IIIINOA?NOAI INAIOE OE?A(IE

CAII?ICUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOII*IEE OIIAA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Eaiono?i Ieoaeei Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 669.131.2.017:539.3

AeINEIAeAEAIIss, ?IC?IAEA OA AI?IAAAeAEAIIss

CIININOIEEEO *AAOIIA AeEss IAETH*EO OIE

EOEUeIAEO IEEIIA

Niaoeiaeueiinoue 05.02.01 — Iaoa?iaeiciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoei( ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoii/ieo iaoe

Caii?(aeaey — 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Caii?icueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoii/iiio oiiaa?neoaoi

Iiiinoa?noaa inaioe Oe?a(ie

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee: aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AIE*IE Iaai Iao?iae/,

Caii?icueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoii/iee oiiaa?neoao,

caaiaeoth/ee eaoaae?ith oaoiieiai( iaoaeia.

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aoaaiei Na?oeaia ?aai?aia,

Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaoaeiciaanoaa,

i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

eaiaeeaeao oaoii/ieo iaoe,

Iaaoiaiei ?aaai Iaaiiae/,

Caii?icueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoii/iee oiiaa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e iaoeiu ? oaoiieia?y eeaa?iiai

ae?iaieoeoaa

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: O?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo, a?aeae?e
ciinino?eeeo

iie?eoo?a, Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie,

i.Euea?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 1330 aiaeeii

ia caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii( a/aii( ?aaee Ae 17.052.01 o Caii?icueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoii/iiio oiiaa?neoaoi ca aae?anith: 330063,
i.Caii?iaeaey, aoe.AEoeianueeiai, 64.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o aiaeiioaoei Caii?icueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoii/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: i.Caii?iaeaey,
aoe.AEoeianueeiai, 64.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 21 o?aaiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii( a/aii( ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I.I.Aie/ie CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA
?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe eoeueiaeo ieei?a, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iiae??aiaiiy ?oae /i?ieo oa eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a,
oeaiaioiiai ee?iea?o, eai’yiiai aoa?eey oa ?ioeo iaoa??ae?a, o cia/i?e
i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae no?eeino? iaeth/eo o?e (eoeue). Aeo?aoe iaeth/eo
eoeue ia iiae??aiaiiy ?oae /i?ieo oa eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a neeaaeathoue
3…6 ea/o aai 0,3…0,6% a?ae iane ?oae, ui ia?a?iaeythoueny. I?e
oeueiio caa?oaeiaiiy ?oae i?ae?, eiaaeueoa, naeioey, i?eaey oa ?ioeo
iaoa??ae?a oe?aeeeaei aeii?oeii — cae?cii ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? c ?o
ai?noii o i?iaeoeoao iiae??aiaiiy (0,4…2,0%). Iayai?noue cae?ca o
aoa?ee?, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny ye iaeeai, i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie no?oeoo?e
iieoi’y oa cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ei?enii? ae?? oaieiaeo aa?aaao?a.

Ia Oe?a?i? oa o e?a?iao NIAe aeei?enoiaoaaeanue oa aeei?enoiao?oueny
ca?ac aenieii?iaeoeoeaia oaoiieia?y iaea?aeaiiy noaeaaeo eoeue, ui
aeeth/a? iiia?a/ii-aaeioiao i?ieaoeo oa iiaeaeueoa aa?ooaaiiy c
naiia?aeioneii o aa?aaaoao aacia?aaii? ae??. Aieiaiei iaaeie?eii oaei?
oaoiieia?? ? iecueea oaa?ae?noue ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ciinino?ee?noue eoeue,
iniaeeai aaeeeiai ae?aiao?a. A ca’yceo c oeei, a i?iieneiai ?icaeiaieo
e?a?iao aei 30% iaeth/eo eoeue aeaioiaey?oueny c a?eeo /aaoi?a iaoiaeii
eeooy. Oae? eoe? iathoue no?ee?noue o 3…5 ?ac?a aeuo, i?ae no?ee?noue
noaeaaeo eoeue. Ia Oe?a?i? ia’?i ae?iaieoeoaa /aaoiieo iaeth/eo o?e ia
ia?aaeuo? 2% a?ae caaaeueiiai aeioneo ? iaiaaeo?oueny oeeeueiaanaie
(eii?/i? iaeth/? o?ea) oa eoeyie iaeiai ae?aiao?o (ia a?eueoa 60ii).

Eoe? aaeeeeo ae?aiao??a aeaioiaeythoueny ca ei?aeiiii c aenieieaaiaaieo
/aaoi?a oeio i?oa?ae oa c o?iienoeo /aaoi?a. Ia Oe?a?i? oae? eoe? ia
aeaioiaeythoue /a?ac iayai?noue o ?o neeaae? aeao?oeeoieo eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae /a?ac a?aenooi?noue aeiiii?/ieo oa i?iaeoeoeaieo
oaoiieia?e.

Iaiao?aei?noue o eaaoaaii? /aaoi?a aeao?oeeoieie aeaiaioaie iia’ycaia c
oei, ui iaeaaiaai? /aaoie ia caaeiaieueiythoue aeiiaai ii
oaea?ino?eeino? iaeth/eo eoeue. O ca’yceo c oeei iaaoaa? aeooaeueiino?
i?iaeaia iioei?caoe?? neeaaeo ciinino?eeiai /aaoio aeey iaeth/eo eoeue c
iaoith cieaeaiiy eiai eaaiaaiino?. Oaoiieia?? eeooy o i?uai? oa iaoaeaa?
oi?ie, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny oaia??oiueiai /ano, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iecueeei eiao?oe??ioii aeei?enoaiiy ??aeeiai iaoaeo (a?ey 45…50%) oa
iayai?noth a?oaeo eeaa?ieo aeaoaeo?a eoe?, ui cieaeothoue ??
oaea?ino?ee?noue oa ciinino?ee?noue. Oiio i?iaeaia iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy
niinia?a eeooy, ui caaacia/othoue iai?aaeaio e?enoae?caoe?th ??aeeiai
iaoaeo c i?i?iaeueiei ?icaeoeii eeaa?ieo aeaoaeo?a, iioeiaeueio iae?i-
oa i?e?ino?oeoo?o ? aenie? eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy ??aeeiai iaoaeo oa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii aei i?ia?aie I?i?noa?noaa eieuei?iai? iaoaeo?a??
N?N? “ii i?aiaeieaieth aeaoeoeeoa e iiauoaieth ea/anoaa iaethueo oa?ia
ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee”, 1990. — ? aea?ae. ?aa.
01.89.0017203, ii oaiai “?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee, inaiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?iiuoeaiiia eniuoaiea e aiaae?aiea iaethueo oa?ia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee”, a oaeiae “Oai?aoe/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea iniiau
i?iecaiaenoaa eeouo /oaoiiuo iaethueo oa?ia iiauoaiiie eciininoieeinoe”,
1992. — ? aea?ae. ?aa. A.01000509?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?acii c Oe?a?inueeei
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei ?inoeoooii iaoae?a (i.Oa?e?a), IAI “Ainoieiaocaaiae”
(i.Onoue-Eaiaiiai?nuee, Eacaonoai), Aeiaeeenueeei AIE (i.Aeiaeee,
Ocaae?noai) oa Eaieo-Ao?oinueeei C?E (i.Ea?/).

Iaoa i caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iioei?coaaoe neeaae ciinino?eeiai
a?eiai /aaoio oa oaoiieia?th ae?iaieoeoaa c iueiai eeoeo iaeth/eo o?e,
ui iathoue no?ee?noue aeuo, i?ae no?ee?noue na??eieo noaeaaeo eoeue.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae, ui iinoaaeai? o ?iaio?, ae??ooaaeenue ianooii?
caaaeaiiy:

Aea/aee no?ee?noue eoeue c ??cieie aeanoeainoyie o i?iieneiaeo oiiaao oa
aeae?aee e?eoa??? yeino? iaoa??aeo eoeue.

Aea/aee aieea o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ia no?oeoo?o oa e?eoa??? yeino?
ciinino?eeiai o?iienoiai /aaoio.

Iioei?coaaee neeaae ciinino?eeiai a?eiai /aaoio oa ?aaeei oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee, ui caaacia/othoue aenieiaoaeoeaio ?iaioo iaeth/eo eoeue c
i?aeaeuaiith ciinino?ee?noth.

?ic?iaeyee eiino?oeoe?th eieeeth, a oaeiae iiaeoeue onoaiiaee aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa iaeth/eo eoeue c iaeeaaeaiiyi ia iaoae, ui
e?enoae?co?oueny, a?a?aoe?? oa a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee.

