IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

AIEIAIA ANO?IIII?*IA IANA?AAOI??ss

NECIIAIEI TH??e Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 523.64-35 + 523.64-864

AeINE?AeAEAIIss IEEIAIAI OAINOA EIIAOE AANOA 1976 VI

IAOIAeAIE IIAA?OIAAI? OIOIIAO???

01.03.03 – Aae?io?ceea ? o?ceea Niiy/ii? nenoaie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe.

Ee?a-1999.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aieiai?e ano?iiii?/i?e iana?aaoi??? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe Ooeueiai Eaii?ae Ia?eiae/, Aieiaia
ano?iiii?/ia iana?aaoi??y IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? *o?thiia Eeei ?aaiiae/,
ano?iiii?/ia iana?aaoi??y Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i.Ee?a, caa.a?aeae?eii

Eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe Eenaeueia Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/,
ano?iiii?/ia iana?aaoi??y Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

E?einueea ano?io?ce/ia iana?aaoi??y, nae.Iao/iee, E?ei

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «21» aeiaoiy 1999 ?. ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.208.01 i?e Aieiai?e ano?iiii?/i?e
iana?aaoi??? IAI Oe?a?ie (252650, Ee?a-22, Aiein??a, AAI IAI Oe?a?ie)

Ii/aoie can?aeaiue i 10 aiaeei?.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aieiaii?
ano?iiii?/ii? iana?aaoi??? IAI Oe?a?ie (252650, Ee?a-22, Aiein??a, AAI
IAI Oe?a?ie).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «17» aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe I.A. Aon?aa

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Eiiaoe o aaaaoueio ethaeae aeeeeeathoue caaaeeo
i?i ye?aaa, oaeaeeiieeiia oa aeaui caaaaeeiaa yaeua. C iaoeiai? oi/ee
ci?o eiiaoa – iaaania o?ce/ia o?ei, aeaeyae oa iiaaae?iea yeiai
aecia/a?oueny oiiaaie a i?aeieaiaoiiio i?inoi??. Oiio aea/aiiy yaeu, ui
aeieeathoue a yae?? oa aoiinoa?? eiiaoe i?e ?? iaaeeaeaii? aei Niioey,
ei?enia aeey o?ceee i?aeieaiaoiiai i?inoi?o, o?ceee ieacie, oioio?i??
oa o?ceee iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?.

A XX noi??//? eiiaoe aoee ia’?eoii oaaae aaaaoueio a/aieo, aea aei
oeueiai /ano i?e?iaea aeayeeo yaeu, ye? niinoa??aathoueny a eiiaoao, ia
ia? inoaoi/ii? iaoeiai? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ua ia
anoaiiaeaii aiane?aeie ?iciaaeo yeeo ?a/iaei aeieeathoue iieaeoee
?aaeeeae?a, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo aaciai? aieiae eiiaoe. Aei e?ioey
ia aeyniaii iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeae aaciaeo oa ieeiaeo
oaino?a eiiao, ia a?aeii? i?e/eie niaeao?a yne?aaino? aie?a eiiao.
Iaia? iaeiinoaeiino? ? a oyaeaiiyo i?i neeaae oa aeanoeaino? eiiaoieo
ii?ioeiie .

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?a/iaeie, ui neeaaea? yae?i eiiaoe, iio??aia ia o?eueee
aeey ?icoi?iiy o?ce/ieo oa o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a a eiiaoao. Aaaaeathoue, ui
?a/iaeia i?ioiniiy/ii? ooiaiiino? a ia?aeiiiio aeaeyae? caa?aaeany eeoa
a yae?ao eiiao, ye? a?eueoo /anoeio naiai aeeooy i?iaiaeyoue aeaeaei
a?ae Niioey. Naia oiio aea/aiiy eiiaoii? ?a/iaeie oe?eaaa oaeiae ? aeey
oeo a/aieo, ui aea/athoue iioiaeaeaiiy oa aaiethoe?th Niiy/ii? nenoaie.

ssne?aaa eiiaoa Aanoa 1976 VI i?e iaaeeaeaii? aei Niioey
i?iaeaiiino?oaaea ??aee?ni? yaeua. I?e i?ioiaeaeaii? eiiaoith ia?eaae?th
noaany iiiaeeiiee ?iciaae yae?a eiiaoe, a iaaaeiac? i?ney oeueiai
niinoa??aaany nioaanoee ieeiaee oa?no. I?e/eie oa ianoaaeie aeieeiaiiy
oeeo yaeu caeeoathoueny aei e?ioey ia c?icoi?eeie.

Aaaaoi iaae?e iieeaaea?oueny ia aaciina?aaei? aea/aiiy eiiao c eini?/ieo
aia?ao?a. Oa ana ae a?eueo aeaoaaei, caaaeaee aeinooiiei, a i?e ?aioia?e
iiya? yne?aai? eiiaoe ? ?aeeii iiaeeeaei niiniaii aeine?aeaeaiue
caeeoathoueny iacaii? niinoa?aaeaiiy eiiao a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Na?aae iacaiieo niinia?a
aeine?aeaeaiue eiiao ii/ania i?noea caeia? aea/aiiy oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y
?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? eiiaoieo aoiinoa?. Ca aeiiiiiaith
oeueiai iaoiaeo iiaeia ciaeoe iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiaoii? aoiinoa?e
oa /anoeiie.

Ne?ae aeacaoe, ui ia aeeaey/enue ia oe?iea canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? ieeiaeo oaino?a eiiao
ca inoaii? ?iee, aeey eiiaoe Aanoa a?i ia canoiniaoaaany. Oaeei /eiii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa
aea? iiaeeea?noue aia?oa aecia/eoe aeaye? oa?aeoa?enoeee ieeiaeo
/anoeiie, ye? ca?eueieeenue a i?ioean? ?iciaaeo yae?a eiiaoe, a oaeiae
aoaea ei?eniei aeey e?auiai ?icoi?iiy naiiai i?ioeano ?iciaaeo.

Aea/aiiy ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? ieeiaeo oaino?a eiiao, oae
naii ye ? aaaaoi ?ioeo niinoa?aaeaiue, oe?iei canoiniao?oueny a/aieie
aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee eiiaoieo ieeiaeo /anoeiie. Caaaeyee oeei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi oa eini?/i?e i?n?? aei eiiaoe Aaeeay ca inoaii?
aeanyoue ?ie?a iao? oyaeaiiy i?i eiiaoi? ieeia? /anoeiee cia/ii
iaaeeceeeny aei ?aaeueiino?. Aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo aeaieo i?i eiiaoi?
ii?ioeiee aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue aeiiiiiaei noai?eoe
a?eueo ?aae?noe/io iiaeaeue ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? oainoa
eiiaoe.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/a?oueny oaeiae iaiiaoi?i?noth
ia’?eoa aeine?aeaeaiue oa eiai iaaeinooii?noth aeey aeine?aeaeaiue a
ianooii? aeae?eueea oeny/ ?ie?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeaia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue ye
/anoeia iaoeiaeo i?ia?ai oa ieaiiaeo oai eaai?aoi??? o?ceee oa
ano?iiii?? iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo iaaanieo ia’?eo?a AAI IAI Oe?a?ie,
cie?aia ye /anoeia ieaiiai? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie ? 166
«Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a o eiiaoao c aeei?enoaiiyi
niaeo?ineii?? oa aiae?co cia?aaeaiue».

