia oa?o aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a
a?aeiia?aeaea na?aaeiueiio ?aae?ono eaie? a ?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe?
(h=r); iai?oaa ii aieic? a nooeeuei?e eaia?? a?aeiia?aeaea ?aaeueiiio
i?ioeano noo?iiy a ?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe?.

Ca oeeo oiia ?iaeeinue i?eiouaiiy, ui oaieioa i?aeaiaeeoueny o iaeiiio
iai?yieo (a?aoiaoth/e aaeeeee oaieiaee ii?? ieanoeie), a ieiueia aeioeeo
a?aeiia?aea? oeaio?o ae?aiao?a aeia?thaaii? eaie?.

Aeoiaey/e c i?eeiyoeo iaie i?eiouaiue, ia’?iiee eiao?oe??io oaieiiai?io

(9)

a?aeianaiee aei iaeeieoe? iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io, iiaeia caienaoe o oaeiio
aeaeyae?:

(10)

ine?eueee a iaoiio aeiaaeeo noia?ia iiaa?oiy

(11)

aea ?? — eiao?oe??io oaieiiai?io eaie?, Ao/(i2•E); F- ieiua iiaa?oi?
eaie?, i2; Vk- ia’?i nooeeueii? eaia?e, i3; G2- aiaeeiia aeo?aoa
aeno?aeoo, ea/aiae; h-aenioa oa?o aeno?aeoo, i; ?2-aonoeia aeno?aeoo,
ea/i3; Sie- ieiua ieanoeie, i2.

sse a?aeiii, a ?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe? oaieiiai?i i?ae
?icieethaaeueieie /anoeaie ? nooeeueiei aaaioai caaeia?eueii iieno?oueny
??aiyiiyi

Nu = 2. (12)

) ??aiyiiy (9) iaoeia oaeee aeaeyae:

. (13)

Oi?ioea ia’?iiiai eiao?oe??ioa oaieiiai?io aeey iaoi? aeine?aeii?
onoaiiaee iaoeia aeaeyae:

. (14)

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aee c noo?iiy aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a i?e oaiia?aoo??
nooeeueiiai aaaioo 180 °N ? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeno?aeoo 50, 30, 20 ? 10 %
nooeo ?a/iaei cana?ae/eee, ui oa?aeoa? i?ioeano noo?iiy aecia/a?oueny
ai?noii nooeo ?a/iaei a ?ic/ei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a iiaeai? o
aeaeyae? a?ao?e?a ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e aeno?aeoo (?en. 9).

?en. 9. Oa?iia?aia noo?iiy aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a i?e oaiia?aoo??
nooeeueiiai aaaioo 180°N.

I?ae /an noo?iiy aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a iiaeia aeae?eeoe i’youe aoai?a:
1) i?ia??aaiiy ?ic/eio; 2) noo?iiy c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth (ia?oee
ia??iae); 3) ooai?aiiy nei?eiee ? ia?aa??a aeno?aeoo (iaae oa?ii
aeno?aeoo ooai?th?oueny nei?eiea, oaiia?aoo?a i?aeaeuo?oueny aei
oaiia?aoo?e eei?iiy); 4) noo?iiy c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth aeeo/aiiy
aieiae i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeno?aeoo, ui aei??aith? oaiia?aoo?? aeia?thaaiiy
(ae?oaee ia??iae); 5) noo?iiy c? oaeaee?noth, yea niaaea? o i??o
iaaeeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aei oaiia?aoo?e ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui ii/aoeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino?
?ic/ei?a, ye? aenooothoueny ia ?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe?, aei??aith?
aeecueei 30 % ai?noo nooeo ?a/iaei, aoa i?iaaaeaiee ?yae aeine?ae?a c
noo?iiy aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a oaei? eiioeaio?aoe?? a iaaeao oaiia?aoo?
100(180 °N.

Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo aeine?aeieo aeaieo (?en. 10) iieacaa, ui on? e?ea?
iathoue iiae?aiee oa?aeoa?, i?ioa ??cio e?eaecio, aeeeeeaio ??ciei /anii
noo?iiy aeno?aeoo, aea i?e oaiia?aoo?ao nooeeueiiai aaaioo ieae/a 140 °N
ia oa?iia?aiao ia niinoa??aa?oueny ia??iae eei?iiy. Ca oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e oaieiiin?y ciaioo?oueny ia??iae noo?iiy. Oae, i?e
oaiia?aoo?? nooeeueiiai aaaioo 180 °N a?i noaiiaeoue 60 n, a i?e 140 °N
— 80 n. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui oaiia?aoo?a aeno?aeoo, ca yei?
ii/eia?oueny e?i?eia i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e, a ia??iae? ooai?aiiy
nei?eiee ia ia?aaeuo? 65 °N.

