1

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

CAII??CUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Ianoa?ia Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 669.14.018.853

AeINE?AeAEAIIss OA ?IC?IAEA AEIIIIIIEAAIAAII? OA?EOII? AEA?INO?EEI?
NOAE? AeEss NENOAIE AEOEIIIIAI O?AEOO AAOIIIA?E?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.01 – Iaoa??aeiciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee : eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

AIIAeA?AIEI Aiaoie?e Eaii?aeiae/,

Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?ce/iiai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Na?aaea Ai?en Iao?iae/,

Caii??cueea aea?aeaaia ?iaeaia?ia aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaoa??aeiciaanoaa oa ia?iaee iaoae?a.

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe

ssoeaiei ?a?na Aanee?aia,

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo niaoe?aeueieo
noaeae, nieaa?a ? oa?inieaa?a, i. Caii??aeaey,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a iaoaeiciaanoaa oa oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaoae?a I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 ethoiai 2000 ?. i 13-30 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 17.052.01 o Caii??cueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 69063, i.
Caii??aeaey, aoe.AEoeianueeiai, 64.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 69063 i. Caii??aeaey,
aoe. AEoeianueeiai, 64.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 28 a?oaeiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani??.I.Aie/ie

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ae?iaieoeoai aaoiiia?e?a, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
no/aniei ii?iai aenieoaoaoe?? oa caeaoieo eiieo?oaaoe ia na?oiaiio
?eieo, iaiiaeeeaa aac aaeeaaiiy caoiae?a ii cieaeaiith oiene/iino?
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a. Iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ??oaiiy
oe??? caaea/? ? onoaiiaea eaoae?oe/iiai iaeo?ae?caoi?a a nenoai?
aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo. I?eioeei ?iaioe iaeo?ae?caoi?a caniiaaiee ia
eaoae?oe/iiio aeiiaeai? oe?aeeeaeo neeaaeiaeo a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a, ?
oei naiei, cieaeaiiy ?oiuei? oiene/iino?. Iaeo?ae?caoi? yaey? niaith
u?eueieeiaee ea?ai?/iee iiiiaeie ?c iaianaiith aeoeaiith ?a/iaeiith
(?aaeoi?), yeee iii?uaii a iaoaeaaee ei?ion.

O ?aaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? oaiia?aoo?e, ui ?icaeaathoueny a cii?
?aaeoi?a, neeaaeathoue a?ey 800N. I?enooi?noue o neeaae?
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a ieen?a aoaeaoeth oa acioo, ia??a aiaee ?
c’?aeiaiue n??ee, a oaeiae aoaeaaiae?a, aecia/a? aenieo ?o o?i?/io
aa?aneai?noue. Ia ciai?oith iiaa?oith iaoaeaaiai ei?iono aieeaa?
aoiinoa?ia na?aaeiaeua, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei eiai ei?ic??.

Iaei??th c aeiia aei iiiiaei/ieo iaeo?ae?caoi??a ? i?i?iaeueia ??cieoey
i?ae eiao?oe??ioaie oa?i?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy ea?ai?/iiai iiiiaeieo oa
iaoaeo ei?iono. I?e cia/i?e ?? aaee/ei? a?aei?aoeueiaai? aace
i?ioiaeyoue ia /a?ac u?eueieee, a a caci? i?ae ea?ai?/iei aeieii oa
iaoaeaaei ei?ionii. Oiae? iaeo?ae?caoi? ao?a/a? naith ?ieue ye
aeiiaethaa/a a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a. E??i oeueiai, oea oaeiae iiaea
i?eaanoe aei iaoai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy ea?ai?/iiai aeieo, aiane?aeie
a?a?aoe?? i?e aenieoaoaoe??. An? oe? iniaeeaino? aenieoaoaoe??
iaoiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ei?iono
iaeo?ae?caoi?a aenieieaaiaaieo ei?ic?eiino?eeeo noaeae. Iaeiae, noae?
iiae?aiiai eeano, ye? ae?iaeythoueny a?o/eciyiith iaoaeo?a?eiith
i?iieneia?noth ?c ?yaeo i?e/ei ia oe?eeii a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai aei
iaoa??ae?a aeey aeaioiaeaiiy oeeo ae?ia?a. Oae, iai?eeeaae, o
ei?ic?eiino?eei? noae? 12O18I10O, yea aeia?a ooaiio?oueny oa ia? aenieo
aea?ino?ee?noue, eiao?oe??io oa?i?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy iaaaaaoi ia?aaeuo?
oeae ia?aiao? o ea?ai?ee. Noae? 08O18O1, 04O17O, oi/a ?
caaeiaieueiythoue aeiiaai ii aea?ino?eeino?, ei?ic?ei?e no?eeino?,
aeecueeino? eiao?oe??io?a oa?i?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy, iaeiae ia iathoue
aeinoaoiueiai ??aiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e
ooaiioaaiiy. E??i oeueiai, an? oe? noae? /a?ac aenieee ai?no i?eaeth oa
o?iio, aeao?oeeoi? ? eiooiai?, ui a oiiaao ianiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa no?eio?
oe?iea ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

Aeina?ae i?ia?aeieo aaoiiia?eaaoae?aieo o??i iieaco?, ui aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy aaeeei? iiiaieeaoo?e aeaoaeae nenoaie aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo,
aei yeeo a?aeiinyoueny ? iaeo?ae?caoi?e a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a,
?ic?iaeai? oa aeei?enoiaothoueny aeiiiiiieaaiaai? aea?ino?ee? noae?, ui
iathoue o nai?io neeaae? 10-11 % o?iio oa noaa?e?ciaai? oeoaiii
(YUS-409D, AISI-409, DIN WNR 4512). Oe? noae? a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai
aei iaoa??ae?a i?e aeaioiaeaii? aeaoaeae iaoiaeaie ooaiioaaiiy oa
caaacia/othoue aeinoaoi?e aenieoaoaoe?eiee ?ano?n. Iaeiae, aiie iathoue
o nai?io neeaae? ia aei?aaaeaii aaeeeee ai?no o?iio, ui iiaea aooe
cieaeaiee ca ?aooiie aeiaeaoeiaiai eaaoaaiiy oaeeie aeaiaioaie ye,
iai?eeeaae, aethi?i?e oa e?aii?e, eio?? ye ? o?ii i?aeaeuothoue
aea?ino?ee?noue noae?.

Noai?aiiy aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo noaeae aeey aeaoaeae nenoaie aeoeiiiiai
o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a o e?a?iao NIAe iaiaaeeeiny ?ic?iaeaie noaeae
07O8THOeO (*N53), 05O13OeTH (*N54) Oeaio?aeueiei iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei
?inoeoooii /i?ii? iaoaeo?a??. Iaeiae, oe? noae? ca no?oeoo?ith ?
oa?eoiia?oaineoieie, ?o iaoaeo?a?eiee ia?a?ia ia oieiaeiieaoaiee eeno
ia? aaaaoi oaoiieia?/ieo oneeaaeiaiue, ui ia aeicaieeei inai?oe
i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai c ieo oieiaeiieaoaiiai eenoiaiai iaoa??aeo.
Aeueoa?iaoeaith oeei iaoa??aeai iiaeooue noaoe aeiiiiiieaaiaai?
iaeiioaci? oa?eoi? noae?, neeaae ? no?oeoo?a yeeo caaacia/othoue aenieo
oaoiieia?/i?noue i?e aeaioiaeaii? eenoiaiai iaoaeii?ieaoo oa aioiaeo
ae?ia?a c iueiai, a oaeiae aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue aea?ino?eeino? ?
ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy c
aeaii? oaiaoeee ii/eiaee aeeiioaaoe ia i?aenoaa? caaaeaiiy 11.01.O:
“?ac?aaioaoue e aiaae?eoue oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann ooaiiiaee e naa?ee
ecaeaeee n?aaenoa o?ainii?oa ec ei??iceiiiinoieeeo aacieeaeaauo
oa??eoiuo nieaaia”, I?aeaaeocaaiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai eiiieaeno
“Aioeei?” AEIO N?N? ? AI N?N? (Iinoaiiaa AEIO N?N? a?ae 14 eeiiy 1986
?ieo ? 311) oa i?iaeiaaeeee o ainiaeiaia??ieo ?iaioao ia aeae?eueeio
i?aei?e?inoaao.