Iioei?coaaee oaoiieia?th ae?iaieoeoaa eoeue ia ?ic?iaeaiiio iiaeoe?,
aeey /iai aeine?aeaeoaaee aieea a?a?aoe?? oa a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee ia
oi?ioaaiiy iae?i- oa i?e?ino?oeoo?e, ia ia’?i aeaoaeo?a onaaei/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, iaoai?/i? oa neoaeaia? aeanoeaino? iaeth/eo eoeue.

I?iaiaeeee i?iieneiaa ii?iaoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo neeaaeo /aaoio oa
oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iaeth/eo eoeue c iueiai.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/iiai
ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo, no/ani? iaoiaee ieaaeaiiy oa oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee
iaoaeo, iaoiaee aiae?co iaoai?/ieo, o?ce/ieo oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee a?eeo /aaoi?a, a oaeiae niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy
ciinino?eeino? oa oaea?ino?eeino? iaeth/eo eoeue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia.

-aecia/ai( e?eoa?(( iaae(eiino( ? aeiaaia(/iino( oa (o aaee/eia, ui
caaacia/othoue aenie( aenieoaoaoe(ei( oa?aeoa?enoeee eeoeo iaeth/eo
eoeue ae(aiao?ii aei 100ii c o?iienoeo /aaoi(a: oaa?ae(noue HRC(55,
oaea?ia a(yce(noue EN(8Aeae/ni2, oaea?ino(ee(noue No(15 oaea?(a i?e
iaeeie/i(e aia?a(( oaea?o — 1450Aeae, iaai(oia i?iieeeea(noue ((4Ai/i;

-c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaea aeoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioa iaea?aeai(
?(aiyiiy ?aa?an(e, ui iienothoue aieea C, Cr oa Mn ia aeanoeaino(
ciinino(eeeo /aaoi(a; anoaiiaeaii, ui noii neeaaeo, ian. /anoeia, %:
2,7…2,9N, 13,0…15,0Cr oa 3,5…4,0Mn ia? no?oeoo?o: ia?oaineo,
ea?a(aee oeio I7N3 o e(eueeino( 27…30% oa aonoai(o — aei 20%, ui
caaacia/o? iaiao(aeiee ?(aaiue aeanoeainoae ii e?eoa?(yi HRC, EN oa (;

-iieacaii, ui i(ae ae(?th a(aeoeaio?iaeo nee oa a(a?aoe(( iie?auothoueny
oiiae aeeaeaiiy eoeue, ci(ith(oueny oa?aeoa? (o e?enoae(caoe((,
iiae?(aith(oueny i(e?ino?oeoo?a, ciaioo(oueny ia(?i onaaei/ieo ?aeiaei,
ui, o naith /a?ao, i(aeaeuo? u(euei(noue, aa?aceaio no(ee(noue oa
oaea?ino(ee(noue eoeue;

-anoaiiaeai( caeaaeiino( i(ae ia(?iii onaaei/ieo aeaoaeo(a oa
oaea?ino(ee(noth, i(ae ?ici(?ii ca?ia iaoaeaai( iniiae ( ea?a(aeii( oace
oa ciinino(ee(noth noiio E*280O15A4O. Iieacaii, ui aeinyaiooa caaaeyee
ae(yi a(aeoeaio?iaeo nee oa a(a?aoe(( ciaioaiiy ia(?io onaaei/ieo
aeaoaeo(a c 2,85 aei 1,22% i?eaiaeeoue aei i(aeaeuaiiy oaea?ino(eeino(
eoeue c 4 aei 30 oaea?(a; ciaioaiiy ?ici(?(a ca?ia iaoaeaai( iniiae c 61
aei 13iei oa ?ici(?(a ea?a(ae(a c 41 aei 7 iei i?eaiaeeoue aei
i(aeaeuaiiy aa?aceaii( ciinino(eeino( i?eaeecii ia 30%.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
aei?iaoaaiue eeoeo /aaoiieo iaeth/eo eoeue ia oaea?ino(ee(noue, ui
aeicaieeei o eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao aecia/aoe cae(ai(noue eoeue i?ioenoiyoe
e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith i?e ?iaio( o ieeiao.

?aeiiaiaeiaaii o(i(/iee neeaae ciinino(eeiai o?iienoiai /aaoio aeey
eeoeo iaeth/eo eoeue ae(aiao?ii 80…100ii, ui iathoue no(ee(noue o 3,2
?ace aeuo ca no(ee(noue na?(eieo noaeaaeo eoeue oa a(aeiia(aeathoue
oiiaai, ye? caaacia/othoue aenieiaoaeoeaio ?iaioo iaeth/eo ieei?a.

?ic?iaeaia aenieii?iaeoeoeaia oaoiieia(y ae?iaieoeoaa eeoeo iaeth/eo
eoeue c aeei?enoaiiyi niaoe(aeueii( onoaiiaee a(aeoeaio?iaiai eeooy.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?ic?iaeaii oa ia?aaeaii
Eaieo-Ao?oinueeiio C?E ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
i?iieneia(noue Oe?a(ie oaoiieia(? ae?iaieoeoaa iaeth/eo eoeue c noiio
E*280O15A4O.

Ai?iaaoe(y ?iaioe. Iniiai( iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe(eii( ?iaioe
aeiiia(aeaeenue ( iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-oaoi(/i(e eiioa?aioe((
“Oeyoe i(aeaeuaiiy yeino( oa aeiiii(/iino( eeaa?ieo i?ioean(a” (Iaeana,
o?aaaiue 1993?.); iaoeiai-oaoi(/i(e eiioa?aioe(( “Iaiaoaeee/aneea
aeeth/aiey e aacu a eeoaeiuo nieaaao” (Caii??aeaey, aa?anaiue 1994?.);
i?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? “I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, ea?oaiue 1995?.); VI iaoeiai-oaoi(/i(e eiioa?aioe((
“Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey
iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeey” (Caii??aeaey,
aa?anaiue 1995?.); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi(/i(e eiioa?aioe(( “Yia?ai-
e ?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee a i?iecaiaenoaa noaeea”
(Eiinoaioei?aea, eenoiiaae 1995?.); IV I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoa?eaeu aeey no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee”
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, o?aaaiue 1996?.).

Ioae(eaoe((. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe(eieo aeine(aeaeaiue iioae(eiaai( o
aeaio noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, aeaio noaooyo o ca(?ieeao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue oa a naie oacao ( iaoa?(aeao eiioa?aioe(e.

No?oeoo?a ( ianya aeena?oaoe((. Aeena?oaoe(eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny (c
anooio, 5 ?icae(e(a, aeniiae(a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
aeiaeaoe(a. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ianyc( 165 noi??iie eiii’thoa?iei iaai?ii,
ai(uo? 37 iaethie(a, 22 oaaeeoe?, a(ae(ia?ao(/iee nienie i(noeoue 114
iaca e(oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.

CI(NO ?IAIOE

O anooi( iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeeaaeaia iaoeiaa iiaecia, iaaaaeai? iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, i?eaaaeai? a?aeiiino? i?i
i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue oa ?aae?caoe?th ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae(e( i?noeoueny iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c ieoaiue oiia ?iaioe
iaeth/eo o?e eoeueiaeo ieei?a, a oaeiae i?iaiae?ciaai? iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy ciinino?eeeo /aaoi?a ye iaoa??aeo iaeth/eo eoeue.

Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo anoaiiaeai? oaeoi?e, ui
aecia/athoue aenieoaoaoe?eio no?ee?noue iaeth/eo eoeue. Oaeeie oaeoi?aie
? oaa?ae?noue, aeinoaoiy a’yce?noue oa ciinino?ee?noue. E??i oiai, ca
oiiaaie ?icaaioaaeoaaeueii-caaaioaaeoaaeueieo ?ia?o eoe? iiaeii? iaoe
iaai? iaai?oi? aeanoeaino?.