?en. 10. Oa?iia?aia noo?iiy 30% aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a i?e ??ci?e
oaiia?aoo?? nooeeueiiai aaaioa

Oae, c aeaieo a?ao?ea, iiaeaiiai ia ?en. 11, aeaeii, ui nii/aoeo
aeno?aeo i?ae?a??aa?oueny a?ae ii/aoeiai? oaiia?aoo?e aei e?eoe/ii?
oi/ee E?1, yea noaiiaeoue aeey 50 %-iiai aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a 65 °N.
I?e oeueiio a aeaiee ia??iae aeia?iao?oueny /aoaa?oa /anoeia aieiae, yea
i?noeoueny a ?ic/ei?.

I?ney ia??iaeo ??aiiaaaeiiai aeia?thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?a iaa??aaiiy
aeno?aeoo ci?ith?oueny i?aeoe/ii e?i?eii aei oi/ee E?2, ui a?aeiia?aea?
oaiia?aoo?? 100(110 °N. sse ? ia?aaeaa/aeinue, /ei iaioa ii/aoeiaa
eiioeaio?aoe?y nooeo ?a/iaei a aeno?aeo?, oei a?eueoee ia??iae iino?eii?
oaeaeeino? noo?iiy. Iai?eeeaae, o?eaae?noue ia?aa?ao aeaiiai ia??iaeo
i?ae /an noo?iiy 50 %-iiai aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a noaiiaeoue aeecueei 20
n, oiae? ye 10 %-iiai — 90 n. Oeae ia??iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iith
ci?iith iane aeno?aeoo.

?en. 11. A?ao?ee ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e oa iane aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a c 50%
N? i?ae /an noo?iiy

Ae?oaee ia??iae niinoa??aa?oueny ca oiia aeinyaiaiiy aeno?aeoii
oaiia?aoo?e 120 °N ? ia oa?iia?ai? ia? aeaeyae ai?eciioaeueii? ae?eyiee.
Ianoa? oeae ia??iae ia ?aioiai, a i?ney ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino?
aeia?thaaiiy ? ooai?aiiy nei?eiee ia iiaa?oi?.

Ae?oaee ia??iae iaea?eueo ?ioaineaiee o aeno?aeo? c aenieith
eiioeaio?aoe??th nooeo ?a/iaei. C? ciaioaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eio a?i
ciaioo?oueny. Oae, ca 50 %-ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeno?aeoo a?i noaiiaeoue
aeecueei 15 n, a ca eiioeaio?aoe?? 10 %-ii? — i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?e.

Ine?eueee ia ii/aoeo o?aoueiai ia??iaeo ua iayaia cia/ia aeanoe/i?noue,
a aeia?thaaiiy aieiae oi/ ? niia?eueith?oueny ?, aea i?ioean noo?iiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny — oa? aeno?aeoo ciaioo?oueny a oiauei?. O i??o
iiaeaeueoiai aeia?thaaiiy oiaueia nei?eiee ca?eueoo?oueny, ui
ia?aoeiaeaea? aeeooc?? aieiae aei iiaa?oi? oa?o. A?aeiia?aeii a?eueoa
e?euee?noue oaiea aeo?a/a?oueny ia i?ia??aaiiy aeno?aeoo, ui ni?e/eiy?
neeiaiiy ?ic/eio ana?aaeei? oa?o ii aeinyaiaii? oaiia?aoo?e eei?iiy.