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Noai?aiiy aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? iaeiioacii?
noae? oa?eoiiai eeano, eenoiaee iaoa??ae ?c yei? iaa ae aeinoaoi?e
??aaiue aea?ino?eeino? oa ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?, a oaeiae aenieo
oaoiieia?/i?noue i?e aeaioiaeaii? c ia? aeaoaeae nenoaie aeoeiiiiai
o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a iaoiaeaie ooaiioaaiiy-aeoyaoaaiiy oa caa?thaaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oa ae??oai? ianooii?
caaea/?:

1. C`yniaaii aieea e?aii?th, aethi?i?th oa oeoaio, i?e ??ci?e ?o
e?eueeino?, ia nooi?iue iie?ii?oiiai ia?aoai?aiiy a cae?cio?iieno?e
noae? c 7-9% o?iio.

2. Anoaiiaeaii e?euee?ni? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy cacia/aieo eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a, ui caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy noae? c iaeii??aeiith oa?eoiith
no?oeoo?ith, iioeiaeueiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi aea?ino?eeino? oa iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae.

3. ?ic?iaeaii o?i?/iee neeaae iiai? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? aea?ino?eei? noae?
oa?eoiiai eeano.

4. O oiae? ai?iaaoe?? i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa aeine?aeaeaii no?oeoo?o
oa aeanoeaino? eenoiaiai iaoaeii?ieaoo.

5. Aecia/aii ??aaiue iaeaaaeeea?oeo aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
?ic?iaeaii? noaee — aea?ino?eeino? oa ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?.

6. Ai?iaiaaii oaoiieia?/i?noue eenoiaiai iaoaeii?ieaoo i?e aeaioiaeaii?
aeaoaeae nenoaie aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo aaoiiia?ey.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/iiai
ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo, no/ani? iaoiaee no?oeoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aei?iaoaaiiy iaoai?/ieo, o?ce/ieo oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
eaaiaaieo noaeae. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeo ieneaeieo oa??a
canoiniaoaaany iaoiae i?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co.
A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
?acoeueoaoaie noaiaeiaeo, iieueiaeo oa oeyoiaeo ?nieo?a aeine?aeieo
c?ace?a ae?ia?a nenoaie aaciaeoeiiiiai o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe.

1. Aia?oa iieacaii i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue caoaioaaoe iie?ii?o?ci ?
iaea?aeaoe iaeii??aeio oa?eoio no?oeoo?o a noae?, ui i?noeoue 7-9% o?iio
oeyoii eaaoaaiiy ?? aeiaeaoeiai e?aii??i, aethi?i??i ? oeoaiii.

2. I?e aeei?enoaii? iaoiaeo iaoaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaio?a
io?eiaii ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?e, ui iienothoue aieea oeeo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a
ia aea?ino?ee?noue ? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? noae?, ui i?noeoue 7-9%
o?iio.

3. Anoaiiaeaii caeaaeiino? cia/aiue aea?ino?eeino? oa iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae o?iienoi? noae? a?ae ??ciiai ai?noo e?aii?th, aethi?i?th ?
oeoaio.

4. Anoaiiaeaii e?euee?nia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy cacia/aieo eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a, ui caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy iaoa??aeo c iioeiaeueiei
eiiieaenii iaoai?/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— ?ic?iaeaii iiao aeiiiiiieaaiaaio aea?ino?eeo noaeue, ui i?noeoue
7,0-8,5% o?iio, 0,8-1,2% e?aii?th, 0,9-1,2% aethi?i?th, 0,3-0,6% oeoaio,
0,05-0,1% oea??th, 0,1-0,3% eaeueoe?th;

— iieacaii iiaeeea?noue cai?ie eeane/ieo ia?aeaa?th/eo noaeae, ui
i?noyoue i?eaeue oa o?ii, i?e aeaioiaeaii? aeaoaeae nenoaie aeoeiiiiai
o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a c ?ic?iaeaii? noae?;

— ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeaii i?e ae?iaieoeoa? i?iieneiai? ia?o??
oieiaeiieaoaiiai eenoa a oiiaao caaiaeo “Aei?i?iniaoenoaeue” ? IE
“Caii??aenoaeue”; aeaioiaeaii i?iieneiao ia?o?th iaeo?ae?caoi??a
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a oa aeine?aei? ia?o?? aeooiee?a ooio aei
aaoiiia?e?a n?iaenoaa CAC, EAC, AAC.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo “Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo
ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee”
(aeiaoaiue 1989, 1990, aa?anaiue 1992, 1995, Caii??aeaey); I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey” (ea?oaiue, 1997,
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee); iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaiaoaeee/aneea
aeeth/aiey e aacu a eeoaeiuo nieaaao” (aa?anaiue 1997, Caii??aeaey).

O iiaiiio ianyc? ?iaioa aeiiia?aeaeanue ia eaoaae?? o?ce/iiai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa
ia i?aeeaoaae?aeueiiio nai?ia?? “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai”.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii a 1
noaoo? o iaoeiaiio oaoiaiio aeo?iae?, a 3 noaooyo o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue oa a 5 iaoa??aeao iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?e oa nai?ia??a,
iaea?aeaii 1 aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai ia aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioo aeeiiaii a ianyc? 120 noi??iie eiii`thoa?iei iaai?ii,
ai?uo? 33 iaethiee, 15 oaaeeoeue, a?ae?ia?ao?/iee nienie i?noeoue 103
iacae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa 10 aeiaeaoe?a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aeeeaaeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaioe, iaa?oioiaaii
aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeeeaaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio, i?eaaaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i i?aeoe/io
oe?ii?noue oa ?aae?caoe?th ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?noeoue iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c ieoaiue ?iaioe iaoa??ae?a a
oiiaao aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ieeneaiiy o ??ciiiai?oieo aaciaeo
na?aaeiaeuao oa a oiiaao aoiinoa?ii? ei?ic??. I?iaiae?ciaai? iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo aea?ino?eeeo oa?eoieo noaeae ye iaoa??aeo
aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeaoaeae nenoaie aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ii aieeao ??cieo eiiiiiaio?a
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a aaoiiia?e?a ia ei?ic?eia iiaiaeaeaiiy noaeae, ui
o?aaeeoe?eii canoiniaothoueny aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeaoaeae aeoeiiiiai
o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a.

A?aecia/aii, ui iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei niiniaii aeinyaiaiiy aenieeo
aea?ino?eeeo aeanoeainoae ? eaaoaaiiy noaeae.

Iaeiei c aeaiaio?a, ui ?noioii i?aeaeuothoue aea?ino?ee?noue noae? ?
o?ii. Aeniea aea?ino?ee?noue noaeae oa nieaa?a, ui i?noyoue o?ii,
iaoiiaeaia ooai?aiiyi ia ?o iiaa?oi? aeoaea i?oeii? ooaiieaaei? ie?aee,
yea neeaaea?oueny c ieneaeo o?iio Cr2O3 aai c ieneae?a a?eueo neeaaeii?
niieoee oi?iaeueiiai oeio.

Ii?? aacia?e ei?ic?? o?iienoeo noaeae cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny i?e
aaaaeaii? a ?o neeaae oaeeo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ye aethi?i?e oa e?aii?e.