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ? aeeiiaiiy
niinoa?aaeaiue oi?eaeueiiai iaaaniiai ia’?eoa — eiiaoe Aanoa 1976 VI,
ciaoiaeaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? ieeiaiai oainoa eiiaoe
oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oeueiai ?iciiae?eo ca aeiiiiiaith ii??aiyiiy c
iiaeaeueieie ia/eneaiiyie iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ?ica’ycaoe oae? caaea/?:

Aeeiiaoe iiia?aaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?aoo?e aeey niinoa?aaeaiue, uia
ciaeoe iaiao?aei? aeey ii?aoethaaiiy niinoa?aaeaiue oa?aeoa?enoeee
aia?aoo?e, cie?aia ?iciiae?e na?oea a oieaeuei?e ieiuei?
ano?ioioieaia?e oa niaeo?aeueia i?iioneaiiy ?? ia’?eoeaa.

?ic?iaeoe oa cai?iaaaeeoe iaoiaeeeo aaniethoii? i?ea’ycee ?acoeueoao?a
niinoa?aaeaiue aei aeei?enoaiiai i?e niinoa?aaeaiiyo aeaea?aea na?oea.
Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii ni?anoaaeoe yne?aa?noue ae?aio
?aae?iethi?ianoeaioiiai aeaea?aea oa noaiaea?oiiai aeaea?aea na?oea,
iiaoaeoaaoe oa?aeoa?enoe/io e?eao aeey ia?a?aooieo ii/i?i?iiy oioiie?aee
a yne?aaino?, ioe?ieoe iioeaeo i?ea’ycee.

Iaea?aeaoe neaie oioia?ao?/ieo cia?aaeaiue aaeeei? ieiu?, i?iaanoe ?o
ia?iaeo oa a?coae?caoe?th, aeey /iai ?ic?iaeoe oa cai?iaaaeeoe i?ia?aiia
caaacia/aiiy aeey aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano ?aaeoeoe?e niinoa?aaeaiue,
o?eueo?aoe?? cia?aaeaiue oa a?coae?caoe??.

Iaea?aeaoe ?iciiae?e iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? ieeiaiai oainoa eiiaoe o
aeaeyae? c?o/iiio aeey ni?anoaaeaiiy c ia/eneaiei.

?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey ia/eneaiue iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?
ieeiaiai oainoa eiiaoe ca aeiiiiiaith caaeaieo ia?aiao??a eiiaoieo
ieeiaeo /anoeiie.

?c ii??aiyiiy ciaeaeaiiai ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? oainoa
eiiaoe c iiaeaeueieie ?ic?aooieaie oaeiai ?iciiae?eo ciaeoe
oa?aeoa?enoeee ieeiaeo /anoeiie, ui neeaaeathoue oa?no eiiaoe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

Aia?oa aeaoaeueii ?ic?iaeaii oa canoiniaaii iaoiaeeeo noaiaea?oecaoe??
ano?iiii?/ieo iaaaoea?a ca aeiiiiiaith ?aae?iethi?ianoeaioieo aeaea?ae
na?oea. Canoinoaaiiy oe??? iaoiaeeee noaiaea?oecaoe?? ano?iiii?/ieo
iaaaoea?a aeicaiey? aeei?enoaoe aeey oioiiao??? o? niinoa?aaeaiiy, ye?
ia aoei noaiaea?oeciaaii c oeo /e ?ioeo i?e/ei.

?ic?iaeaii oa canoiniaaii iiaa i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey
aaoiiaoeciaaii? ia?iaee oa a?coae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a iiaa?oiaai?
oioiiao??? eiiao, a, oaeiae, aeey iiaeaethaaiiy iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?
ieeiaeo oaino?a eiiao. I?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeicaiey? iia?aoeaii
io?eiaoe ?acoeueoaoe iiaa?oiaai? oioiiao??? aoaeue-yeiai i?ioyaeiiai
iaaaniiai ia’?eoa. I?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey iiaeaethaaiiy ?aae?co?
iiaeeo?eiaaiee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?, ui a?aoiao?
ai?cio?ii?th aeeeaeo ieeiaeo /anoie.

Aia?oa aeeiiaii iiaeaeuei? ?ic?aooiee iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? aeey
ieeiaiai oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa 1976 VI oa io?eiaii iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
ieeiaeo /anoeiie, ui ca?eueieeenue a i?ioean? ?iciaaeo yae?a eiiaoe.
?acoeueoaoe ia/eneaiue na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aeeeaee /anoeiie i?e
aeoeaieo i?ioeanao a yae?? eiiaoe ? ai?cio?iiieie, a oaii ieeiooai?aiiy
ca?eueoo?ony iaeaea a 10 ?ac?a.

Aeyaeaii, ui o?eaae?noue i?aeaeuaiiai aeae?eaiiy ieeo i?ae /an aeoeaiiai
i?ioeano iacia/ia ? noaiiaeea e?eueea aiaeei. Iaeei ?c aeoeaieo
i?ioean?a ni?aiaaea? a /an? c aecia/aiei ?c i?yieo niinoa?aaeaiue
iiiaioii ?icaaeo yae?a.

Iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Eiiaoa Aanoa i?iaeaiiino?oaaea
yaeua, ye? niinoa??aaeenue a aeoaea iaaaaaoueio eiiaoao. Niinoa?aaeaiiy
eiiaoe a ia??iae oeeo yaeu iathoue iaaaeyeo iaoeiao oe?ii?noue, yea
i?aeneeth?oueny iaiaaeaiith e?euee?noth oaeeo niinoa?aaeaiue.
Iiaeeea?noue aeeiiaoe noaiaea?oeciaai? aei??thaaiiy ?iciiae?eo
iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? eiiaoiiai oainoa, ye aeyaeeiny, iaa eeoa aaoi?
?iaioe.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea eae?a?iaee oa noaiaea?oecaoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith
?aae?iethi?ianoeaioieo aeaea?ae na?oea aeicaiey? noaiaea?oecoaaoe
ano?iiii?/i? iaaaoeae iaa?oue o oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee i?ae /an
niinoa?aaeaiue i?ioeaaeo?e eae?a?iaee oa noaiaea?oecaoe?? c /iionue ia
aoee aeeiiaiai?. Iaea?aeai? a i?ioean? noaiaea?oecaoe?? oa?aeoa?enoeee
?aae?iethi?ianoeaioieo aeaea?ae na?oea aoee aeei?enoai? ?ioeie
iaoeiaoeyie.

Iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy iiaa?oiaaiai ?iciiae?eo yne?aaino? oa i?ia?aie
aeey ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a iiaa?oiaai? oioiiao??? aoee aeei?enoai? ye
naiei aaoi?ii aeey ia?iaee niinoa?aaeaiue e?eueeio eiiao, oae ? ?ioeie
ano?iiiiaie, cie?aia aeey ia?iaee niinoa?aaeaiue eiiao Aaeeay oa
Aaeea-Aiiia.

A ?acoeueoao? iiaeaethaaiiy ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? ieeiaiai
oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa aoei ciaeaeaii iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ieeiaeo
/anoie, ui neeaaeaee oa?no eiiaoe Aanoa. I?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy,
?ic?iaeaia aeey oeueiai iiaeaethaaiiy, iiaea aooe aeei?enoaii aeey
iiaeaethaaiiy ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? a oainoao ?ioeo eiiao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee
noi?ioeueiaai? oa ae??oai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. ?c 8 ?ia?o, a yeeo
aeeeaaeaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, 4 ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii
naiino?eii. A ?iaio? i?enay/ai?e canoinoaaiith iaoiaeo iiia?aaeiuei?
oeeo?iai? o?eueo?aoe?? cia?aaeaiue aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue iinoaiiaea caaea/?,
canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo, aeeiiaiiy an?o iaiao?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue. A
?iaio? i?enay/ai?e iiaa?oiaa?e oioiiao??? aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue iinoaiiaea
caaea/?, ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee, aeeiiaiiy an?o iaiao?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo noaoenoe/ii? ioe?iee ??aiy oiio oioia?ao?/iiai
cia?aaeaiiy.A ?iaioao, i?enay/aieo iiaeaethaaiith iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?
aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo, o/anoue a ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aiiiai
caaacia/aiiy, o/anoue a iaaiai?aii? oa aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??:

Iaoiaeeea noaiaea?oecaoe?? ano?iiii?/ieo iaaaoea?a ca aeiiiiiaith
?aae?iethi?ianoeaioieo aoaeii?a yne?aaino? oa ?? canoinoaaiiy aeey
noaiaea?oecaoe?? oioici?ie?a eiiaoe Aanoa 1976 VI.

?ic?iaea oa canoinoaaiiy i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aeey aaoiiaoeciaaii?
ia?iaee ? a?coae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a iiaa?oiaai? oioiiao???.

?iciiae?e iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? oaino?a eiiaoe Aanoa aeey 5 aeao
niinoa?aaeaiue a aaniethoieo aia?aaoe/ieo iaeeieoeyo yne?aaino?.

?ic?iaea oa canoinoaaiiy aeai?eoi?a ia/eneaiiy iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?
ieeiaeo eiiaoieo oaino?a aeey caaeaii? iiaeae? oainoa.

?ic?aooiee iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? neio?iiieo nioa oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa a
?acoeueoao? yeeo aoei ciaeaeaii ?iciiae?e eiiaoieo /anoie ii ?ici??ai,
oaii ieeiooai?aiiy yaea? oa oaeaee?noue ieeiaeo /anoie.

Iiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ia?aiao?e eiiaoieo ieeeiie, ui niinoa??aaeeny a
eiiao? Aanoa i?ae /an aeoeaieo i?ioean?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aeeth/aii
aei aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao a?aeae?eo
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ano?io?ceee Aieiaii? ano?iiii?/ii? iana?aaoi??? IAI
Oe?a?ie; ano?io?ce/ieo nai?ia?ao «O?ceea o?e Niiy/ii? nenoaie»; ia
Ananithcieo ia?aaeao ii o?ceoe? oa aeeiai?oe? eiiao (i.Aeooaiaa, 1981;
i.Ee?a, 1983, i.*a?i?a?a, 1988 ?.); O?ao?o Anaonayonueeeo /eoaiiyo, 1995
?., i.Ee?a; ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii aeine?aeaeaiith eiiao, 1982
?., (i.Aoaeaiaoo) oa I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? EAIIAE, 1999 ?., (i.
A?iieoey).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a 8 ae?oeiaaieo
?iaioao.

.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, caeeth/ii? /anoeie, nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e (123
iaeiaioaaiue) oa aeiaeaoeo. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 149 noi??iie,
aeeth/ath/e 26 iaethie?a oa 4 oaaeeoe?, a oaeiae 5 noi??iie aeiaeaoeo
aei aeena?oaoe??.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiue,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaea/? aeena?oaoe??, aeacaii iaoeiao iiaecio
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue ?iaioe, aeaii ia?ae?e
iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o, a yeeo aeeeaaeaii iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii iaeyae ?ia?o, ui noinothony cania?a oa
iaoiaeeee iiaa?oiaai? oioiiao???, ca’yceo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? oa
?iciiae?eo ?a/iaeie a aoiinoa?ao eiiao. Ie?aii ?icaeyiooi ca’ycie
iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? ? ?iciiae?eo ?a/iaeie a aaciaeo oa ieeiaeo
oainoao eiiao. Inoaiiy /anoeia iaeyaeo i?enay/aia ?iaioai c
iiaeaethaaiiy iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? eiiao. A i?e cie?aia aeaoaeueii
?icaeyiooi oa i?iaiae?ciaaii iaeiia?o? ?iaioe ?oae?enueeeo a/aieo.A
e?ioe? iaeyaeo iaaiaeyoueny aeniiaee c iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e oa
noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? aeiiae aei niinoa?aaeaiue aeey io?eiaiiy
?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? a oainoao eiiao.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeeiiaii iaiao?aei? iiia?aaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy iiaa?oiaai? oioiiao??? oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa. Iienaii
iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa aenia?eiaioe, aeeiiai? aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy
na?oei?iciiae?eo a oieaeuei?e ieiuei? ano?ioioieaia?e AOO-75 oa
niaeo?aeueiiai i?iioneaiiy ?? ia’?eoeaa. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ina?oeai?noue
ia e?ath ei?eniiai iiey ci?o eaia?e iaaea? ia 10% a?aeiinii ina?oeaiino?
a iioe/iiio oeaio?? eaae?o eaia?e. Ciaeaeaii caeaaei?noue ina?oeaiino?
ia oieaeuei?e ieiuei? a?ae a?aeaeae? aei iioe/iiai oeaio?o. Oey
caeaaei?noue a ne?aeoth/iio ?icae?e? aeei?enoaia aeey aianaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii? oioiiao?e/ii? ?aaeoeoe?? aei ooeaiiai ?iciiae?eo
yne?aaino?.