Iaa??aaiiy aeno?aeo?a ??cii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeua oi/ee E?3, ye aeaeii c
a?ao?ea oaiia?aoo?ieo e?eaeo, ia? i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaee oa?aeoa? ci?ie
oaiia?aoo?e. A?aeiia?aeii ? /an o?aoueiai ia??iaeo aeey ??cieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciy?oueny ? noaiiaeoue 35 n. Aeaiee
ia??iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?noeaaeie ?ic?eaaie nei?eiee, aeeeeeaieie
cia/iei ia?aaeuaiiyi aioo??oiueiai oeneo a oa?? eiioeaio?aoo iaae oeneii
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. I?ioean ?ic?eaaiiy nei?eiee o?eaa? aeioe,
aeiee a aeno?aeo? i?noeoueny aieiaa.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ia?aa??oe? nooiaiy aeinoia??iino?
aeine?aeieo ?acoeueoao?a ? ia ?o iniia? ?ic?iaeaiith oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a noo?iiy aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a ia iai?ai?iieneia?e onoaiiaoe? c noo?iiy
aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a iaie aeei?enoiaoaaeanue ?icieethaaeueia nooa?ea
o??ie “Ie?i-Aoiiaeca?” i?iaeoeoeai?noth 10 ea/aiae, ui aeaei
iiaeeea?noue cia/ii ?ioaineo?eoaaoe i?ioean noo?iiy ca ?aooiie
iaeneiaeueiiai ciaioaiiy ?ici??o /anoie. Oea ni?ey? noai?aiith cia/ii?
iiaa?oi? aeia?thaaiiy ae??aiiaeenia?nieo eaiaeue ?ic/eio ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, aea? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy nooeeueiiai aaaioo c
oaiia?aoo?ith aei 200 °N i?ae /an noo?iiy oa?iieaa?eueieo oa?/iaeo
iaoa??ae?a, aei yeeo a?aeiineoueny aeno?aeo oii?iaiao?a. Iaaeniea
oaiia?aoo?a aenoooaaiiai iaoa??aeo ? oaeaeea noo?iiy (aeae?eueea
naeoiae) aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe nooee ii?ioie i?aeoe/ii c iiaiei
caa?aaeaiiyi oa?/iaeo ? a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei.

Aeine?aee iieacaee, ui iaeneiaeueia aeaeaoi?noue ca nooei i?iaeoeoii
onoaiiaee aeinyaaeanue noo?iiyi eiioeaio?aoo aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a c
ii/aoeiaith eiioeaio?aoe??th nooeo ?a/iaei 30…35 %, ii/aoeiaith
oaiia?aoo?ith nooeeueiiai aaaioo 160 °C ? noaiiaeea 3,2 ea/aiae. Ca
oiiae ciaioaiiy ii/aoeiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?iaeoeoo aeaeaoi?noue
nooa?ee iaaeaea /a?ac iaiaaeai?noue i?iaeoeoeaiino? ca aeia?aiith
aieiaith, a o ?ac? ca?eueoaiiy ii/aoeiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? niinoa??aaeinue
iaeeiaiiy i?iaeoeoo ia no?iee eaia?e a ieiuei? aeeneo. Aenioa eaia?e
aoea aeinoaoiueith aeey cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao aeno?aeoo.

Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? oaieiiin?y, yeee iiaea?oueny a eaia?o, a
a?aeiia?aeii ? eiai oaeaeeino? a?ae 0,25 aei 0,4 i/oa ??cei i?aeaeuo?
?ioaineai?noue noo?iiy, ca?eueooth/e aeo?aoe oaiea ia 1 ea aeia?aii?
aieiae c 3,8 aei 5,4 eAeae. sseui iaeii/anii c? ca?eueoaiiyi aeo?ao
iia?o?y ciaioeoe eiai oaiia?aoo?o, aeo?aoe oaieioe ciaioaoueny, aea
cieceoueny ? e?euee?noue aieiae, aeia?thaaii? a ieiuei? aeeneo, ui iiaea
i?ecaanoe aei iaeeiaiiy i?iaeoeoo ia no?iee eaia?e.

Ca oaiia?aoo? iia?o?y ieae/eo a?ae 120 °N aeno?aeo oii?iaiao?a ia
anoeaa? aenooeoenue ca /an ia?aaoaaiiy a nooeeuei?e eaia??. Oiio aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeii? aieiaino? nooiai i?iaeoeoo iio??aii aai
ciaiooaaoe e?euee?noue iiaea/? aeno?aeoo ia aoiae? aai ca?eueooaaoe
aenioo nooa?ee. Ca oiiae ca?eueoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e oaieiiin?y iiiaae 200
°N aieia?noue e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo caaeiaieueiy? aeiiae oaoiieia??, aea
niinoa??aa?oueny iioaii?iiy i?iaeoeoo, oiaoi a?i i?aeai?y?. Aeoiaey/e c
aeaieo aeine?ae?a iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ii/aoeiaa oaiia?aoo?a
nooeeueiiai aaaioo iiaeiia aei??aithaaoe 140…180°N.