Aethi?i?e ? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiith i?enaaeeith, yea i?aeaeuo?
aea?ino?ee?noue cae?ca oa cae?cio?iienoeo nieaa?a. Aeiaeaoie aethi?i?th
a cae?ci i?eaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy ia iiaa?oi? noae? no?eei? caoenii?
ie?aee, ui i?e aaeeeiio ai?no? aethi?i?th neeaaea?oueny ia?aaaaeii c
ieneaeo Al2O3.

Aeiaaaea e?aii?th aei cae?cio?iienoeo noaeae ae?? aeae?eueea nai???aeii.
Ooai?aiiy caoenieo ieenieo ie?aie a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
700-900N. Ia ii/aoeo i?ioeano e?aii?e oa o?ii ieeneythoueny iaeii/anii c
ooai?aiiyi oi?iae? FeO.Cr2O3, SiO2 ? nee?eao?a, a iio?i a?aeaoaa?oueny
ou?eueiaiiy caoeniiai oa?o oiane?aeie ciaeaiiy ieneae?a e?aii?th oa
nee?eao?a.

A?aeiii oaeiae, ui ?CI iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia aea?ino?ee?noue noaeae. Oeae
aieea iaoiiaeth?oueny oei, ui aiie ciaioothoue e?euee?noue aeaoaeo?a
ieneaei?e ie?aoe?. Oea, o naith /a?ao, ciaioo? oaeaee?noue aeeooc??
?ii?a iaoaeo a ie?aoe? oa i?aeaeuo? aea?ino?ee?noue.

O oe?e /anoei? ?iaioe ei?ioei i?iaiae?ciaaii iniaeeaino? oa?iiaeeiai?ee
oa e?iaoeee ieeneaiiy o?iienoeo noaeae.

Eaaoaaiiy noaeae o?iiii, aethi?i??i oa e?aii??i, ie??i ??oaiiy caaea/?
ii caaacia/aiith aenieeo aea?ino?eeeo aeanoeainoae, iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia
ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue a aoiinoa?ieo oiiaao. Aoaeo aeinyaa?oueny ca
?aooiie oiai, ui i?e aaaaeaii? aei neeaaeo noae? o?iio, aethi?i?th,
e?aii?th o a?eueoiio aai iaioiio nooiai? i?aeaeuo?oueny ?? noeeuei?noue
aei ianeaaoe??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i iaoa??ee, ui aeei?enoiaoaaee
o ?iaio? oa iaoiaee ?o aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioo ii ?ic?iaoe? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo iiai? noae?
ia`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoei ia?aii oieiaeiieaoaiee iaoae aeine?aeieo
ieaaie.

Aeey ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co iaoai?/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo oa
aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae ?ic?iaeaii? noae? ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co
iiia?aaeiueiai aeina?aeo aeaioiaeaiiy aeaoaeae aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo
aaoiiia?e?a aoee ia?ai? noae? a?o/eciyiiai oa caei?aeiiiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa: 12O18I10O, 08O18O1, YUS 409D.

Aeine?aei? ieaaee oa ?o ia?a?ia c ?ic?iaeaii? noae? ia oieiaeiieaoai?
nioae i?iaiaeeee o eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao. Aeaioiaeaiiy i?iieneiaeo ia?o?e
oieiaeiieaoaiiai eenoa oe??? noae? a?aeaoaaeiny a oiiaao caaiaeo
“Aei?i?iniaoenoaeue” oa IE “Caii??aenoaeue”.

C?acee aeey aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e oa aei?iaoaaiue aea?ino?eeino?,
ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? oa iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aeaioiaeyeeny o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?nioth/eie noaiaea?oaie.

Aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e i?iaiaeeee ia c?aceao c iaoaeo aeine?aeieo ieaaie oa
i?iieneiaeo ia?o?e noae? c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a iaoaeia?ao?/iiai
aiae?co oa aeine?aeaeaiiyi oaciaeo ia?aoai?thaaiue ia aeeeaoiiao??.

?nieoe aea?ino?eeino? iaoaeo aeine?aeieo ieaaie i?iaiaeeee o iia?o?yi?e
aoiinoa?? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 700N oa o?eaae?noth aei?iaoaaiue 2000 aiaeei.
Ii??aiyeuei? ?nieoe aea?ino?eeino? ?ic?iaeaii? noae? oa noaeae
12O18I10O, 08O18O1, YUS409D i?iaiaeeee ye o iia?o?yi?e aoiinoa?? 700N oa
2000 aiaeeiao aeo?eiee, oae ? a aoiinoa?? a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a
aaoiiia?e?a ia niaoe?aeueiiio noaiae? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 600-800N,
o?eaae?noth aei?iaoaaiue 200 aiaeei. Aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aea?ino?eeeo
aeanoeainoae ?ic?iaeaii? noae? ia?aiao?e/iei iaoiaeii i?iaiaeeee ?nieoe
?? aea?ino?eeino? o iia?o?yi?e aoiinoa?? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 550, 700, 850N
? iino?eiiio oa?i?i? aei?iaoaaiue 100 aiaeei oa i?e oaiia?aoo?? 700N ?
oa?i?iao aei?iaoaaiue 100, 500, 1000, 2000 aiaeei.

?nieoe iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oieiaeiieaoaiiai iaoa??aeo ye
aeine?aeieo, oae ? i?iieneiaeo ieaaie, i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii c AINO
1497-84. Aecia/aiiy oaa?aeino? i?iaiaeeee ia oaa?aeii??? “?ieaaee” i?e
iaaaioaaeaii? 30 ea c iiaeaeueoei ia?a?aooaaiiyi cia/aiue oaa?aeino?,
ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iaaaioaaeaiith 100 ea.

Ii??aiyeuei? ?nieoe ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? oeeo noaeae i?iaiaeeee a
iieueiaeo oiiaao oa?i?iii aei 5 ?ie?a (i. Caii??aeaey) oa a eaia??
nieueiaiai ooiaio, yea ?i?oo? a?eueo aa?aneai? oiiae ai?iaeiaae 300
aiaeei.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a oeeo ?nieo?a aoee i?iaaaeai? iaoo?i?
aei?iaoaaiiy aeine?aeieo c?ace?a aeaoaeae aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo ia noaiaeao
oa ia ?aaeueii ae?th/eo aaoiiia?eyo.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo noae? oa?eoiiai
eeano, yea iaea ae ni?eyoeeaa niieo/aiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo, iaoai?/ieo oa
oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae.

??oaiiy iinoaaeaii? caaea/? ii/eiaeiny c aecia/aiiy eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a
oa iaae ?o ai?noo a iaeano? eaaoaaiiy. A?aeiii, ui eaaoth/eie
aeaiaioaie, ye? aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe oa?eoio no?oeoo?o noae? oa
aenieee ??aaiue aea?ino?eeino? ? o?ii, aethi?i?e, e?aii?e oa oeoai. Aoei
i?eeiyoi, ui ai?no oeeo aeaiaio?a a iaeano? eaaoaaiiy aeioe?eueii
?icaeyaeaoe i?e oae?e ?o e?eueeino?: Cr – 7-9%, Si – 0,6-1,4%, Al – aei
1,6%, Ti – aei 0,8%.

Aea/aiiy caeaaeiino? aieeao eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a, a iaaeao ?o ai?noo, ia
aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? noae? cae?enithaaee c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo iaoaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo c
?aae?caoe??th iiaiioaeoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo 23. O yeino? ia?aiao??a aeey
i?iaiicoaaiiy ci?ie aeanoeainoae noae? ia?ai?: aeeaeia i?iieeiaiiy
ei?ic?eieo ooeiaeaeaiue (h, ii) — iniiaiee ia?aiao? iioei?caoe??;
ieanoe/i?noue (5, %) oa oaa?ae?noue (HRB) — eiio?iethth/? ia?aiao?e
iioei?caoe??.