Iienaii iaoiaeeeo eae?a?oaaiiy oa noaiaea?oecaoe?? ano?iiii?/ieo
iaaaoea?a ca aeiiiiiaith ?aae?iethi?ianoeaioieo aeaea?ae na?oea oa
aenia?eiaioe, cae?eniai? aeey aecia/aiiy yne?aaino? aeaea?ae. Aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? noaiaea?oecaoe?? yne?aa?noue
?aae?iethi?ianoeaioieo aeaea?ae na?oea aecia/aii ?c aeaio iacaeaaeieo
aei??thaaiue: a?coaeueieo oa niaeo?iiao?e/ieo. Iaaiaeyoueny aeai? i?i
ina?oeaiino?, ui ?o noai?th? i?eeaae aeey eae?a?oaaiiy, noai?aiee ia
iniia? ?aae?iethi?ianoeaioiiai aeaea?aea na?oea, ia iiaa?oi?
oioiaioeuen?? eae?a?iaaiiai ano?iiaaaoeao. A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaoaeiaaii oa?aeoa?enoe/io e?eao aeey ia?aoai?aiiy
ii/i?i?iiy oioiaioeuen?? a yne?aa?noue ae?eyiee iaaaniiai o?ea. A
ianooiiiio ?icae?e? oey e?eaa aoaea aeei?enoaia aeey oioia?ao?/ii?
iiaa?oiaai? oioiiao??? oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa. I?eaaaeaii ioe?ieo oi/iino?
i?ioeaaeo?e eae?a?oaaiiy oa noaiaea?oecaoe?? ca i?iiiiiaaiith
iaoiaeeeith. Aeyaeeiny, ui oi/i?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? iaie i?ioeaaeo?e
aeecueea aei cae/aeii? oi/iino? oioia?ao?/ii? oioiiao???. Aeniiaee
?icae?eo noaa?aeaeothoue i?eaeaoi?noue iaea?aeaiiai oioiiao?e/iiai
iaoa??aeo aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai ?iciiae?eo yne?aaino? ieeiaiai
oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa 1976 VI.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi ?acoeueoaoe niinoa?aaeaiue eiiaoe
Aanoa, ye? aoaeooue aeei?enoai? o ne?aeoth/eo ?icae?eao. A ia?o?e
/anoei? ?icae?eo ?icaeyiooi oa iaaiai?aii iioae?eiaai? ?acoeueoaoe
niinoa?aaeaiue eiiaoe Aanoa. Caa?iooi oaaao ia iaaeinoaoi?noue
niinoa?aaeaiue iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? oe??? eiiaoe oa c?a?aii aeai?, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue no?oeoo?o ieeiaiai oainoa eiiaoe ? ieeia? /anoeiee,
aeeeioo? eiiaoith. I?iaiae?ciaaii aeai?, iaea?aeai? o an?o ae?aiaciiao
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui aeathoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i eiiaoi?
ii?ioeiee eiiaoe Aanoa. Aea?aii aeai?, ye? aoaeooue aeei?enoai? aeey
iiaeaethaaiiy iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? ieeiaiai oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa.

O ianooiieo /anoeiao ?icae?eo iia?aeiiey?oueony i?i niinoa?aaeaiiy
eiiaoe Aanoa, ?o oioiiao??th oa ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a iiaa?oiaai?
oioiiao??? aeey iaea?aeaiiy ?iciiae?eo yne?aaino? oainoa eiiaoe.

Iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e ieeiaiai oainoa
eiiaoe. sse aeyaeeiny, ieeiaee oa?no eiiaoe i?ae /an niinoa?aaeaiue
neeaaeaany c i’yoe yne?aaeo nioa, ui ooai?eeeny aiane?aeie i?aeaeuaiiai
aeae?eaiiy ieeo yae?ii eiiaoe. Aiae?c ?icoaooaaiiy oeeo nioa ia ieiuei?
eiiaoii? i?a?oe aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe iiiaioe ooai?aiiy nioa oa ca’ycaoe
oe? iiiaioe c aeoeaieie i?ioeanaie, ui niinoa??aaeeny o yae?? eiiaoe.
?acoeueoaoe ioiaeiaiiy iiiaio?a ooai?aiiy neio?iiieo nioa ii??aiyii c
?acoeueoaoaie ?ioeo aaoi??a ? ciaeaeaii, ui ?acoeueoaoe caaeia?eueii
ni?aiaaeathoue. Oaeiae anoaiiaeaii, ui iiiaio ooai?aiiy iaei??? ?c nioa
ni?aiaaea? c aoi?eiiei ?iciaaeii yae?a, a ?ioi? – c niaeaoii yne?aaino?
a ia?eaae??.

Iienaii i?ioeaaeo?o a?aooaaiiy ?aaeoeoe?e oioia?ao?/ii? oioiiao??? aeey
oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa oa aeai?eoie i?ia?ai ia/eneaiue oeeo ?aaeoeoe?e.
Iaaaaeaii iien aeai?eoio iiia?aaeiuei? o?eueo?aoe?? oioiiao?iaaiiai
cia?aaeaiiy oa iia?aeiiey?oueny i?i ?acoeueoaoe eiai canoinoaaiiy.
Canoinoaaiiy iaae?aiiiai aeaiaei??iiai o?eueo?o aeey iiia?aaeiuei?
o?eueo?aoe?? cia?aaeaiiy aeicaiey? a?eueoa i?ae o aeaa ?ace iie?ioeoe
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy neaiae-ooi aeey ioeeo?iaaiiai cia?aaeaiiy. Aiane?aeie
oeueiai ia o?eueo?iaaiiio cia?aaeaii? c’yaeythoueny aeaoae? no?oeoo?e,
ye? «oiiooue» a ooiao ia iao?eueo?iaaiiio cia?aaeaii?. Canoinoaaiiy
iaae?aiiiai o?eueo?o c aea?aiith aia?oo?ith aeicaiey? iicaooeny ae??aieo
aeaoaeo?a cia?aaeaiiy oa onoiooe /anoeio cia?aaeaiue c??ie iiey.
Aeniiaee ?icae?eo ocaaaeueiththoue ?acoeueoaoe ii?aoethaaiiy
niinoa?aaeiiai iaoa??aeo ? iniaeeaino? canoiniaaieo iaoiaeee
o?eueo?aoe?? cia?aaeaiue oa oioiiao?e/ieo ?aaeoeoe?e.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iienaii iaoiae ?ic?aooieo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?
caaeaii? ae?eyiee eiiaoiiai oainoa c aeei?enoaiiyi ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue noeoii?noue ii?ioeiie eiiaoe. Aei oeeo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a a?aeiinyoueny ?iciiae?e ii?ioeiie ii
?ici??ai, oaii ieeiooai?aiiy yae?a oa e?ioeaaa oaeaee?noue, yeo
iaaoaathoue ii?ioeiee, iieeaeath/e ciio aca?iiae?? c aacii.