Aeine?aee c ia?aa??ee ?ic?iaeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?iaiaeeeenue ca
iino?eii? oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy ?icieethaaeueiiai aeeneo. A?aeiia?aeii,
ca iaei??? e o??? naii? ii/aoeiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a
i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ithaaany na?aaei?e ae?aiao? /anoie. Ae?aiao? ?icieeaieo
/anoie /a?ac iaiiaeeea?noue eiai cai??o a i?iieneia?e nooa?oe?
aecia/aany ca oi?ioeith A.Ae. Aiae?a?aa:

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aea w- eooiaa oaeaee?noue ?icieethaaeueiiai aeeneo, n-1, ?
eiio?iethaaany ca ?ici??ii /anoi/ie nooiai ii?ioeo.

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??

1. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oa a?ieia?/ii? oe?iiino?
oii?iaiao?a, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai caa??aaiiy i?iaeoeo?a c iueiai oa iio?aae
?icoe?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeo?a i?io?eaeoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy
iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue iaea?aeaiiy nooiai ?ic/eiiiai ii?ioeo c
aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a.

2. Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo aeaieo c aecia/aiiy caa?oaeiaiino? aeno?aeoo
oii?iaiao?a eaioea?iaaiieie ?a/iaeiaie iieacaa, ui iniiaieie oaeoi?aie
neioaco IA a i?ioean? aeno?aaoaaiiy ? oaiia?aoo?a aeno?aaoaaiiy ?
eeneioi?noue na?aaeiaeua. ?ioaineai?noue ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a
ca?eueoo?oueny c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ? i?e eeneioiino? na?aaeiaeua
?I”3.

3.I?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a c eiioeaio?aoe?? aeno?aeoo
oii?iaiao?a niinoa??aa?oueny iiaeaeueoa ooai?aiiy IA i?ae aieeaii
oaiia?aoo?e. Iaeii/anii i?o?icai?iai aeanoeaa eaoe?noue, /a?ac ui aiie
/anoeiai aeeo/athoueny c aiaeyiith ia?ith.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano noo?iiy eiioeaio?aoo aeaee iiaeeea?noue
anoaiiaeoe, ui iaeaieeaia?oei oaeoi?ii a neioac? IAeIA ? eiioeaio?aoe?y
acioo aoaeaoeth a nooeeueiiio aaaio?. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
ae?ieneaeo acioo iaeiicia/ii aaaea aei ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo IAeIA a nooiio
aeno?aeo?.

5. I?iaaaeaiee iaeyae iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e oa aeaoaeueia iciaeiieaiiy c
oaieiaaia?aoi?aie iieacaee aoaeoeaiee iaoiae ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
ieneae?a acioo a i?iaeoeoao cai?yiiy, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia ciaioaii?
oaiia?aoo?e iieoi’y ca niaethaaiiy aaco ca e?iaoe/iei i?eioeeiii c
aaeeeeie iaaeeeoeaie iia?o?y.

6. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c aea/aiiy aieeao
iniiaieo oaeoi??a ia ooai?aiiy IAeIA i?ae /an noo?iiy aeno?aeoo
oii?iaiao?a oa aeaoaeueiiai iciaeiieaiiy c i?ioeanaie cai?yiiy aaco
?ic?iaeaii (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 17785 A a?ae 20.05.97 ?.) oaieiaaia?aoi?
eiioaeoiiai oeio c iecueeei ai?noii ieene?a acioo a nooeeueiiio aaaio?
aeey nooa?ie, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a oa?/ia?e ? ia?a?iai?e
i?iieneiainoyo.

7. Aeey ia?aianaiiy iaea?aeaieo ia eaai?aoi?i?e onoaiiaoe?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ia i?iieneiao nooa?eo ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?ioeano noo?iiy aeine?aeaeai? iniiai? oaieio?ce/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a — aonoeia, eiao?oe??io
oaieii?ia?aeiino?, e?iaiaoe/ia a’yce?noue oa oaiei?ii?noue caeaaeii
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa ai?noo nooeo ?a/iaei.

8. C iaoith aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a noo?iiy aeno?aeoo
oii?iaiao?a a ?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe? c? cia/iei ciaioaiiyi /enea
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?ae?a ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
oaieiiai?io a i?ioean? noo?iiy ?icieeaiiyi.

9. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c noo?iiy ia
?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe? o??ie “Ie?i-Aoiiaeca?” anoaiiaeaia
iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy nooiai ?ic/eiiiai ii?ioeo c oii?iaiao?a.