C oe??th iaoith aoee aeieaaeai? aeaa’youe eaai?aoi?ieo ieaaie
ia?ai?iiiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oa cae?eniaii ?o ia?a?ia ia oieiaeiieaoai?
nioae. A ieaaeao ci?ithaaee e?euee?noue e?aii?th, aethi?i?th oa oeoaio
i?e i?eaeecii iino?ei?e e?eueeino? o?iio ? aoaeaoeth. A iiaeaeueoiio
aea/aee no?oeoo?o iaoaeo oa i?iaiaeeee ?nieoe aea?ino?eeino?,
ieanoe/iino? ? oaa?aeino?, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo iaaaaeaii o oaae. 1.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e eeoiai iaoaeo eaai?aoi?ieo ieaaie i?iaiaeeee c
iaoith c’ynoaaiiy i?eioeeiiai? iiaeeeaino? iaea?aeaiiy iaeii??aeii?
oa?eoii? no?oeoo?e i?e eaaoaaii? e?aii??i, aethi?i??i oa oeoaiii
o?iienoi? noae?, ui i?noeoue a?ey 8 % o?iio.

?acoeueoaoe iaoaeia?ao?/iiai aiae?co no?oeoo?e eeoiai iaoaeo iieacaee,
ui iaeii??aeio oa?eoio no?oeoo?o iathoue ieaaee, aei neeaaeo yeeo
aoiaeeoue oeoai, a e?euee?noue e?aii?th aai aethi?i?th ciaoiaeeoueny ia
aa?oiueiio ??ai? iaae ?o ai?noo a ieai? aenia?eiaio?a. Iacaaaeath/e ia
a?aenooi?noue oeoaio, iaeii/aniaee aa?oi?e ai?no e?aii?th c aethi?i??i
oaeiae caaacia/o? oa?eoio no?oeoo?o. Ai?no eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a, ui
a?aeiia?aea? na?aaeiueiio ??aith iaeano? eaaoaaiiy oaae caaacia/o?
io?eiaiiy oa?eoii? no?oeoo?e a noae?. No?oeoo?a iaoaeo neeaaea?oueny c
oa?eoieo ca?ai iie?aae?e/ii? oi?ie c /enoeie oiieeie a?aieoeyie. Ii
anueiio ia’?io ca?ai ??aiii??ii ?icina?aaeaeai? aeenia?ni? aeeth/aiiy,
ea?aii?o?eaeiiai oeio. Io?eiaiiy oa?eoii? no?oeoo?e iaoaea aecia/a?oueny
eiiieaeniei aieeaii oa?eoiooai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a o cai?iiiiiaaieo iaaeao
?o ai?noo.

Oaaeeoey 1 — O?i?/iee neeaae aeine?aeieo ieaaie oa ?acoeueoaoe ?nieo?a

?aeine?aeoIi?yaeie ?aae?caoe??Ai?no aeaiaio?a, % iann.?acoeueoaoe
?nieo?aCrSiAlTih, ii5,
%HRB187,80,650,020,800,039337,083228,41,400,020,850,020828,590318,00,601
,550,800,008432,587437,91,361,600,750,004327,094548,00,650,02-0,022834,0
85667,81,420,02-0,019828,092757,90,601,65-0,007932,088877,81,401,60-0,00
3226,0969(n?.??a)98,21,050,800,400,007841,079Iiooe iioeiaeueiiai
niieo/aiiy aea?ino?eeino? oa iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?iaiaeeee i?e
?icaeyae? oeeo ia?aiao??a o?eueee oeo ieaaie, iaoae yeee iaa oa?eoiith
no?oeoo?o. Iaea?eueo aenieo aea?ino?ee?noue iaa iaoae ieaaie, a neeaae?
yeeo iaeii/aniaee ai?no e?aii?th oa aethi?i?th aoa ia aa?oiueiio ??ai?.
Aea oaea e?euee?noue oaeeo aeaiaio?a i?eaiaeeea aei cia/iiai
oaa?aei?ic/eiiiai ci?oeiaiiy oa?eoo ?, ye ne?aenoai, aei cieaeaiiy
ieanoe/iino? oa i?aeaeuaiith oaa?aeino?. Cieaeaiiy ai?noo e?aii?th aai
aethi?i?th i?eaiaeeei aei i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iino?, aea aea?ino?ee?noue
i?e oeueiio iiiaiooaaeany. Ai?no eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a a noae?, ui
a?aeiia?aea? na?aaeiueiio ??aith iaeano? eaaoaaiiy, aeicaieea iaea?aeaoe
iaeii??aeio oa?eoio no?oeoo?o ? ??aaiue aenieoaoaoe?eieo ? iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae, aeecueeee aei aeanoeainoae eeane/ieo aenieio?iienoeo
ei?ic?eiino?eeeo noaeae.

Ine?eueee ?acoeueoaoe aeaieo aei?iaoaaiue aoee e?euee?nieie, oi i?e
ii?aoethaaii? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a, ioe?ieo cia/eiino? aieeao
/eiiee?a ia aeanoeaino? noae? ?iaeee ca aeiiiiiaith ?aa?an?eiiai
aiae?co.

O ?acoeueoao? io?eiai? ianooii? ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? ii o?ueio ia?aiao?ao
iioei?caoe??:

h, ii = 0,0326 — 0,0095(Si) — 0,012 (Al) + 0,006 (Ti)

5, % = 39,375 — 8,125 (Si) — 1,562 (Al) + 1,562 (Ti)

HRB = 79,313 + 9,062 (Si) + 2,344 (Al) — 2,187 (Ti)

??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? iienothoue aieea eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ia
aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? noae?. Oae, aieea aethi?i?th
ia ii?? aacia?e ei?ic?? ia ii?yaeie aeua aieeao e?aii?th, yeee aei oiai
ae iaea?eueo cieaeo? ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? noae?. Aieea oeoaio ia
aea?ino?ee?noue oa iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aeyaeany iacia/iei, yeee,
aieiaiei /eiii, aaiaeeany aeey io?eiaiiy oa?eoii? no?oeoo?e.

Oaeei /eiii, iaae? ai?noo iniiaieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a o neeaae?
aea?ino?eei? oa?eoii? noae?, ui ia? ni?eyoeeaa niieo/aiiy
aenieoaoaoe?eieo, iaoai?/ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae oae?: o?ii —
7,0-8,5 %; aoaeaoeue ia a?eueo 0,08 %; e?aii?e — 0,8-1,2 %; aethi?i?e —
0,8-1,0 %; oeoai — 0,3-0,6 %.

Aeey i?aeneeaiiy aea?ino?eeino? oa i/euaiiy a?aieoeue ca?ai a?ae
oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie aei ia?i/iiai neeaaeo noae? aaaee oea??e o
e?eueeino? 0,05-0,1%. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aeeioaeo/ino? noae? aaaee
eaeueoe?e o e?eueeino? 0,1-0,3%.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a i?iieneiai? ai?iaaoe??
aeaioiaeaiiy oieiaeiieaoaiiai eenoa c ?ic?iaeaii? noae?, ye?e i?enai?ii
ia?eo 08O8NTHO/.

Ae?iaieoeoai i?iieneiaeo ieaaie a?aeaoaaeinue ia caaiae?
“Aei?i?iniaoenoaeue” a aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo ia/ao c ianooiiei aacieeniaaei
?ao?ioaaiiyi o eiiaa?oa??. Oea caaacia/eei cieaeaiiy ai?noo aoaeaoeth a
neeaae? noae?. Caaeaiee oa io?eiaiee o?i?/iee neeaae iaei??? c
i?iieneiaeo ieaaie iaaaaeaii o oaae.2.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Caaeaiee oa io?eiaiee o?i?/iee neeaae i?iieneiai? ieaaee
aea?ino?eei? oa?eoii? noae? 08O8NTHO/

Ai?no aeaiaio?a (% ian.) C Mn Si Al Cr Ti Ca Ce NiPS?0,08

0,04?0,6

0,20,8-1,2

1,10,9-1,2

1,07,0-8,5

8,10,3-0,6

0,540,1-0,3

-0,05-0,1

-?0,6

0,2?0,035

0,020?0,02

0,01I?ei?oea: o /enaeueieeo cacia/aii caaeaiee, a a ciaiaiieeo —
io?eiaiee o?i?/iee neeaae. Caeeoeiaa e?euee?noue oea??th ? eaeueoe?th
o?i?/iei aiae?cii ia aeyaeyeany.