Ca?aeii c e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie aeey eoeue aaeeeeo ae?aiao??a (80ii oa
a?eueoa) ca ei?aeiiii aeei?enoiaothoue o?iieno? /aaoie oa noii i?oa?ae.
Ine?eueee i?eaeue, ui ? iniiaiei eaaoth/ei aeaiaioii noiio i?oa?ae, o
iaoeo oiiaao ? aei?iaei oa aeao?oeeoiei iaoa??aeii, a ?iaio?, ye aaciaee
iaoa??ae aeey eeoeo iaeth/eo eoeue aoei aea?aii o?iienoee /aaoi.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaiei oaeoi?ii, yeee aecia/a? aeanoeaino? a?eiai
/aaoio, ? neeaae, e?euee?noue oa ii?oieia?y ea?a?aeii? oace. Oiio
iaea?eueo i?eaeaoiee aeey ?iaioe a oiiaao oaea?ii-aa?aceaiiai ciino
aea?ai? /aaoie eaaiaai? 12…24% o?iiii. E?enoae?caoe?y oaeeo /aaoi?a
i?ioiaeeoue c ooai?aiiyi ea?a?ae?a oeio (Cr,Fe)7C3, ye? neoaeaoue
aaaeo/ith oacith no?oeoo?e. Aonoai?oii-o?iienoiea?a?aeia aaoaeo?ea ia?
neaeaoio aoaeiao, i?e oeueiio iao?e/iith oacith ? aonoai?o, a
?icaaeoaeaiith oacith — ea?a?ae (cacia/aii, ui o cae/aei?e eaaeaao?eoi?e
aaoaeoeoe? — iaaiaee). Oaeeie iniaeeainoyie aoaeiae /aaoio aeaye?
aeine?aeieee iiyniththoue aenieee ??aaiue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
/aaoi?a c ea?a?aeaie oeio (Cr,Fe)7C3, o ii??aiyii? c iecueeieaaiaaieie
/aaoiaie, ui i?noyoue eaaeaao??oio aaoaeoeeo.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo i?i aieea eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ia no?oeoo?o oa
aeanoeaino? o?iienoiai /aaoio aeicaieea aea?aoe iniiaio nenoaio
Fe-C-Cr-Mn c oaeei ai?noii aeaiaio?a, ian. aeiey, %: 1,8…3,2N;
13,0…23,0Cr oa 1,0…4,0Mn aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith
iioei?caoe?? neeaaeo noiio ii neoaeaiaei aeanoeainoyi. O iaeyae?
a?aecia/aii oaeiae iiceoeaiee aieea iiaeeo?eoaaiiy o?iienoiai /aaoio
oeoaiii.

Ii?yae c eaaoaaiiyi oa iiaeeo?eoaaiiyi aeacai? oaeiae ?io? iaoiaee
ea?oaaiiy no?oeoo?ith aenieio?iienoeo /aaoi?a: ae??th ia iaoae, ui
e?enoae?co?oueny, o?ce/ieie oa iaoai?/ieie oaeoi?aie, a naia
a?a?aoe??th, a?aeoeaio?iaeie neeaie, aeaeo?iiaai?oieie iieyie,
aeaeo?iiaie aeniei? aia?a??. Iaoai?/iith ae??th iiaeia oaeiae aeinyaoe
u?eueieo ye?nieo a?aeeeae?a, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo i?eaeaoiiai.

I?iaiae?ciaaii a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae ae?iaieoeoaa eeoeo eoeue. Aei
oaia??oiueiai /ano ia Oe?a?i? eeo? eoe? ae?aiao?ii a?eueoa 60ii ia
ae?iaeythoue.

Aeeiiaiee aiae?c aeicaieea noi?ioethaaoe caaaeaiiy, ye? iaiao?aeii
ae??oeoe aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae(e( iiaeai? a?aeiiino? i?i iaoa??aee, ui aeei?enoiaoaaee
o ?iaio?, oa iaoiaee ?o aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iiia?aaeiueiai aeina?aeo aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
ia?ai? aenieio?iieno? /aaoie. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeee ia eeoeo c?aceao
oa eeoeo iaeth/eo eoeyo ae?aiao?ii 80…100ii.

Ieaaee i?iaiaeeee o eaai?aoi?ieo ia/ao i?noe?noth 20 oa 60ea. A
i?iieneiaeo oiiaao aeei?enoiaoaaee ?iaeoeoe?eio i?/ i?noe?noth 6o.
Oaiia?aoo?a o ia/? ia?aae aeioneii iaoaeo noaiiaeea 1450…14800N.
Oaiia?aoo?a /aaoio i?e caeeaoe? ci?ithaaeanue a?ae 1340 aei 14200N.
A?aeeeaeo c?ace?a i?iaiaeeee o i?uai? oi?ie. Aeey aea/aiiy aieeao
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oa oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ia no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino?
o?iienoiai /aaoio a?aeeeaaee eoe? ae?aiao?ii 100ii o i?iieneia? i?uai?
oi?ie ii oaoiieia??, ui ?ic?iaeaia CAeOO ? ai?iaaaeaeaia ia IAI
“Ainoieiaocaaiae”. Aeey aea/aiiy aieeao a?a?aoe?? oa a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee,
eoe? a?aeeeaaee o eie?eue ia iiaeoe? onoaiiaee
a?aeoeaio?iai-a?a?aoe?eiiai eeooy Eaieo-Ao?oinueeiai cae?ci?oaeiiai
eiia?iaoo.

Oa?i?/io ia?iaeo c?ace?a i?iaiaeeee o eaai?aoi?ieo ia/ao iii?o, eeoeo
eoeue — o ia/ao NAeI-28 c aenoaiei iiaeii. Oa?i?/ia ia?iaea aeeth/aea
iia?o?yia aa?ooaaiiy a?ae oaiia?aoo? 920…9500N c a?aeioneii i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 430…4500N. Aeey caiia?aaiiy ooai?aiiy o??uei o a?aeeeaeao
i?e iaa??aaii? i?ae aa?ooaaiiy oaeaee?noue iaa??aaiiy iaiaaeoaaee
aaee/eiith 700N/aiae. c aeo?eieith i?ioyaii 2 aiaeei i?e oaiia?aoo??
4000N. Iiaeaeueoa iaa??aaiiy aaee c oaeaee?noth 1500N/aiae.

Eiio?ieue o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i- oa i?e?ino?oeoo?e,
?ici??o no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo oa iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?iaiaeeee
noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeaie. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oaea?ino?eeino? eoeue aoei
?ic?iaeaii niaoe?aeueio iaoiaeeeo c aeei?enoaiiyi eii?a c iaaeath/ei
aaioaaeai. Aia?a?y iaeeie/iiai oaea?o aei??aithaaea 1450Aeae, ui a
10…15 ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? ?aaeuei? aeeiai?/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ye?
ni?eeiathoue eoe? i?e ?iaio? o i?iieneiaeo ieeiao. Oaea?ino?ee?noue
ioe?ithaaee ii e?eueeino? oaea??a, ui aeo?eioaaea eoey aei ?oeioaaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aa?aceaii? ciinino?eeino? i?iaiaeeee ii iaoiaeo
aei?iaoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a i?e oa?o? ii cae??ieaiiio aa?aceao ia onoaiiaoe?
O?ceei-iaoai?/iiai ?inoeoooo IAI Oe?a?ie, yea caaacia/oaaea iino?eio
e?i?eio oaeaee?noue i?e oa?o?. Oaea?ii-aa?aceaio ciinino?ee?noue c?ace?a
aeine?aeaeoaaee o eaai?aoi?iiio eoeueiaiio ieei?.

Ia’?i onaaei/ieo aeaoaeo?a aecia/aee ca iaoiaeeeith, ui ?ic?iaeaia
eaoaae?ith I oa OEA CAeOO. Aeiaeaoeiai aeine?aeaeoaaee ieiueio
onaaei/ii? ?aeiaeie ia oaiieao? eoe?, ui aeaioiaeyee ?icoeiii eoe? ii
ieiuei?, yea ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia ?ic’?io oi?ie oa i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac
aeeaeeueiee.

Iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo oa iioei?caoe?th o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo /aaoio cae?enithaaee ?c canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo aia?ao?a ?
cania?a ia/enethaaii? iaoaiaoeee.

O?ao?e ?icae(e i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo o?iienoiai
/aaoio aeey iaeth/eo eoeue ae?aiao?ii 80…100ii.

I?e aeai?? e?eoa???a aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? eoeue, iaiao?aeieo aeey
iioei?caoe?? neeaaeo noiio, aoee aeei?enoai? ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue
eeoeo iaeth/eo eoeue c o?iienoeo /aaoi?a ??ciiai neeaaeo, i?iaaaeaieo
?ai?oa eaoaae?ith oaoiieia?? iaoae?a CAeOO. Oaeeie e?eoa??yie aoei
ia?aii:

-oaa?ae?noue iiaa?oi? eoe? ia iaioa HRC 55 c iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaith
??aiii??iinoth ii ia?aoeio eoe?;

-oaea?ia a’yce?noue EN iaoa??aeo eoe? ia iaioa 8,0 Aeae/ni2;

-oaea?ino?ee?noue eoeue No ia iaioa 15 oaea??a;

-iaai?oia i?iieeeea?noue ( ia iaioa 4,0 Ai/i;

-aeinoaoiy u?euei?noue oa ye?noue a?aeeeae?a.