10. Aecia/ai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e nooeeueiiai i?ioeano (ii/aoeiaa
eiioeaio?aoe?y aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a noaiiaeoue 30(33 % N?, ii/aoeiaa
oaiia?aoo?a nooeeueiiai aaaioo – 140…180 °N.)

11. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/i?
?aaeeie iniiaieo i?ioean?a iaea?aeaiiy nooiai ?ic/eiiiai ii?ioeo c
aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a c iecueeei ai?noii IA a e?ioeaaiio i?iaeoeo?.

Nienie iniiaieo IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?ia?o

ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Aanna?aa A.N., Ooothe A.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea oaieii?iaiaeiinoe yeno?aeoa
oiioiaiao?a. // O?aiaiea e ia?a?aaioea naeueoicnu?uey. — I.: 1997. — ?
3. — n. 27-28.

2. Aanna?aa A.N., Aoeue E.N., Ooothe A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea oaieiaieinoe e
ayceinoe yeno?aeoa oiioiaiao?a e aai eiioeaio?aoa.

// O?aiaiea e ia?a?aaioea naeueoicnu?uey. — I.: 1997. — ? 5. — n. 29.

3. Aanna?aa A.N., Ooothe A.A. Oaieiaaia?aoi? eiioaeoiiai oeia n
ieceei niaea?aeaieai ieneaeia acioa a nooeeueiii aaaioa//Iaoe. i?aoe?
ae?oai? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaoe. i?aeo. eiio. “Oe?aii?iaeoeoe-97”. — Iaeana,
1997. — n. 63.

4. Ooothe A.A., Aanna?aa I.N. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano noo?iiy aeno?aeoo
oii?iaiao?a a nooa?oe? “Ie?i-Aoiiaeca?”//Iaoeia? i?aoe? OAeOOO.- 1998.
-? 4. N. 21-22.

5. Ooothe A.A., Aanna?aa I.N. Ooai?aiiy IAeIA a i?iaeoeoao c
oii?iaiao?a. //Iao/. o?oaeu iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Yeieiaey /aeiaaea e
i?iaeaiu ainieoaiey iieiaeuo o/aiuo”. — Iaeanna, 1997. — n. 39-41.

6. Ooothe A..A., Aanna?aa I.N. Aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee noo?iiy
aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a//Iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. “I?aei?e?inoaa ? oeaoe iaei?
iiooaeiino? aeey ia?a?iaee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie:
aoaeoeai?noue ? iniaeea?noue i?aai?caoe??”, Iieoaaa, 1997. — N. 310-313.

7. Bessarab O.S., Guliy I.S., Shutiuk V.V., Koval I.Y. Investigation
of influence of heat processes in formation of NDMA at production food
stuff fro jerusalem artichoke //International workshop on inulin as
medicine food ingredient. Properties and applications of inulin. Kiev,
Ukrainian State University of Food Technologies. –1998. S.11-19.

8. Bessarab O.S., Guliy I.S., Shutiuk V.V., Koval I.Y. Research of
some thermal physical properties of extrakt from jerusalem artichoke

//International workshop on inulin as medicine food ingredient.
Properties and applications of inulin. Kiev, Ukrainian State University
of Food Technologies. –1998. S. 20-26.

9. Iaoaio 17785 A. Aaciaee iaeueiee. Ooothe A.A., Aanna?aa I.N.,Eiaaeue
?.E. a?ae 20.05.97?.

10. Aanna?aa I.N., Ooothe A.A., Eaoo??i I.I., Ai?no?aoaiei A.I.
Ooai?aiiy eaioea?iaaiieo ?a/iaei a i?ioean? aeno?aeoe??
oii?iaiao?a.//E., 1996. -8 n. Aeai. a AIOA Oe?a?ie 10.09.96, ? 1802-Oe
96.

11. Aanna?aa A.N., Ooothe A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea ia?aciaaiey eaioea?iaaiiuo
aauanoa a i?ioeanna iieo/aiey i?iaeoeoia ec oiieiaiao?a.// Oac. aeiee.
Iaaeaeo?aaeii. iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. “Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue-2000”. —
Eacaiue, 1996. — N. 130.

12. Ooothe A.A., Aanna?aa A.N. e ae?. Oaoiieiaey iieo/aiey nooiai
aeno?aeoa oiieiaiao?a. //Oac. aeiee. ia Iaaeaeoia?. iieiaeaaeiii neiiic.
“Oaoieea e oaoiieiaey yeieiae/anee /enouo i?iecaiaenoa”. -I.: 1996. — N.
-78-79.