No?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy eeoiai iaoaeo iieacaee, ui noaeue ia?
iaeiioacio oa?eoio no?oeoo?o. Iaaee ca?ai a?euei? a?ae aeeth/aiue
aoi?eiieo oac, a ii ia`?io ca?ai ??aiii??ii ?icina?aaeaeai? aeeth/aiiy
ea?aii?o?eaeiiai oa?aeoa?o, ui ? oa?aeoa?iei aeey ia?aeaa?th/eo noaeae,
ye? eaaiaai? oeoaiii.

Ceeaee ia?a?iaeyee ia oieiaeiieaoaiee eeno ca oaoiieia??th, yea
?ic?iaeaia CAeOO ?acii c IE “Caii??aenoaeue”.

Iniiai? ia?aiao?e oe??? oaoiieia?? oae?:

— oaiia?aoo?a ?iceeao noae? – 1590-1610N;

— iaa??aaiiy ceeae?a i?ae i?ieaoeo neya?a aei oaiia?aoo?e 960-970N;

— i?ieaoea ceeae?a ia neyae;

— iaa??aaiiy neya?a i?ae i?ieaoeo ia aa?y/aeaoai? nioae aei oaiia?aoo?e
1350-1370N;

— i?ieaoea neya?a ia aa?y/aeaoai? nioae oiaueiith 3,9 ii;

— o?aaeaiiy aa?y/aeaoaieo nioa;

— i?ieaoea aa?y/aeaoaieo nioa ia oieiaeiieaoai? nioae oiaueiith
0,8-2,0ii;

— ?ae?enoae?caoe?eiee a?aeiae oieiaeiieaoaieo nioa i?e oaiia?aoo??
960-975N;

— eoaeii – eeneioia o?aaeaiiy oieiaeiieaoaieo nioa.

Ia an?o aoaiao iaoaeo?a?eiiai ia?a?iao oa?eoia no?oeoo?a noae?
caa??aaeanue. Cia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oieiaeiieaoaiiai eenoa c
noae? 08O8NTHO/ aoee aeae?eueea aeueie aei oeeo aeanoeainoae
oieiaeiieaoaiiai eenoa c eeane/ii? oa?eoii? noae? 08O18O1. Iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? oieiaeiieaoaiiai eenoa oeeo noaeae iaaaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 3.

Oaaeeoey 3 — Cia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oieiaeiieaoaiiai eenoa ?c
noaeae 08O8NTHO/ oa 08O18O1

Ia?ea noae?Cia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoaeo, IIab, IIa, %?, %HRB
30/100o/b08O8NTHO/41065641,526,579,00,62508O18O135052440,020,078,50,668

Ana oea aeaco? ia oa, ui oieiaeiieaoaiee eeno c oaeith no?oeoo?ith oa
aeanoeainoyie oe?eeii i?eaeaoiee aei aeei?enoaiiy ia iia?aoe?yo
ooaiioaaiiy oa aeoyaoaaiiy.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae
?ic?iaeaii? noae?.

A?aoiaoth/e oiiae, a yeeo i?aoeththoue aocee aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo
aaoiiia?e?a, ?o aenieoaoaoe?eiee ?ano?n iaea?eueo caeaaeeoue a?ae
aea?ino?eeino? oa ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? iaoa??aeo.

I?e aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae iaoaeo aeine?aeieo ieaaie c`ynoaaeiny,
ui o?i?/iee neeaae ?ic?iaeaii? noae? aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe ??
aea?ino?ee?noue ia ??ai? aeecueeiio aei noaeae 12O18I10O, 08O18O1 oa YUS
409D.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiai i?eiouaiiy aoee i?iaaaeai? ii??aiyeuei?
?nieoe aea?ino?eeino? oeeo noaeae, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo iaaaaeaii a oaae.4.

Aei?iaoaaiiy aea?ino?eeino? o ??cieo aaciaeo na?aaeiaeuao iieacaee, ui
ii oeueiio ia?aiao?o noaeue 08O8NTHO/ aeecueea c? noaeyie 12O18I10O oa
08O18O1. AEa?ino?ee?noue noae? YUS 409D iii?oii ieae/a, ine?eueee a ??
neeaae? e??i a?aeiinii iaioi? e?eueeino? o?iio (10-11%) oa iaei?
e?eueeino? e?aii?th (0,6-1,0%) ia ia? ?ioeo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a, ui
iie?ioothoue oeth oa?aeoa?enoeeo.

Oaaeeoey 4 – ?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyeueieo ?nieo?a aea?ino?eeino?

Ia?ea noae??aaeeie ?nieo?aiia?o?yia na?aaeiaeua, 700N, 2000
aiae.,a/ni2na?aaeiaeua a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a aaoiiia?eth, 600-800N,
200 aiae.
,a/ni208O8NTHO/6,10.10-33,20.10-412O18I10O5,72.10-32,85.10-408O18O15,85.
10-32,95.10-4YUS 409D1,15.10-28,52.10-4Iieacieee aea?ino?eeino? noae?
08ONTHO/, ui ia? a neeaae? cia/ii iaioo e?euee?noue o?iio, aeinyaa?oueny
ca ?aooiie eaaoaaiiy ?? iaeii/aniai ua aethi?i??i oa e?aii??i –
aeaiaioaie, ye? noi?nii c o?iiii ooai?ththoue ia iiaa?oi? noae? u?euei?
caoeni? ieneaei? ie?aee, a oaeiae i?e?ieaaoaaiiyi oea???i.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iaa?oue i?e aeo?eioe? c?ace?a noae?
08O8NTHO/ o i?iaeiaae 2000 aiaeei i?e oaiia?aoo?? 700N o iia?o?yiiio
na?aaeiaeu? ia ?o iiaa?oi? ooai?eeeny aeoaea oiie? oa u?euei? ieneaei?
ie?aee, ye?nia a?aeae?eaiiy yeeo a?ae iao?eoe? aeyaeeiny iaiiaeeeaei. O
ca`yceo c oeei, aecia/aiiy neeaaeo oeeo ie?aie i?iaiaeeeiny ca
aeiiiiiaith i?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co. Oiaueia ie?aie
noaiiaeea 5-10 iei. Aiae?c e?eueeino? aeaiaio?a a neeaae? ie?aie
iieacaa, ui ai?no o?iio oa aethi?i?th a?eueo ye o aeaa ?ace ia?aaeuo? ?o
ai?no o o?i?/iiio neeaae? noae?, a ai?no e?aii?th iaeaea ia
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eiai ai?noo a neeaae? noae?. Oea iieacoth, ui o?ii
oa aethi?i?e iaea?eueo aeoeaii aa?ooue o/anoue a ooai?aii? ieneae?a, c
yeeo neeaaeathoueny iiaa?oiaa? caoeni? ie?aee.

Ca aeiiiiiaith aea/aiiy e?iaoe/ieo oa oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae
ieeneaiiy noae? 08O8NTHO/ iiaoaeiaaia ia?aiao?e/ia ae?aa?aia, yea
aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe aenieoaoaoe?eio no?ee?noue oe??? noae? i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao 550, 700, 850N oa oa?i?i? aeniiceoe?? 100000 aiaeei.