Aieea iniiaieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a (C, Cr oa Mn) aea/aee c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoaiaoe/iiai iaoiaeo aeoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo 23
(i?oiaiiaeueiee ieai ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo). Ca?aeii c aiae?cii e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaieo ai?no o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a ci?ithaaee o ianooiieo iaaeao, ian.
aeiey,%: 1,8…3,2N; 13,0…23,0Cr, 1,0…4,0Mn. E??i oiai, noiie
ai?uoaaee 0,8…1,0%Ni, ia a?eueoa 1,0%Si. Ooieoe??th a?aeeeeeo aoei
ia?aii oaa?ae?noue HRC, oaea?ia a’yce?noue EN, iaai?oia i?iieeeea?noue
(, aa?aceaiee oa oaea?ii-aa?aceaiee ciine, ye oaeoi?e, ui
a?aeia?aaeathoue aenieoaoaoe?ei? yeino? iaeth/eo eoeue.

Iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo aeicaieeea iaea?aeaoe
caeaaeiino? aeanoeainoae ciinino?eeiai /aaoio a?ae eiai o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo (o aeine?aeaeaieo iaaeao), ui iienothoueny ??aiyiiyie ?aa?an?e:

EN = 55,6-16,25N-2,0Cr-2,1Mn+0,7NMn+2,2N2+0,05Cr2, Aeae/ni2;

HRC = 27+5,6N+0,3Cr+8,9Mn-1,7Mn2;

( = 2,8-1,7N+0,1Cr+2,8Mn-0,1NNr-0,2NMn+0,8N2-0,4Mn2, Ai/i;

IA = 441-53N-1,6Cr-70Mn+13Mn2, a/(i2/);

IOA = 95,8-38,1N-3,75Cr-3,9Mn+0,6NNr+5,25N2+0,06Nr2+

+0,8Mn2, a/(i2/);

Noiie aea/aiiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo iathoue no?oeoo?o aeiaaoaeoe/iiai
a?eiai /aaoio. Aaoaeoeea i?aaenoaaeaia o?iienoei ea?a?aeii oeio
(Cr,Fe)7C3 ?icaoi/ii? aoaeiae a aonoai?oi?e iao?eoe?. E?euee?noue
ea?a?ae?a ci?ithaaeanue a?ae 15 aei 35%. Oa?i?/iei o?aaeaiiyi
anoaiiaeee, ui i?e aoaeue-yeiio ni?aa?aeiioaiith Cr/C o aeine?aeaeaieo
iaaeao (5…11) i?e e?enoae?caoe?? noii?a noai?th?oueny o?eueee ea?a?ae
o?eaiiaeueiiai oeio (aacaa?ai? ea?a?aee). Ea?a?aee oeaiaioeoiiai oeio
(Fe,Cr)3C (oeaaaeueiiai eieuei?o) aeae?eythoueny aaea o i?ioean?
ioieiaeaeaiiy a?aeeeaeo. Ia?aeiieeaei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a
oa?i?/iiai o?aaeaiiy neoaeaoue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?ioaa?aeino?. Aacaa?ai?
ea?a?aee iaee i?e?ioaa?ae?noue I50=1410…1680IIa, ui a?aeiia?aea?
ea?a?aeo oeio (Cr,Fe)7C3. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i
iaaeioe?euei?noue ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo o?iio c iaoith ci?ie ii?oieia?/ii?
aoaeiae ea?a?aeii? oace oa aaoaeoeee a oe?eiio. Aaea i?e 13,0%Cr on?
aeine?aeaeai? nieaae e?enoae?coaaeeny c aaoaeoeeith ?icaoi/ii? aoaeiae.
Aoi?eii? ea?a?aee oeaiaioeoiiai oeio aeae?eythoueny o na?aaeei?
iaoae?/ii? iniiae noiio, iathoue iaaaeee? ?ici??e ? ia ia?aeiio
no?oeoo?o aenieio?iienoeo /aaoi?a aieeao ia /eiyoue. Iaoaeaaa iniiaa
aeine?aeaeaieo /aaoi?a i?ney oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ia? no?oeoo?o ia?oaineoo
c i?e?ioaa?ae?noth I50=710…830IIa. Iaaaeee? ?ici??e aea/aieo c?ace?a
(a?ey 30ii) ia aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe ??cieoe? o no?oeoo?? ii ia?aoeio
oe?oa.

Ci?ie nooiaiy eaaoaaiiy /aaoi?a ia i?eaaei aei iii?oii? ci?ie iaoaeaai?
iao?eoe? noii?a, aea cia/ii ci?ieei e?euee?noue ea?a?aeii? oace. Oeae
oaeo iiynith? cieaeaiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? oa i?aeaeuaiiy oaa?aeino? ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo aoaeaoeth oa o?iio ye iniiaieo ea?a?aeinoai?thth/eo
aeaiaio?a. Aieea ia?aaioeth ca oiia iaaaeeeeo c?ace?a anoaiiaeoe
neeaaeii. Aeanieo ea?a?ae?a ia?aaiaoeue ia ooai?th? (a aeine?aeaeaieo
noiiao), a eeoa eaao? ea?a?aee o?iio oa iaoaeaao iniiao. ?ic/eithth/enue
o cae?c?, ia?aaiaoeue ?icoe?th? (-iaeanoue, oa ca?eueoo? e?euee?noue
aoaeaoeth a aonoai?o?, oei naiei noaa?e?co? aonoai?o a iaeano?
ia?e?oiiai ia?aoai?aiiy oa i?aeaeuo? caeaoi?noue aei aa?ooaaiiy, a
oaeiae ciaioo? caaaeueio e?euee?noue ea?a?ae?a.

Anoaiiaeoe ca’ycie i?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi Cr/C oa oaea?ii-aa?aceaiith
ciinino?ee?noth ia aaeaeiny. Aea iioeiaeueiith no?oeoo?ith iacaeaaeii
a?ae ai?noo aoaeaoeth oa o?iio ? ia?oaineoia iao?eoey c 25…28%
ea?a?aeo oeio I7N3. Iaaii, oaea no?oeoo?a iioeiaeueii ii?aeio?
oaa?ae?noue ye oaeoi?, ui ia?aoeiaeaea? i?iieeiaiith aa?aceaii? /anoee o
o?ei eoe?, oa aeinoaoith a’yce?noue ye iieaciee, ui ni?ey? cieaeaiith
aee?eooaaiiy ea?a?ae?a o i?ioean? ciino, oa i?aeaeuaiith oaea?ino?eeino?
eoeue.

Iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino? aeicaieeee i?iaanoe c a?aooaaiiyi aeiia aei
iaoa??aeo iaeth/eo eoeue eiiieaenio iioei?caoe?th o?i?/iiai neeaaeo
ciinino?eeiai /aaoio c aeei?enoaiiyi a?aoi-aiae?oe/iiai iaoiaeo.
Aecia/aii aaciaee neeaae /aaoio, ian. aeiey, %: 2,7…2,9N;
13,0…15,0Cr; 4,0%Mn. Oaeee neeaae /aaoio caaacia/o? iaiao?aeiee
??aaiue aeanoeainoae i?e i?i?iaeueii iiaeeeaiio ai?no? o?iio. Oeae /aaoi
oaeiae ia? nooi?iue aaoaeoe/iino? 0,8, ui caaacia/o? iie?auaiiy eeaa?ieo
aeanoeainoae.

Aea/aiiy aieeao ia?aaioeth, i?eaeth, e?aii?th oa oeoaio ia
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? noiio E*280O15 i?iaiaeeee aaciina?aaeiuei ia
eoeyo ae?aiao?ii 100ii, ui a?aeeeaaee o i?uai? oi?ie.

Ia?aaiaoeue aaiaeeee aei noiio c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aeniei? oaa?aeino?
ia o?eueee ia iiaa?oi? eoe?, aea e ii anueiio ?? ia?aoeio. I?e an?o
aea/aieo ai?noao ia?aaioeth noii caaeiaieueiy? oiiaai ii
oaea?ino?eeino?. Oaa?ae?noue iiaa?oi? eoeue i?e ai?no? a?ae 1,0 aei
4,0%Mn i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny, aea o oeaio?? eoe? iaeneiaeueia
cia/aiiy oaa?aeino? ia? i?noea i?e 3,6…4,1%Mn. I?e oaeiio ai?no?
ia?aaioeth iaoaeaaa iniiaa ye ia iiaa?oi?, oae ? o oeaio?? eoe?
i?aaenoaaeaia ia?oaineoii. Ai?no ia?aaioeth aeua 4,1% cieaeo? oi/eo
ia?oaineoiiai ia?aoai?aiiy iano?eueee, ui ?iaeoue i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaei
iaea?aeaiiy no?oeoo? aa?ooaaiiy i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??. E?euee?noue
iaiaai?oii? neeaaeiai? no?oeoo?e — aonoai?oo ca?eueoo?oueny aei iaae?,
eiee eoe? ia?anoathoue caaeiaieueiyoe anoaiiaeaiei aeiiaai ii iaai?oi?e
i?iieeeeaino?, a oaeiae ii oaa?aeino?. Ai?no ia?aaioeth ieae/a 3,3%
i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? i?iaeoeo?a ?iciaaeo aonoai?oo o
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? eoe?, ui iaaaoeaii a?aecia/a?oueny ia oaa?aeino?
oa no?eeino? iaeth/eo eoeue.