13. Ooothe A.A. , Aanna?aa I.N. e ae?. Iiaue niinia ia?aaioee aeeaeeeo
ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia//Oac. aeiee. ia Iaaeaeoia?. iieiaeaaeiii neiiic.
“Oaoieea e oaoiieiaey yeieiae/anee /enouo i?iecaiaenoa”. -I.: 1996. — N.
-17.

14. Aanna?aa I.N., Ooothe A.A. Aieea oaieiaeo i?ioean?a ia ooai?aiiy
N-i?o?ici-aeeiaoeeai?io a i?aeoeoao c oii?iaiao?a. //Oace aeii. ia IX
I?aeia?. eiio. “Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a o?i?/ieo, oa?/iaeo
oa iaooio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa”,Iaeana, 1996. — N.-23.

15. Aanna?aa A.N., Ooothe A.A. I?iaeaia iaea?aeaiiy aeno?aeoo c
oii?iaiao?a a nooiio aeaeyae?. //Oace aeii. ia IX I?aeia?. eiio.
“Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a o?i?/ieo, oa?/iaeo oa
iaooio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa”,Iaeana, 1996. — N.-92.

16. Aanna?aa A.N., Ooothe A.A. Ooee?caoe?y oaieioe a nooeeueieo
onoaiiaeao. //Oace aeii. ia 2-?e i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. “Oi?aae?iiy
aia?aiaeei?enoaiiyi”, Euea?a, 1997. — n. 93.

Ooothe A.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a io?eiaiiy
?ic/eiiiai ii?ioeo c oii?iaiao?a.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
?c niaoe?aeueiino? 05.18.12 — I?ioeane oa aia?aoe oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa,
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, Ee?a, 1998.

Caoeua?oueny 15 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o oa 1 iaoaio, ye? i?noyoue oai?aoe/i? ?
aenia?aiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiianiiai?io i?ae /an noo?iiy
aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a o ?icieethaaeuei?e nooa?oe?, ooai?aiiy
eaioea?iaaiieo ?a/iaei o oaieiaeo i?ioeanao ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeo?a c
iueiai, a oaeiae iniiai? oaieio?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeno?aeoo ?
eiioeaio?aoo aeno?aeoo oii?iaiao?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noo?iiy ?icieethaaiiyi, oii?iaiao?, aeno?aeo, ii?ioie,
eaioea?iaaie, i?o?iciae?iaoeeai?i, oaieio?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee,
nooeeueiee aaaio.

Ooothe A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea oaieiianniiaiaiuo i?ioeannia iieo/aiey
?anoai?eiiai ii?ioea ec oiieiaiao?a.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeaeueiinoe 05.18.12 — I?ioeannu oa aiia?aou ieuaauo i?iecaiaenoa,
Oe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ieuaauo oaoiieiaee, Eeaa, 1998.

Caueuaaony 15 iao/iuo ?aaio e 1 iaoaio, niaea?aeauea oai?aoe/aneea e
yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey oaieiianniiaiaia i?e nooea aeno?aeoa
oiieiaiao?a a ?aniueeoaeueiie nooeeea, ia?aciaaiea eaioea?iaaiiuo
aauanoa a oaieiauo i?ioeannao i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia ec iaai, a oaeaea
iniiaiua oaieioece/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee yeno?aeoa e eiioeaio?aoa
yeno?aeoa oiieiaiao?a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nooea ?aniueaieai,oiieiaiao?, yeno?aeo, ii?ioie,
eaioea?iaaiu, ieoi?iaeeiaoeeaiei, oaieioece/aneea naienoaa, nooeeueiue
aaaio.

Shutyuk V.V., Study of Heat and Mass Exchenge Processes for obtaining of
Soluble Powder from Jerusalem artichoke.

Dissertation for the scientific degree of a Candidate of engineering
scientific on spesialty 05.18.12 – processes and apparatuses for food
production, Ukrainian State University of Food Technologies, Kiev, 1998.

15 scientific papers and 1 patent are being defended containing both
hteoretical and experimental studies of heat and mass exchange when
drying an extract of the Jerusalem artichoke in a spraying drier,
formation of cancerogenic substances during thermal processes of making
products from it as well as basic thermophysical specifcations of an
extract and concentrated products from the Jerusalem artichoke.

Key words: drying through spraying, Jerusalem artichoke, extract,
cancerogens, nitodimethylamine, thermophysical properties, drying agent.

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