Aei?iaoaaiiy ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? ye o aoiinoa?ieo oiiaao i.
Caii??aeaey, oae ? a eaia?? nieueiaiai ooiaio iieacaee, ui noaeue
08O8NTHO/ ia? 8 aae no?eeino? i?ioe 10 aaeo o aenieio?iienoeo oa
o?iiii?eaeaaeo noaeae, ui caaeiaieueiy? oiiaai aenieoaoaoe?? ae?ia?a.

Oinoee ?icae?e i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy aeine?aeieo
c?ace?a aeaoaeae nenoaie aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a oa aei?iaoaaiith
?o aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae.

O ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e aeaioiaeaiiy
aeaeo?icaa?thaaieo o?oa, ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e
ooaiioaaiiy-aeoyaoaaiiy aeaoaeae, c yeeo aeaioiaeaii ei?ione
iaeo?ae?caoi??a a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a oa aeooieee ooio aaoiiia?e?a.

Aeine?aei? c?acee aioiaeo ae?ia?a i?ieoee anaa?/i? noaiaeia? oa
aei?iaei? aei?iaoaaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aei?iaoaaiue i?aeoaa?aeeee
i?eaeaoi?noue noae? 08O8NTHO/ aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ei?iono iaeo?ae?caoi??a
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a oa iieacaee, ui i?i?iaeueiee ?ano?n
i?aoeacaeaoiino? aeooiee?a ooio noaiiaeoue 120 oen. ei i?ia?ao
aaoiiia?ey.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE

1. Aiae?c na?oiaiai aeina?aeo a aaoiiia?eaaoaeoaaii? iieaco?, ui
iino?eia oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?i aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a aeiaaa? aaeeaaiiy
caoiae?a ii cieaeaiith oiene/iino? a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a. Iaeiei c
aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ??oaiiy oe??? caaea/? ? onoaiiaea a nenoai?
aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo iaeo?ae?caoi??a a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a. Iniaeeaino?
aenieoaoaoe?? oeeo ae?ia?a (aieea aa?y/eo aac?a, aoiinoa?i? oa aei?iaei?
oiiae) iaoiiaeththoue aeei?enoaiiy aeey ?o aeaioiaeaiiy aenieieaaiaaieo
ei?ic?eiino?eeeo noaeae. Noae? oaeiai eeano, ui ae?iaeythoueny
a?o/eciyiith iaoaeo?a?eiith i?iieneia?noth, ia caaaeaee a?aeiia?aeathoue
aeiiaai aei iaoa??ae?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey iaeo?ae?caoi??a
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a (no?oeoo?iee oaeoi?, ??aaiue o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae oa aeniea aa?o?noue). O oie aea /an aaaeo/?
aaoiiia?eaaoae?ai? o??ie aeei?enoiaothoue aeey oeeo oe?eae
aeiiiiiieaaiaai? o?iieno? aea?ino?ee? noae?.

2. O i?ioean? ?ic?iaee o?i?/iiai neeaaeo aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? aea?ino?eei?
noae? aeine?aeaeoaaany aieea e?aii?th, aethi?i?th oa oeoaio ia no?oeoo?o
? aeanoeaino? cae?cio?iienoiai nieaao c 7-9% o?iio. O oiae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaii i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy iaeii??aeii?
oa?eoii? no?oeoo?e a cae?cio?iienoiio nieaa? c oaeei ai?noii o?iio i?e
eaaoaaii? eiai ia eiooiaieie oa ia aeao?oeeoieie oa?eoiooai?thth/eie
aeaiaioaie — e?aii??i, aethi?i??i oa oeoaiii.

3. C canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo iaoaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaio?a
io?eiaii ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??, ui aecia/athoue aieea eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ia
aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? noae?.

4. Aeai?, ye? io?eiaee, aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe iaae? ai?noo eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a a noae? (Cr — 7,0-8,5%; Si — 0,8-1,2%; Al — 0,9-1,2%; Ti —
0,3-0,6%), ui aeicaieythoue aa?aioiaaii caaacia/eoe iaeii??aeio oa?eoio
no?oeoo?o oa iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ieanoe/iino? oa
i?oeiino? (-39-41%; a–650-660IIa).

5. Aeina?ae i?iieneiaiai aeaioiaeaiiy oieiaeiieaoaiiai eenoiaiai
iaoaeii?ieaoo oa aeaoaeae aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a iieacaa, ui
?ic?iaeaia noaeue 08O8NTHO/ oaoiieia?/ia ia an?o aoaiao iaoaeo?a?eiiai
ia?a?iao oa i?e aeaioiaeaii? c ia? aeaoaeae iaoiaeaie
ooaiioaaiiy-aeoyaoaaiiy oa caa?thaaiiy.

6. Aei?iaoaaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iieacaee, ui eaaoaaiiy
aethi?i??i ? e?aii??i caaacia/o? aea?ino?ee?noue noae? c 8% o?iio aei
oaiia?aoo? 800-900N ye o iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?, oae ? a i?iaeoeoao
ai??iiy iaeeaa. Ii oeueiio iieacieeo ?ic?iaeaia noaeue ciaoiaeeoueny ia
??ai? aenieio?iienoeo oa o?iiii?eaeaaeo ei?ic?eiino?eeeo noaeae. Aeniea
aea?ino?ee?noue io?eiaiiai iaoa??aeo iiynith?oueny oei, ui a i?ioean?
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ieeneaiiy ia iiaa?oi? iaoa??aeo ooai?youeny u?euei?
caoeni? ieneaei? ie?aee oi?iaeueiiai oeio, ye? neeaaeathoueny c ieneae?a
cae?ca, o?iio, e?aii?th oa aethi?i?th.

7. E?euee?ni? aeai?, ye? io?eiai? a oiae? aei?iaoaaiue ia
aea?ino?ee?noue noae? 08O8NTHO/ aeicaieeee ?ic?aooaaoe oa iiaoaeoaaoe
ia?aiao?e/io ae?aa?aio aea?ino?eeino?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe
a?aie/i? oa?i?ie aenieoaoaoe?? ae?ia?a ?c oe??? noae? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao
550,700, 850N oa oa?i?i? aei?iaoaaiue 100000 aiaeei.

8. A?aoiaoth/e, ui ae?iae nenoaie aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a o
i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? caciathoue aieea ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua,
i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeuei? aei?iaoaaiiy ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?. Iieacaii, ui
noaeue 08O8NTHO/ ii ei?ic?ei?e no?eeino? aeae?eueea iinooia?oueny
ia?aeaa?th/ei noaeyi (8 aae no?eeino? ii AINO 13819-68 i?ioe 10 aaea o
noaeae 08O18O1 oa 12O18I10O), iaeiae oaea no?ee?noue oe?eeii
caaeiaieueiy? oiiaai aenieoaoaoe?? oeeo ae?ia?a.

9. I?aeoe/ia ai?iaoaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?iaee cae?eniaii i?e
aeaioiaeaii? i?iieneiaeo ia?o?e oieiaeiieaoaiiai eenoiaiai
iaoaeii?ieaoo, aeaeo?icaa?ieo o?oa, aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo ia?o?e
ae?ia?a aeey nenoaie aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a. Io?eiaii aeiiii?/iee
aoaeo, yeee o?eueee a?ae cai?ie noae? 12O18I10O, i?e aeaioiaeaii?
iaeo?ae?caoi??a a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a aaoiiia?e?a n?iaenoaa AAC ia
?ecueeiio iioicaaiae? neeaa 40190 ea?aiaaioe?a o oe?iao 1992 ?ieo. I?e
iiaeaeueoiio ai?iaaaeaeaii? noae? 08O8NTHO/ aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeaoaeae
nenoaie aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a i/?eoaaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo
o?eueee ii AO “Aaoi-CAC” neeaaea 440000 a?eaaiue ia ??e.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Ianoa?ia A.A., Eeeiia A.A. Auai? oeie/aneiai ninoaaa ieceio?iienoie
oa??eoiie noaee e enneaaeiaaiea a? aea?inoieeinoe //Iia? iaoa??aee ?
oaoiieia?? a iaoaeo?a?? oa iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?: Iaoeiaee aeo?iae CAeOO. —
Caii??aeaey: CAeOO, 1997, ? 1-2. – N.47-48.