E?aii?e ? ?iceenethth/ei oa eaaoth/ei aeaiaioii ? aiineoueny o /aaoi c
oeooiaeie iaoa??aeaie. E?aii?e caoaeo? (-iaeanoue oa cia/ii cieaeo?
eiioeaio?aoe?th aoaeaoeth o aonoai?o?. O o?iiiia?aaioeaaeo /aaoiao c
aenieith noaa?euei?noth aonoai?oo e?aii?e o aecia/aiiio ae?aiacii?
ai?noo iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye ei?eniee aeaiaio, ui i?aeaeuo? oaiia?aoo?o
ia?oaineoiiai ia?aoai?aiiy oa iieaaoo? oei naiei ooai?aiiy ia?oaineoo.
Aea i?aeaeuaiee ai?no e?aii?th i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy oaa?aeino?
/aaoio, ine?eueee aoaeo a?ae ca?eueoaiy e?eueeino? i?iaeoeo?a ia?e?oiiai
?iciaaeo c iaeith oaa?ae?noth ia?ae?eaa? aoaeo a?ae ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? ia?oaineoo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?no e?aii?th o /aaoi?
E*280O15A4 ia iiaeiai ia?aaeuoaaoe 1,0%.

Aeei?enoaiiy aei?iaiai i?eaeth aeey eaaoaaiiy iaeia?aeiia?aeaeueieo
aeaoaeae iiaeiii i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaoeny eiai cia/ei?noth oa iaiao?aei?noth.
Aeeeth/aiiy i?eaeth ?c neeaaeo ciinino?eeiai o?iienoiai /aaoio cieaeo?
oaea?ino?ee?noue eeoeo eoeue ieae/a e?eoe/iiai ??aiy (No(15 oaea??a). Ca
?ioeie ia?aiao?aie noii iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? anoaiiaeaiei e?eoa??yi. O
ca’yceo c oeei aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy oaea?ino?eeino?
iaoa??aeo ca ?aooiie ?ioeo oaeoi??a. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei o oeueiio
ieai? aeyaeeiny iiaeeo?eoaaiiy noiio oeoaiii.

Aeiaaaee oeoaio o e?eueeino? aei 0,3% i?eaiaeyoue aei iiae??aiaiiy
no?oeoo?e noiio ca ?aooiie aoaeoo iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ae?oaiai ?iaeo.
Iane?aeeii ci?i o no?oeoo?? noiio ? i?aeaeuaiiy oaea?ino?eeino? eoeue
aei iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy. Aea i?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaiith ai?noo oeoaio
o noii? ia? i?noea ca?eueoaiiy ?ici??o ca?ia.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey ae?iaieoeoaa iaeth/eo
eoeue iaoiaeii eeooy cai?iiiiiaaii /aaoi ia?ee E*280O15A4O, ui i?noeoue,
ian. aeiey, %: 2,7…2,9N; 13,0…15,0Cr; 3,5…4,0Mn; ia a?eueoa 1,0Si;
0,1…0,3Ti.

I?iaaaeaii iioei?caoe?th ?aaeeio oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaeth/eo eoeue c
?ic?iaeaiiai noiio ca oaiia?aoo?aie iia?o?yiiai aa?ooaaiiy oa a?aeioneo.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?yiiai aa?ooaaiiy aaaea aei
cieaeaiiy oaa?aeino? oa i?aeaeuaiiy oaea?ino?eeino? eoeue ca ?aooiie
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo o no?oeoo?? noiio.
Oaiia?aoo?a a?aeioneo aieeaa? aiaeia?/ii c ??ceei ca?eueoaiiyi c?inoaiiy
i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeua 6500N, ui iaoiiaeaii ia?aoiaeii oi/ee ia?aoai?aiiy
A1 ((7500N). Aieeao oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ia ia?aeii? ea?a?aee ia
anoaiiaeaii. Iioeiaeueiei ?aaeeiii oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaeth/eo eoeue ?c
noiio E*280O15A4O ? iia?o?yia aa?ooaaiiy c 950(200N oa ianooiiei
a?aeioneii i?e 450(200N.

*aoaa?oee ?icae(e i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?? eeooy iaeth/eo eoeue
ia ?ic?iaeaiiio ?acii c Eaieo-Ao?oinueeei cae?ci?oaeiei eiia?iaoii
iiaeoe? a?aeoeaio?iai-a?a?aoe?eiiai eeooy (AAE), ui caaacia/ea
iaea?aeaiiy a?aeeeae?a aeniei? yeino? ca ?aooiie iai?aaeaii?
e?enoae?caoe?? oa noi?nii? ae?? a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee oa a?a?aoe??.

?ic?iaeaii aea? iiaeeo?eaoe?? eie?e?a aeey eeooy iaeth/eo eoeue:

-eie?eue ia?oi? iiaeeo?eaoe?? aeicaiey? iaeii/anii a?aeeeaaoe eoe?
ae?aiao?ii 100, 80, 60, 40 oa 20ii c aeeaeaiiyi “a?aeeeaeo /a?ac
a?aeeeaie”, ui caaacia/o? iai?aaeaio e?enoae?caoe?th;

-eie?eue ae?oai? iiaeeo?eaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii aeey eoeue iaaaeeeiai
ae?aiao?o (aei 60ii), ui caaacia/o? ii?iaeueia caiiaiaiiy oi?ie i?ae
ae??th a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee c ?aoe?iiaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi ?ici???a
eie?ey.

C aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeoey AAE oa eie?ey ia?oi? iiaeeo?eaoe?? i?iaaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao a?a?aoe?? oa a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee ia no?oeoo?o oa
aeanoeaino? eeoeo eoeue c /aaoio E*280O15A4O.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?ie ?aaeeio ?iaioe iiaeoey AAE i?aeoe/ii ia aieeioee
ia e?euee?nia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy neeaaeiaeo no?oeoo?e noiio, aea cia/ii
aieeioee ia ?o ?ici??e oa o aeayeee i??? ia ii?oieia?th. C? ca?eueoaiiyi
/anoioe eieeaaiue oa oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy eie?ey ciaiueoo?oueny
na?aaei?e ?ici?? ca?ia no?oeoo?e oa /anoie ea?a?ae?a. Oeae oaeo, iaaii,
iia’ycaiee c? ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? oeaio??a e?enoae?caoe??,
ia?aioieiaeaeaiiyi ?icieaao oa c i?aeaeuaiiyi iaeii??aeiino? noiio
aiane?aeie eiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy i?ae ae??th a?a?aoe??.

Iae?ino?oeoo?a eoeue o ceiiao u?eueia, /enoa, ca aeeeth/aiiyi ?aeiaei
onaaei/iiai oa?aeoa?o ae?aiao?ii 12…15ii, ui ?ici?uothoueny iiaeeco
aeeaeeueieea ia a?aenoai? 9…20ii a?ae iiaa?oi? eoe?. O a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a iae?ino?oeoo?a oaiieao?a eoeue iaeii??aeia, ae??aiica?ienoa
aac aeaeeieo aeeth/aiue oa o??uei.

U?euei?noue iaoa??aeo eoeue ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aaeeio ?iaioe iiaeoey
AAE ? noaiiaeoue 7,7062 a/ii3. ?acii c oeei, u?euei?noue a?aeeeae?a
eoeue c? ca?eueoaiiyi /anoioe a?a?aoe?? oa oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy eie?eth
i?aeaeuo?oueny, a ia’?i onaaei/ii? ?aeiaeie ciaioo?oueny (oaae. 1). Oea
iaoiiaeaii i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aeeioaeo/ino?, a oaeiae iaeeaaeaiiyi aoaeoo
eeooy i?ae oeneii ca ?aooiie oeaio?eooaoaaiiy i?e iaa?oaii? eie?eth.
I?aeaeuaiiy /anoioe eieeaaiue eie?ey ni?ey? cieaeaiith aaciiane/aiino?
a?aeeeaeo oa aeaaaeaiith onaaei/ieo aeaoaeo?a /a?ac eeaieeiao nenoaio o
noiye.