Iaoiae ?ic?aooieo iie?a?oueny ia eeane/iee iaoiae O?iniia-I?ianoaeia a
iniia? yeiai eaaeeoue oyaeaiiy i?i ieeiaee oa?no ye noeoii?noue
aaeeeiai /enea noa?e/ieo iaieiiie, ia iiaa?oi? yeeo eaaeaoue /anoeiee,
aeeeioo? c iaeano? aca?iiae?? ii?ioeiie c aaciaith eiiiiiaioith aieiae
eiiaoe c iaeeiaeiaei i?enei?aiiyi a iaeei ? oie aea iiiaio /ano.
?ic?aooiie aeeiio?oueny aeey oi/ee oainoa, eii?aeeiaoe yei? iiaeia
iaeiicia/ii ca’ycaoe c oeaio?ii oaei? noa?e /a?ac ?ici?? ii?ioeiee oa
iiiaio ?? aeeeaeo. Oeae ca’ycie aeicaiey? ciaeoe caeaaei?noue
iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? a caaeaii?e oi/oe? a?ae aeuacaaaeaieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a, ye? a naith /a?ao ? ooieoe?yie ?ici??o
ii?ioeiee oa iiiaioo ?? aeeeaeo. Oaeei /eiii, aeei?enoiaoth/e ciaeaeaio
caeaaei?noue, iiaeia ?ic?aoiaoaaoe iiaa?oiaao yne?aa?noue oainoa eiiaoe
a eiie?aoi?e oi/oe? aeey caaeaiiai iaai?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a.

Eeane/iee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo iiaeeo?eiaaii aeey aeiaaeeo ai?cio?iiiiai
aeeeaeo ieeiaeo /anoeiie c iaeano? aca?iiae??. I?e oeueiio
?icaeyaea?oueny inaneiao?e/iee aeeeae, c a?nnth neiao??? ni?yiiaaiith ia
Niioea, oi/a iaoiae ?ic?aooieo iiaeia iioe?eoe ? ia a?eueo caaaeueiee
aeiaaeie. Iieacaii, ui aeey iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue ?aeaae?ciaaiee
eeane/iee iaoiae iio??aii canoiniaoaaoe c aeayeeie ooi/iaiiyie. Oe?
ooi/iaiiy iieyaathoue o a?aooaaii? aeiaeaoeiaiai, ei??ie?niaiai iiai?ioo
in? neiao??? iaieiiee. A oie aea /an i?eieeaiith aeaoi?iaoe??th iaieiiie
iiaeia ciaoooaaoe aeoiaey/e c iacia/iiai a?eo iaieiiie.

O ae?oa?e /anoei? ?icae?eo aeaoaeueii iienaii aeai?eoi ia/eneaiue
iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? oa aeiiii?aeieo ia/eneaiue, ia iniia? yeiai
noai?aii i?ia?aio aeey AII.

Aeniiaee ?icae?eo i?aenoiiaothoue ?ic?iaeo iaoiaeo ia/eneaiue
iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? aeey caaeaiiai iaai?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
a aeai?e oi/oe? eiiaoiiai oainoa, oa aeacothoue ia ia?aaaae iienaiiai
iaoiaeo a ii??aiyii? c eeane/iei.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ia/eneaiue iiaa?oiaai?
yne?aaino? ae?eyiie eiiaoiiai oainoa oa cia/aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue noeoii?noue eiiaoieo ieeiaeo /anoeiie ?
iaee?auei /eiii i?aeoiaeyoue aeey oeeo ia/eneaiue.

Ii/aoie ?icae?eo i?enay/aii aecia/aiith, iieno oa cai?o cia/aiue
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aeey ii??aiyiiy c ?acoeueoaoaie iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. A ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeaii ieai iioeiaeueiiai iiooeo
iiaeaeueieo ia?aiao??a, ui aecia/athoue yne?aa?noue ae?eyiie oainoa.
Ieai iieyaaa o aeei?enoaii? iaiaeeiaeiai? caeaaeiino? iiaa?oiaai?
yne?aaino? eiiaoiiai oainoa a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a. Nii/aoeo,
cao?enoaaaoe aeaa ?ioeo ia?aiao?e ? ci?ithth/e ?iciiae?e ii?ioeiie ii
?ici??ai, ie aeiaeeenue ni?aiaaeaiiy oiaeo caeaaeiino? ?ic?aoiaaii?
iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? a?ae ?ici??o ii?ioeiee c caeaaei?noth a?ae
?ici??o ii?ioeiee iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?, aei??yii? a neio?iii?e nioc?
ia iaeiiio ?c ci?ie?a eiiaoe Aanoa. I?ney aeinyaiaiiy oaeiai
ni?aiaaeaiiy aeey an?o nioa, ie ii /a?c? i?ae?a?aee aeaa ?ioeo
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e, o?enoth/e aaea i?ae?a?ai? ia?aiao?e oa
aeiaeaath/enue i?i?iaeueiiai a?aeoeeaiiy aeacaieo caeaaeiinoae. Cia/aiiy
ae?oaiai ii nee? ae?? ia?aiao?a ooi/ieee ii ci?ieo eiiaoe, iaea?aeaiiio
/a?ac e?eueea oaeeei i?ney ia?oiai, a iaeneaaoiai ia?aiao?a – ii ci?ieo,
iaea?aeaiiio /a?ac e?eueea aei?a.

Aeae? a ?icae?e? iia?aeiieythoueny ?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyiiy
?ic?aoiaaii? oa aei??yii? iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? ae?eyiie eiiaoiiai
oainoa oa cia/aiiy o?ueio ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aeey iiaeae?, ui
aea? iaee?au? ?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyiiy. Oaeei /eiii aoei ciaeaeai?
?iciiae?e eiiaoieo /anoeiie ca ?ici??aie, oaii ieeiooai?aiiy yae?a oa
e?ioeaaa oaeaee?noue eiiaoieo ii?ioeiie. Aeey ?ic?aooie?a iiaa?oiaai?
yne?aaino? aoei aeei?enoaii ye ?cio?iiio, oae ? ai?cio?iiio iiaeaeue
aeeeaeo ieeeiie c iaeano? aca?iiae??, ? aeey eiaeii? c oeeo iiaeaeae
ciaeaeaii iaa?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a, ui aea? iaee?au?
?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aoiaaii? oa aei??yii? iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?.
Ni?anoaaeaiiy cia/aiue ciaeaeaieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a c ?o
iioae?eiaaieie cia/aiiyie aecia/eei ia?aaaao ai?cio?iiii? iiaeae?
aeeeaeo. A ?acoeueoao? i?aeai?o ia?aiao??a ai?cio?iiii? iiaeae?
ciaeaeaii, ui eiaeiee aeoeaiee i?ioean a yae?? eiiaoe, ui ooai?ea nioae
a oaino? eiiaoe, iaa naith nooi?iue ai?cio?ii?? aeeeaeo. C aeiiiiiaith
i?ae?a?aieo cia/aiue oaeaeeino? aeeeaeo ii?ioeiie ciaeaeaii o?eaae?noue
aeeeaeo ieeo i?ae /an aeoeaieo i?ioean?a o yae??.

O aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O aeiaeaoeo A i?eaaaeai? ?cioioe cia?aaeaiue eiiaoieo oaino?a ii
ci?ieao, aeey yeeo o o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aoea aeeiiaia iiaa?oiaaa
oioiiao??y.

AENIIAEE OA ?ACOEUeOAOE AeENA?OAOe??

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? oaino?a eiiao
caeeoa?oueny aaaeeeaei iaoiaeii aea/aiiy eiiaoieo aoiinoa? ? ?a/iaeie c
yei? aiie neeaaeathoueny. Ii??aiyiiy ?iciiae?eo yne?aaino? ieeiaiai
eiiaoiiai oainoa, io?eiaiiai ?c niinoa?aaeaiue, c ?iciiae?eii yne?aaino?
ia/eneaiei, aeoiaey/e ?c caaeaii? iiaeae? eiiaoiiai oainoa, aea? iai
iiaeeea?noue ciaeoe ia?aiao?e eiiaoieo ieeeiie. Iaeiae, oaea ii??aiyiiy
aeiaaa? aenieiye?nieo niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo, noa?aiii? i?ea’ycee oeeo
aeaieo aei noaiaea?oieo aeaea?ae na?oea oa aeinoaoiuei iaae?eii?
iiaeae? ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? eiiaoiiai oainoa.

Aeey aaniethoii? i?ea’ycee oioiiao?e/ieo aeaieo iai aeiaaeinue aeeiiaoe
eiiieaen iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue. A i?ioean? oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ie
aeei?enoaee aeey eae?a?iaee oioici?ie?a ?aae?iethi?ianoeaioi? aeaea?aea
na?oea, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaoaeoaaee oa?aeoa?enoe/io e?eao aeey
ia?aoai?aiiy ii/i?i?iiy oioia?ao?/ii? aioeuen?? a yne?aaino? ae?eyiee
iiaa?oi? iaaaniiai o?ea. I?e oeueiio ie ciaeoee niaeo?aeueio aonoeio
yne?aaino? ae?aio aeaea?aea na?oea oeyoii ii??aiyiiy na?oeiaeo iioie?a
ia u?eei? niaeo?iiao?a a?ae iaoiai aeaea?aea ? noaiaea?oiiai aeaea?aea
na?oea – eaiie N?-14. Aeei?enoaaoe aeaea?aea na?oea ?c caeaiei oa
nei?i eieuei?ii ae?aio, ie iiaoaeoaaee oa?aeoa?enoe/i? e?ea? ie?aii aeey
aei?ii?ithaaiiy oaino?a I ? II oeio, eie?? yeeo a?ae??ciy?oueny. Ie
ciaeoee oaeiae na?oei?iciiae?e o oieaeuei?e ieiuei? AOO-75, uia iaoe
ciiao a?aooaaoe iioeaeo iiey aeey ci?ie?a eiiaoe Aanoa, oa niaeo?aeueia
i?iioneaiiy iioeee oe??? ano?ioioieaia?e. Canoinoaaiiy iiaoaeiaaii?
oa?aeoa?enoe/ii? e?eai? aei ci?iea oioiiao?e/iiai noaiaea?oo NPS
aeicaieeei ciaeoe ioe?ieo iioeaee iaoiai iaoiaeo noaiaea?oecaoe??, ui
aei??aith? 8% ? yeo iiaeia aaaaeaoe caaeia?eueiith aeey oioia?ao?/ii?
oioiiao???.

I?ioean ciaoiaeaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? a aaaaoueio
oi/eao eiiaoiiai oainoa aeoaea o?oaeii?noeee. Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?, acaaae? ia?niaeoeaia, aei iioe?aiiy AII ?
cania?a aaoiiaoecaoe?? oioiiao??? iaei canoiniaoaaeinue. Ie noai?eee
i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a oioiiao??? eiiao, yea
i?ney ia?oiai canoinoaaiiy aeey ci?ie?a eiiaoe Aanoa oe?iei
aeei?enoiao?oueny ye aaoi?ii, oae ? ?ioeie ano?iiiiaie.

A iniiao iaoiaeeee ia/eneaiiy iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? ieeiaiai oainoa
iieeaaeaii iiaeeo?eiaaiee iaoiae O?iniia-I?ianoaeia, yeee aoei
canoiniaaii aeey ia/eneaiue yne?aaino? ae?eyiie oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa. A
/aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii nooue ci?i iaoiaeo, ye? a?aooaaee a?eueo
?aae?noe/iee aa??aio ai?cio?iiiiai aeeeaeo ieeiaeo /anoeiie eiiaoiei
yae?ii.

?c iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeieeaa?, ui ?iciiae?e ii ?ici??ai ii?ioeiie,
aeeeiooeo i?e ?icaae? yae?a eiiaoe Aanoa, aoa aeecueeei aei cae/aeiiai.
Ae?oaee ia?aiao? iiaeae? i?aeae?aany i?ney oiai, ye aoei i?ae?a?aii ?
cao?eniaaii ?iciiae?e ii ?ici??ai. ?c-ca iaaecia/aiino? aaee/eie
aeueaaaei eiiaoieo ii?ioeiie, iiaeeea? iioeaee o aecia/aii? oeueiai
ia?aiao?a aeinyaathoue 2-3 ?ac, ui, i?ae ?ioei, ia ciaioo? oe?iiino?
iaoiai aecia/aiiy oe??? aaee/eie, aia?oa iaea?aeaii? aeey eiiaoe Aanoa.
Oaii ieeiooai?aiiy yaea? eiiaoe Aanoa a i?ii?aeeao i?ae aeoeaieie
i?ioeanaie noaiiaea i?eaeecii 0.5(1028 /anoeiie ca aeiao, a i?ae /an
aeoeaieo i?ioean?a ia?aaeuo? oea cia/aiiy i?eaeecii a 10 ?ac?a.
Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaee/ei oaeaeeino? ieeiooai?aiiy aeey ??cieo nioa ia
caeaaeeoue a?ae aeueaaaei ? ? iieacieeii aeoeaiino? oeo i?ioean?a a
yae?ao eiiaoe Aanoa, ye? ii?iaeeee oe? nioae. sse aeyaeeiny, iaea?eueoo
oaeaee?noue ieeiooai?aiiy aeeeeeaa aeoeaiee i?ioean, yeee iia’ycaiee ?c
niaeaoii aeeneo eiiaoe i?ae /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy eiiaoith ia?eaae?th.