2. Ianoa?ia A.A., Eeeiia A.A. Aeeyiea oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee ia naienoaa
oieiaeiieaoaiie noaee ia?ee 08O8NTHO/, i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey nenoaiu
aaciauoeiia aaoiiiaeeae // I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey /
Iao/iua o?oaeu I?eaeiai?ianeie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa
e a?oeoaeoo?u. – Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998. – N.119-120.

3. A.A. Eeeiia, A.A. Ianoa?ia, A.A. Aeaiaoei Ia?niaeoeau eniieueciaaiey
eenoiauo oa??eoiuo noaeae n 8-14 % o?iia a oeaaiiaea?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
//Iia? eiino?oeoe?ei? noae? oa noiie ? iaoiaee ?o ia?iaee aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? ae?ia?a: Ca. iaoe. i?. CAeOO.
— Caii??aeaey: CAeOO, 1998. – N.201-202.

4. Aiae?eyiaiei Ae.A., Ianoa?ia A.A., Oea/aiei E.A. Eco/aiea
ieanoe/iinoe e aea?inoieeinoe oa??eoiie noaee 08O8NTHO/ //Iiaua
eiino?oeoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu e yooaeoeaiua iaoiaeu iieo/aiey e ia?aaioee,
iiauoaiea iaae?aeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe aeaoaeae e eiino?oeoeee: Nai?iee
iao/iuo o?oaeia.-Eeaa: OIE AI, 1991. – N.44-46.

5. Aaoi?neia naeaeaoaeuenoai ? 1697444. NNN?, IEE N22N 38/28 “Oa??eoiay
aea?inoieeay noaeue” / Ianoa?ia Aeaenaiae? Aaneeueaae/ e ae?oaea,
oeacaiiua a iienaiee. ? 4804749/02. – Cayae. 21.03.90. Iioae. 08.08.91.
Athe. ?19 — 2n.

6. Ianoa?ia A.A., Nooeaei E.A. Ia?niaeoeau i?eiaiaiey
yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiuo aea?inoieeeo noaeae aeey aaciauoeiia aaoiiiaeeae //
Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey
iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee. / Oacenu aeieeaaeia e
IV Ananithciie iao/i.-oaoi. eiio. – Caii?iaeuea, 1989. – N.148.

7. Ianoa?ia A.A., Aeaiaoei A.A. I ei??iceiiiie noieeinoe noaee ia?ee
08O8NTHO/. // Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo
ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee. /
Oacenu aeieeaaeia e V iao/i.-oaoi. eiio. – Caii?iaeuea, 1992. –
N.132-133.

8. Aiiaea?aiei A.E., Ianoa?ia A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea oaciaiai ninoaaa
ieeniuo neiaa yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiie oa??eoiie ei??iceiiiinoieeie noaee
08O8NTHO/ // Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo
ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee. /
Iaoa??aee V? I?aeia?iaeii? iaoe.-oaoi?/. eiio. – Caii??aeaey, 1995. –
N.78.

9. Eeeiia A.A., Ianoa?ia A.A. Aeeyiea ia?aiao?ia iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai
ia?aaeaea ia oa?aeoa? ?ani?aaeaeaiey ea?aeaeiuo aeeth/aiee e naienoaa
oieiaeiieaoaiie noaee ia?ee 08O8NTHO/ // Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e
aacu a eeoaeiuo nieaaao / Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia VIII iao/i.-oaoi.
eiio. – Caii?iaeuea, 1997. – N.93-94.

10. Eeeiia A.A., Ianoa?ia A.A. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu eaae?iaaiey
ei??iceiiiinoieeeo noaeae oa??eoiiai eeanna // I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey / Nai?iee o?oaeia Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee. –
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1997. – N.94-95.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ianoa?ia I.A. “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? oa?eoii?
noae? aeey nenoaie aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a” — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
oaoii 05.02.01 — Iaoa??aeiciaanoai — Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, Caii??aeaey, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao e?aii?th, aethi?i?th oa
oeoaio ia no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? cae?cio?iienoiai nieaao c 7-9% o?iio.

Aia?oa iieacaia i?eioeeiiaa iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy iaeii??aeii?
oa?eoii? no?oeoo?e i?e eaaoaaii? cae?cio?iienoiai nieaao c 7-9% o?iio,
e?aii??i, aethi?i??i ? oeoaiii.

Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo iaoaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaio?a aeicaieeei
iaea?aeaoe ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??, ye? iienothoue aieea oeeo eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a ia aea?ino?ee?noue oa iaoai?/i? noae?. Oea aeicaieeei
i?iaanoe iioei?caoe?th io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aei?iaoaaiue oa ?ic?iaeoe
o?i?/iee neeaae iiai? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? aea?ino?eei? noae? oa?eoiiai
eeano ia?ee 08O8NTHO/: N 0,08%; Cr – 7,0-8,5%; Si – 0,8-1,2%; Al –
0,9-1,2%;T?-0,3-0,6%;Ca –0,1-0,3%; Ce – 0,05-0,10%.

Ai?iaoaaiiy oaoiieia?/iino? noae? 08O8NTHO/ o i?iieneiaeo oiiaao
iieacaei, ui oa?eoia no?oeoo?a caa??aa?oueny ia an?o aoaiao
iaoaeo?a?eiiai ia?a?iao, a iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aoee aeae?eueea aeua
aeanoeainoae eeane/ii? oa?eoii? noae? 08O18O1.

I?iaaaeaii iiaiee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae
eenoiaiai iaoa??aeo i?iieneiaiai aeaioiaeaiiy. Aei?iaoaaiiy
aea?ino?eeino? iieacaee, ui ii oeueiio ia?aiao?o noaeue 08O8NTHO/
aeecueea aei oeueiai iieacieea noaeae 12O18I10O, 08O18O1, YUS 409D.
Aei?iaoaaiiy ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? a aoiinoa?ieo oiiaao iieacaee, ui
noaeue 08O8NTHO/ ia? 8 aae no?eeino? i?ioe 10 aaeo o aenieio?iienoeo oa
o?iiii?eaeaaeo noaeae, ui caaeiaieueiy? oiiaai aenieoaoaoe?? ae?ia?a.

Aeaioiaeai? oa i?ieoee ??ciiiai?oi? aei?iaoaaiiy aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?
c?acee aeaoaeae nenoaie aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo aaoiiia?e?a (iaeo?ae?caoi?e
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a, aeooieee ooio).

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy i?e
aeaioiaeaii? i?iieneiai? ia?o?? iaeo?ae?caoi??a a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a
oa aeine?aeii? ia?o?? aeooiee?a ooio aaoiiia?e?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noaeue, eaaoth/? aeaiaioe, no?oeoo?a, aea?ino?ee?noue,
ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue, iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, nenoaia aeoeiiiiai o?aeoo
aaoiiia?e?a.

THE SUMMARY

Nesterov A.V. “Research and development of economically alloyed ferrite
steel for a system of an exhaust tract of automobiles ” — manuscript.

Thesis is presented for scientific degree of masters of the candidate of
engineering science on a specialty 05.02.01 – Material sciences-
Zaporozhye state engineering university, Zaporozhye, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to development of chemical structure of new
economically alloyed steel ferrite of class for manufacture of details
for exhaust tract of automobiles working in conditions of
high-temperature oxidation and atmospheric corrosion with the purpose of
a replacement of nickel containing and high-chromium corrosion-resistant
steel.