?acoeueoaoii iiae??aiaiiy no?oeoo?e /aaoio oa ca?eueoaiiy u?eueiino?
a?aeeeaeo noaei i?aeaeuaiiy neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae iaeth/eo eoeue.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaiao?aeia oaea?ino?ee?noue eeoeo eoeue ae?aiao?ii
80…100ii caaacia/o?oueny, yeui noia?iee ia’?i onaaei/ieo aeaoaeo?a ia
ia?aaeuo? 1,20…1,25%, a ia’?i eiioeaio?iaaii? ?aeiaeie — 0,40…0,45%.
Iniiaiei ?acoeueoaoii ?iaioe noaei cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy oaea?ino?eeino?
eoeue (c 4 aei 30 oaea??a) i?e caa?aaeaii? aeniei? oaa?aeino? (HRC
58…60).

Oaaeeoey 1 — Aieea ?aaeeio ?iaioe iiaeoeth AAE ia u?euei?noue

a?aeeeaeo iaeth/eo eoeue c /aaoio E*280O15A4O

?aaeei ?iaioe

Ae?aiao? eoe? 40ii

Ae?aiao? eoe? 60ii

Ae?aiao? eoe? 80ii

iiaeoeth AAE

*anoioa Oaeaee?noue U?eue- Noia?iee

U?eue- Noia?iee

U?eue- Noia?iee

a?a?a- iaa?oaiiy i?noue ia’?i onaaei/ieo

i?noue ia’?i onaaei/ieo

i?noue ia’?i onaaei/ieo

oe??

eoe?, ( aeaoaeo?a, (V

eoe?, ( aeaoaeo?a, (V

eoe?, ( aeaoaeo?a, (V

Aoe ia/oa. a/ni3 ni3 % a/ni3 ni3 % a/ni3 ni3 %

0 500 7,623 0,35 1,09 7,583 1,82 1,6 7,693 7,22 2,85

17 125 7,628 0,32 1,01 7,604 1,52 1,33 7,601 6,78 2,64

17 500 7,663 0,16 0,52 7,658 0,74 0,64 7,593 4,93 1,53

34 125 7,656 0,2 0,65 7,65 0,83 0,72 7,564 5,47 2,16

34 500 7,676 0,12 0,38 7,673 0,48 0,42 7,624 3,42 1,34

48 125 7,679 0,11 0,36 7,677 0,43 0,38 7,618 3,35 1,52

48 500 7,685 0,09 0,28 7,668 0,56 0,5 7,695 3,06 1,22

A ?iaio? ia aeyaeaii ca’yceo oaea?ino?eeino? eoeue a?ae ia?aiao??a
i?e?ino?oeoo?e iaoa??aeo. Iaaii, ui ia eoeyo ?c cia/iei ia’?iii
onaaei/ieo aeaoaeo?a ?o aieea ia oaea?ino?ee?noue a?eueo cia/iee, i?ae
aieea ?ici???a i?e?ino?oeoo?e. Iiaeeeai, ui ia a?eueo u?eueieo eoeyo
aieea ?ici???a ca?ia oa ea?a?ae?a ia oaea?ino?ee?noue aoaea cia/i?oei.

?iciiae?e oaa?aeino? ii ia?aoeio eoe? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aaeeio ?iaioe
iiaeoey AAE, aea ciinino?ee?noue iaoa??aeo i?aeaeuo?oueny i?e
ca?eueoaii? /anoioe eieeaaiue eie?ey oa oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy iiaeoey.
Aeyaeaii ca’ycie i?ae ao?aoith iane c?acea i?e aa?aceaiiio ciin? c
?ici??ii ia?aiao??a no?oeoo?e. A??ia?aeii, ui a?eueo ae??aiiaeenia?ni?
oa ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eai? ea?a?aee i?oei?oa oo?eiothoueny iaoaeaaith
iao?eoeath ? o iaio?e i??? aee?eoothoueny.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui aenieiye?ni? a?aeeeaee /aaoiieo eoeue
caaacia/o? oaeee ?aaeei ?iaioe iiaeoeth AAE:

-aiie?ooaea a?a?aoe?? 0,5ii;

-/anoioa a?a?aoe?? 48Aoe;

-/anoioa iaa?oaiiy 500 ia/oa;

-/an ia?iaee ??aeeiai iaoaeo a?a?aoe??th oa a?aeoeaio?iaeie neeaie
1,0…1,2oa;

-i?i?iaeueia oaiia?aoo?a ??aeeiai iaoaeo i?e caeeaoe? 1360…13800N.

O i(yoiio ?icae(e( i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ae?iaieoeoaa
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ia?o?? iaeth/eo eoeue c /aaoio E*280O15A4O, ui
a?aeeeaaee ia iiaeoe? AAE ca ?ic?iaeaiith oaoiieia??th.

Iaeth/? eoe?, ui aoee a?aeeeo? ca?aeii c aeiiaaie caaeaii? oaoiieia??,
a?aeiia?aeaee AINO 7524-89 ii yeino? iiaa?oi? oa ?ici??ai. Iiaa?oiy
eoeue aoea /enoa, oi?ia a?aeeeaea a?aeiia?aeaea oi?i? eoe?, ci?uaiue ii
?ic’?io oi?ie ia aoei. Aeo?ae i?eaeaoiiai eeoaa noaiiaea 72…75%.

Iae?ino?oeoo?a eeoeo eoeue u?eueia, aac aeaeeieo aeaoaeo?a (ionoio,
o??uei), a oaeiae iii?oieo e?eaaoe?eieo cii. O eoe? ae?aiao?ii 80ii ia
a?aenoai? 10…15ii a?ae iiaa?oi? a i?noe? i?eeyaaiiy eeaieea aei
a?aeeeaea iaeanue ?eoe?noue oa eiiiaeoia onaaei/ia ?aeiaeia
iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie ieiueiith a?ey 20ii2. O eoeyo iaioiai ae?aiao?o
onaaei/i? aeaoaeoe caeiaee cia/ii iaioo ieiueio.

I?e?ino?oeoo?a aeine?aeaeaieo eoeue iaea ina?aaei/io aoaeiao ?
i?aaenoaaeaia ia?oaineoiith iao?eoeath oa aonoai?oii-o?iienoiea?a?aeiith
aaoaeoeeith c ea?a?aeaie (Cr,Fe)7C3 o e?eueeino? 25…30%.

Neoaeaia? aeanoeaino? eoeue iiai?noth a?aeiia?aeaee ?ic?iaeaiei
e?eoa??yi: oaa?ae?noue iiaa?oi? noaiiaeea HRC57…60, o oeaio?? eoe? —
HRC50…54; oaea?ino?ee?noue — 25 oaea??a; iaai?oi? aeanoeaino? eoeue
iiai?noth caaeiaieueiyee aeiiaai caaaioaaeoaaeueii-?icaaioaaeoaaeueieo
?ia?o.

Ii??aiyeuei? aei?iaoaaiiy no?eeino? o ieei? eeoeo iaeth/eo eoeue c
/aaoio E*280O15A4O oa eaoaieo ?c noae? 35A iieacaee a?aeiinia
ca?eueoaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? /aaoiieo eoeue o 3,2 ?ace. E??i
oiai, aeei?enoaiiy a?eueo oaa?aeeo /aaoiieo eoeue, a ii??aiyii? c?
noaeaaeie, aeiaeaoeiai aeicaieeei ciaioeoe aeo?aoe aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?e
iiae??aiaii? o ieei? ia 15% oa i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano
iiae??aiaiiy ?oaee.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. Aiae?c na?oiaiai aeina?aeo iieacaa, ui o i?iieneiai ?icaeiaieo
e?a?iao /anoea ciinino?eeiai /aaoio ui a?eueoa ye o o?e ?ace ia?aaeuo?
ciinino?ee?noue eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae, o ae?iaieoeoa? eoeue neeaaea?
30%, oiae? ye ia Oe?a?i? oey /anoea ia ia?aaeuo? 2% aiane?aeie
aeao?oeeoo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a (Ni, V, Mo, Cu oa ?io.) oa a?aenooiino?
iioeiaeueii? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa eoeue ae?aiao?ii a?eueoa 60ii.

2. ?ic?iaeaii a?aie/i? oiiae o?ce/ieo, iaoai?/ieo oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae, ui caaacia/othoue aenieiaoaeoeaio ?iaioo ieei?a oa
no?ee?noue /aaoiieo eoeue:

-oaa?ae?noue iiaa?oi? eoe? ia iaioa ye HRC 55;

-oaea?ia a’yce?noue EN ia iaioa 8 Aeae/ni2;

-oaea?ino?ee?noue eoeue No ia iaioa 15 oaea??a;

-iaai?oia i?iieeeea?noue ( ia iaioa 4 Ai/i;

-eeaa?i? aeanoeaino? iiaeii? caaacia/eoe i?i?iaeueio e?euee?noue
onaaei/ieo aeaoaeo?a.