Ie ?icaeyioee o?e aa??aioe ai?cio?iiiiai inaneiao?e/iiai aeeeaeo
ii?ioeiie c a?nnth neiao???, ni?yiiaaiith ia Niioea: a eiion? c eooii
72I, a iai?anoa?o oa a oe?ieee naeoi? eoo?a 288I. Iaee?au? ?acoeueoaoe
ni?anoaaeaiiy e?eaeo yne?aaino? iaea?aeaii aeey aa??aioo iai?anoa?e.
Ia?aa??ea iaea?aeaiiai i?e oeueiio i?eiouaii? cia/aiiy oaeaeeino?
aeeeaeo iieacaea, ui aiii aeia?a i?aeoiaeeoue aeey ?iciiae?eo yne?aaino?
oainoa eiiaoe ia ci?ieao, io?eiaieo /a?ac o?e aei?.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino? oainoa
eiiaoe Aanoa iieacaee ye ni?iiiaei?noue aeei?enoaii? iiaeae?, oae ?
oe?ii?noue naiiai iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?.
Aeaaaeai? ?c oaeiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aiao?e eiiaoiiai ieeo
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny ?acoeueoaoaie, ui iaea?aeai? aeey ?ioeo eiiao ?
aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i ieeiao aoiinoa?o eiiaoe, ui aeieeea
i?ae /an aeoeaieo i?ioean?a o yae?ao eiiaoe Aanoa.

IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

1. Neciiaiei TH.A. Enneaaeiaaiea naaoi?ani?aaeaeaiey a oieaeueiie
ieineinoe AOO-75 // Ano?iiao?ey e ano?ioeceea. -1980. — aui. 42. — N.99
-102.

2. Neciiaiei TH.A. No?oeoo?a oainoia eiiaou Aanoa 1976 VI // Ano?iiao?ey
e ano?ioeceea. -1981. — aui.45. -N.46 — 51.

3. Neciiaiei TH.A. Noaiaea?oecaoeey ano?iiiie/aneeo nieieia n iiiiuueth
?aaeeiethieianoeaioiuo enoi/ieeia naaoa // Ano?iiao?ey e ano?ioeceea.
-1984. -aui. 51.- N.90 — 97.

4. Aa?aeaiyi ?.A., Ie?ciyi I.N., Neciiaiei TH.A. I?eiaiaiea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie oeeo?iaie oeeueo?aoeee aeey ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiee
eiiao //Eeiaiao.oec.iaaaniuooae.-1985.-O1,?6-N.88- 90.

5. *a?iue A.O., Neciiaiei TH.A. Iiaa?oiinoiay y?einoue iueaaiai oainoa
eiiaou. I. Oaoieea ?an/aoa // Eeiaiao.oec.iaaaniuo oae. — 1986. — O2,?3
— N.52-58.

6. Sizonenko Yu.V. The surface photometry of comet West 1976 VI picture
// Cometary exploration I. / ed. by T.I.Gombosi, Proceed. of ICCE,
Budapest, 1982 — Budapest, 1982. — P.93-94.

7. Neciiaiei TH.A., *a?iue A.O. *eneaiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea iiaa?oiinoiie
y?einoe iueaaiai oainoa eiiaou. — E.: 1989. — 29n. (I?ai?. / AI Oe?aeiu.
Einoeooo oai?aoe/aneie oeceee; EOO-89-57?).

8. Neciiaiei TH.A., Neciiaiei O.A. Iiaa?oiinoiay oioiiao?ey eiiaou Aanoa
1976 VI. — E.: 1992. — 16n. (I?ai?./ AI Oe?a?ie. Aieiaia ano?iiii?/ia
iana?aaoi??y; AAI — 92 — 9?).

AIIOAOe?ss

Neciiaiei TH.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ieeiaiai oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa 1976 VI
iaoiaeaie iiaa?oiaai? oioiiao???. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.03.03 — Aae?io?ceea oa
o?ceea Niiy/ii? nenoaie. — Aieiaia ano?iiii?/ia iana?aaoi??y IAI
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a — 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith ieeiaiai oainoa eiiaoe Aanoa 1976 VI
ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a iiaa?oiaai? oioiiao???. Niinoa?aaeaiiy eiiaoe
Aanoa aoei aeei?enoaii aeey iaea?aeaiiy ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai?
yne?aaino? ieeiaiai oainoa. A ?iaio? aeeeaaeaii iaoiaeeee iiaa?oiaai?
oioiiao??? oa a?aooaaiiy ?aaeoeoe?e oioiiao???. Aeeiiaii iiaeaeuei?
?ic?aooiee ?iciiae?eo iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a
ni?anoaaeaii c ?iciiae?eii iiaa?iaai? yne?aaino?, iaea?aeaiei ii
?acoeueoaoai iiaa?oiaai? oioiiao???. Ciaeaeaii iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
noeoiiino? eiiaoieo ieeiaeo /anoie o oaino? eiiaoe Aanoa. Ieeiooai?aiiy
yaea? eiiaoe i?ae /an aeoeaieo i?ioean?a ia?aaeuo? cae/aeia a 10 ?ac?a.
E?au? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy iaea?aeaii aeey ai?cio?iiii? iiaeae?
aeeeaeo ieeo. Ciaeaeaii, ui i?ioean i?aeaeuaiiai aeae?eaiiy ieeo o?eaaa
aeecueei 8 aiaeei.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiiaoa Aanoa 1976VI, iiaa?oiaaa oioiiao??y, eiiaoi?
ii?ioeiee, ?iciiae?e iiaa?oiaai? yne?aaino?.

ABSTRACT

Sizonenko Yu.V. Investigation of the comet West (1976 VI) dust tail by
the surface photometry methods. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of
Phisic and Mathematic Sciences on speciality 01.03.03 — Heliophysics and
solar system physics. — Main Astronomical Observatory of the National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to a study of comet West (1976 VI) dust
tail by the surface photometry methods. Observations of the comet West
used for obtaining a surface brightness distribution of comet dust
tail. Technique of surface photometry and technique of the photometric
reductions are discribed. The model calculations of surface brightness
distributions along synchronic bands in cometary tail are carried out.
The results of these calculations are compared with surface brightness
distributions obtained from outcomes of photometrical measurements. The
basic characteristics of cometary dust particles in comet West tail are
determinated. The dust-particle emission rate for active processes is
aproximately ten times more then for quiet. An anisotropic model of
dust emission brought best outcomes of the numerical simulation.The
duration of high dust emission is near 8 hours.

Key words: comet West (1976 VI), surface photometry, cometary dust,
distribution of surface brightness.