In work the influence of series alloying elements on structure and
properties of iron-chromium alloy is investigated. For the first time
the possibility of deriving homogeneous ferrite structure is shown at
alloying iron-chromium alloy from 7-9 % chromium, silicon, aluminum and
titanium at the following content of these elements: silicon — 0,8-1,2
%; aluminum — 0,9-1,2 %; titanium-0,3-0,6%.

Approbation of adaptability to manufacture of steel 08O8NTHO/ in
industrial conditions showed, that ferrite the structure is kept at all
stages of metallurgical process stage and the mechanical properties
satisfy the conditions of deriving details with of punching – extract
the methods.

The full complex of researches of operational properties of sheet
material of industrial manufacture is carried out. The trials of heat
resistance and corrosion resistance showed, that on this parameter the
steel 08O8NTHO/ is equal to the indexes steel 12O18I10O, 08O18O1, YUS
409D.

The experimental samples of details of a gas exhaust system of
automobiles neutralizer of completing gases, mufflers of noise) passed
various.

The basic outcomes of work found practical application at manufacture of
an industrial batch of neutralizers of automobile burnt gases.

Keywords: steel, alloying elements, structure, heat resistance,
corrosion stability(resistance), mechanical properties, system of an
exhaust tract of automobiles.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ianoa?ia A.A. “Enneaaeiaaiea e ?ac?aaioea yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiie oa??eoiie
noaee aeey nenoaiu auoeiiiiai o?aeoa aaoiiiaeeae” – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.01 – Iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea – Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Caii?iaeuea, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aeeyiey ?yaea eaae?othueo
yeaiaioia ia no?oeoo?o e naienoaa aeaeacio?iienoiai nieaaa,
niaea?aeauaai 7-9% o?iia. Oeaeue ianoiyuae ?aaiou – nicaeaiea iiaie
yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiie noaee oa??eoiiai eeanna aeey ecaioiaeaiey aeaoaeae
auoeiiiiai o?aeoa aaoiiiaeeae acaiai ieeaeueniaea?aeaueo e
aunieio?iienouo ei??iceiiiinoieeeo noaeae.

Aia?aua iieacaia i?eioeeieaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey iaeii?iaeiie
oa??eoiie no?oeoo?u i?e eaae?iaaiee aeaeacio?iienoiai nieaaa n 7-9%
o?iia, e?aiieai, aethieieai e oeoaiii i?e neaaeothuai niaea?aeaiee yoeo
yeaiaioia: e?aiiee – 0,6-1,4 %; aethieiee – aei 1,6 %; oeoai – aei 0,8
%.

I?eiaiaiea iaoiaea iaoaiaoe/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey yenia?eiaioia iicaieeei
iieo/eoue o?aaiaiey ?aa?annee iienuaathuaa aeeyiea yoeo eaae?othueo
yeaiaioia ia iaoaie/aneea e yenieoaoaoeeiiiua naienoaa noaee. Yoi
iicaieeei i?iaanoe iioeiecaoeeth iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia eniuoaiee
aea?inoieeinoe e iaoaie/aneeo naienoa, aua?aoue i?aaeaeu niaea?aeaiee
eaae?othueo yeaiaioia, iicaieythueo aeinoe/ue iioeiaeueiiai ni/aoaiey
yoeo oa?aeoa?enoee.

?acoeueoaou i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee iicaieeee ?ac?aaioaoue oeie/aneee
ninoaa iiaie yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiie aea?inoieeie noaee oa??eoiiai eeanna
ia?ee 08O8NTHO/: N 0,08%; Cr – 7,0-8,5%; Si – 0,8-1,2%; Al – 0,9-1,2%;
Ti-0,3-0,6%; Ca –0,1-0,3%; Ce – 0,05-0,10%.

Ai?iae?iaaiea oaoiieiae/iinoe noaee 08O8NTHO/ a i?iiuoeaiiuo oneiaeyo
iieacaei, /oi oa??eoiay no?oeoo?a nio?aiyaony ia anao yoaiao
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai ia?aaeaea, a iaoaie/aneea naienoaa ianeieueei auoa,
/ai o eeanne/aneie oa??eoiie noaee 08O18O1.

Enoiaey ec oneiaee ?aaiou aeaoaeae auoeiiiiai o?aeoa aaoiiiaeeae,
aaaeiaeoeie yenieoaoaoeeiiiuie naienoaaie yaeythony aea?inoieeinoue e
ei??iceiiiay noieeinoue a aoiinoa?iuo oneiaeyo. Eniuoaiey aea?inoieeinoe
a ?acee/iuo aaciauo n?aaeao iieacaee, /oi ii yoiio ia?aiao?o noaeue
08O8NTHO/ aeecea e ioa/anoaaiiui noaeyi 12O18I10O, 08O18O1 e i?aauoaao
yoio iieacaoaeue o noaee ca?oaaaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa YUS 409D. Oaeay
aea?inoieeinoue noaee 08O8NTHO/, eioi?ay eiaao a ninoaaa cia/eoaeueii
iaiueoaa eiee/anoai o?iia iauyniyaony aeiiieieoaeueiui eaae?iaaieai
e?aiieai e aethieieai – yeaiaioaie, ieneaeu eioi?uo a ni/aoaiee n
ieneaeii o?iia niiniaiu ia?aciauaaoue ieioiua caueoiua ieaiee. Ninoaa
ieaiie enneaaeiaaeny i?e iiiiue iee?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca.
Auynieeinue, /oi a oi?ie?iaaiea ieaiee iaeaieaa aeoeaioth ?ieue ea?atho
o?ii e aethieiee. Iino?iaia ia?aiao?e/aneay aeeaa?aiia aea?inoieeinoe
noaee 08O8NTHO/, iicaieythuay i?iaiice?iaaoue ?ano?n aa yenieoaoaoeee
i?e ?acee/iuo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Eniuoaiey ei??iceiiiie noieeinoe eae a aoiinoa?a a. Caii?iaeuey, oae e a
eaia?a nieaaiai ooiaia iieacaee, /oi noaeue 08O8NTHO/ eiaao 8 aaee
noieeinoe, oiaaea eae aunieio?iienoua e ieeaeueniaea?aeauea
ei??iceiiiinoieeea noaee eiatho 10 aaee noieeinoe, iaeiaei yoi aiieia
oaeiaeaoai?yao oneiaeyi yenieoaoaoeee ecaeaeee.

Ecaioiaeaiu e i?ioee ?aciinoi?iiiea eniuoaiey iiuoiua ia?acoeu aeaoaeae
nenoaiu aaciauoeiia aaoiiiaeeae (iaeo?aeecaoi?u io?aaioaaoeo aacia,
aeooeoaee ooia).

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea i?e
ecaioiaeaiee i?iiuoeaiiie ia?oee iaeo?aeecaoi?ia io?aaioaaoeo aacia,
iiuoiua ia?oee aeooeoaeae ooia e aaoiiiaeeyi naiaenoaa CAC, EAC, AAC.

Iieo/ai yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo, eioi?ue ninoaaee 40190 ?oa. a oeaiao 1992
aiaea io caiaiu noaee 12O18I10O i?e ecaioiaeaiee ia ?eaeneii iioicaaiaea
iaeo?aeecaoi?ia io?aaioaaoeo aacia aaoiiiaeeae naiaenoaa AAC. I?e
aeaeueiaeoai aiaae?aiee noaee 08O8NTHO/ aeey ecaioiaeaiey aeaoaeae
nenoaiu auoeiiiiai o?aeoa aaoiiiaeeae iaeeaeaaiue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo
oieueei i?e ecaioiaeaiee aeooeoaeae ooia aaoiiiaeeae naiaenoaa CAC
iiaeao ninoaaeoue 440000 a?i. a aiae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noaeue, eaae?othuea yeaiaiou, no?oeoo?a,
aea?inoieeinoue, ei??iceiiiay noieeinoue, iaoaie/aneea naienoaa, nenoaia
auoeiiiiai o?aeoa aaoiiiaeeae.

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