3. C aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/iiai iaoiaeo aeoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy
aenia?eiaioo iaea?aeai? ei?aeyoe?ei? caeaaeiino?, ui iienothoue aieea
aoaeaoeth, o?iio oa ia?aaioeth ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, iaai?oio
i?iieeeea?noue oa aa?aceaia ? oaea?ii-aa?aceaia ciiooaaiiy /aaoio;

4. Ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeaieo e?eoa???a ?iaioicaeaoiino? c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaea?aeaieo caeaaeiinoae iioei?ciaaii o?i?/iee neeaae /aaoio E*280O15A4O
aeey iaeth/eo eoeue, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ai?oa a?aeiiiai aeiiii??th
aeao?oeeoieo o?iio (a?ey 2%) oa i?eaeth (a?ey 1%).

5. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino?, oaea?ino?eeino? oa iaea?aeaiiy
??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo aeanoeainoae ii ia?aoeio eoeue cai?iiiiiaaii
iiaeeo?eoaaoe /aaoi oeoaiii o e?eueeino? 0,1…0,3%.

6. Onoaiiaeaii caeaaeiino? u?eueiino? a?aeeeaeo oa e?eueeino? aeaoaeo?a
onaaei/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy a?ae ?aaeei?a ?iaioe a?aeoeaio?iai-a?a?aoe?eii?
onoaiiaee, a oaeiae caeaaei?noue oaea?ino?eeino? eoeue a?ae noia?iiai
ia’?io onaaei/ieo aeaoaeo?a. Iaeeaaeaiiy a?a?aoe?? oa a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee
aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe u?euei? eoe? c i?i?iaeueiith e?euee?noth
onaaei/ieo aeaoaeo?a oa c iaeii??aeiith ? ae??aiica?ienoith no?oeoo?ith.
Iioeiaeueiei ?aaeeiii ?aaioe iiaeoey onoaiiaee AAE ?:

-aii?ooaea a?a?aoe?? 0,5ii;

-/anoioa a?a?aoe?? 48Aoe;

-/anoioa iaa?oaiiy 500 ia/oa;

-/an ia?iaee ??aeeiai iaoaeo o oi?i? 1,0…1,2 oa;

-oaiia?aoo?a ??aeeiai iaoaeo i?e caeeaoe? 1360…13800N.

7. Iioei?ciaaii ?aaeei oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaeth/eo eoeue c /aaoio
?ic?iaeaiiai neeaaeo ca oaiia?aoo?aie iia?o?yiiai aa?ooaaiiy oa
a?aeioneo. Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aa?ooaaiiy cieaeo?
oaa?ae?noue oa i?aeaeuo? oaea?ino?ee?noue ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo o no?oeoo?? noiio. Oaiia?aoo?a
a?aeioneo (250-6500N) aieeaa? aiaeia?/ii oaiia?aoo?? aa?ooaaiiy.
Iioeiaeueiei ?aaeeiii oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaeth/eo eoeue c /aaoio
E*280O15A4O ? iia?o?yia aa?ooaaiiy a?ae 950(200N c a?aeioneii i?e
450(200N.

8. I?iieneiaa aei?iaoaaiiy iieacaei, ui eoe?, aeaioiaeai? ca iiaith
oaoiieia??th, a?aeiia?aeathoue on?i e?eoa??yi ?iaioicaeaoiino? oa
iathoue no?ee?noue, ui ia?aaeuo? o 3,2 ?ace no?ee?noue na??eieo eoeue ?c
noae? 35A.

9. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii oa ia?aaeaii aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
aeei?enoaiiy iiai? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iaeth/eo eoeue c /aaoio
E*280O15A4O ca aeiiiiiaith a?aeoeaio?iai-a?a?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee eeooy.
?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae i?eaeaoiiai eeooy aei
73,2% i?ioe 45…50% i?e eeoo? o i?uai? oi?ie, a oaeiae iiai?noth
iaoai?coaaoe oa aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioeane eeooy.

IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Eaionoei I.A., Eaaiia Ae.TH. E?eoa?ee noieeinoe iaethueo oa?ia a
oneiaeyo oaea?ii-aa?aceaiiai eciina: Na. iao/i. o?. OAAOA. — 1996. —
N.22-23.

Eaionoei I.A., Oanoaeia E.A. Aeeyiea ninoaaa aaeiai /oaoia ia aai
noieeinoue a oneiaeyo oaea?ii-aa?aceaiiai eciina // I?eaei(i?ianueeee
iaoeiaee a(niee. — 1997. — ?8(19). — N.18-22.

Eaionoei I.A., Oanoaeia E.A. ?ac?aaioea ?aaeeiia eeouey iaethueo oa?ia
ia oeaio?iaaaeii-aea?aoeeiiiie onoaiiaea // Iia( iaoa?(aee ( oaoiieia((
a iaoaeo?a(( oa iaoeiiaoaeoaaii(. — 1997. — ?1-2. — N.62-64.

Eaaiia Ae.TH, Eaionoei I.A. Aeeyiea oeie/aneiai ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u ia
eciininoieeinoue o?iienouo /oaoiia // Iia( eiino?oeoe(ei( noae( (
iaoiaee (o ia?iaee aeey i(aeaeuaiiy iaae(eiino( oa aeiaaia(/iino(
ae?ia(a: Ca. iaoe. i?. CAeOO. — Caii?(aeaey: CAeOO, 1998. — N.132-133.

Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Eaionoei I.A. Auai? ?aoeeiiaeueiuo
ninoaaia eciininoieeeo nieaaia aeey aeaoaeae, eciaoeaaaiuo
aunieiaa?aceaiuie uaei/iuie noniaiceyie // Oac. aeiee. iao/i.-oaoi.
eiio. “Iooe iiauoaiey ea/anoaa e yeiiiie/iinoe eeoaeiuo i?ioeannia”. —
Iaeanna. — 1993. — N.57.

Eaionoei I.A., Eeeiiaa E.A., Eaaiia Ae.TH. Aeeyiea ea?aeaeiie oacu ia
naienoaa aunieio?iienouo /oaoiia // Oac. aeiee. iao/i.-oaoi. eiio.
“Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e aacu a eeoaeiuo nieaaao”. — Caii?iaeuea:
CIE. — 1994. — N.94.

Oanoaeia E.A., Eaionoei I.A., Eeeiiaa E.A. Aeeyiea ?aaeeiia oa?ie/aneie
ia?aaioee ia no?oeoo?o e naienoaa /oaoia E*230O17A4IO // Na. o?.
iaaeaeoia?. naieia?a “I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”.-Aeiai?iiao?iane.-1995.-N.94-95.

Eaionoei I.A., Eeeiiaa E.A., Eaaiia Ae.TH. *oaoiu aeey iaethueo oa?ia //
Iao. VI Iaaeaeoia?. iao/i.-oaoi. eiio. “Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e
nieaau e iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e
aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeey”. — *anoue 2. — Caii?iaeuea: CAOO. — 1995. —
N.26.

Oanoaeia E.A., Eaionoei I.A., Eeeiiaa E.A. No?oeoo?a e naienoaa ioeeaie
ec eciininoieeiai /oaoia, iieo/aiiuo a oneiaeyo aea?aoeee e
oeaio?iaaaeiuo nee // Iao. VI Iaaeaeoia?. iao/i.-oaoi. eiio. “Iiaua
eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey
iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeey”. — *anoue 3. — Caii?iaeuea:
CAOO. — 1995. — N.30.

Oanoaeia E.A., Eaionoei I.A. Auai? ninoaaa /oaoia aeey iaethueo oae
oa?iauo iaeueieoe // Oac. aeiee. iaaeaeoia?. iao/i.-oaoi. eiio. “Yia?ai-
e ?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee a i?iecaiaenoaa noaeea”. —
Eiinoaioeiiaea. — 1995. — N.24-25.

Eaionoei I.A., Oanoaeia E.A. Eciininoieeea nieaau aeey iaethueo oae a
oeaiaioiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe // Oac. aeiee. IV-e Iaaeaeoia?. iao/i.-oaoi.
eiio. “Iaoa?eaeu aeey no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee”. — Aeiai?iiao?iane:
IAANA. — 1996. — N.55.