AIIIOAOeEss

Neciiaiei TH.A. Enneaaeiaaiea iueaaiai oainoa eiiaou Aanoa 1976 VI
iaoiaeaie iiaa?oiinoiie oioiiao?ee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.03.03 — Aaeeioeceea e
oeceea Nieia/iie nenoaiu — Aeaaiay ano?iiiie/aneay iana?aaoi?ey IAI
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa-1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth iueaaiai oainoa eiiaou Aanoa 1976 VI n
iiiiuueth iaoiaeia iiaa?oiinoiie oioiiao?ee. Aeey oioia?aoe/aneie
iiaa?oiinoiie oioiiao?ee iueaaiai oainoa eiiaou eniieueciaaiu nieiee
eiiaou, iieo/aiiua a ia?oa 1976 a. ia ieea Oa?neie (AIA AAI IAI
Oe?aeiu). Auiieiaiu i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
auiieiaiey iiaa?oiinoiie oioiiao?ee. Iaeaeaiu naaoi?ani?aaeaeaiea a
oieaeueiie ieineinoe ano?ioioieaia?u e niaeo?aeueiia i?iioneaiea aa
iauaeoeaa, eioi?ua caoai auee eniieueciaaiu aeey aianaiey
oioiiao?e/aneeo ?aaeoeoeee e noaiaea?oecaoeee oioiiao?e/aneeo
ecia?aiee. Iienaia iaoiaeeea aaniethoiie i?eaycee (noaiaea?oecaoeee)
oioiiao?e/aneeo ecia?aiee n iiiiuueth ?aaeeiethieianoeaoiiai enoi/ieea
naaoa (?EE). Oi/iinoue i?ioeaaeo?u noaiaea?oecaoeee ioeaiaia ii
iaaethaeaieyi oioiiao?e/aneiai noaiaea?oa NPS. Ioeaiea oi/iinoe aeecea e
iau/iie aeey oioia?aoe/aneie oioiiao?ee (8%).

Iienaiu i?ioeaaeo?u o/aoa ?aaeoeoeee oioia?aoe/aneie oioiiao?ee.
I?eaiaeeony iienaiea aeai?eoia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie oeeueo?aoeee
oioiiao?iaaiiiai ecia?aaeaiey. I?eiaiaiea iaaeeaiiiai aeaoia?iiai
oeeueo?a iicaieyao aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca oeo/oeoue niioiioaiea
neaiae-ooi aeey ioeeo?iaaiiai ecia?aaeaiey. Aneaaenoaea yoiai ia
iooeeueo?iaaiiii ecia?aaeaiee iiyaeythony oa aeaoaee no?oeoo?u, eioi?ua
«oiioo» a ooiao ia enoiaeiii ecia?aaeaiee. Aeey 10 nieieia eiiaou Aanoa
iino?iaiu nenoaiu ecioio a aaniethoiuo aaeeieoeao y?einoe. I?eaiaeyony
?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey no?oeoo?u iueaaiai oainoa eiiaou Aanoa,
eioi?ue a ia/aea ia?oa 1976 a.ninoiye ec iyoe y?eeo iiein, ine eioi?uo
niaiaaeatho n neio?iiaie. Eae ieacaeinue a?aiy ia?aciaaiey iaeiie ec
iiein niaiaaeaao ni aniuoeie aeanea eiiaou a ia?eaaeee, a ae?oaie – ni
aoi?e/iui ?aniaaeii yae?a. Iienai iaoiae ?an/aoa iiaa?oiinoiie y?einoe
caaeaiiiai o/anoea eiiaoiiai oainoa n eniieueciaaieai ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
ia?aiao?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo niaieoiiinoue iueaaeo /anoeoe eiiaou. E
yoei ooieoeeiiaeueiui ia?aiao?ai ioiinyony ?ani?aaeaeaiea iueeiie ii
?acia?ai, oaii iueaia?aciaaiey yae?a e nei?inoue, eioi?oth i?eia?aoatho
iueeiee, iieeaeay ciio acaeiiaeaenoaey n aacii. Iaoiae ?an/aoa iie?aaony
ia eeanne/aneee iaoiae Oeiniia-I?ianoaeia, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeeo
i?aaenoaaeaiea i iueaaii oainoa, eae i niaieoiiinoe aieueoiai /enea
noa?e/aneeo iaiei/ae. ?an/ao auiieiyaony aeey oi/ee oainoa, eii?aeeiaou
eioi?ie iiaeii iaeiicia/ii naycaoue n oeaio?ii noa?e/aneie iaiei/ee,
eniieuecoy ?acia? iueeiee e a?aiy aua?ina. Yoa naycue iicaieyao iaeoe
caaeneiinoue iiaa?oiinoiie y?einoe io auoaoiiiyioouo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
ia?aiao?ia, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue yaeythony ooieoeeyie ?icia?a
iueeiee e a?aiaie aa aua?ina. Eeanne/aneee iaoiae ?an/aoa
iiaeeoeoee?iaai aeey neo/ay aiecio?iiiiai aua?ina iueaaeo /anoeoe ec
iaeanoe acaeiiaeaenoaey. I?e yoii ?anniao?eaaaony inaneiiao?e/iue
aua?in, n inueth neiiao?ee, iai?aaeaiiie ia Nieioea. Iieacaii, /oi aeey
iaoeo iaaethaeaiee eeanne/aneee iaoiae iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaiyoue n o/aoii
aeiiieieoaeueiiai, ei?eieeniaiai iiai?ioa ine neiiao?ee iaiei/ee. A
oiaea a?aiy i?eeeaiie aeaoi?iaoeeae iaiei/ae iiaeii i?aiaa?a/ue aaeaeo
eo iacia/eoaeueiiai aic?anoa.

. Oaii iueaia?aciaaiey iiaeae?aeny iinea oiai, eae auei caoeene?iaaii
iiaeia?aiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii ?icia?ai. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oaii
iueaia?aciaaiey yaea? eiiaou Aanoa a i?iiaaeooeao iaaeaeo aeoeaiuie
i?ioeannaie iueaauaeaeaiey aue ieiei 0.5(1028 /anoeoe/noo., a ai a?aiy
aeoeaiuo i?ioeannia aue auoa i?eia?ii a 10 ?ac. Iaeaieueoee oaii
iuia?aciaaiey iaeaeai aeey iieinu, ia?aciaaiiie ai a?aiy aniuoee aeanea
eiiaou a ia?eaaeee.

Auee ?anniio?aiu o?e aa?eaioa aiecio?iiiiai inaneiiao?e/iiai aua?ina
iueeiie n inueth neiiao?ee, iai?aaeaiiie a Nieioea: a eiiona n oaeii
72I, a iieonoa?o e a oe?ieee naeoi? oaeia 288I. Eo/oei ieacaeny aa?eaio
iieonoa?u. Iaeaeaia aeeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanna iiauoaiiiai
iueaia?aciaaiey, aeey aeaoo iiein iia ieacaeanue ia aieueoa 8 /ania.
Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iiaeaee?iaaiey iiaa?oiinoiie y?einoe oainoa
eiiaou Aanoa iieacaee eae aeinoaoi/iinoue eniieueciaaiiie iiaeaee, oae e
oeaiiinoue naiiai iaoiaea enneaaeiaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiaoa Aanoa 1976VI, iiaa?oiinoiay oioiiao?ey, eiiaoiua
iueeiee, ?ani?aaeaeaiea iiaa?oiinoiie y?einoe.

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