Aiioaoe?y

Eaiono?i I.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ciinino?eeeo
/aaoi?a aeey iaeth/eo o?e eoeueiaeo ieei?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ii niaoe?aeueiino? 05.02.01 — “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai”. — Caii??cueeee
aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Caii??aeaey, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? ciinino?eeiai o?iienoiai /aaoio oa
oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa c iueiai eeoeo iaeth/eo eoeue ae?aiao?ii
80…100ii i?aeaeuaii? no?eeino?.

?ic?iaeaii e?eoa??? aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? aeey eeoeo iaeth/eo
eoeue. Aea/aii aieea iniiaieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a C, Cr oa Mn ia
aeanoeaino? ciinino?eeiai /aaoio, a oaeiae Mn, Si, Ni oa Ti ia no?oeoo?o
oa aeanoeaino? iaeth/eo eoeue c /aaoio E*280O15. C a?aooaaiiyi aeiia, ui
i?aae’yaeythoueny, oa c aeei?enoaiiyi anoaiiaeaiieo caeaaeiinoae
?ic?iaeaii /aaoi ia?ee E*280O15A4O aeey eeoeo iaeth/eo eoeue ae?aiao?ii
80…100ii, a oaeiae ?aaeei ?o oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee.

Aeey iaea?aeaiiy u?eueieo ye?nieo a?aeeeae?a, i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo
i?eaeaoiiai eeoaa, iaoai?caoe?? oa aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano ?ic?iaeaia
niaoe?aeueia oaoiieia?y eeooy iaeth/eo eoeue o iaoaeaaeo oi?iao c
iaeeaaeaiiyi ia iaoae, ui e?enoae?co?oueny, a?a?aoe?? oa a?aeoeaio?iaeo
nee.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe i?ieoee i?iieneiaa aei?iaoaaiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aei
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaeth/? eoe?, ciinino?eeee o?iienoee /aaoi, ea?a?aee,
oaa?ae?noue, oaea?ia a’yce?noue, iaai?oia i?iieeeea?noue,
ciinino?ee?noue, oaea?ino?ee?noue, eie?eue, a?a?aoe?y, a?aeoeaio?iaa
eeooy.

Aiiioaoeey

Eaionoei I.A. Enneaaeiaaiea, ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea eciininoieeeo
/oaoiia aeey iaethueo oae oa?iauo iaeueieoe. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.01 — “Iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea”. — Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Caii?iaeuea, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea eciininoieeiai o?iienoiai /oaoia e
oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ec iaai eeouo iaethueo oa?ia aeeaiao?ii
80…100ii iiauoaiiie noieeinoe.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea eniuoaiey eeouo /oaoiiuo iaethueo oa?ia ia
oaea?inoieeinoue, /oi iicaieeei a eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo ii?aaeaeyoue
niiniaiinoue oa?ia i?ioeainoiyoue o?oieiio ?ac?ooaieth eo i?e ?aaioa a
iaeueieoea.

?ac?aaioaiu e?eoa?ee yenieoaoaoeeiiiie noieeinoe aeey eeouo iaethueo
oa?ia, iniiaiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony oaa?aeinoue iiaa?oiinoe e ii
na/aieth oa?a, oaea?iay ayceinoue e oaea?inoieeinoue iaoa?eaea oa?ia,
iaaieoiua naienoaa.

Eco/aii aeeyiea iniiaiuo eaae?othueo yeaiaioia C, Cr e Mn ia naienoaa
eciininoieeiai /oaoia, a oaeaea Mn, Si, Ni e Ti ia no?oeoo?o e naienoaa
iaethueo oa?ia ec /oaoia E*280O15. N eniieueciaaieai iaoiaea aeoeaiiai
ieaie?iaaiey yenia?eiaioa iieo/aiu o?aaiaiey caaeneiinoae. eioi?ua
iienuaatho aeeyiea oeacaiiuo yeaiaioia ia yenieoaoaoeeiiiua naienoaa
eciininoieeeo /oaoiia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue naienoa
oa?ia ii aua?aiiui e?eoa?eyi iaania/eaaao /oaoi E*280O15A4O ni
no?oeoo?ie, iniiaie eioi?ie yaeyaony ia?oaineo n inoaoi/iui aonoaieoii a
eiee/anoaa aei 20% e ea?aeaeaie oeia (Cr,Fe)7C3 a eiee/anoaa 25…30%.

Iieo/aiiua a ?aaioa ?acoeueoaou iicaieeee ?ac?aaioaoue e ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue
oeie/aneee ninoaa eciininoieeiai o?iienoiai /oaoia aeey eeouo iaethueo
oa?ia aeeaiao?ii 80…100ii. Aeey oa?ia ec ?ac?aaioaiiiai ninoaaa
ii?iaiaaiu ?acee/iua oaiia?aoo?iua ?aaeeiu oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee. Ia
iniiaa iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia ?aeiiaiaeiaaiu oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooiie
caeaeee n 950(200N e ioionea i?e 450(200N.

Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea aea?aoeee e oeaio?iaaaeiuo nee ia i?ioeann
e?enoaeeecaoeee /oaoia a iaoaeee/aneeo oi?iao. Iieacaii, /oi
aicaeaenoaea aea?aoeee e oeaio?iaaaeiuo nee oeo/oatho oneiaey ieoaiey
ioeeaee, eciaiytho oa?aeoa? e?enoaeeecaoeee e i?eaiaeyo e eciaeue/aieth
iee?ino?oeoo?u, oiaiueoaieth noiia?iiai iauaia onaaei/iuo aeaoaeoia,
/oi, a naith i/a?aaeue, oaaee/eaaao ieioiinoue ioeeaee, aa?aceaioth
eciininoieeinoue e oaea?inoieeinoue iaethueo oa?ia.

?ac?aaioaia aunii?iecaiaeeoaeueiay oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey eeouo
iaethueo oa?ia n eniieueciaaieai niaoeeaeueiie onoaiiaee
oeaio?iaaaeii-aea?aoeeiiiiai eeouey. Oaeay oaoiieiaey iicaieyao
oaaee/eoue auoiae aiaeiiai eeouey aei 70…75% i?ioea 45…50% i?e
eeouea a ian/aiua oi?iu, a oaeaea iieiinoueth iaoaiece?iaaoue e
aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeann eeouey.

Oa?u, iieo/aiiua ii ?ac?aaioaiiie oaoiieiaee ec nieaaa E*280O15A4O,
oa?aeoa?ecothony yenieoaoaoeeiiiie noieeinoueth, eioi?ay a 3,2 ?aca
i?aauoatho noieeinoue na?eeiuo eaoaiuo oa?ia ec noaee 35A. E?iia oiai,
eniieueciaaiea aieaa oaa?aeuo /oaoiiuo oa?ia a n?aaiaiee ni noaeueiuie
aeiiieieoaeueii iaania/eaatho oiaiueoaiea cao?ao yeaeo?iyia?aee i?e
iiiiea ?oae a iaeueieoea e iiauoatho yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeanna
eciaeue/aiey.

?acoeueoaou ?aaiou i?ioee i?iiuoeaiiia ii?iaiaaiea e i?aaeeiaeaiu aeey
aiaae?aiey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaethuea oa?u, eciininoieeee o?iienoue /oaoi, ea?aeaeu,
oaa?aeinoue, oaea?iay ayceinoue, iaaieoiay i?iieoeaaiinoue,
eciininoieeinoue, oaea?inoieeinoue, eieeeue, aea?aoeey, oeaio?iaaaeiia
eeouea.

Summary

Kapustin M.A. Investigation, development and reduction to practice of
cast irons for grinding bodies of boll mills. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences on
speciality 05.02.01 — “Material science” — Zaporozhye State Technical
University, Zaporozhye, 1999.

Dissertation is dedicated to development of wear-resistant chromium cast
iron and technology of production of highly resistant cast grinding
bolls having 80…100mm in diameter made of this cast iron.

Criteria of exploitation resistance for cast grinding bolls were
developed. Influence of basic alloying elements: C, Cr and Mn on
properties of wear-resistant cast iron and Mn, Si, Ni and Ti on
structure and properties of grinding bolls made of cast iron E*280O15
was studied. Taking into account the service demands and using
dependences, cast iron of grade E*280O15A4O for cast grinding bolls
having 80…100mm in diameter was developed, as well as regime of
thermal treatment of the bolls.

For getting high quality of castings, highering the metal consumption
coefficient mechanization and automation of process, special technology
of grinding bolls casting in metal molds with superposition of vibration
and centrifugal forces onto crustallizing metal was developed.

Results of the work were industrially tested, recommended for reduction
to practice in Ukrainian industry.

Key words: grinding bolls, wear-resistant chromium cast iron, carbides,
hardness, impact strength, magnetic permeability, wear-resistant, impact
resistance, metal mould, vibration, centrifugal casting.

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